WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian livestock production

  1. Livestock production and marketing:

    OpenAIRE

    Negassa, Asfaw; Rashid, Shahidur; Gebremedhin, Berhanu

    2011-01-01

    The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural GDP and 11 percent of national GDP, with the highest shares recorded at 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively, at its peak (NBE 2005/06). The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. The ann...

  2. Guidelines for sustainable manure management in Asian livestock production systems. A publication prepared under the framework of the RCA project on Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    important to evaluate alternative management strategies on-farm. It was recommended that a consultants meeting on manure management should be held in 2005 to review current manure management practices in the region and to develop guidelines for efficient management of manure in different livestock production systems. It was also recommended that these guidelines be distributed to the groups participating in RAS/5/044 so that they could form the basis for planning manure management work to be conducted during the second phase of the project. To address these recommendations, an experts meeting on 'Development of guidelines for efficient manure management in Asian livestock production systems' was organized and held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The meeting was hosted by the Institute of Agricultural Science (IAS) for Southern Vietnam and was held from 5 to 9 December 2005. It was attended by 7 foreign experts and one local expert, and was supported by the Technical Officer (TO) of RAS/5/044. The experts gave presentations on state-of-the-art manure management practices and participated in a field visit to experience first hand some of the current manure management practices in Asia. After in depth discussions about the presentations, taking into account the experiences of the field visit, and identifying the target audience for guidelines of this type, an outline of the guidelines for manure management was developed, including recommended or 'best practice' manure management strategies and an inventory of available materials on the subject. What was clear from the discussions and planning was that there is very little information and few guidelines about manure management for Asian livestock systems. A draft document was prepared during the meeting but because of the lack of information available on manure management in Asia, there was not enough time to complete a final draft of the guidelines at the meeting. H. van der Meer kindly took on the responsibility of editing the

  3. Organic livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The development towards a sustainable agriculture has been a main objective of organic agriculture from the beginning (IFOAM, 1978), and a declared objective of the newly applied EC-Regulation (1804/1999) on organic livestock production which provides a clear framework for livestock production. The leading idea is based on the voluntary self-restriction in the use of specific means of production with the objectives to produce food of high quality in an animal appropriate and environmentally f...

  4. Impacts of European livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; LASSALETTA, LUIS; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M. A.; Vries, de, H.J.C.; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution...

  5. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk for......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  6. Development of organic livestock production in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Prof. Gheorghe; Chis, Prof. Margareta; Odagiu, Ing. Antonia; Mihai, Econ. Valentin; Balint, Econ. Lenke

    2006-01-01

    The paper is a sythesis regarding multiple aspects concerning the development and future prospects of organic livestock production in Romania. It focuses on livestock statistics, the legislation, the inspection and certification, the pre-accesion programmes and some subsidizing aspects.

  7. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  8. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  9. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development o

  10. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  11. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  12. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 80 years a wide range of diverse organic livestock systems have developed. The driving force behind these developments has mainly been the farmers, consumers and various movements; and it has happened more “despite research” than “because of research.” Most production methods have developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock productio...

  13. Samoa : Livestock Production and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide information and analysis of the Samoan livestock sub-sector for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries through a technical assistance assignment financed by the World Bank. The Word Bank contributed technical assistance support to the Government of Samoa to help identify measures to strengthen agriculture sector institutions, to improve the performanc...

  14. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 80 years a wide range of diverse organic livestock systems have developed. The driving force behind these developments has mainly been the farmers, consumers and various movements; and it has happened more "despite research" than "because of research." Most production methods have...... developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  15. Potential role of sirtuins in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinis-Hozumi, Y; Antaramian, A; Villarroya, F; Piña, E; Mora, O

    2013-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent histone and protein deacetylases, which have been studied during the last decade with a focus on their role in lifespan extension and age-related diseases under normal and calorie-restricted or pathological conditions. However, sirtuins also have the ability to regulate energy homeostasis as they can sense the metabolic state of the cell through the NAD(+)/NADH ratio; hence, changes in the diet can modify the expression of these enzymes. Dietary manipulations are a common practice currently being used in livestock production with favorable results, probably due in part to the enhanced activity of sirtuins. Nevertheless, sirtuin expression in livestock species has not been a research target. For these reasons, the goal of this review is to awaken interest in these enzymes for future detailed characterization in livestock species by presenting a general introduction to what sirtuins are, how they work and what is known about their role in livestock. PMID:23031219

  16. Gender, smallholder livestock production, improvement and conservation in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Never Assan

    2014-01-01

    Policy makers, developmental agents and researchers are now aware of the need to incorporate gender  issues in smallholder livestock production  planning and development in order to improve livestock productivity in Africa. This discussion  attempt to explore  the role of gender in smallholder livestock production,genetic improvement and conservation.Strategies to improve livestock production and conservation within the smallholder livestock sector  will not be successful unless gender relate...

  17. Verifying Credence Attributes in Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Olynk, Nicole J.; Tonsor, Glynn T.; Christopher A. Wolf

    2010-01-01

    Livestock producers can respond to increasing consumer demand for certain production process attributes by providing verifiable information on the practices used. Consumer willingness to pay data were used to inform producer decision-making regarding selection of verification entities for four key production process attributes in the production of pork chops and milk. The potential for informing farm-level decision-making with information about consumer demand for product and production proce...

  18. Gender, smallholder livestock production, improvement and conservation in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, developmental agents and researchers are now aware of the need to incorporate gender  issues in smallholder livestock production  planning and development in order to improve livestock productivity in Africa. This discussion  attempt to explore  the role of gender in smallholder livestock production,genetic improvement and conservation.Strategies to improve livestock production and conservation within the smallholder livestock sector  will not be successful unless gender related issues are taken into account.Ownership of different livestock species by men and women in smallholder livestock production sector  has been documented, often cattle and larger animals are owned by men, while goat keeping and backyard poultry production are largely women's domains.  Therefore, it is assumed that taking cognizance of gender differentials in smallholder livestock production intervention programs will result in effectively implementation of livestockdevelopment programs ensuring more optimal outcomes. The rationale for gender integration in livestock improvement and conservation is driven by the fact that different household members typically hold different livestock responsibilities; they also may have different livestock priorities and livestock production constraints. Gender sensitive livestock policy initiatives such as training women in livestock improvement  and conservation in smallholder livestock production sector should be adopted in order to address specific concerns and priorities of women as major stakeholders in livestock production.Gendered asymmetries in access to livestock and  services not only do a great disservice to women and men livestock smallholder farmers, but they also stifle the potential for more sustainable and effective actions along a given livestock improvement program. In most cases , where  livestock improvement and conservation programs  are being carried out, the lack of gender consideration

  19. Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Effects of Ochratoxin A on Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1 the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2 the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep; and (3 the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs.

  1. India's Export of Livestock and Allied Products

    OpenAIRE

    J K Sachdeva

    2005-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the governments’ export policy is to maximise agricultural exports in order to earn foreign exchange. It also seeks to provide remunerative prices to the farmers while ensuring adequate availability of essential commodities to the domestic consumers at reasonable prices. This paper analyses the India’s exports of livestock and allied products to principal groups of countries in the light of world trade. The direction of trade has been analysed to explore the area...

  2. Improving livestock production through co-operative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Umaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the positive role livestock Co-operatives can play in enhancing animal production. Livestock Co-operative Societies such as those for Artificial insemination, Dairy, Beef and Poultry production have been discussed. The paper also dwells on the benefits derivable from such organisations. The practice of Co-operative Societies in livestock production has been applied by different countries in different livestock sub-sectors. This paper concludes that establishing such Co-operatives will significantly improve livestock production in Nigeria.

  3. Diffuse pollution from livestock production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    With economic development and living standard improvement, livestock and poultry production has grown up rapidly, also has become the leading source of pollution in vast rural areas in China. The estimated annual loss amount of COD, BOD, NH3-N from manure in 2001 is 7.28 million ton, 4.99 million ton and 1.32 million ton, respectively. The COD loss amount from manure is close to the sum of COD from industrial and domestic wastewater. Because animal waste and wastewater can enter water bodies from spills or breaks of waste storage structures (due to accidents or excessive rain), and non-agricultural application of manure to cropland, this contamination has resulted in quality degradation of surface and underground drinking water supplies. Areas with concentrated livestock operations are showing elevated nutrients and organic pollutant contents in surface waters. This widespread contamination of water has prompted governments at various levels to adopt regulations and measures to control the spreading of livestock pollution.

  4. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  5. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural production in our country, zootechnics currently holds second place. For the future, provided that the share of livestock production to exceed 50% of the total production achieved in the sphere of agriculture. Expanding livestock production is necessary for several reasons, some of which are generally valid for all forms of ownership, while others require especially in private-family holdings. Livestock industries provide higher quality food as compared with those of plant origin, they are characterized by higher energy value per unit weight and volume, high quality protein and raw materials as very valuable for manufacturing industries (food, light. In the present paper we analyzed the dynamics of livestock production in Romania, finding that the livestock were negative trends characterized by a reduction of livestock with an impact on animal production.

  6. Organic livestock production systems as a model of sustainability development

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Pauselli

    2010-01-01

    Organic farming and livestock production offer effective means of satisfying consumer demand for healthy and safe foods and reducing the environmental pressure of agricultural production. In Mediterranean areas organic livestock production could be considered a feasible systems to improve rural development in unfavourable areas and to maintain rural landscape. Constrains, like pasture availability during the year, determine the evolution of different strategies in livestock rearing to improve...

  7. Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during the last decades. Although extensive research has been conducted to achieve surveillance improvement in livestock production chains, they have limitations in terms of coverage of economic aspects and in the level of detail i...

  8. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-01-01

    development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is...... production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support....

  9. Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A.Pinkert

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this time, there are no commercially viable agricultural species. In contrast to commercialization concerns, in a variety of existing transgenic animal models, basic research into the regulation and function of specific genes (including both gain-of-function and ablation of potentially deleterious gene products has persevered. Pioneering efforts in transgenic animal technology have markedly influenced our appreciation of the factors that govern gene regulation and expression, and have contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology of mammalian development.

  10. Water Requirements for Livestock Production: A Global Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The following article is an Abstract of the paper jointly written by the two above Subprogrammes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme. This article will be published in Scientific and Technical Review of the Office International des Epizooties, 2010, 29 (3). It highlights the importance of water management for sustainable livestock production. Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power and fertiliser for crops, as well as using fibre and crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock

  11. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries. PMID:21309458

  12. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases

  13. Organic livestock production systems as a model of sustainability development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Pauselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming and livestock production offer effective means of satisfying consumer demand for healthy and safe foods and reducing the environmental pressure of agricultural production. In Mediterranean areas organic livestock production could be considered a feasible systems to improve rural development in unfavourable areas and to maintain rural landscape. Constrains, like pasture availability during the year, determine the evolution of different strategies in livestock rearing to improve or maintain net income of population. Moreover the evaluation of the sustainability using a holistic approach using assessment criteria like Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Emergy Assessment could be considered models to evaluate organic and conventional livestock production sustainability and at the same time new research fields.

  14. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction. PMID:25812202

  15. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海燕; 张会清

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  16. Veterinary science in the context of sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability of current livestock production systems, including the influence of livestock on the environment and the preservation of animal genetic resources, has been a constant debate over the last decade. For the purpose of the paper six elements that offer a useful approach to characterize sustainability have been identified: continuation through time, system oriented, quantitative, predictive, stochastic and the use of an integrated measure of sustainability to both identify and prioritize technical, social and economic constraints. (author)

  17. COMMUNAL LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN SIMBE, GOKWE SOUTH DISTRICT OF ZIMBABWE

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    B.E. MABURUTSE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Communal livestock production systems are dynamic being responsive to changes in the socio-political and economic environments. A survey was conducted in Simbe communal area of Gokwe South District in Zimbabwe, to assess current livestock production systems. Five villages and 3 wards were randomly selected and a semi-structured questionnaire administered by 5 trained enumerators to collect data on; house-hold demographics, livestock species kept and their numbers, uses of livestock and waste, feeding and watering as well as livestock health management. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. It was observed that farmers in the study area kept a wide range of livestock species including; poultry (notably; chickens, ducks, turkeys and guinea fowls, goats, cattle, donkeys and pigs. Cattle and goats were the major sources of draught power and income, respectively. Farmers indicated that they faced challenges in feeding and watering their animals during the dry season. Diseases were the major cause of offspring mortality in most animal species while predation was the major cause in chickens. It was recommended that farmers acquire education on production and improve on health and general management.

  18. Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

  19. Climate change in context: implications for livestock production and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is predicted increasingly to affect the livestock sector in the coming decades, with potentially harmful consequences for production and for livestock genetic diversity. This paper considers mostly the indirect effects of climate change. It is expected that livestock production systems will face more frequent disastrous events and that higher temperatures will, in the absence of adaptive measures, increase physiological stress in livestock with negative consequences for production. Tropical breeds are often well adapted to high temperatures, but the wider diffusion of such breeds or their incorporation into breeding programmes is restricted by the limited extent to which they have been characterised and improved in structured breeding programmes, trade constraints and the difficulty involved in introducing a new breed if it possesses only one advantageous trait. It is, nonetheless, concluded that given the unpredictability of climate change and of the general development of the livestock sector, conservation of adapted breeds is important. The disruptive effects of climate change on breeds' agro-ecosystems of origin may mean that increasing attention has to be given to ex situ conservation. Exchange mechanisms are needed to ensure that if international transfers of genetic resources are required as part of adaptation strategies, they can take place efficiently and equitably. (author)

  20. Probiotic, a tool in livestock and aquaculture production

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Alberto López-Acevedo; Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán; María de la Luz Vázquez-Sauceda

    2013-01-01

    The probiotics are products based on different microorganism strains, those products have evolved from a just simple mixture of active bacteria to products with specific properties of adherence, colonization, synergies, antibacterial activity, etc. Probiotic products for livestock and aquaculture production are designed with strains developed to operate under specific conditions and which need to be understood and taken into account by the producers because different results can be observed d...

  1. Calf mortality and parasitism in periurban livestock production in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Wymann, Monica Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Cattle production is very important for the Malian economy. However, the domestic milk production does not cover the local demand, so that 60% of consumed dairy products are imported. To increase local milk production, a modernisation of livestock management in periurban areas has taken place during the last few decades, especially around Bamako. This change from traditional to modernised management with crossbreeding with European breeds and increased investments in housing, n...

  2. Parasitological measures to characterize different livestock production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Mejer, H.; Enemark, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    some of the solutions in these systems are parallel to challenges related to organic livestock production in developed countries. This paper will consider how parasitological research may bridge the systems and cross-fertilize one another, and so far there are several good examples, e.g. the extensive...

  3. Livestock production: Present situation and future development directions in Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Pantelić V.; Radović Č.

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is important branch of agriculture in Republic of Serbia. Over 700.000 households are engaged in this production, which is over 55% of total number of households. Livestock production provides necessary products (milk, meat, eggs) for nutrition of domestic population. Also, livestock production provides raw materials for food industry (dairy plants, slaughterhouses, meat industry, conditory industry and leather industry). Livestock production is expected to provide high q...

  4. Livestock and Livestock Health in Northern Thailand: A Socio-economic Analysis of a cross sectional Survey of Villlages

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas; Tisdell, Clem

    1996-01-01

    The development and growth of the Thai livestock industry in recent years has been significantly hindered by the level of endemic livestock disease in the South East Asian region. In rapidly developing countries such as Thailand, livestock diseases represent significant costs at the private and national level. Infectious livestock diseases such as Foot and Mouth, Aujeszky and Newcastle diseases reduce production and hence the income of livestock owners and create barriers to export of livesto...

  5. Competitiveness of the Livestock Production in Croatia in the Process of Joining EU

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Jurić; Dubravko Mikulić; Marija Đikić; Ino Čurik; Ante Kolega; Višnja Knjaz

    2003-01-01

    The competitiveness of livestock production was decreasing during the long period in the history. From 1880 to 1915 livestock production in Croatia was competitive and the large number of agricultural products was exported to other countries. Current livestock production is present in the small family farms and this is the main reason for the low competitiveness of the livestock production in Croatia. Recently, the size of the family farms started to enlarge. Tourism is important part o...

  6. Rising demand for livestock products in India: nature, patterns and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vasant, P. Ghandi; Zhang-Yue, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    With a large population and recent growth in consumer income, India’s demand for food has increased. However, research continues to emphasise basic foods, and the demand for livestock products remains poorly understood. This study examines the demand for livestock products by Indian consumers using national sample survey data. The study shows that there has been a rapid rise in the demand for livestock products in India. Within the livestock products group, milk and milk products hold the d...

  7. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  8. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION PLANNING UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Günther FISCHER; Tatiana ERMOLIEVA; Yuri ERMOLIEV; Harrij van VELTHUIZEN

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the need for risk-adjusted approaches to planning expansion of livestock production. In particular, we illustrate that under exposure to risk, a portfolio of producers is needed where more efficient producers co-exist and cooperate with less efficient ones given that the latter are associated with lower, uncorrelated or even negatively correlated contingencies. This raises important issues of cooperation and risk sharing among diverse producers.For large-scale practical allocation problems when information on the contingencies may be disperse, not analytically tractable, or be available on aggregate levels, we propose a downscaling procedure based on behavioral principles utilizing spatial risk preference structure. It allows for estimation of production allocation at required resolutions accounting for location specific risks and suitability constraints. The approach provides a tool for harmonization of data from various spatial levels. We applied the method in a case study of livestock production allocation in China to 2030.

  9. Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed s

  10. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH3) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH3. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH3, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  11. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  12. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-01-01

    The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cul...

  13. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. METHODS: Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. RESULTS CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit

  14. Perception of the HACCP system operators on livestock product manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Nam, Ki-Chang; Jo, Cheorun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate crucial factors on HACCP system implementation in domestic livestock product plants, and to offer job satisfaction and the career prospect of HACCP system operators. The survey was carried out by selecting 150 HACCP system operators who implemented HACCP system. The respondents claimed that the most important contents in HACCP system operation were to assemble HACCP team (21.8%), and the second was to monitoring (20.0%). Documentation and recording...

  15. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  16. Estimation of Production Amount of Livestock and Poultry Manure and Environmental Impact Assessment in Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Qing; Huang, Dongliang; Jiang, Zepu; Wei, Guangpo; Liang, Panxia; Wang, Yuning; LI, Yangrui

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate production of major livestock and poultry manure and contaminant content, and find out current situation of manure pollution, so as to provide reference for pollution control of livestock and poultry breeding industry in Guangxi. Based on the related statistic data in 2010 and the excretion coefficient of different livestock and poultry, the manure and its contaminant production amount of main livestock and poultry in Guangxi were estimated. Then the annual...

  17. Enhancing Livestock Productivity in the Desert Ecologies of Pakistan: Setting the Development Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Farooq; Munir Ahmad; Ikram Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Livestock is now sharing by more than 53 percent of total agricultural value added in Pakistan. Identifying and developing the potential areas of livestock production is part of the overall development strategy for this sector while rural poverty alleviation is a major concern of Pakistan’s overall development policy. Our major livestock production systems are grazing, stall-fed and grazing-cum-stall-fed based. Gra zing based livestock farming is economical and customary system in mountainous...

  18. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  19. Energy Utilization in Crop and Dairy Production in Organic and Conventional Livestock Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Refsgaard, Karen; Halberg, Niels; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    1998-01-01

    Searching for livestock production systems with a high energy utilization is of interest because of resource use and pollution aspects and because energy use is an indicator of the intensification of production processes. Due to interactions between crop and livestock enterprises and between levels of different input factors and their effects on yields, it is proposed to analyze agricultural energy utilization through system modelling of data from farm studies. Energy use in small grains, gra...

  20. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: CASE STUDY REGION POLIMLJE-IBAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rajović, Goran; Bulatović, Jelisavka

    2014-01-01

    The production structure of agriculture in region Polimlje-Ibar, livestock production has a very important role, because without a stable and developed livestock production has not developed agriculture. Therefore, in this paper, shows structural changes in livestock production. In fact, in the period 1960-2010, the total number of agricultural farms that raise cattle has been reduced from 18,070 to 12,263 agricultural farms or 32.1%. Which is after all result of social and economic factors, ...

  1. Socioeconomic Determinant of Livestock Products Consumption in Urban and Rural Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muzayyanah, Mujtahidah Anggriani Ummul; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products are important animal protein source in Indonesian diet and the consumption of these products increase. This paper tried to to examine the socioeconomic determinant of the consumption of livestock product in Indonesia, particularly in urban and rural Java. Analysis of livestock product consumption with some socioeconomic characteristics of household can be estimate by using household expenditure data. Demand parameters or elasticity were estimated by using Linear Approximati...

  2. Assessing national livestock populations for the production of methane emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jode, A. [Appropriate Technology International, Global Livestock Producers Program GLPP, Washington DC, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In an effort to accurately assess national methane (CH{sub 4}) production levels, many African countries are producing inventories of their national livestock populations. Conducting accurate livestock surveys is an expensive and time-consuming process, but is necessary because the most readily available data on livestock production are often incomplete or unsatisfactory. This paper looks at practical approaches to collecting data on livestock production and on the reproductive parameters for livestock, with special reference to African pastoralist populations, and makes qualified recommendations as to how inventory teams might be able to produce more accurate assessments of their total livestock populations. The methodology used during Nigeria`s National Livestock Census (1990-92) serves as a basis for a discussion of the issues. 2 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  3. Perception of the HACCP system operators on livestock product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Nam, Ki-Chang; Jo, Cheorun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate crucial factors on HACCP system implementation in domestic livestock product plants, and to offer job satisfaction and the career prospect of HACCP system operators. The survey was carried out by selecting 150 HACCP system operators who implemented HACCP system. The respondents claimed that the most important contents in HACCP system operation were to assemble HACCP team (21.8%), and the second was to monitoring (20.0%). Documentation and recording (16.9%) and verification (11.1%) were followed. The respondents answered the major factor in sanitation management was cleaning/washing/disinfection (18.9%) and inspection (18.4%). The results showed that there were significant differences in the prospect of occupation in HACCP system operator by the gender (p < 0.015), age, livestock product facilities, service period, and position (p < 0.001). The respondents from HACCP system operator were satisfied with their job (73%) and also showed optimistic prospect of occupation (82%). PMID:26290708

  4. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    I. Weindl; Lotze-Campen, H.; Popp, A; C. Müller; Havlik, P.; Herrero, M.; Schmitz, C; S. Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farming is the world's largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions a...

  5. Genomic selection to improve livestock production in developing countries with a focus on India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Global livestock production has increased substantially during the last decades, in both number of animals and productivity. Meanwhile, the human population is projected to reach 9.6 billions by 2050 and most of the increase in the projection takes place in developing countries. Rapid population...... to more expenditure on livestock products. Since livestock production in developed countries has well adopted livestock genomic selection tools to improve both productivity and quality of animal products, opportunities to increase productivity in developing countries via genomic tools/selection have...... not been fully explored. The future of livestock breeding focuses on both product quality and productivity, animal welfare, disease resistance and reducing environmental pollution. Among the breeding tools, molecular genetics and genomics and modern reproductive techniques such ovum-pick up and in...

  6. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngufor L. Atanga; Treydte, Anna C; Regina Birner

    2013-01-01

    Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P), agro-pastoral (AP), and landless intensive (LI) small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quanti...

  7. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S.; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the orig...

  8. Genomic selection to improve livestock production in developing countries with a focus on India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc

    Global livestock production has increased substantially during the last decades, in both number of animals and productivity. Meanwhile, the human population is projected to reach 9.6 billions by 2050 and most of the increase in the projection takes place in developing countries. Rapid population...... to more expenditure on livestock products. Since livestock production in developed countries has well adopted livestock genomic selection tools to improve both productivity and quality of animal products, opportunities to increase productivity in developing countries via genomic tools/selection have...... to increase livestock productivity, to enhance the disease resistance, fertility, resource use and the ability to adapt to climate changes. The paper also highlights the potential of genomic selection to overcome these challenges in India and other developing countries....

  9. Decline in available world resources: implications for livestock production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    decreased crop yields. The dependency of the industrialised countries on imported oil has seen a headlong development of biofuel from sugar cane and maize mainly in Brazil and the USA respectively and bio diesel from plant oils, creating major cereal food/feed grain shortages. The expectation is that world cereal grain availability for livestock production will be highly restricted, with a major decline in industrialised or commonly termed factory farming of livestock. Herbivores are likely to be used more extensively with time, particularly the ruminant and the rabbit. Global warming cannot be ignored in any discussion on future agriculture. Increasing sea levels will undoubtedly remove considerable areas of fertile delta and weather patterns will change, leading to at times more intense drought and or flooding rains. In some areas lack of synchrony of river flows (from glacial melt) with irrigation requirements may reduce multiple cropping areas. Warming also carries with it the risk of decreased crop production as rice yields decrease by 10% for every deg C rise in night time temperatures. Resource depletion threatens any attempt by countries to grow their economies and has the potential to lower world crop production by direct or various flow-on effects. It is suggested that the world is now entering a time where intensive animal production will become increasingly expensive as competition for food, feed and fuel develops. The animal production industries based on herbivores will need extensive development, exploiting a wide range of waste by-products of agriculture or biomass from land not dedicated to food or biofuel production. The high cost of fuel will also see a gradual return to animal power in agriculture. The downside of this will be the increase in ruminant livestock with potential increase in enteric methane production. A new prospect for limiting methane production in fermentative digestion indicates that this could be reduced substantially in the future

  10. Pollution associated with intensive livestock-production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Venter

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of market proximity, intensive livestock-production units are established on the outskirts of cities. Approximately 70 percent of the poultry and pigs in the Republic is kept in the Transvaal and Western Cape. The total amount of wastes produced in intensive animal units in South Africa is estimated at 9,8 million tons per annum. Waste contains large amounts of plant nutrients, and if handling is incorrect, serious pollution will occur. Pollution takes place when plant nutrients and salts infiltrate the soil in excess of the crop requirement and would result in saline soil or pollution of the groundwater. Waste washed away by surface run-off, will render rivers and dams useless. Water contaminated with pathogenes present in animal waste can cause and spread disease. Although the technology for the safe handling of animal waste exists, the number of cases of pollution is annually increasing.

  11. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  12. Activities and Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Livestock Physiology and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Klotz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of feedstuffs contaminated with ergot alkaloids has a broad impact on many different physiological mechanisms that alters the homeostasis of livestock. This change in homeostasis causes an increased sensitivity in livestock to perturbations in the ambient environment, resulting in an increased sensitivity to such stressors. This ultimately results in large financial losses in the form of production losses to livestock producers around the world. This review will focus on the underlying physiological mechanisms that are affected by ergot alkaloids that lead to decreases in livestock production.

  13. Activities and Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Livestock Physiology and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, James L

    2015-08-01

    Consumption of feedstuffs contaminated with ergot alkaloids has a broad impact on many different physiological mechanisms that alters the homeostasis of livestock. This change in homeostasis causes an increased sensitivity in livestock to perturbations in the ambient environment, resulting in an increased sensitivity to such stressors. This ultimately results in large financial losses in the form of production losses to livestock producers around the world. This review will focus on the underlying physiological mechanisms that are affected by ergot alkaloids that lead to decreases in livestock production. PMID:26226000

  14. INTEGRATING LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION WITH FOREST MANAGEMENT AMONG LEROGHI FOREST ADJACENT PASTORAL COMMUNITIES IN SAMBURU COUNTY, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvanda A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists whose resources of concern are water, dry season fodder and pastures. This study envisages that the success of the traditional pastoral resource utilization system depends upon risk spreading and highly flexible mechanisms such as human and livestock mobility, communal land ownership, herd diversity and herd separation or splitting. The current livestock production system was unsustainable thus the basis for this study, which sought to assess the community’s socio-economic characteristics; document the trends in the livestock population; and assess the level of forest use in livestock production by the forest adjacent local community. Seventy-nine respondents (30% were studied using a structured questionnaire and data analyzed using Excel (MS office and Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS. Trade in livestock, livestock products and livestock inputs provide employment and income opportunities for the local communities. The majority of the local people derive 78% of their total income from livestock sales. The sustainable forest based livestock production system depends upon adoption of controlled grazing practices where incentives, taxation methods, environmental education and awareness programs, appropriate resettlement of forest dwellers and promotion of alternative sources of income such as agri-pastoral business development.

  15. MODELING EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: AN APPLICATION TO SHEEP PRODUCTION IN KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Howitt, Richard E.; Kobayashi, Mimako; Jarvis, Lovell S.; Laca, Emilio A

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic dynamic programming model for extensive livestock systems is developed. The model optimizes sales/retention decisions when future forage production, which affects animal performance and hence profitability, is uncertain. The model is applied to sheep production in Kazakhstan to evaluate policy alternatives.

  16. Activities and Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Livestock Physiology and Production

    OpenAIRE

    Klotz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of feedstuffs contaminated with ergot alkaloids has a broad impact on many different physiological mechanisms that alters the homeostasis of livestock. This change in homeostasis causes an increased sensitivity in livestock to perturbations in the ambient environment, resulting in an increased sensitivity to such stressors. This ultimately results in large financial losses in the form of production losses to livestock producers around the world. This review will focus on the under...

  17. Climate change and broadacre livestock production across southern Australia. 1. Impacts of climate change on pasture and livestock productivity, and on sustainable levels of profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew D; Ghahramani, Afshin

    2013-05-01

    Broadacre livestock production is a major but highly diverse component of agriculture in Australia that will be significantly exposed to predicted changes in climate over coming decades. We used the GRAZPLAN simulation models to assess the impacts of climate change under the SRES A2 scenario across southern Australia. Climate change impacts were examined across space (25 representative locations) and time (1970-99, 2030, 2050 and 2070 climate) for each of five livestock enterprises. Climate projection uncertainty was considered by analysing projections from four global circulation models (GCMs). Livestock production scenarios were compared at their profit-maximizing stocking rate, constrained to ensure that risks of soil erosion were acceptable. Impacts on net primary productivity (ANPP) varied widely between GCM projections; the average declines from historical climate were 9% in 2030, 7% in 2050 and 14% in 2070. Declines in ANPP were larger at lower-rainfall locations. Sensitivity of ANPP to changes in rainfall ranged from 0.4 to 1.7, to temperature increase from -0.15 to +0.07 °C(-1) and to CO2 increase from 0.11 to 0.32. At most locations the dry summer period lengthened, exacerbating the greater erosion risk due to lower ANPP. Transpiration efficiency of pastures increased by 6-25%, but the proportion of ANPP that could safely be consumed by livestock fell sharply so that operating profit (at constant prices) fell by an average of 27% in 2030, 32% in 2050 and 48% in 2070. This amplification of ANPP reductions into larger profitability declines is likely to generalize to other extensive livestock systems. Profit declines were most marked at drier locations, with operating losses expected at 9 of the 25 locations by 2070. Differences between livestock enterprises were smaller than differences between locations and dates. Future research into climate change impacts on Australian livestock production needs to emphasise the dry margin of the cereal-livestock zone

  18. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  19. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to exp

  20. Livestock Production - Current Status in South and South-East Asia, Future Directions and Priority Areas for Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of livestock in agriculture in South and South-East Asia is complex and significantly different from that of industrialized nations. The traditional farming systems are mostly based on mixed crop-livestock systems, with small farms predominating. The most important livestock species in the region are cattle (Bos indicus, Bos taurus and their crosses), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, both river and swamp types), goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. In some high altitude areas Yaks (Poephagus grunniens) and Mithun or Gayal (Bos frontalis) are also important. Although the contribution of the livestock sub-sector to national GDP in most Asian countries is low, it is a crucial source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins to the population, by way of milk, meat and eggs. For millions of smallholder farmers it provides food security, draught power, fibre, manure and fuel, and also serves as a 'living bank' in periods of economic hardship. The farming systems in the region vary widely (Perera et al., 2005), determined by a matrix of several interacting factors that include climate (latitude, altitude and rainfall), location (rural, peri-urban or urban), cropping systems (rain-fed or irrigated, annual or perennial crops), type of operation (small or large farm, subsistence or commercial), and the species and their primary purpose (milk, meat, eggs, draught, capital or mixed). The ruminant production systems that were largely extensive or semi-intensive in the past (grassland-based or mixed crop-livestock, with rain-fed or irrigated mixed farming), which were sustained with locally available resources, have become constrained due to many factors. Competition for land from the increasing human population that demands space for habitation, crop production and other economic activities have dwindled grazing lands. Mechanization of agricultural operations and commercial market forces have also made such systems less competitive. Thus some enterprising farmers have moved

  1. The clusters approach to the improvement of competitiveness of livestock production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraušić Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are basic postulate for achieve competitiveness in livestock production in Serbia, for increase export of meat and for subsisted farmers in small agricultural holding, especially in environment of: 1 lack of competitiveness considerations; 2 insufficient public support for livestock production; 3 more liberal agricultural trade with EU; 4 significant demand for baby beef in world market. In the same time, with financial and institutional support of government and public sector, clusters in livestock production has a huge strength for employ people, utilised natural resources and realization of projection aim of agrarian policy in this production. .

  2. Effect of livestock production on the economic efficiency of irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogić Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effect of livestock production on the economic efficiency of investments in irrigation projects. The study was based on a model focused on field crop/livestock production using the data of crop yields in field crop production with or without irrigation, financial results of cattle fattening and milk production and the input and output price relationship. The influence of livestock production on the economic effects of irrigation system utilization was evaluated using the indices of economic efficiency of investments - internal rate of return, net present value and pay-back period. The data on the amount of investments required for the construction of the irrigation system, economic benefit achieved by optimizing production under both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, with and without livestock production were used to determine these indices.

  3. Status and Potential of Smallholder Livestock Production Systems in Xishuangbanna, southern P.R. China

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    With Chinas rapid economic development during the last decades, the national demand for livestock products has quadrupled within the last 20 years. Most of that increase in demand has been answered by subsidized industrialized production systems, while million of smallholders, which still provide the larger share of livestock products in the country, have been neglected. Fostering those systems would help China to lower its strong urban migration streams, enhance the livelihood of poorer rura...

  4. Measuring brand loyalty of pharmaceutical livestock products among commercial farmers / Annette Neethling

    OpenAIRE

    Neethling, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In this study brand loyalty of pharmaceutical livestock products among commercial farmers was measured. The purpose of the study was to assist agribusinesses to identify the dominant determinant when commercial farmers purchase pharmaceutical livestock products from them. The study analysed two marketing mix elements price and product (specifically brand name) in farmer buying behaviour. A structured questionnaire was used to employ an empirical study in a quantitative style to determine t...

  5. Analysis of livestock production conditions in North Kordofan State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Moniem M. A. El hag

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at El-khuwei locality, North Kordofan State, Sudan, during 2010/ 2011. The main objective of this work was to determine the conditions under which livestock are raised in the studied area. Using questionnaires, 120 farmers were interviewed from 4 villages (30 for each village. The data were analyzed using frequencies variables. Results showed that all respondents are male, the majority 65.0% belonged to the Hammer tribe and 35.0% of them are of the Magana tribe. 36.7% of respondent ages ranged between 20 - 40 years, while 63.3% ranged between 40-60 years. 45% of respondents had completed primary school, 28.3% had completed intermediate school and 26.7% completed secondary school. 53.3% of interviewee are crop farmers and animal breeders; followed by those are crop farmers 26.7% then those are animal breeders 20.0%. 50% of respondents are settled, while 25% practiced transhumance and 25% of them are settled and transhumance. 74.2% of interviewers explained that their animals grazed near the residence in the autumn season; however, most of them said their animals grazed far from the residence in summer and winter seasons. The respondents revealed that camels are watered every 5 days in the winter and 4 days in the summer; however, sheep and goats were watered every 2 days and cattle every day in the summer and winter seasons. Majority of interviewees 60.8% revealed that Anthrax has the most serious prevalence amongst cattle and the remainder 39.2% said hemorrhagic septicemia; however; 64.2% revealed that the sheep pox has the most important prevalence disease in sheep, and 35.8% of them said the hemorrhagic septicemia. All respondents revealed high density of animals in pasture. 58.3% of them said that water supply is not enough; while 41.7% of them said water supply was sufficient. All respondents indicated that they were charged for watering their animals. Regarding the reasons for decreasing milk production, most

  6. Decline in available world resources - implications for livestock production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is faced with three simultaneous and interrelated/interactive crises that if not responded to will create chaos, i.e. climate change, peak oil (the end of inexpensive energy) and global resource depletion. There is an urgent need to respond to these challenges in order to produce and deliver food to maintain the present world population, let alone the increased population predicted by 2020 of 8 to10 billion people. The primary resource depletion is fossil fuel energy. The world has been using more fossil energy then is being discovered and it appears that the reserves of energy that can be cheaply mined are now at peak production (half these resources have been combusted). As oil reserves are depleted, prices will rise continuously with the extra demand, now coming through the increased wealth in many emerging economies. Inexpensive oil allowed food to be produced cheaply but this has changed greatly as oil prices rise creating the potential for major disruptions in food availability and even famine. The dependency of the industrialized countries on oil to drive agricultural production, particularly in countries that cannot meet their domestic requirement, has seen 'panic development' of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. The production of bio-fuels and its effect on land use and grain availability is blamed for at least 30% of the price hike that has occurred in world food prices. Cereal grain availability for industrial livestock production (pig, poultry and feedlot beef) will be highly restricted and the short fall in meat that will result can only be replaced by expanding the production of the ruminant fed on crop by-products. Ruminants are the logical animals for future meat and milk production but other herbivores are likely to be used more extensively with time, particularly the rabbit. There is a greater need to intensify ruminant production on crop residues applying better methods of treatment to improve digestibility and to prioritize protein

  7. A conceptual approach to design livestock production systems for robustness to enhance sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Veen, van der A.A.; Oosting, S.J.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Existing approaches to enhance sustainability of livestock production systems focus on the level of sustainability indicators. Maintaining the level of sustainability in the face of perturbations, which is robustness of sustainability, is relatively unexplored. Perturbations can be classed as noise

  8. Challenges and opportunities for smallholder livestock production in post-conflict South Kivu, eastern DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Brigitte L; Musale, Dieudonné Katunga; Chiuri, Wanjiku L; Gassner, Anja; Peters, Michael

    2012-08-01

    A survey on smallholder livestock production with emphasis on monogastric animals was conducted in 20 villages of seven so-called 'groupements' of South Kivu province in DR Congo, situated along a north to south-west axis with the town of Bukavu in the center. This land adjacent to Lake Kivu is located at elevations ranging around 900- 1900 m asl, experiencing tropical highland climate. A diagnostic survey helped to rapidly obtain in-depth knowledge of constraints and opportunities in this environment. Correspondence analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to investigate the association of production constraints with particular livestock species and to understand the factors that govern the number of livestock that people owned (converted to tropical livestock units [TLU]), respectively. Responses of 112 informants demonstrated that livestock is an integral part of the region's mixed farming systems. Low livestock numbers per household at present reflect the poverty as a consequence of recent violent conflicts. Currently, farmers focus on small livestock, like poultry, swine, cavies (i.e., Guinea pigs) and rabbits. Families keep livestock to accumulate household reserves that are strongly invested in children's education. Major issues of animal husbandry were related to animal diseases and lack of feed resources, particularly in the dry season. Lack of feed or forages were unrelated to a particular livestock species. Livestock holdings depended on animal diversity, location, land size available and respondents' education level. The potential introduction of improved forages is challenged by their dry-season tolerance, compatibility with cropping on small farms; and people's readiness to cultivate forages. PMID:22286398

  9. Isolation of Asian endemic and livestock associated clones of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from ocular samples in Northeastern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Asghar Havaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains are divided into Community Associated (CA- and Hospital Associated (HA- MRSA. These strains vary in antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity. S. aureus is one of the most common microorganisms in ocular infections. This study was aimed to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics of MRSA strains isolated from ocular infections in Iran.Out of 171 S. aureus strains isolated from various clinical samples during September-December 2011 at Mashhad Emam Reza Hospital, 3 were cultured from eye discharge samples. Antimicrobial resistance tests were performed with MIC and disk diffusion methods and also genetic evaluation was done with Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec, Accessory Gene Regulator (agr and Staphylococcal Protein A (spa typing, Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST and determination of toxin gene profile.All strains were MRSA and showed resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin and clindamycin too. Vancomycin, minocyclin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were effective on all ocular isolates. All isolates belonged to SCCmec IV type. MRSA1 belonged to ST239, CC8, Spa type t7688 and agrIII and had tst1 and hla toxin genes. MRSA2 belonged to ST239, CC8, Spa type t037 and agrI and had the hla toxin gene. Finally, MRSA3 belonged to ST291, CC398, Spa type t304, and agrI and had pvl and hla toxin genes.Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of the isolated MRSA strains revealed that these strains belong to endemic Asian and livestock related clones that could reach from other body sites or environment to the eye of patients and developed ocular infection.

  10. Environmental assessment tools for the evaluation and improvement of European livestock production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, Niels; Hayo M. G. Van der Werf; BASSET-MENS, Claudine; Dalgaard, Randi; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Different types of assessment tools have been developed in Europe with the purpose of determining the environmental impact of various livestock production systems at farm level. The assessment tools differ in terms of which environmental objectives are included and how indicators are constructed and interpreted. The paper compares typical tools for environmental assessment of livestock production systems, and recommends selected indicators suitable for benchmarking. The assessment tools used ...

  11. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals

    OpenAIRE

    BROOM, D.M.; Galindo, F. A.; E. Murgueitio

    2013-01-01

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people work...

  12. Estimation of Production Amount of Livestock and Poultry Manure and Environmental Impact Assessment in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing; LIAO; Dongliang; HUANG; Zepu; JIANG; Guangpo; WEI; Panxia; LIANG; Yuning; WANG; Yangrui; LI

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate production of major livestock and poultry manure and contaminant content,and find out current situation of manure pollution,so as to provide reference for pollution control of livestock and poultry breeding industry in Guangxi.Based on the related statistic data in 2010 and the excretion coefficient of different livestock and poultry,the manure and its contaminant production amount of main livestock and poultry in Guangxi were estimated.Then the annual livestock and poultry manure load of farmland and the loss of contaminant were also calculated to analyze the ecological pressure resulted from livestock and poultry breeding in Guangxi.Following results were obtained:in 2010,the production amount of the livestock and poultry manure in Guangxi was 9141.30×104tons,including nutrient TN42.07×104tons and TP 13.62×104tons;the annual livestock and poultry manure and N,P pure nutrient load of farmland was 21t/hm2,98kg/hm2,and 32 kg/hm2respectively;the production amount of manure contaminants was BOD5383.43×104tons,COD Cr435.42×104tons,and NH3-N 42.08×104tons;according to 30%loss rate,the loss amount of COD Cr and NH3-N was higher than the sum of industrial and life waste water.It was concluded that the livestock and poultry breeding industry had little impact on soil environment,but posed a grave threat to water environment.

  13. Analysis of maintenance and repair systems in livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    KOVALEV L.I.; I.L. Kovalev

    2015-01-01

    In article the analysis of various systems of technical service is carried out and a number of tasks of improvement of the organization of maintenance and repair on livestock farms and complexes in modern conditions of the market is defined. Efficiency of practical application of system of scheduled preventive maintenance and maintenance of cars and the equipment of animal husbandry locates.

  14. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. PMID:25247484

  15. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  16. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  17. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    GIAMMARINO, M.; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction. An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territ...

  18. INTEGRATING LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION WITH FOREST MANAGEMENT AMONG LEROGHI FOREST ADJACENT PASTORAL COMMUNITIES IN SAMBURU COUNTY, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Luvanda A. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists whose resources of concern are water, dry season fodder and pastures. This study envisages that the success of the traditional pastoral resource utilization system depends upon risk spreading and highly flexible mechanisms such as human and livestock mobility, communal land ownership, herd diversity and herd separation or splitting. The current livestock production system was unsustainable thus the basis for this study, which sought t...

  19. THE ROLE OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION ON FOOD SECURITY IN SUDAN: RURAL WHITE NILE STATE

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. ELZAK; A.A. ELBUSHRA; S.E.H. AHMED; A.M. MUBARAK

    2011-01-01

    Food security status is determined by the combination of aggregate food availability, household food access and utilization. In Sudan, given climate extremes and insecurity, food availability is a crucial component of household food security status. Communities that rely on raising livestock are most vulnerable to hunger when drought or other disaster strikes. The general objective of this study was to assess the role of livestock production on food security in the White Nile State. Specifica...

  20. Estimation of nitrogen and phosphorus flows in livestock production in Dianchi Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroki; Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Irbis, Chagan; Li, Kunzhi; Kumagai, Hajime; Inamura, Tatsuya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows in intensified livestock production systems by investigating nutrient budgets and cycling in the basin of Dianchi Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China. We conducted field surveys based on feed samplings and interviews of livestock farmers. The N and P in local and external feeds, animal body retentions, animal products and excretions were calculated at the individual level for dairy cattle, fattening pigs, breeding sows, broilers and laying hens. The N and P flows in the total livestock production system in the area were estimated by multiplying the individual N and P budgets by the number of animals. For the dairy and fattening pig productions, N and P supplied from local crops or by-products accounted for large parts of the inputs. For the other livestock categories, most of the N and P inputs depended on external resources. The N and P outputs through animal manure into the cropland were 287 and 66 kg/ha/year, respectively, which were higher than the N and P inputs into the livestock production systems from the cropland. The N and P loads from manure should be reduced for the establishment of sustainable agricultural production systems. PMID:25997512

  1. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US$). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction. (letter)

  2. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  3. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; LASSALETTA, LUIS; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, Mark A.; Vries, Wim de; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    International audience Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmenta...

  4. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; LASSALETTA, LUIS; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton M A; W. De Vries; WEISS FRANZ; Westhoek, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution...

  5. Competitiveness Analysis of Processing Industry Cluster of Livestock Products in Inner Mongolia Based on "Diamond Model"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing-long; REN Ya-tong

    2012-01-01

    Using Michael Porter’s "diamond model", based on regional development characteristics, we conduct analysis of the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia from six aspects (the factor conditions, demand conditions, corporate strategy, structure and competition, related and supporting industries, government and opportunities). And we put forward the following rational recommendations for improving the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia: (i) The government should increase capital input, focus on supporting processing industry of livestock products, and give play to the guidance and aggregation effect of financial funds; (ii) In terms of enterprises, it is necessary to vigorously develop leading enterprises, to give full play to the cluster effect of the leading enterprises.

  6. The Sampling Quality Control in the Routine Monitoring of Livestock and Poultry Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long; ZHENG; Yingqiao; WEI; Chunliang; YANG

    2015-01-01

    The routine monitoring of livestock and poultry products is the monitoring work carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture in order to grasp the quality and safety of national livestock and poultry products,and the sampling work is the first part of routine monitoring. This paper analyzes various factors during the implementation of sampling work such as preparatory work,sampling tools,sampling process,pretreatment,packaging,transfer,storage conditions and sample delivery. Carrying out the effective quality control can help to ensure the impartiality of the test results so as to provide reliable scientific basis for the department to study regulatory measures.

  7. IMPACT OF POLICY AND SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN RIVER NJORO WATERSHED, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Kyalo, Willy Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is an important contributor to rural development. In the past two decades, developing countries have experienced changes in market structures, climate and demographic characteristics. These changes have been accompanied by fast growth in demand for livestock products and the increasing dependence on livestock for sustainable livelihood systems. In response to these changes, there has been rapid land use and land cover changes, characterized by expansion of ...

  8. Potential geographic distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from intensive livestock production in North Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanza, Jennifer K. [Curriculum in Ecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3275, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3275 (United States)], E-mail: costanza@unc.edu; Marcinko, Sarah E. [Curriculum in Ecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3275, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3275 (United States); Goewert, Ann E. [Department of Geological Sciences, Campus Box 3315, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3315 (United States); Mitchell, Charles E. [Curriculum in Ecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3275, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3275 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    To examine the consequences of increased spatial aggregation of livestock production facilities, we estimated the annual production of nitrogen in livestock waste in North Carolina, USA, and analyzed the potential distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from confined animal feeding operations ('CAFO') lagoons. North Carolina is a national center for industrial livestock production. Livestock is increasingly being raised in CAFOs, where waste is frequently held, essentially untreated, in open-air lagoons. Reduced nitrogen in lagoons is volatilized as ammonia (NH{sub 3}), transported atmospherically, and deposited to other ecosystems. The Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, NC, is representative of nitrogen-sensitive coastal waters, and is a major component of the second largest estuarine complex in the U.S. We used GIS to model the area of water in the Sound within deposition range of CAFOs. We also evaluated the number of lagoons within deposition range of each 1 km{sup 2} grid cell of the state. We considered multiple scenarios of atmospheric transport by varying distance and directionality. Modeled nitrogen deposition rates were particularly elevated for the Coastal Plain. This pattern matches empirical data, suggesting that observed regional patterns of reduced nitrogen deposition can be largely explained by two factors: limited atmospheric transport distance, and spatial aggregation of CAFOs. Under our medium-distance scenario, a small portion (roughly 22%) of livestock production facilities contributes disproportionately to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Furthermore, we estimated that between 14-37% of the state receives 50% of the state's atmospheric nitrogen deposition from CAFO lagoons. The estimated total emission from livestock is 134,000 t NH{sub 3} yr{sup -1}, 73% of which originates from the Coastal Plain. Stronger waste management and emission standards for CAFOs, particularly those on the Coastal Plain

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  10. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  11. Techniques for improving livestock production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive potential of domestic animals is rarely fully realized, even under the best management conditions available in developed countries. More efficient reproduction would ensue if puberty occurred at the earliest possible age, if mating always resulted in pregnancy, if embryonic and neonatal mortality were minimized, if the maximum number of offspring resulted from each pregnancy, and if the interval between parturitions were as brief as physiologically possible. If the sex of offspring could be preselected, herd composition and reproductive performance could be influenced. Reproductive technology can be employed to address all of these issues. Traditional and modern methods have been used to improve livestock reproduction in the developing world. Observation of the frequency of parturition and the occurrence of oestrus, measurement of scrotal circumference and palpation of ovarian structures are traditional means of determining reproductive status. If coupled with rigorous record keeping, these methods can increase reproductive efficiency. Of the modern methods, ultrasonographic observation of reproductive organs can provide valuable information about ovarian function and embryo mortality. Hormonal measurements, particularly progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA), have been useful for the determination of reproductive status. The gonadotrophic hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, can be determined in animals by double antibody RIA. These measurements are valuable for studies of puberty and post-partum anoestrus. The ovulation rate is the principle limitation on the number of offspring produced by a species. Immunization of domestic animals against ovarian inhibitory substances may serve to increase this rate. The selection of female offspring can be achieved by molecular biological methods. The most promising method is determination of male embryos by amplification of a DNA sequence of the Y chromosome. (author). 35 refs

  12. The Role of Direct-Fed Microbials in Conventional Livestock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntyn, J O; Schmidt, T B; Nisbet, D J; Callaway, T R

    2016-02-15

    Supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as a means to improve the health and performance of livestock has generated significant interest over the past 15+ years. A driving force for this increased interest in DFM is to reduce or eliminate the use of low-dose antibiotics in livestock production. This increased attention toward DFM supplementation has generated an extensive body of research. This effort has resulted in conflicting reports. Although there has been considerable variation in the design of these studies, one of the main causes for this lack of consistency may be attributed to the variation in the experimental immune challenge incorporated to evaluate DFM supplementation. Taking into account the experimental immune challenge, there is strong evidence to suggest that DFM supplementation may have an impact on the immune response, overall health, and performance of livestock. PMID:26667362

  13. Adoption of GM technology in livestock production chains: an integrating framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoselova, T.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrating framework for analysing the adoption of new technologies in food chains. We review the literature on the adoption of genetic modification in livestock production chains and conclude that an integrated chain approach is currently lacking. Such an approach is, howeve

  14. Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jian Jie; Guo, Cai Xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an ur

  15. Environmental assessment tools for the evaluation and improvement of European livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halberg, N.; Werf, H.M.G.; Basset-Mens, C.; Dalgaard, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Different types of assessment tools have been developed in Europe with the purpose of determining the environmental impact of various livestock production systems at farm level. The assessment tools differ in terms of which environmental objectives are included and how indicators are constructed and

  16. Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques...

  17. Competitiveness Analysis of Processing Industry Cluster of Livestock Products in Inner Mongolia Based on "Diamond Model"

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xing-long; Ren, Ya-tong

    2012-01-01

    Using Michael Porter's "diamond model", based on regional development characteristics, we conduct analysis of the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia from six aspects (the factor conditions, demand conditions, corporate strategy, structure and competition, related and supporting industries, government and opportunities). And we put forward the following rational recommendations for improving the competitiveness of processing industry cluster ...

  18. Genomic selection to improve livestock production in developing countries with a focus on India

    OpenAIRE

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Global livestock production has increased substantially during the last decades, in both number of animals and productivity. Meanwhile, the human population is projected to reach 9.6 billions by 2050 and most of the increase in the projection takes place in developing countries. Rapid population growth will increase the demand for food as well as animal products, particularly in emerging economic giants like India. Moreover, the urbanization has considerable impact on patterns of food consump...

  19. The Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production amongst the Resource-Poor Farmers of Third World Countries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Musemwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently experiencing average high temperatures and low precipitation, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water. The damaging effects of global climate change are increasing and most damages are predicted to occur in developing countries due to their over-reliance on low-input rain-fed agricultural production and their low adaptive capacity. Due to the erratic rainfall and high incidence of droughts which make crop production not feasible, the majority of the rural population in Third World Countries depends on livestock production for their livelihoods. The livestock sector is, however, considered very vulnerable to climate variability and change. Floods, droughts, diseases and poor grazing conditions are some of the factors currently causing significant livestock losses. The problems being encountered by the livestock farmers in most of the Third World Countries are expected to worsen in future due to the effects of climate change. This therefore makes the study of impact of climate change on livestock production a vital concern in the world, particularly in developing countries where many rural households depend on livestock production for their livelihoods. This article therefore looks at both the direct and indirect effects of climate change on livestock production. Strategies to curtail the effect of climate change on livestock production are also recommended in the paper.

  20. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    reproductive animals in a manner which could be related to health problems. Direct effects of diseases on growth or milk production were, however, addressed in only a few models and were confined to a few basic relations if modelled. The lack of effects on individual animal production in the models may relate...... to difficulties in obtaining valid parameters for these effects. We recommend: (1) that disease-production relations be based on mechanistic, reasonable hypotheses at the animal level; or (2) that groups of animals be specified that have different disease-production relations. These relations and......This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output of...

  1. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems

  2. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21st Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Madeleine L.; Heather Maggs; Henry Buller; Wathes, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The global rise in demand for animal products for human consumption may well have an increasingly significant impact upon the natural environment, human health and the lives of farmed animals. This paper reviews some of the evidence for that impact and the future trajectories for livestock farming that it may well entail. Abstract There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse ga...

  3. Strategies to alleviate poverty and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia: intensification vs production efficiency of livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briske, David D; Zhao, Mengli; Han, Guodong; Xiu, Changbai; Kemp, David R; Willms, Walter; Havstad, Kris; Kang, Le; Wang, Zhongwu; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo; Bai, Yongfei

    2015-04-01

    Semi-nomadic pastoralism was replaced by sedentary pastoralism in Inner Mongolia during the 1960's in response to changes in land use policy and increasing human population. Large increases in numbers of livestock and pastoralist households (11- and 9-fold, respectively) during the past 60 yrs have variously degraded the majority of grasslands in Inner Mongolia (78 M ha) and jeopardize the livelihoods of 24 M human inhabitants. A prevailing strategy for alleviating poverty and grassland degradation emphasizes intensification of livestock production systems to maintain both pastoral livelihoods and large livestock numbers. We consider this strategy unsustainable because maximization of livestock revenue incurs high supplemental feed costs, marginalizes net household income, and promotes larger flock sizes to create a positive feedback loop driving grassland degradation. We offer an alternative strategy that increases both livestock production efficiency and net pastoral income by marketing high quality animal products to an increasing affluent Chinese economy while simultaneously reducing livestock impacts on grasslands. We further caution that this strategy be designed and assessed within a social-ecological framework capable of coordinating market expansion for livestock products, sustainable livestock carrying capacities, modified pastoral perceptions of success, and incentives for ecosystem services to interrupt the positive feedback loop that exists between subsistence pastoralism and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia. PMID:25687702

  4. Analysis of Rice Production Instability in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mamma Sawaneh; Ismail Abd Latif; Amin Mahir Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study measures the extent of rice production instability and the sources of instability in selected rice producing countries of Southeast Asia. A time series data on rice harvested area, yield and production of five Southeast Asian countries was used to analyze the components of production changes (area, yield and interaction effects) from 1980 to 2010. The production data is categorized into two periods: (i) 1980/81 to 1994/95 and (ii) 1995/96 to 2009/10. The results show a significant ...

  5. Is livestock production prepared for an electrically paralysed world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Politics, insolvency, increased technological complexity and solar flares are factors that currently present uncomfortably real threats to our increasing dependency on electricity. In some scenarios, there may be no warning before electronic and mechanical help will cease to function. Industrial food production appears to be particularly vulnerable. Making preparations for an electrically paralysed period may not only be prudent, and a matter of national security, but might also push scientific efforts in agricultural production past energy reduction and towards more resilient and sustainable options. PMID:23111940

  6. The prospects of selection for social genetic effects to improve welfare and productivity in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther D. Ellen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions between individuals living in a group can have both positive and negative effects on welfare, productivity, and health of these individuals. Negative effects of social interactions in livestock are easier to observe than positive effects. For example, laying hens may develop feather pecking, which can cause mortality due to cannibalism, and pigs may develop tail biting or excessive aggression. Several studies have shown that social interactions affect the genetic variation in a trait. Genetic improvement of socially-affected traits, however, has proven to be difficult until relatively recently. The use of classical selection methods, like individual selection, may result in selection responses opposite to expected, because these methods neglect the effect of an individual on its group mates (social genetic effects. It has become clear that improvement of socially-affected traits requires selection methods that take into account not only the direct effect of an individual on its own phenotype but also the social genetic effects, also known as indirect genetic effects, of an individual on the phenotypes of its group mates. Here, we review the theoretical and empirical work on social genetic effects, with a focus on livestock. First, we present the theory of social genetic effects. Subsequently, we evaluate the evidence for social genetic effects in livestock and other species, by reviewing estimates of genetic parameters for direct and social genetic effects. Then we describe the results of different selection experiments. Finally, we discuss issues concerning the implementation of social genetic effects in livestock breeding programs. In our opinion, this review demonstrates that selection for socially-affected traits, using methods that target both the direct and social genetic effects, is a promising, but sometimes difficult to use in practice, tool to simultaneously improve production and welfare in livestock.

  7. The prospects of selection for social genetic effects to improve welfare and productivity in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Esther D; Rodenburg, T Bas; Albers, Gerard A A; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Camerlink, Irene; Duijvesteijn, Naomi; Knol, Egbert F; Muir, William M; Peeters, Katrijn; Reimert, Inonge; Sell-Kubiak, Ewa; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Visscher, Jeroen; Bijma, Piter

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between individuals living in a group can have both positive and negative effects on welfare, productivity, and health of these individuals. Negative effects of social interactions in livestock are easier to observe than positive effects. For example, laying hens may develop feather pecking, which can cause mortality due to cannibalism, and pigs may develop tail biting or excessive aggression. Several studies have shown that social interactions affect the genetic variation in a trait. Genetic improvement of socially-affected traits, however, has proven to be difficult until relatively recently. The use of classical selection methods, like individual selection, may result in selection responses opposite to expected, because these methods neglect the effect of an individual on its group mates (social genetic effects). It has become clear that improvement of socially-affected traits requires selection methods that take into account not only the direct effect of an individual on its own phenotype but also the social genetic effects, also known as indirect genetic effects, of an individual on the phenotypes of its group mates. Here, we review the theoretical and empirical work on social genetic effects, with a focus on livestock. First, we present the theory of social genetic effects. Subsequently, we evaluate the evidence for social genetic effects in livestock and other species, by reviewing estimates of genetic parameters for direct and social genetic effects. Then we describe the results of different selection experiments. Finally, we discuss issues concerning the implementation of social genetic effects in livestock breeding programs. This review demonstrates that selection for socially-affected traits, using methods that target both the direct and social genetic effects, is a promising, but sometimes difficult to use in practice, tool to simultaneously improve production and welfare in livestock. PMID:25426136

  8. Assessment of Economic Viability of Mini-livestock Production in Delta State, Nigeria:Implication for Extension Delivery Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebewore Solomon Okeoghene; Achoja Felix Odemero

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the popularity, role and economic viability of mini-livestock keeping in Delta State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of mini-livestock farmers, identify the types of animals reared as mini-livestock in the area, ascertain the reasons for keeping mini-livestock by farmers, determine the benefit level of mini-livestock farmers, and identify the problems facing mini-livestock farmers in the study area. Using snowball sampling technique, 674 respondents were sampled with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Various descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses. The results of the study indicated various types of mini-livestock reared in the study area, mainly snail farming or heliciculture (about 90%) and rearing of cane rat (84.27%); the most important reasons for keeping mini-livestock were income (99.6%), employment (99.26%) and food (94.96%). The result further indicated that protein consumption and improved income were the most important benefits to respondents. In spite of these benefits, the respondents faced some constraints, amongst which were lack of technical information (X=4.70), lacking of enough space for expansion (X=4.58), inadequate training (X=4.20), poor extension delivery services (X=4.20) and problems of feed availability (X=3.86). In spite of these constraints, the production of mini-livestock was found to be profitable in the study area. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that mini-livestock farmers in the study area should be trained on various aspects of the management of mini-livestock especially by organising workshops for them. Key words: mini-livestock, cane rat, guinea pig, viability, snail, heliciculture

  9. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  10. Three Concepts of Competitiveness Measures for Livestock Production in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the overview of competitiveness measures applied in measuring competitiveness of livestock production in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. Three concepts of competitiveness are presented that are based on (i Porter’s diamond of competitive advantage, (ii competitiveness measures based on accountancy data and Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM approach, and (iii competitiveness measures based on international trade data. On the basis of the presented results the paper evaluates competitiveness of livestock production in CEE countries focusing on policy implications of transition and integration of CEE’s countries livestock sectors into the Single European Market. Low international competitiveness In CEE countries is for beef and milk, but with some indices of most recent improvements. Pork production (e.g. in Bulgaria and sheep production (e.g. in Slovakia may become internationally competitive. Less clear pattern is for the poultry sector. Some improvements may arise as result of a deep restructuring, quality, technology and efficiency improvements and rationalisation of costs, including in food processing.

  11. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides from feed to livestock products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of data on radionuclide transfer are poor in Japan and those are limited to 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I released from the previous atomic bomb experiments. However, in Europe, intensive studies on environment RI level which affects the restriction of the intake for meats and milk products have been made as the measures against the environment radioactivity due to Chernobyl accident. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides to meats and milk products were estimated on a basis of the data published in the Science of the Total Environment vol.85(1989), Oxford University and CEC Radiation Protection, EUR 12608 EN, Luxembourg, 1990 in addition to the data on Exclusion of Radioactivity from foods, Environment Parameter, series No. 4. On the other hand, the transfer coefficients for Japanese were estimated using the concerned data from published reports and the environment radioactivity data reported by national and local government bodies. In this book, many new data of transfer coefficient are presented in tables along with the previous data collected by international nuclear energy agencies and respective national facilities concerned. (M.N.)

  12. Dietary manipulations for improving productivity in ruminant livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against a background of the major aspects of forage utilization by the rumen ecosystem and host animal metabolism, the need to manipulate the nature of the diet in order to improve animal productivity is reviewed. A number of criteria by which possible dietary manipulants should be considered are provided. The role of feed additives to manipulate rumen fermentation characteristics with respect to volatile fatty acid production, suppression of methanogenesis, and stimulation of microbial protein synthesis is discussed, and the possible benefits of changing the rumen microflora (e.g. by defaunation) are considered. The potential of nitrogen, energy and specific amino acid supplements to enhance rumen fermentation and/or nutrient absorption is examined and the paper concludes with consideration of possible areas where dietary manipulation could be beneficial, but to date suitable technology has not been satisfactorily developed. In this context, the nutritional effect of tannins, including enhancement of pronutritional and diminution of antinutritional factors, the suppression of rumen proteolysis and the ruminal protection of starch are examined. (author). 74 refs, 1 tab

  13. Feeding strategies for improving productivity of ruminant livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary function of the FAO/IAEA Programme on Animal Production and Health is to improve the capability of animal production and veterinary institutes in developing countries to conduct research into solving the problems of low animal productivity. The main objective of the Advisory Group Meeting was to review recent developments in ruminant nutrition research and identify developments and techniques that could be of use to developing Member States to increase livestock productivity. The report contains papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. A Bayesian Belief Network to Infer Incentive Mechanisms to Reduce Antibiotic Use in Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, L.; Asseldonk, van, N.; Valeeva, N.I.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient policy intervention to reduce antibiotic use in livestock production requires knowledge about the rationale underlying antibiotic usage. Animal health status and management quality are considered the two most important factors that influence farmersâ¿¿ decision-making concerning antibiotic use. Information on these two factors is therefore crucial in designing incentive mechanisms. In this paper, a Bayesian belief network (BBN) is built to represent the knowledge on how these factor...

  15. Mixed crop-livestock farming: an economical and environmental-friendly way to intensify production?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryschawy, Julie; Choisis, Jean Philippe; Choisis, Norma; Gibon, Annick

    2010-01-01

    Intensification and specialization of agriculture allowed increasing its productivity but also induced detrimental impacts on the environment and challenges for the economical viability of numerous farms. Association between livestock and crops, which was common in the past, is given consideration worldwide. It is regarded as a possible way for improving nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs, increasing sustainability of natural resources management, and also generating economies of...

  16. Competitiveness of Livestock Production in Slovenia in View of Approaching EU Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Stane Kavčić; Emil Erjavec

    2003-01-01

    The paper aims at assessing the cost competitiveness of Slovenian livestock production on single European market after its EU accession in 2004. For empirical analysis a sector model of Slovenian agriculture APAS-PAM has been applied. In the paper three accession scenarios are considered (optimistic EUo, pessimistic EUp and realistic EUr) that describe the whole range of possible accession effects. Accession under the scenario of complete acceptance of the CAP mechanisms and quasi equal treat...

  17. AN INTRODUCTION TO DNA TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR ROLE IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    DNA technologies have revolutionalized modern science in many ways. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), the hereditarymaterial in all living organism from bacteria to bull, controls and directs all the functions of a living organism. Manytechniques have been evolved to understand and manipulate the DNA for many purposes like parentage analysis, curinggenetic diseases, forensics, gene therapy and to improve the livestock production. In this paper DNA technologies.Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), DNA ...

  18. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  19. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production. PMID:26263191

  20. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. COMBINING TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP APPROACHES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION A LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTATION STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Spoelstra, Sierk; Elzen, Boelie

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Dutch Government has increasingly emphasised the need for integral solutions for sustainability problems in the livestock production sector. This led to the adoption of research approaches in line with transition management and system innovation that had been developed in other domains. In 2008, the government set further policy targets of 5% and 100% sustainable livestock production at the farm level for 2011 and 2023 respectively. Policy measures included stimulati...

  2. Urban Residents’ Food Safety Awareness and Purchasing Decisions about Name-brand Livestock and Poultry Products: A Case Study of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; ZHU; Fu; QIN

    2015-01-01

    Through the data on Beijing urban residents’ purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products,the article analyzes consumers’ food safety awareness about the name-brand livestock and poultry products and the effects on the purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products. Research shows that urban residents obtain information on food safety through TV programs and newspaper and there are a great of problems in food. 55. 43% of the consumers consider that the name-brand livestock and poultry products are safer than ordinary livestock and poultry products. The result of the model shows that food safety awareness about the name-brand livestock and poultry products has dramatically affected urban residents’ purchasing decisions of livestock and poultry products. The biggest effect is on the brand of eggs and pork as the major daily consumer goods. Furthermore,income and prices are still the determining factors affecting the consumers’ purchasing decisions of the name-brand livestock and poultry products. And the features of livestock and poultry products( nutrition,taste) significantly affect the name-brand livestock and poultry products.

  3. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21(st) Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, Christopher M; Buller, Henry; Maggs, Heather; Campbell, Madeleine L

    2013-01-01

    There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human) food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington). This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of 'sustainable intensification' and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified. PMID:26479522

  4. Livestock Production in the UK in the 21st Century: A Perfect Storm Averted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L. Campbell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a school of thought that future demand for meat and other farm animal products is unsustainable for several reasons, including greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants; standards of farm animal health and welfare, especially when farm animals are kept intensively; efficiency of conversion by livestock of solar energy into (human food, particularly by pigs and poultry; water availability and usage for all types of agricultural production, including livestock; and human health and consumption of meat, eggs and milk. Demand for meat is forecast to rise as a result of global population growth and increasing affluence. These issues buttress an impending perfect storm of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy, which is likely to coincide with global population reaching about 9 billion people in 2030 (pace Beddington. This paper examines global demand for animal products, the narrative of ‘sustainable intensification’ and the implications of each for the future of farm animal welfare. In the UK, we suggest that, though non-ruminant farming may become unsustainable, ruminant agriculture will continue to prosper because cows, sheep and goats utilize grass and other herbage that cannot be consumed directly by humans, especially on land that is unsuitable for other purposes. However, the demand for meat and other livestock-based food is often for pork, eggs and chicken from grain-fed pigs and poultry. The consequences of such a perfect storm are beginning to be incorporated in long-term business planning by retailers and others. Nevertheless, marketing sustainable animal produce will require considerable innovation and flair in public and private policies if marketing messages are to be optimized and consumer behaviour modified.

  5. Challenges and opportunities for smallholder livestock production in post-conflict South Kivu, eastern DR Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte L. Maass; Katunga Musale, Dieudonné; Chiuri, Wanjiku L.; Gassner, Anja; Peters, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A survey on smallholder livestock production with emphasis on monogastric animals was conducted in 20 villages of seven so-called ‘groupements’ of South Kivu province in DR Congo, situated along a north to south-west axis with the town of Bukavu in the center. This land adjacent to Lake Kivu is located at elevations ranging around 900–1900 m asl, experiencing tropical highland climate. A diagnostic survey helped to rapidly obtain in-depth knowledge of constraints and opportunities in this env...

  6. Radiotracer studies of agrochemical residues in meat, milk and related products of livestock and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joint FAO/IAEA programme was initiated in 1981 and terminates with this report. The specific objectives of the programme have been to evaluate the magnitude, fate and significance of agricultural chemical residues in edible tissues and by-products of livestock and poultry, aided by radiotracer techniques. It was anticipated that the data arising from studies conducted under this programme would be useful in assessing the toxicological significance of studied chemicals to exposed animals and to humans who may consume potentially polluted meat, milk or eggs. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  7. INTENSIFIED LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Barry

    1998-01-01

    If the viability and sustainability of smallholder agriculture is to be maintained and food security is to be enhanced in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), intensified, market-oriented livestock production needs to be promoted. This paper presents empirical evidence to support this contention. Twenty-five years ago there were half as many people in SSA as there are today and population is projected to increase by 2.6 times to 1,294 million in 2050. Growing population pressure on land in combination w...

  8. livestock Farming with Care: towards sustainable production of animal-source food

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, M.C.T.; de Boer; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Lokhorst, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for sustainable production of animal-source food. This concept of “Livestock Farming with Care” is founded on care ethics with an integrated approach based on four principles: One Health (i.e. healthy and safe for animals and humans); Customized Care (i.e. from the individual animal's perspective and integrity); No Nuisance (i.e. from an environmental and societal perspective) and Credible Performance (i.e. from an economic and public prospect). It is acknowled...

  9. What is the potential for reducing national greenhouse gas emissions from crop and livestock production systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Audsley, Eric; Wilkinson, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture has a devolved commitment to reduce national emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Using a systems model-based life-cycle analysis we explored the potential for reducing GHG in systems used to produce twelve crop and seven livestock commodities. With a functional unit of kg of product, differences in GHG between crops reflect differences in yield. Metabolisable energy (ME) or crude protein (CP) could be used, but deriving an economic value of GB£8.6/GJ ME and GB£0.62/kg CP, leads t...

  10. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, Mark A.; de Vries, Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens.

  11. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens. (letter)

  12. The new era of the livestock production in Mongolia: Consequences on streams of the Great Lakes Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasri, Alain; Gelhaus, Jon

    2011-10-15

    Mongolia, a landlocked country of the Central Asian plateau, is experiencing a significant modification of herding practices coupled with an increase in livestock numbers. These modifications lead to increasing impacts of grazing on the Mongolian steppes with major consequences on the waterbodies. We researched the impacts of grazing intensity on the streams of the Great Lakes Depression in northwestern Mongolia. We assessed the level of watershed and stream bank erosion and the type of vegetation structure. We calculated the livestock densities per watershed and linked them to the stream water discharge through a new metric (I(CU)). I(CU) was created as a function of cattle unit density and water discharge, having water discharge at a stream section reflecting its location in the drainage and therefore accounting for the surface area drained upstream. We measured also the major nutrients in the stream water and researched the causalities between the grazing and the impairment of watersheds and streams. Our results suggest that the increase of livestock numbers is reaching beyond the grassland and affecting the stream ecosystem. Two major impacts were highlighted by this study, 1) the extensive watershed and stream bank erosion and 2) the increase in concentration of suspended particles and orthophosphate in stream systems. When compared with past values from literature, our results show recent eutrophication of the streams compared to the pre-liberalization of the herding activity in Mongolia (before 1991). Consequently the continued uncontrolled increase of livestock numbers could threaten the conservation of the Mongolian waterbodies, with notable consequences on the life of the nomadic population of the Central Asian Plateau. PMID:21889787

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL SUBSISTENCE SMALL HOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF NWFP, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Khan and R. H. Usmani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the rural mountainous areas of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to characterize small holder’s subsistence livestock production system. Livestock farmers (n=82 were interviewed in 16 villages of Batagram and Mansehra districts. The farmers were keeping on an average 4 buffalos, 1 cattle, 12 sheep or 13 goats per household. More than 94% farmers were keeping 4 buffaloes per household as compared to only 40% keeping 1 or 2 cattle. Buffaloes were main dairy animals producing 7.9 liters of milk/day or 2370 liters per lactation of 300 days. Local non-descript cows were producing only 2.5 liters of milk per day. Animals of all species were found to be underfed, as they depended mostly on self growing local grasses for grazing. Only milking animals were offered some concentrates in the form of cottonseed cake and wheat bran. Milk was mostly consumed at the household level or converted into butter oil. Age at first calving and calving interval of buffaloes were longer than those of cows. Incidence of livestock diseases was high in the area. Major diseases in cattle and buffaloes were haemorrhagic septicaemia and internal parasites. Pleuropneumonia and parasitism were major disease problems in small ruminants. It was estimated that gross profit averaged Rs. 32475 per buffalo, Rs. 3320 per sheep and Rs. 5314 per goat per year. Gross margin for cattle was negative and the farmers were sustaining a loss of Rs. 1960 per cow per year. Keeping in view the poor production environments, the overall performance of animals was encouraging and offered considerable scope for improvement.

  14. Productive Spillovers of the Take-Up of Index-Based Livestock Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does the provision of livestock insurance raise the unintended consequence of stimulating excessive herd accumulation and less environmentally-sustainable herd movement patterns? The impact of insurance is theoretically ambiguous: if precautionary savings motives for holding livestock assets domina...

  15. Agro By-product Feedstuffs and Livestock Management Systems for Rural Livelihoods in Cross River State

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Ayuk; G.A. Kalio; L. N. Agwunobi; B. I. Okon

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to ascertain the potential feedstuffs available for livestock management in three senatorial districts of Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of 192 structured questionnaires were administered to sole livestock and crop-livestock farmers in 24 villages at eight per village. At collection only 176 were retrieved from the respondents representing the farm households. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results showed that the livestock farmers comprising bot...

  16. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  17. Analyses of Livestock Production, Waste Storage, and Pathogen Levels and Prevalences in Farm Manures

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, M. L.; Walters, L. D.; Avery, S. M.; Munro, F.; Moore, A

    2005-01-01

    Survey results describing the levels and prevalences of zoonotic agents in 1,549 livestock waste samples were analyzed for significance with livestock husbandry and farm waste management practices. Statistical analyses of survey data showed that livestock groups containing calves of

  18. Implicit prices of traits of indigenous cattle - Implications for sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Both revealed and stated preference approaches were employed to determine the values attached to the different features of indigenous cattle in central Ethiopia. For the revealed preference analysis a hedonic model was employed to examine the determinants of cattle prices in the primary rural markets of central Ethiopia. Transaction level data of cattle farmers and farmer-traders were used in the analyses. Data collected in rural markets to identify cattle price determinants result in estimates with standard errors that are mostly heteroscedastic. We employed SHM estimations to account for heteroscedastic errors. The empirical estimation of revealed preferences showed that market place, seasonal differences, sex and function based classification of cattle, body size, and age were very important factors influencing the market prices cattle sellers receive. The significance of the characteristics of animals in influencing prices paid for the animals reveals the importance of the preferences for traits in the decision-making process related to buying and selling of cattle. These preferences at the farmers and farmer-traders levels are the ones that matter most in shaping up the diversity of animals kept at farm level. This diversity of the cattle genetic resources is essential for generating or identifying best-suited breeds of cattle in the context of the livelihood objectives of the target community. Thus, the cattle breeding strategies and activities should duly consider the preferences expressed through the prices paid for animals in such markets, where the cattle keepers are the main sellers and buyers. For the stated preference analysis the study employed choice experiments (CE) and random parameters logit to elicit and analyze cattle trait preferences of buyers in the semi-subsistence livelihood systems of rural central Ethiopia. The results of the cows CE revealed that in areas where livestock serve multitude of purposes and where the production and

  19. Competitiveness of Livestock Production in Slovenia in View of Approaching EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stane Kavčić

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at assessing the cost competitiveness of Slovenian livestock production on single European market after its EU accession in 2004. For empirical analysis a sector model of Slovenian agriculture APAS-PAM has been applied. In the paper three accession scenarios are considered (optimistic EUo, pessimistic EUp and realistic EUr that describe the whole range of possible accession effects. Accession under the scenario of complete acceptance of the CAP mechanisms and quasi equal treatment by the EU (EUo will improve aggregate income level with moderate changes on commodity basis. Discrimination of the acceding countries in the field of direct payments and non-competitive down-stream sector assumed by the EUp scenario will deteriorate the income situation of domestic producers. The most likely outcome will be somewhere between top and bottom levels, projected with EUo and EUp scenarios. For many commodities, the competitiveness of the food processing industry assuming different price levels for raw materialscould have much greater impact on the economic situation of livestock production than agricultural policy environment itself.

  20. A shift from extensive to intensive livestock production system in Uruguay : Driver of local changes in water-related ecosystem services?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Livestock production is one of the largest and fastest growing agricultural subsectors in the world, contributing almost 40 % of agricultural GDP. The present global trend of livestock intensification affects water demand, resulting in local alterations of hydrological features. This study quantifies water requirements for livestock production and links them to local changes in water-related ecosystem services (WRES). It examines the present situation in Uruguayan beef production as it underg...

  1. The rumen: a unique source of enzymes for enhancing livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, L B; Forsberg, C W; Cheng, K J

    1996-10-01

    Increasing competition in the livestock industry has forced producers to cut costs by adopting new technologies aimed at increasing production efficiency. One particularly promising technology is feeding enzymes as supplements for animal diets. Supplementation of diets for non-ruminants (e.g., swine and poultry) with fibrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases, xylanases and beta-glucanases, increases the feed conversion efficiency and growth rate of the animals. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell wall polymers (e.g., cellulose, xylan, beta-glucans) releases glucose and xylose and eliminates the antinutritional effects of beta-glucans and arabinoxylans. Enzyme supplementation of diets for ruminants has also been shown to improve growth performance, even though the rumen itself represents the most potent fibrolytic fermentation system known. Implementation of this technology in the livestock industry has been limited largely because of the cost of development and production of enzymes. Over the last decade, however, developments in recombinant DNA technology have increased the efficiency of existing microbial production systems and facilitated exploitation of alternative sources of industrial enzymes. The ruminal ecosystem is among the novel enzyme sources currently being explored. Understanding the role of enzymes in feed digestion through characterization of the enzymology and genetics involved in digestion of feedstuffs by ruminants will provide insight required to improve the products currently available to producers. Characterization of genes encoding a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases, xylanases, beta-glucanases, amylases, pectinases, proteases, phytases and tannases, will foster the development of more efficacious enzyme supplements and enzyme expression systems for enhancing nutrient utilization by domestic animals. Characteristics of the original source organism need no longer restrict the production of a useful enzyme. Recent reports of

  2. INCOME AND WELFARE INDICATORS OF SLOVENIAN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN VIEW OF FUTURE ACCESION TO THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stane Kavčič

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian livestock production is facing different agricultural policy and economic environment as is the case in EU. Despite modest reforms of national agricultural policy it is still incomparable with common market organisations of CAP. Different levels of market-price support for major livestock commodities is another aggravating circumstance for efficient adjustment. Therefore different policy measures have to be taken into account simultaneously for policy relevant analysis (income effects, welfare efficiency. Applying APAS-PAM agricultural sector model for Slovenian agriculture the most important income and welfare effects of Slovenian EU accession on producers, consumers and taxpayers as well as net welfare effects for baseline and three accession scenarios have been simulated. Results obtained show potential improvement of incomes in dairy farming and cattle fattening only for most optimistic accession scenario (complete adoption of Agenda 2000 CAP, while deterioration is foreseen in pig and poultry farming irrespective of accession conditions. Producer surplus indicates similar trends, while consumers are expected to be beneficiaries due to lower market-price support. Main part of producer income support burden will be transferred to taxpayers. Irrespective of accession scenario net welfare effects for pork and poultry are favourable, while opposite could happen in milk and beef sectors.

  3. Impacts of Climate Trends and Variability on Livestock Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, A.; Munger, J.; Gibbs, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cattle systems of Brazil are of major economic and environmental importance. They occupy ¼ of the land surface of the country, account for over 15 billion USD of annual revenue through the sale of beef, leather, and milk, are closely associated with deforestation, and have been projected to substantially grow in the coming decades. Sustainable intensification of production in the sector could help to limit environmental harm from increased production, but productivity growth could be inhibited by climate change. Gauging the potential future impacts of climate change on the Brazilian livestock sector can be aided by examining past evidence of the link between climate and cattle production and productivity. We use statistical techniques to investigate the contribution of climate variability and climate change to variability in cattle system output in Brazil's municipalities over the period 1974 to 2013. We find significant impacts of both temperature and precipitation variability and temperature trends on municipality-level exports and the production of both milk and beef. Pasture productivity, represented by a vegetation index, also varies significantly with climate shocks. In some regions, losses from exposure to climate trends were of comparable magnitude to technology and/or market-driven productivity gains over the study period.

  4. Effort of Increasing Production of Livestock Feed out of Cassava Waste by Identifying the more Suitable Cellulotic Degrading Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Yani Suryani; Poniah Andayaningsih; Iman Hernaman; Ulfanuri Fajri Muharromi

    2012-01-01

    In the bioethanol production process, as much as 90% of waste was produced. The availability of waste production is very important since waste can be processed to become livestock feed. The solid bioethanol waste contains cyanide (HCN) 5.8177 mg/kg, water 95,21%, ash 0,39%, protein 8,16%, crude fiber 5,45%, crude fat 2.06%, and carbohydrates 83,94%. Processing bioethanol solid waste into livestock feed can be done by utilizing the existing fungi on bioethanol solid waste. Crude fiber (cellulo...

  5. Duck Production: Has a Potential to Reduce Poverty among Rural Households in Asian Communities – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adzitey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Duck production plays an important part in the agricultural economy of many Asia countries. The continent alone accounts for 82.6% of the total duck meat produced worldwide. Not only is Asia involved in duck production but also duck meat, eggs and their products are relished and consumed by many Asians. In spite of this, intensive education to empower rural households to increase duck production is limited. In recent times, much emphasize is being laid on commercialization to increase production at the neglect of rural household production. Subsequently this can affect the income levels of many rural households in Asia countries with the potential and can take the advantage to engage in duck production should they have been given adequate training and education. Poverty alleviation among rural communities had involved a number of strategies including women empowerment, promotion of crop, poultry and livestock production, and various activities of governmental and non-governmental organizations geared towards community development. Considering the population, importance and prospects of duck production in Asia, this mini review discusses the potentials duck farming has in reducing poverty level among rural communities in Asia

  6. Prospects for dedicated energy crop production and attitudes towards agricultural straw use: The case of livestock farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second generation biofuels utilising agricultural by-products (e.g. straw), or dedicated energy crops (DECs) produced on ‘marginal’ land, have been called for. A structured telephone survey of 263 livestock farmers, predominantly located in the west or ‘marginal’ upland areas of England captured data on attitudes towards straw use and DECs. Combined with farm physical and business data, the survey results show that 7.2% and 6.3% of farmers would respectively consider growing SRC and miscanthus, producing respective maximum potential English crop areas of 54,603 ha and 43,859 ha. If higher market prices for straw occurred, most livestock farmers would continue to buy straw. Reasons for not being willing to consider growing DECs include concerns over land quality, committing land for a long time period, lack of appropriate machinery, profitability, and time to financial return; a range of moral, land quality, production conflict and lack of crop knowledge factors were also cited. Results demonstrate limited potential for the production of DECs on livestock farms in England. Changes in policy support to address farmer concerns with respect to DECs will be required to incentivise farmers to increase energy crop production. Policy support for DEC production must be cognisant of farm-level economic, tenancy and personal objectives. - Highlights: • Survey of English livestock farms determining attitudes to dedicated energy crops. • 6.3% to 7.2% of surveyed farmers would consider growing energy crops. • Limited potential for dedicated energy crops on livestock farms in England. • Livestock farmers would continue to buy straw, even at higher market prices. • Wide range of reasons given for farmers’ decisions related to energy crops

  7. Production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori Prefecture. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from atomic energy facilities in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rates of livestock feed by domestic animals are important factors for the estimation of radioactive materials transfers to them. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and layers. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and layers were fed with compound feeds made of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The grass and field corn were assumed to be locally produced. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 20.4 kg-fresh d-1 and 6.8 kg-fresh d-1, respectively. Those for beef cattle were 3.1 kg-fresh d-1 and 0.5 kg-fresh d-1 of grass and field corn, respectively. All these rates were lower than those used in the environmental assessment of the reprocessing plant which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. (author)

  8. Historical extension of operational NDVI products for livestock insurance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; Meroni, Michele; Shee, Apurba; Mude, Andrew G.; Woodard, Joshua; de Bie, C. A. J. M. (Kees); Rembold, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Droughts induce livestock losses that severely affect Kenyan pastoralists. Recent index insurance schemes have the potential of being a viable tool for insuring pastoralists against drought-related risk. Such schemes require as input a forage scarcity (or drought) index that can be reliably updated in near real-time, and that strongly relates to livestock mortality. Generally, a long record (>25 years) of the index is needed to correctly estimate mortality risk and calculate the related insurance premium. Data from current operational satellites used for large-scale vegetation monitoring span over a maximum of 15 years, a time period that is considered insufficient for accurate premium computation. This study examines how operational NDVI datasets compare to, and could be combined with the non-operational recently constructed 30-year GIMMS AVHRR record (1981-2011) to provide a near-real time drought index with a long term archive for the arid lands of Kenya. We compared six freely available, near-real time NDVI products: five from MODIS and one from SPOT-VEGETATION. Prior to comparison, all datasets were averaged in time for the two vegetative seasons in Kenya, and aggregated spatially at the administrative division level at which the insurance is offered. The feasibility of extending the resulting aggregated drought indices back in time was assessed using jackknifed R2 statistics (leave-one-year-out) for the overlapping period 2002-2011. We found that division-specific models were more effective than a global model for linking the division-level temporal variability of the index between NDVI products. Based on our results, good scope exists for historically extending the aggregated drought index, thus providing a longer operational record for insurance purposes. We showed that this extension may have large effects on the calculated insurance premium. Finally, we discuss several possible improvements to the drought index.

  9. Competitiveness of Livestock Production in Slovenia During the Process of Association to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Oštrec

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available By joining the European Union (EU Slovene livestock production will be faced with changed conditions. The production will have to adapt to the values and quality achieved during the negotiations with the EU. Currently, milk production in Slovenia nearly equals the negotiated quotas. In the coming years a decrease of about 14,000 dairy cows, and about 4,000 dairy herds is expected. The number of cows per farm will therefore increase from 9.3 to over 12.5 cows, while the purchased milk per cow will reach 5,100 kg and purchased milk per farm 63,000 kg. Existing estimates show that after the accession to the EU the prices of young fattened cattle and calves will increase. Hence the interest in meat production will improve, and home consumption (23 kg per capita will be exceeded by about 10 %, if industrial crossing prevails. Large scale pig farms will have to solve the manure problems.In the coming years pig production on family farms will increase because family farms can better solve the slurry problem. In poultry production the production of turkeys has increased (15 %, and more free range broilers have been produced. The production will exceed the domestic consumption being now 25 kg per capita per year. We consume 180 eggs per capita, which equals the production. Our needs will thus be covered in future. The number of sheep and goats has been increasing for the past 10 years. It even exceeded the negotiated quota last year hence an increased number of small ruminants cannot be expected, but higher meat consumption and increased quantities of milk and milk products can be achieved.

  10. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration), and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing), is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961–2010. Here “potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density” denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals) or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers). When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat), ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961–2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over 3

  11. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Chang

    Full Text Available About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration, and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing, is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961-2010. Here "potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density" denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers. When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat, ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961-2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over

  12. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration), and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing), is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961-2010. Here "potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density" denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals) or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers). When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat), ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961-2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over 3%) per decade

  13. Utilizing indigenous resources in an integrated approach to improving livestock production while conserving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to develop strategies to mitigate methane production from ruminants by improving fermentative digestibility of feeds and manure management to help farmers increase livestock productivity as well as income from livestock and crops. A participatory rural appraisal survey carried out in the study area found that intensive rice production was practiced leading to an acute shortage of green forage and hence rice straw was being fed as the principal roughage source for ruminants. The farmers did not follow any improved system of manure management and heaped all the collected manure in open area. In an on-station experiment, feed intake (total, per cent of live weight (LW) or straw dry matter (DM)) of the herbal fortified urea molasses block (UMB) supplemented group did not differ (P > 0.05) from that of the control group. Digestibility of OM, CP and CF were higher (P < 0.05) than for the control group. Live weight gain of cattle fed herbal fortified UMB was higher (P < 0.01) than that of the control group. Rumen ammonia and VFA concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) with the feeding of herbal fortified UMB to cattle. Methane production per kg of digestible DM in the UMB supplemented group was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the control group. Improved systems for manure management increased (P < 0.05) N, P and K retention in manure compared to the traditional system. Lactating cows fed a straw-based diet supplemented with herbal fortified UMB and legume hay did not alter total DM intake, DM intake per cent LW or straw intake compared to the control group. The increased milk yield of the supplemented group was higher (P < 0.01) than for the un-supplemented control group, however, milk composition remained unaffected. The on-farm study with milking cows also showed increased (P < 0.05) ammonia N and VFA concentrations and reduced (P < 0.05) methane production in the rumen from feeding herbal fortified UMB plus legume hay compared to control feeding. It

  14. A study on monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in livestock wastewater and treatment by radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Seung Woon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, and effective monitoring and the investigation of treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals from the influent and effluent of livestock wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) and by-product with radiation processing by LC/ESI-MS/MS was performed. Thirteen pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, growth promoters and disinfectants were assayed from twelve WWTPs in South Korea. The established method could be used to determine low concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. From few influents of live-stock WWTPs, chlortetracycline and acetaminophen were detected with the highest concentration among the monitoring pharmaceuticals. And also lincomycin, sufathiazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, acetyl salicylic acid, tylosin, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde were detected from the influents of WWTPs

  15. A study on monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in livestock wastewater and treatment by radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, and effective monitoring and the investigation of treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals from the influent and effluent of livestock wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) and by-product with radiation processing by LC/ESI-MS/MS was performed. Thirteen pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, growth promoters and disinfectants were assayed from twelve WWTPs in South Korea. The established method could be used to determine low concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. From few influents of live-stock WWTPs, chlortetracycline and acetaminophen were detected with the highest concentration among the monitoring pharmaceuticals. And also lincomycin, sufathiazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, acetyl salicylic acid, tylosin, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde were detected from the influents of WWTPs

  16. Climate metrics and the carbon footprint of livestock products: where’s the beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U. Martin; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Cederberg, Christel; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bryngelsson, David

    2015-03-01

    The livestock sector is estimated to account for 15% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 80% of which originate from ruminant animal systems due to high emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management. However, recent analyses have argued that the carbon footprint (CF) of ruminant meat and dairy products are substantially reduced if one adopts alternative metrics for comparing emissions of GHGs—e.g., the 100 year global temperature change potential (GTP100), instead of the commonly used 100 year global warming potential (GWP100)—due to a lower valuation of CH4 emissions. This raises the question of which metric to use. Ideally, the choice of metric should be related to a climate policy goal. Here, we argue that basing current GHG metrics solely on temperature impact 100 years into the future is inconsistent with the current global climate goal of limiting warming to 2 °C, a limit that is likely to be reached well within 100 years. A reasonable GTP value for CH4, accounting for current projections for when 2 °C warming will be reached, is about 18, leading to a current CF of 19 kg CO2-eq. per kilo beef (carcass weight, average European system), 20% lower than if evaluated using GWP100. Further, we show that an application of the GTP metric consistent with a 2 °C climate limit leads to the valuation of CH4 increasing rapidly over time as the temperature ceiling is approached. This means that the CF for beef would rise by around 2.5% per year in the coming decades, surpassing the GWP based footprint in only ten years. Consequently, the impact on the livestock sector of substituting GTPs for GWPs would be modest in the near term, but could potentially be very large in the future due to a much higher (>50%) and rapidly appreciating CF.

  17. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  18. Challenges of conversion to organic livestock production in smallholder farms in kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Vaarst, Mette; Wahome, Raphael

    data were documented and analyzed using SPSS and the ground theory method. Dairy cattle, goats and chicken constituted the main livestock kept by the farmers. None of the farmers had converted their livestock enterprises to organic and the animals were mainly kept for subsistence purposes. 60% of the...

  19. OFF-SEASON MAIZE PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION IN THE REGION OF SORRISO, MATO GROSSO

    OpenAIRE

    JEFERSON ALTAIR BRAMBILLA; ANDERSON LANGE; ANTÔNIO CARLOS BUCHELT; JOÃO AGUILAR MASSAROTO

    2009-01-01

    Strategies aiming to increase straw production by crops should be implemented in the Cerrados region in order to consolidate the livestock-farming integration. This paper objectified to study some forms of integration involving offseason maize and Brachiaria ruziziensis, evaluating corn grain productivity and mass productivity of the grass in direct sowing system, using the interaction agriculture and cattle farming. The experiment was done under field conditions, in a dystrophic red-yellow l...

  20. The conservation versus production trade-off: does livestock intensification increase deforestation? Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Petterson Molina Vale

    2014-01-01

    More cattle, less deforestation? Land use intensification in the Amazon is an unexpected phenomenon. Theories of hollow frontier, speculative behaviour and boom-bust all share the prediction that livestock production will remain largely extensive. Yet between 1996 and 2006 productivity of cattle grew by an astounding 57.5% in the average Amazon municipality. Does rising land productivity of cattle increase deforestation? I use secondary data and spatial econometrics to look for evidence of a ...

  1. The Conservation versus Production Trade-off: Does Livestock Intensification Increase Deforestation? The Case of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Petterson Molina

    2015-01-01

    More cattle, less deforestation? Land use intensification in the Amazon is an unexpected phenomenon. Theories of hollow frontier, speculative behaviour and boom-bust all share the prediction that livestock production will remain largely extensive. Yet between 1996 and 2006 productivity of cattle grew by an astounding 57.5% in the average Amazon municipality. Does rising land productivity of cattle increase deforestation? I use secondary data and spatial econometrics to look for evidence of a ...

  2. Reactive organic gas emissions from livestock feed contribute significantly to ozone production in central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Cody J; Kumar, Anuj; Malkina, Irina; Mitloehner, Frank; Green, Peter G; Flocchini, Robert G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California currently experiences some of the highest surface ozone (O(3)) concentrations in the United States even though it has a population density that is an order of magnitude lower than many urban areas with similar ozone problems. Previously unrecognized agricultural emissions may explain why O(3) concentrations in the SJV have not responded to traditional emissions control programs. In the present study, the ozone formation potentials (OFP) of livestock feed emissions were measured on representative field samples using a transportable smog chamber. Seven feeds were considered: cereal silage (wheat grain and oat grain), alfalfa silage, corn silage, high moisture ground corn (HMGC), almond shells, almond hulls, and total mixed ration (TMR = 55% corn silage, 16% corn grain, 8% almond hulls, 7% hay, 7% bran + seeds, and 5% protein + vitamins + minerals). The measured short-term OFP for each gram of reactive organic gas (ROG) emissions from all livestock feed was 0.17-0.41 g-O(3) per g-ROG. For reference, OFP of exhaust from light duty gasoline powered cars under the same conditions is 0.69 +/- 0.15 g-O(3) per g-ROG. Model calculations were able to reproduce the ozone formation from animal feeds indicating that the measured ROG compounds account for the observed ozone formation (i.e., ozone closure was achieved). Ethanol and other alcohol species accounted for more than 50% of the ozone formation for most types of feed. Aldehydes were also significant contributors for cereal silage, high moisture ground corn, and total mixed ration. Ozone production calculations based on feed consumption rates, ROG emissions rates, and OFP predict that animal feed emissions dominate the ROG contributions to ozone formation in the SJV with total production of 25 +/- 10 t O(3) day(-1). The next most significant ROG source of ozone production in the SJV is estimated to be light duty vehicles with total production of 14.3 +/- 1.4 t O(3) day(-1). The

  3. The Contribution of Livestock in Soil Productivity, Biodiversity, Land Use, and Welfare Change in Nduuri Embu, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nduuri is situated in Runyenjes Division of Embu district in South East of Mt Kenya. Majority of farms in Nduuri are scale mixed with coffee as main cash crop. Livestock production especially cattle dairy has been only second to coffee in economic importance . Due to decline in coffee price and breakdown of milk marketing channel, the standard of living and land use system has changed. A survey was therefore conducted in this area to determine the contribution of livestock to this changes. the survey inquired among others the Household sources of income, land size and distribution in various farm uses, livestock species and their management, crop produced and their role in the household, Manure generated its fate and effect in the farm integrity as animal pollution decline. The result indicated that coffee was the mainstay of the household economy, but this is shifting to livestock due to low coffee revenue as a result of poor price. since in some farms need for revenue outstrips the normal from dairy production sales, the milking cows are also being sold to meet large domestic need. This reduces the livestock population and the manure generated in the farm that is used for improvement of coffee an food crop production. This then break the farm nutrient cycle that result in soil low fertility, decline in crop production, changes in biodiversity, land use system and decline in household food security and livelihood. It was concluded that there is need for restoring the nutrient cycle through restocking with dairy cattle as a matter of policy in future when the coffee price improve as part of coffee production improvement and poverty alleviation strategy

  4. POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF MODERN RICE TECHNOLOGY AND REASONS FOR LOW PRODUCTIVITY ON ASIAN RICE FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Herdt, Robert W.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a collaborative project involving over 28 agronomists and economists are reported. Over 800 agronomic experiments conducted in ten locations in six Asian countries comparing farmers' production with maximum yield levels of modern rice technology are analysed. Under wet season conditions, yields were raised by an average of 0.9 tonnes per hectare, but the cost of obtaining the increased yields exceeded their value in six out of ten locations. Under dry season conditions, yields were...

  5. Mycotoxins in ethanol co-products: modeling economic impacts on the livestock industry and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Munkvold, Gary P

    2008-06-11

    The rapidly expanding U.S. ethanol industry is generating a growing supply of co-products, mostly in the form of dried distillers' grain and solubles (DDGS) or wet distillers' grains (WDG). In the United States, 90% of the co-products of maize-based ethanol are fed to livestock. An unintended consequence is that animals are likely to be fed higher levels of mycotoxins, which are concentrated up to three times in DDGS compared to grain. The model developed in this study estimates current losses to the swine industry from weight gain reduction due to fumonisins in added DDGS at $9 million ($2-18 million) annually. If there is complete market penetration of DDGS in swine feed with 20% DDGS inclusion in swine feed and fumonisins are not controlled, losses may increase to $147 million ($29-293 million) annually. These values represent only those losses attributable to one mycotoxin on one adverse outcome on one species. The total loss due to mycotoxins in DDGS could be significantly higher due to additive or multiplicative effects of multiple mycotoxins on animal health. If mycotoxin surveillance is implemented by ethanol producers, losses are shifted among multiple stakeholders. Solutions to this problem include methods to reduce mycotoxin contamination in both pre- and postharvest maize. PMID:18444660

  6. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  7. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILKING LIVESTOCK AND MILK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milking livestock and milk production in Romania during the period 20072-012 and to establish the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat. The methods used in this study were: the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. While the number of dairy cows declined by 30 %, accounting for 1,265 thou heads in 2012, the number of female sheep and goats increased by 45 % reaching 8,726 thou heads. The farm size is very small, 1-2 cows/farm for 59 % holdings, 3-9 cows/farm for 38 % holdings and over 10 cows for only 3 % farms and the extensive technology is the most practiced one. Milk production declined by 20 %, accounting for 44,172 thou hl in 2012, of which 86 % is produced by cows. Milk production value contributes by 32 % to agricultural production value. Cow milk yield is small, only 3,417 kg/cow in 2012 and in decline. Only about 22 % of milk is delivered to dairies and the remaining is consumed on farm and directly sold in the market because of the low milk farm gate price and milk quality. The producer's price is the lowest in the EU, accounting for Euro 29.84/100 milk kg. As a conclusion, to rehabilitate the sector of milk producing, the farmers' associative forms are required to join the capital and financial resources, to apply for EU funding to modernize the farms, to produce a higher production and assure a high profitability and competitiveness.

  8. Horizontal nutrient fluxes and production efficiencies in urban and peri-urban crop and livestock husbandry of Niamey, Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo, Rodrigue Vivien Cao

    2009-01-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) increasingly supplies food and non-food values to the rapidly growing West African cities. However, little is known about the resource use efficiencies in West African small-scale UPA crop and livestock production systems, and about the benefits that urban producers and retailers obtain from the cultivation and sale of UPA products. To contribute to filling this gap of knowledge, the studies comprising this doctoral thesis determined nutrient use efficie...

  9. Development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. These countries experience serious shortages of animal feeds and fodders of the conventional type. Natural forages are very variable both in quality and quantity, conventional agro-industrial by-products are scarce and vary seasonal, and grains are required almost exclusively for human consumption. The small farmers in developing countries have limited resources available to them for feeding their ruminant livestock. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Providing adequate good-quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Recent advances in ration balancing include manipulation of feed to increase the quantity and quality of protein and energy delivered to the small intestine. Selection of feeds based on high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with the high dry matter digestibility, and development of feeding strategies based on high efficiency as well as high microbial protein synthesis in the rumen will lead to higher supply of protein post-ruminally. The strategy for improving production has therefore been to maximize the efficiency of utilization of available feed resources in the rumen by providing optimum conditions for microbial growth and thereby supplementing dietary nutrients to complement and balance the products of rumen digestion to the animal's requirement

  10. Commercialization of biotechnology in the Asian region. Report of meeting of Asian Productivity Organization (APO) in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L

    1990-01-01

    Detailed studies on the commercial development of biotechnology in five countries in the Asian Region (viz. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, India) indicate a very significant role played by government in strategic planning and R & D financing. Strong growth is projected in some traditional biotechnology products e.g. amino acids such as monosodium glutamate and L-lysine, animal and human vaccines, and in environmental applications of biotechnology. The cash flow from these products will underpin future development and marketing of diagnostics, anticancer and antiviral drugs, particularly in Japan and Korea. PMID:1369443

  11. PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF EUCALYPTUS AND ACACIA, IN DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENTS OF CROP-LIVESTOCK-FOREST INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Lopes Ramos de Oliveira; Christian Dias Cabacinha; Leonardo David Tuffi Santos; Dalvânia Gomes Barroso; Antônio dos Santos Júnior; Matheus Caldeira Brant; Regynaldo Arruda Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate initial growth of clonal Eucalyptus, hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla and Acacia (Acacia mangium) trees in alternate and not alternate rows of trees, intercropped with forage (crop-livestock-forest integration - CLFI) and monoculture. The design was a randomized complete block design with four replications, three arboreal arrangements consisting of eucalyptus, acacia + eucalyptus, acacia, all planted in crop-livestock-forest integration and...

  12. Liming in Agricultural Production Models with and Without the Adoption of Crop-Livestock Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Mainardes da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Perennial forage crops used in crop-livestock integration (CLI are able to accumulate large amounts of straw on the soil surface in no-tillage system (NTS. In addition, they can potentially produce large amounts of soluble organic compounds that help improving the efficiency of liming in the subsurface, which favors root growth, thus reducing the risks of loss in yield during dry spells and the harmful effects of “overliming”. The aim of this study was to test the effects of liming on two models of agricultural production, with and without crop-livestock integration, for 2 years. Thus, an experiment was conducted in a Latossolo Vermelho (Oxisol with a very clayey texture located in an agricultural area under the NTS in Bandeirantes, PR, Brazil. Liming was performed to increase base saturation (V to 65, 75, and 90 % while one plot per block was maintained without the application of lime (control. A randomized block experimental design was adopted arranged in split-plots and four plots/block, with four replications. The soil properties evaluated were: pH in CaCl2, soil organic matter (SOM, Ca, Mg, K, Al, and P. The effects of liming were observed to a greater depth and for a long period through mobilization of ions in the soil, leading to a reduction in SOM and Al concentration and an increase in pH and the levels of Ca and Mg. In the first crop year, adoption of CLI led to an increase in the levels of K and Mg and a reduction in the levels of SOM; however, in the second crop year, the rate of decline of SOM decreased compared to the decline observed in the first crop year, and the level of K increased, whereas that of P decreased. The extent of the effects of liming in terms of depth and improvement in the root environment from the treatments were observed only partially from the changes observed in the chemical properties studied.

  13. Applications of molecular biology to understanding genotype-environment interactions in livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continual consumer demand to increase the quality and total yield from livestock production systems. One way this can be achieved is to exploit the natural variation that exists within and across different animal breeds by selecting the genotypes that produce offspring well suited to a particular environment. In this context the environment may be the physical climate, the management system, nutritional level or perhaps disease and parasite loads. The genetic differences between animals may be reflected in measurable differences in performance in a given environment or in changes in the relative performance of genotypes in different environments. The basis of these genotype-environment interactions is the underlying genotype or combination of genes. New techniques in molecular biology allow the direct assessment and manipulation of animal genotypes using methods such as DNA marker analysis, sequencing, gene mapping and transgenesis. These techniques allow the identification, localization, analysis of interaction and alteration of individual genes, and in this way will greatly expand the understanding of genotype-environment interaction and help identify ways of optimizing animal breeding programmes. (author). 37 refs, 6 figs

  14. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production. PMID:26690090

  15. The Design of Policy Instruments towards Sustainable Livestock Production in China: An Application of the Choice Experiment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In face of gradual ecological deterioration, the Chinese government has been in search of more efficient and effective mitigation policies, aiming to promote the sustainability of livestock production. However, researchers and policy makers seem to neglect a key issue: pinpoint policies are the most important, which means niche targeting is the premise before any policy design, such that better knowing of the livestock farmers preference is prerequisite. This paper then analyzes this question using a method of choice experiment to elicit the farmers’ preference and valuation of livestock pollution control policy instruments at household-scale, medium-scale and large-scale farms. Five attributes (technology regulation, pollution charge, biogas subsidy, manure price, and information provisioning were set as livestock pollution control policy instruments. In total, 754 pigs farmers from five representative provinces in China were surveyed, and the collected data were analyzed using random parameter logit models. The marginal substitution rates for attributes are estimated both with preference space approach and willingness to pay space approach. The results show significant heterogeneities in farmers’ preferences and valuations for livestock pollution control policy instruments within the three scales. All policy instruments effectively increased the manure eco-friendly treatment ratio for medium-scale farms, and household-scale farms showed little change in the manure eco-friendly treatment ratio under all policy instruments. Household-scale farms and medium-scale farms suggested the highest preference for the biogas subsidy policy, while large-scale farms suggested the highest preference for the manure price policy.

  16. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrotoy, Marie J.; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C.; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustain...

  17. Facilitating wider application of progesterone RIA for improving livestock production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research and development programmes supported by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on improving livestock production in developing countries have identified three major biological constraints: feeding, breeding management and diseases. Proper breeding management is important in order to achieve optimum economic benefits (through products such as milk, meat and offspring) from an animal during its lifespan. This requires early attainment of puberty, short intervals from calving to conception, high conception rates and low number of matings or artificial inseminations (Als) per conception. The use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy animals or in blood of meat animals, together with recording of data on reproductive events and production parameters, is an indispensable tool that provides information both on problems in breeding management by farmers as well as deficiencies in the Al services provided to them by government, co-operative or private organizations. This allows appropriate strategies and interventions to be adopted to overcome these limitations. Progesterone RIA can also detect animals that have not conceived by Al within 21 days after mating (early non-pregnancy diagnosis or N-PD), and alert farmers to the need to have these animals closely observed for oestrus and re-inseminated at the appropriate time. In order to ensure the sustained use of RIA technology for progesterone measurement in developing Member States, the IAEA has been engaged in the development and transfer of simple, robust and cheap methods of RIA. The system currently being used is based on a direct (non-extraction) method, using a 125I-progesterone tracer and a solid-phase separation method (antibody coated tubes). In order to ensure wider availability (and lower cost) of the two key reagents required for the assay, the IAEA has initiated a programme to assist Member States to develop the capability to produce these in selected regional or

  18. Production objectives and management strategies of livestock keepers in south-east Kenya: implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwacharo, J M; Drucker, A G

    2005-11-01

    A survey of pastoralist and agropastoralist households in south-east Kenya was conducted to determine their production objectives and management strategies in order to optimize and extend a breeding programme for indigenous small East African Shorthorn Zebu cattle. The reasons for keeping cattle and the breed/trait preferences identified reflect the multiple objectives of the livestock keepers, with both adaptive traits and productive/reproductive traits rated as important. Although the Maasai and Kamba zebu (M&KZ) breeds were ranked highly with regard to adaptive traits, the population is considered to have been in decline over recent years. In order to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the M&KZ cattle, the formation of an open nucleus breeding scheme is recommended. In particular, such a scheme would be able to address several existing constraints (e.g. individual herds are very small and communal use of pastures/water makes controlled mating difficult). Such interventions would require the full participation of the livestock keepers, as well as ensuring that a holistic approach to species and breed attributes is taken into account in setting breeding goals, such that the full array of contributions that livestock make to livelihoods and the genetic characteristics related to these contributions are fully incorporated into the programme. PMID:16619880

  19. Effort of Increasing Production of Livestock Feed out of Cassava Waste by Identifying the more Suitable Cellulotic Degrading Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Suryani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the bioethanol production process, as much as 90% of waste was produced. The availability of waste production is very important since waste can be processed to become livestock feed. The solid bioethanol waste contains cyanide (HCN 5.8177 mg/kg, water 95,21%, ash 0,39%, protein 8,16%, crude fiber 5,45%, crude fat 2.06%, and carbohydrates 83,94%. Processing bioethanol solid waste into livestock feed can be done by utilizing the existing fungi on bioethanol solid waste. Crude fiber (cellulose and carbohydrates are a source of cellulolytic fungi. Cellulolytic fungi can degrade the role of organic materials contained in bioethanol solid waste, so that it can be made as a source of highly nutritious livestock feed. This study aims to determine the types of cellulolytic fungal isolates contained in bioethanol solid waste which is potentially processed to become livestock woof. Descriptive analysis was employed as a method of the study. Furthermore, Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA was used as a medium for culturing and isolating the fungus. Dilution series and pour plate method were employed to isolate the fungus. And, Moist Chamber method was employed to identify it. In addition, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC was used as medium to identify cellulolytic fungi. The process was carried out up to the level of genus based on macroscopic and microscopic characterization. 10 fungal isolates from the genus of Aspergillus sp 1, Aspergillus sp 2, Aspergillus sp 3, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp, Mucor sp, Penicillium sp 1, Penicillium sp 2, Rhizopus sp and Trichoderma viride were yielded in this study. The results of examining cellulose enzyme activity revealed that 9 of 10 isolates of the fungus were capable of degrading cellulose. Isolates yielding the largest cellulose enzyme were Trichoderma viride, Penicillium sp 1, Cladosporium sp and Aspergillus niger.

  20. Importance of vector-borne infections in different production systems: bovine trypanosomosis and the innovation dynamics of livestock producers in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, F; Bouyer, J; Seck, M T; Sall, B; Dicko, A H; Lancelot, R; Chia, E

    2015-04-01

    In Senegal, a project has been undertaken to eradicate a population of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis) from a prime area for intensifying livestock production--the coastal region of Niayes. The project is intended to remove the constraint of trypanosomosis and allow the ecological intensification of cattle production. A cross-sectional analysis of ten case studies was the inductive phase of an assessment to gauge the impact of removing trypanosomosis on livestock production strategies. The methodology used was comprehensive analysis, with participatory epidemiology tools to understand farmers' rationales. The authors analysed the strategies of three main types of livestock producer (agro-pastoralists, mixed crop/livestock farmers and intensive dairy farmers). The strategies were in line with the farmers' goals and their ability to mobilise the socio-technical network. The risk management of trypanosomosis has been incorporated into livestock management practices through the use of trypanotolerant breeds, medical prophylaxis or placing livestock in low-risk areas. Removing the risk of disease would therefore have a major impact on decisions about the composition and strategic direction of herds. This change in the animal health environment would steer livestock production along different routes of intensification in a highly competitive environment. The indicators of innovation capacity revealed by this study will be used to quantitatively monitor various change scenarios, taking livestock producers' reasoning into account, in order to assess the socio-economic impact of eradicating the tsetse fly population in this area. The methodology presented in the study can be used to understand the impact of controlling other vector-borne infections on the innovation dynamics of livestock producers. PMID:26470458

  1. Strategies to alleviate poverty and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia: Intensification vs production efficiency of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-nomadic pastoralism was replaced by sedentary pastoralism in Inner Mongolia during the 1960's in response to changes in land use policy and increasing human population. Large increases in numbers of livestock and pastoralist households (11- and 9-fold, respectively) during the past 60 yrs have ...

  2. Integrated approach for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two studies were conducted (i) to evaluate the voluntary feed intake, digestibility and performance of local Pyarzein growing calves fed on rice straw based diet supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia and Rumex K-1 livestock fodder and (ii) to improve cattle production through reproduction using artificial insemination (AI) which is said to be the most reliable and applicable technique. In the first study, 4 local Pyar Zein growing calves averaging 89.4 ± 16.3 kg live weight were allocated to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Rumex K-1 is one of the promising fodders to supplement rice straw which could improve nutrient intake, digestibility and animals' performance. Leucaena and Gliricidia may also be useful N supplement in areas where cattle are fed on rice straw or low quality roughages. Fodder supplementation rate in this study (20% of total diet DM) did not improve DMI but it did improve digestibility. Fodder supplementation rate for rice straw based diet should be greater than 20% on a DM basis. However, issues of toxicity from secondary compounds contained in fodder leaves should also be accounted for. Crude protein content of the diet should be higher than 8% and roughage to concentrate ratio should be maintained at 50:50. In the second study, in 66 female cattle from 80 smallholder farms, the highest conception was in VS-3 (Pronounced Vulva Swelling), VR-3 (Redness in vulva), M-2 (Thick and hang down mucus) and UT-2 (Firm, tonic and muscular uterus) with the rate of 83, 92, 85 and 80% respectively. Highest conception rate (92.3%) was in cows inseminated at 40.6 to 41oC vaginal temperature and temperature above 39oC to 40.5oC also showed good conception rate (>80%). Improving animal productivity using better selection criteria for offspring from cross- breeding programme, calving rate was 79.1% and sex ratio was 43.7% (male) and 56.3% (female) respectively, total calf motility rate was 14.9%, in male 15.8% and in female 14

  3. Effect of management strategies on the performance of ruminant livestock production systems and the safety of plant and animal products in the city of Sikasso, Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Amadou, Hamadoun

    2012-01-01

    The regional population growth in West Africa, and especially its urban centers, will bring about new and critical challenges for urban development policy, especially in terms of ensuring food security and providing employment for the growing population. (Peri-) urban livestock and vegetable production systems, which can contribute significantly to these endeavours, are limited by various constraints, amongst them limited access to expensive production factors and their (in)efficient use. To ...

  4. Environmental Regulations and Livestock Production Levels: What is the Direction of Causality?

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, Deepananda P.B.; Weersink, Alfons; Thrikawala, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental to the assertion that environmental regulatory standards are strategically set by decentralized authorities and consequently firms respond to spatial differences in regulatory standards is the underline causal relationship. Establishing the cause-effect association between regulatory standard setting and industry response is essential to justify the existence of the pollution haven and the potential for a race to the bottom. In this paper using 25 years data of the livestock produ...

  5. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. PMID:25991694

  6. Studies on quality, storeability, cooking and processing for products of agricultural and livestock produced by natural farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung; Jo, Sung Ki; Go, Youn Mi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heun Ja; Lee, Sung Hee [Ansung National University, Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The wholesomeness of agricultural and livestock products produced in contaminated natural environment and inactivated farmland are under apprehension. We have to produce foodstuff reliable high quality and wholesomeness in harmonizing with environmental condition and sustainable agriculture. All members of Korean Natural Farming Association are working at the self-managing natural farming field and has been developed steadily to village unit due to voluntary demanding and self-practicing more than 30 years. Agricultural and livestock products and its processed foods produced by member of Association are distributing in domestic and exporting to Japan and other country with recognition of its high quality and wholesomeness by consumer. In order to propagate the natural farming technology and to increase the consumption of its products and processed food in domestic and abroad, scientific approach and evaluation for their quality were carried out in field of chemical component and microbial activity of farmland(32 kinds), physico-chemical properties of cereals(7 kinds), fruits and vegetables(14 kinds) and meat processed foods (2 kinds). 51 refs., 29 tabs. (author)

  7. Climbing the technology ladder too fast? New evidence on comparative productivity performance in Asian manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed new light on the debate about the sources of rapid growth in Asian manufacturing. For the period from 1963 to 1997, a comparison of productivity levels in India, Indonesia, South Korea, and Taiwan with the United States as the reference country is provided. Using the indu

  8. Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, P.J.G.; Rico Artero, A.; Zhang, W.; Nahid, S.S.A.; Newton, R.; Phan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different aq

  9. Combining livestock production information in a process-based vegetation model to reconstruct the history of grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; Peng, Shushi; Yue, Chao; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Peregon, Anna; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 1901-2012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 × 106 km2 in 1901 to 12.3 × 106 km2 in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability of grassland productivity at global scale well and thus is

  10. Effects of wolves on elk and cattle behaviors: implications for livestock production and wolf conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laporte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many areas, livestock are grazed within wolf (Canis lupus range. Predation and harassment of livestock by wolves creates conflict and is a significant challenge for wolf conservation. Wild prey, such as elk (Cervus elaphus, perform anti-predator behaviors. Artificial selection of cattle (Bos taurus might have resulted in attenuation or absence of anti-predator responses, or in erratic and inconsistent responses. Regardless, such responses might have implications on stress and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared elk and cattle anti-predator responses to wolves in southwest Alberta, Canada within home ranges and livestock pastures, respectively. We deployed satellite- and GPS-telemetry collars on wolves, elk, and cattle (n = 16, 10 and 78, respectively and measured seven prey response variables during periods of wolf presence and absence (speed, path sinuosity, time spent head-up, distance to neighboring animals, terrain ruggedness, slope and distance to forest. During independent periods of wolf presence (n = 72, individual elk increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and used more rugged terrain (Z = -2.856, P = 0.004 and steeper slopes (Z = -3.065, P = 0.002. For cattle, individual as well as group behavioral analyses were feasible and these indicated increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and decreased distance to neighbors (Z = -2.551, P = 0.011. In addition, cattle groups showed a number of behavioral changes concomitant to wolf visits, with variable direction in changes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest both elk and cattle modify their behavior in relation to wolf presence, with potential energetic costs. Our study does not allow evaluating the efficacy of anti-predator behaviors, but indicates that artificial selection did not result in their absence in cattle. The costs of wolf predation on livestock are often compensated considering just the market value of the animal killed

  11. Liming in Agricultural Production Models with and Without the Adoption of Crop-Livestock Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Carlos Mainardes da Silva; Luís Guilherme Sachs; Inês Cristina Batista Fonseca and; João Tavares Filho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Perennial forage crops used in crop-livestock integration (CLI) are able to accumulate large amounts of straw on the soil surface in no-tillage system (NTS). In addition, they can potentially produce large amounts of soluble organic compounds that help improving the efficiency of liming in the subsurface, which favors root growth, thus reducing the risks of loss in yield during dry spells and the harmful effects of “overliming”. The aim of this study was to test the effects of liming...

  12. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    This article origines as part of a Danish national food research program: Market-based Process and Product Innovation in the Food Sector (MAPP), presenting some of the results of a project concerning the cultural dimension of food consumption. Two questions of importance to Asian (with special...... attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do change processes in the European food cultures faclitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? Of course, such...... homogenoues export markets but ingeneral confirms the heterogeneity of the European fo cultures. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated certain food consumption trends from a micro...

  13. Asian drivers and the future of responsible production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Knorringa, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper raises two questions to take a first step in developing a research agenda to assess the developmental relevance of responsible production, which includes both Fair Trade and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The first question is: How likely is it that responsible production becomes increasingly mainstreamed? After defining responsible production and contrasting the models and realities of Fair Trade and CSR, I present the rather optimistic "business case" for a "r...

  14. Duration and long-term management of radiocaesium in livestock products in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer months in Norway, large uncultivated areas of forest and mountain areas are used as pasture for sheep, goats and cattle. Since the accident in 1986, a large number of animals has undergone special feeding programme i.e. fed with fodder with low concentration of radiocaesium to reduce the levels before slaughtering. The methods for live monitoring of animals were developed in 1987 and are still used yearly to avoid slaughtering animals with radioactivity levels exceeding the food intervention levels of 600 Bq/kg. The length of the individual feeding programme varies between areas and years and lasts from 1 to 8 weeks depending on the concentration levels of radiocaesium in the livestock. In addition, Prussian blue in concentrates and salt-licks are still in use in the most contaminated areas to avoid radioactive caesium from being re-absorbed by the animal and instead it all goes out with the excretion. In the most contaminated areas, the use of Prussian blue has reduced the levels of radiocaesium in meat and milk with approximately 50 %. Ecological half-lives of 137Cs in milk from cow and goat herds from different regions in Norway vary between 4 and 12 years. Calculated ecological half-lives of 137Cs in sheep vary from 3 to 11 years, with the longest half-lives in the most contaminated regions. In years with a high abundance of mushrooms, levels of 137Cs increases in meat and milk owing to the ingestion of radioactive mushrooms by grazing animals. Experience from the last decade's turns out that abundance of mushrooms more or less controls the levels of 137Cs in livestock animals. Based on our experience, it is still necessary to maintain countermeasures for at least another decade to comply with food interventional levels for meat and milk in Norway. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Duration and long-term management of radiocaesium in livestock products in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    During the summer months in Norway, large uncultivated areas of forest and mountain areas are used as pasture for sheep, goats and cattle. Since the accident in 1986, a large number of animals has undergone special feeding programme i.e. fed with fodder with low concentration of radiocaesium to reduce the levels before slaughtering. The methods for live monitoring of animals were developed in 1987 and are still used yearly to avoid slaughtering animals with radioactivity levels exceeding the food intervention levels of 600 Bq/kg. The length of the individual feeding programme varies between areas and years and lasts from 1 to 8 weeks depending on the concentration levels of radiocaesium in the livestock. In addition, Prussian blue in concentrates and salt-licks are still in use in the most contaminated areas to avoid radioactive caesium from being re-absorbed by the animal and instead it all goes out with the excretion. In the most contaminated areas, the use of Prussian blue has reduced the levels of radiocaesium in meat and milk with approximately 50 %. Ecological half-lives of {sup 137}Cs in milk from cow and goat herds from different regions in Norway vary between 4 and 12 years. Calculated ecological half-lives of {sup 137}Cs in sheep vary from 3 to 11 years, with the longest half-lives in the most contaminated regions. In years with a high abundance of mushrooms, levels of {sup 137}Cs increases in meat and milk owing to the ingestion of radioactive mushrooms by grazing animals. Experience from the last decade's turns out that abundance of mushrooms more or less controls the levels of {sup 137}Cs in livestock animals. Based on our experience, it is still necessary to maintain countermeasures for at least another decade to comply with food interventional levels for meat and milk in Norway. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2007-08-01

    In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison. PMID:22504357

  17. Sustainable improvement of livestock production through strategic supplementation with urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) and other feed resources available in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are a vital source of meat and milk, and livestock production is an integral part of agriculture in Pakistan. The ruminant feeding system is based on low quality roughages that can be improved by creating conditions in the rumen for maximizing fibre digestion. A solidified urea-molasses multi-nutrient Block (UMMB), prepared with commonly available, cheap ingredients to provide critical nutrients for microbial fermentation, was formulated and tested. Another constraint to livestock production is the scarcity and fluctuation of quality and quantity of animal feed supply throughout the year. To overcome these problems, particularly in salt-affected wastelands, non-conventional and low-cost feed resources require evaluation. The present project attempts to introduce new management practices based on proven technologies for improvement of productivity and reproductive efficiency of livestock. Pilot farms were selected to evaluate the effects of UMMB feeding and various studies conducted on cattle and buffalo have shown its positive effects. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in improvements in intake of low quality roughages, digestibility, weight gain, milk production and resumption of post-partum oestrus. Supplementation of animals raised on low quality fodders with UMMB may be an alternative to other forms of supplementation especially when these become unavailable or too expensive. The cheapest source of nitrogen as well as of energy available has proved to be UMMB. The UMMB technology can also be utilized for the control of parasites in livestock through its potential as a carrier of anthelmintics, traditional herbal medicines and plants with anthelmintic properties. Effectiveness of medicated UMMB feed blocks to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goat was tested. The medicated UMMB and conventional anthelmintics were both found to be highly effective but conventional therapies were thought to be most appropriate for application in most

  18. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. PMID:25901012

  19. Livestock intensification and the influence of dietary change: A calorie-based assessment of competition for crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-12-15

    Animal production exerts significant demands on land, water and food resources and is one of the most extensive means by which humans modify natural systems. Demand for animal source foods has more than tripled over the past 50years due to population growth and dietary change. As a result, the livestock sector has transitioned towards intensive and concentrated production systems. Typically, studies have divided types of animal production into intensive, mixed and grazing production systems. However, because a large percentage of animal production originates from mixed systems, dividing by such production types can make it difficult to quantify competition for crop production between direct human consumption and use as feed. To this end we employ a calorie-based approach to determine which animal calories were 'free' - in that they did not compete with human consumption for crop use - and consider to what extent alternative scenarios could have reduced this competition between food and feed. We find that growth in non-feed animal systems has only been able to keep pace with population growth and that feed-fed production has necessarily met increases in human dietary demand for animal products. Through solutions such as moderating diets for animal calories, choosing less resource-demanding animal products and maintaining the relative contribution of non-feed systems, between 1.3 and 3.6 billion fewer people would be in competition with feed for crop use. We also estimate that the feed crop calories required to support consumer waste of animal calories could feed an additional 235 million people. With human demand for animal products expected to continue increasing in the coming decades, the findings here provide insights into potential solutions and what the magnitude of their effect may be and suggest that there exist real opportunities for humankind to substantially reduce competition for crop use. PMID:26340584

  20. Agroforestry and sustainable vegetable production in Southeast Asian watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Catacutan, Delia C.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses the work and philosophy of TMPEGS, a partner organization for the SANREM CRSP LTRA (Long-term research activity) 5. A goal of LTRA-5's work with vegetable and agroforestry production in Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines is to enhance vegetable-tree complementarity. Factors that can increase vegetable-tree complementarity include use of indigenous vegetables and drip irrigation. Also discussed are cover crops and reduced tillage, home gardens and commercial pr...

  1. Perceptions of the importance of different welfare issues in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J C; Wojciechowska, J; Meng, J; Cross, N

    2009-08-01

    The opinions of seven respondent groups about the relative importance of different practices pertaining to the welfare of Australian beef cattle, sheep and goats were surveyed. Respondent groups comprised farmers, livestock transportation representatives, veterinarians, meat processors, animal welfare advocates, animal welfare scientists and government officers. The survey consisted of a web-based adaptive conjoint analysis questionnaire, which was administered to a sample population that was selected randomly for large respondent groups and comprehensively for small groups. The hierarchy of opinion concerning the importance of the different beef cattle practices was: stockmanship > ground (road and rail) transport > spaying > food supply > dehorning > stunning > shelter > identification > pretransport food and water deprivation > castration > sea transport > mustering > confinement. For sheep/goat practices the hierarchy was: parasite control > mulesing > shelter > stockmanship > tail docking > ground transport > feeding > predation > stunning > castration > pretransport food and water deprivation > sea transport > mustering. The method of performing invasive procedures was perceived as less important than the provision of pain relief. Differences in opinion were evident between respondent groups, with animal welfare advocates tending to focus on painful procedures more than those with direct involvement in the industry. PMID:22444845

  2. Livestock Update. September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Saville, Joi; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Callan, Peter; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Clark, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; September Herd Management Advisor; Time for Fall Nutrition Tune-Up; BVD's Role in Shipping Fever Pneumonia; Sheep Field Day & Ram Lamb Sale; 2014 Virginia Tech Sheep Management Basics Workshop; Sheep Update; and Swine Production in Virginia.

  3. Livestock Update. August 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Saville, Joi; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Callan, Peter; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Clark, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; August Herd Management Advisor; Weaning Nutrition and Management; Breeding Season Management - Ewes and Rams; 2014 Small Ruminant Field Day; Heat Stress and Small-Scale and Niche Market Pork Production in Virginia,

  4. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuubi Martin

    2012-10-01

    some of these plants, plant products and ethnopractices in managing livestock health as further research may lead to discovery of useful ethnopharmaceutical agents applicable in livestock industry.

  5. Closing system-wide yield gaps to increase food production and mitigate GHGs among mixed crop–livestock smallholders in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B.; Godde, C.; Medina-Hidalgo, D.; van Wijk, M.; Silvestri, S.; Douxchamps, S.; Stephenson, E.; Power, B.; Rigolot, C.; Cacho, O.; Herrero, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we estimate yield gaps for mixed crop–livestock smallholder farmers in seven Sub-Saharan African sites covering six countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Senegal and Burkina Faso). We also assess their potential to increase food production and reduce the GHG emission intensity of their products, as a result of closing these yield gaps. We use stochastic frontier analysis to construct separate production frontiers for each site, based on 2012 survey data prepared by the International Livestock Research Institute for the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security program. Instead of relying on theoretically optimal yields—a common approach in yield gap assessments—our yield gaps are based on observed differences in technical efficiency among farms within each site. Sizeable yield gaps were estimated to be present in all of the sites. Expressed as potential percentage increases in outputs, the average site-based yield gaps ranged from 28 to 167% for livestock products and from 16 to 209% for crop products. The emission intensities of both livestock and crop products registered substantial falls as a consequence of closing yield gaps. The relationships between farm attributes and technical efficiency were also assessed to help inform policy makers about where best to target capacity building efforts. We found a strong and statistically significant relationship between market participation and performance across most sites. We also identified an efficiency dividend associated with the closer integration of crop and livestock enterprises. Overall, this study reveals that there are large yield gaps and that substantial benefits for food production and environmental performance are possible through closing these gaps, without the need for new technology. PMID:26941474

  6. Asian Dust Particles Induce Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Higashisaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ≤10 μm in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10 μm. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF-α production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages.

  7. Grazing and Rangeland Development for Livestock Production. A Handbook for Volunteers. Agriculture Technology for Developing Countries. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Howard B.; And Others

    This handbook, developed for training Peace Corps volunteers, reviews the basic principles that underlie sound grazing land management and indicates the application of these principles for livestock production in the tropics and subtropics. The handbook is made up of three technical series bulletins. The first bulletin covers management of…

  8. NEW INSIGHT OF CHINESE LIVESTOCK CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiang Dong; Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper overviews the development of Chinese livestock market. Based on a consumer preferences survey, a series of ordered probit models is developed to estimate Chinese consumers' preferences on the attributes of frozen and chilled livestock products. Keywords: Chinese livestock market, consumers' preferences, ordered probit model, attributes

  9. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; FRITZ, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes significantly to global warming through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, livestock is an invaluable source of nutrition and livelihood for millions of poor people. Therefore, climate mitigation policies involving livestock must be designed with extreme care. Here we demonstrate the large mitigation potential inherent in the heterogeneity of livestock production systems. We find that even within existing systems, autonomous transitions from ext...

  10. Epidemiology of camel trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Mauritania and its control strategies for sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camel trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi is mechanically transmitted by hematophagious diptera such as Tabanidae, Stomoxyinae, and Hippoboscidae. In its acute form, the disease results in a generalized weakness. The animal lies down as of the least effort; milk production falls with the abortion of females. At times, the animal dies after a prolonged decubitus. However, in 80% cases, the disease is observed in its chronic form, which is characterized by considerable economic losses resulting from abortions, reduction of milk production, loss weight, and cachexia. Due to its extremely dry conditions Mauritania remains a favourable environment for camels as preferred livestock species of considerable economic importance. The animals are kept by shepherds who are very mobile in the field in search of good pastures and water points. Unfortunately, this pastoral system is reported to expose dromedaries to numerous pathologic conditions, especially camel trypanosomiasis due to T. evansi. Our investigations from 1993 to 1997 showed that T. evansi is present in the dromedaries in Mauritania. According the haematocrit centrifuge technique the parasite prevalence rate ranged from 1.1 to 13.6 % while seroprevalence varied from 13% to 36.7% according to the CATT test. In the Trarza region, as consequence of a good rainy season we more recently observed an abundance of tabanids and stomoxes hence a favourable ecology of T. evansi vectors, and subsequently an outbreak of camel trypanosomosis. Prevalence rate was 17.6% using buffy coat examination and 58.8% with the CATT. In many herds, numerous abortions were recorded and all breeders registered very important milk production losses. In order to limit the infections due to T. evansi, two control strategies for camel husbandry could be practiced in the Trarza region. The first is 'northern strategy' with the potential of lowering pastures availability and usage. However, it has the advantage of avoiding the direct and

  11. Competitiveness of Livestock Production in Slovenia During the Process of Association to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Oštrec

    2003-06-01

    In the coming years pig production on family farms will increase because family farms can better solve the slurry problem. In poultry production the production of turkeys has increased (15 %, and more free range broilers have been produced. The production will exceed the domestic consumption being now 25 kg per capita per year. We consume 180 eggs per capita, which equals the production. Our needs will thus be covered in future. The number of sheep and goats has been increasing for the past 10 years. It even exceeded the negotiated quota last year hence an increased number of small ruminants cannot be expected, but higher meat consumption and increased quantities of milk and milk products can be achieved.

  12. Vegetable, livestock and agroindustrial products and byproducts: An alternative tilapia feeding

    OpenAIRE

    González Salas, R.; Romero Cruz, O.; Valdivié Navarro, M.; J. T. Ponce-Palafox

    2014-01-01

    In the culture of tilapia limited supply and high cost of fish meal have forced nutritionists to consider alternative sources of protein. Due to the importance of the products and by-products in fish feed, this paper aims to show the alternatives that have been used to partially or totally replace fish meal and soybean meal in tilapia growing. This paper showsthe maximum or optimal use of vegetable by-products for tilapia as cottonseed meal, sunflower, canola, soybean ...

  13. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area. PMID:26938514

  14. The Central Asian Journal of Global Health to Increase Scientific Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Freese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO Collaborating Center at the University of Pittsburgh, USA partnering with Nazarbayev University, developed the Central Asian Journal of Global Health (CAJGH, cajgh.pitt.edu in order to increase scientific productivity in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Scientists in this region often have difficulty publishing in upper tier English language scientific journals due to language barriers, high publication fees, and a lack of access to mentoring services. CAJGH seeks to help scientists overcome these challenges by providing peer-reviewed publication free of change with English and research mentoring services available to selected authors. CAJGH began as a way to expand the Supercourse scientific network (www.pitt.edu/~super1 in the Central Asian region in order to rapidly disseminate educational materials. The network began with approximately 60 individuals in five Central Asian countries and has grown to over 1,300 in a few short years. The CAJGH website receives nearly 900 visits per month. The University of Pittsburgh's “open access publishing system” was utilized to create CAJGH in 2012. There are two branches of the CAJGH editorial board: Astana (at the Center for Life Sciences, Nazarbayev University and Pittsburgh (WHO Collaborating Center. Both are comprised of leading scientists and expert staff who work together throughout the review and publication process. Two complete issues have been published since 2012 and a third is now underway. Even though CAJGH is a new journal, the editorial board uses a rigorous review process; fewer than 50% of all submitted articles are forwarded to peer review or accepted for publication. Furthermore, in 2014, CAJGH will apply to be cross referenced in PubMed and Scopes. CAJGH is one of the first English language journals in the Central Asian region that reaches a large number of scientists. This journal fills a unique niche that will assist scientists in Kazakhstan and Central Asia publish their

  15. Competitiveness of Livestock Production in the Process of Joining the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Meyn

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The accession of the eight CEE member states to the EU will integrate about 450 million consumers with rather similar consumption patterns for animal products. Both the old and the new EU members produce surpluses, but in ruminant meat production the EU will become a net importer. As the EU will be forced to reduce import barriers from the World market, price levels will decline, but probably be higher for ruminant production than currently in the accession countries. For pigs and poultry, feeds are assumed to be available at World market prices. Because of higher productivity, western European producers will be very competitive and competition will be strong. Labour saving investments into farm structures and productivity increases in all forms of animal production are urgently required, in order to reach competitiveness. Advances in productivity observed during recent years make such a development likely. To improve the competitiveness further, a certain concentration of production enterprises and processing facilities must be achieved, but over-concentration must be avoided for reasons of environmental protection. The sensitivity of consumers obliges all members of the food chain to develop and operate process management and control schemes, especially those who want to export food.

  16. Integrating Novel Data Streams to Support Biosurveillance in Commercial Livestock Production Systems in Developed Countries: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Holmstrom, Lindsey K.; Biggers, Keith E.; Beckham, Tammy R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the burden of emerging and endemic infectious diseases on commercial livestock production systems will require the development of innovative technology platforms that enable information from diverse animal health resources to be collected, analyzed, and communicated in near real-time. In this paper, we review recent initiatives to leverage data routinely observed by farmers, production managers, veterinary practitioners, diagnostic laboratories, regulatory officials, and slaughterhouse inspectors for disease surveillance purposes. The most commonly identified challenges were (1) the lack of standardized systems for recording essential data elements within and between surveillance data streams, (2) the additional time required to collect data elements that are not routinely recorded by participants, (3) the concern over the sharing and use of business sensitive information with regulatory authorities and other data analysts, (4) the difficulty in developing sustainable incentives to maintain long-term program participation, and (5) the limitations in current methods for analyzing and reporting animal health information in a manner that facilitates actionable response. With the significant recent advances in information science, there are many opportunities to develop more sophisticated systems that meet national disease surveillance objectives, while still providing participants with valuable tools and feedback to manage routine animal health concerns. PMID:25973416

  17. Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Rico, Andreu; Zhang, Wenbo; Ahmad-Al-Nahid, Sk; Newton, Richard; Phan, Lam T; Zhang, Zongfeng; Jaithiang, Jintana; Dao, Hai M; Phu, Tran M; Little, David C; Murray, Francis J; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Liu, Liping; Liu, Qigen; Haque, M Mahfujul; Kruijssen, Froukje; de Snoo, Geert R; Heijungs, Reinout; van Bodegom, Peter M; Guinée, Jeroen B

    2015-12-15

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different aquatic food products. Our starting hypothesis was that different production systems are associated with significantly different environmental impacts, as the production of these aquatic species differs in intensity and management practices. In order to test this hypothesis, we estimated each system's global warming, eutrophication, and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. The contribution to these impacts and the overall dispersions relative to results were propagated by Monte Carlo simulations and dependent sampling. Paired testing showed significant (p shrimp did more than 95% of the propagated Monte Carlo results favor certain farming systems. The major environmental hot-spots driving the differences in environmental performance among systems were fishmeal from mixed fisheries for global warming, pond runoff and sediment discards for eutrophication, and agricultural pesticides, metals, benzalkonium chloride, and other chlorine-releasing compounds for freshwater ecotoxicity. The Asian aquaculture industry should therefore strive toward farming systems relying upon pelleted species-specific feeds, where the fishmeal inclusion is limited and sourced sustainably. Also, excessive nutrients should be recycled in integrated organic agriculture together with efficient aeration solutions powered by renewable energy sources. PMID:26512735

  18. Monitoring inspection for radiocesium in agricultural, livestock, forestry and fishery products in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We selected and re-categorized the monitoring data opened by the government of Fukushima prefecture focusing on the radiocesium concentrations in four agricultural products, from the data on 90,000 samples analyzed during 3 years. Radioactivity was found to be high during 3 months after the accident because of direct fallout. The internal exposure in the area with the highest contamination area of rice during the first 3 months was calculated and estimated to be 0.75 mSv year-1. The radioactivity in foods products rapidly decreased after 3 months later, but in the case of some forestry products and fish, there are still some products in which radioactivity was above the regulated value, 100 Bq kg-1. (author)

  19. Intensify pastures for livestock production: vermicompost use, an agro-ecological practice

    OpenAIRE

    Boval, Maryline; Faverial, J.; Mulciba, P.; Loranger-Merciris, G.L.M.; Sierra, J

    2013-01-01

    The intensification of animal production at pasture is essential to meet the growing demand for animal products but also for other functions, the maintenance of areas, livelihoods and well-being of populations. This intensification must also take into account the reduction of agricultural land, promote positive interactions with the environment and biodiversity, while ensuring the supply of populations. The use of vermicompost involving the action of earthworms is an example of agro-ecologica...

  20. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications

    OpenAIRE

    József Popp; Mónika Harangi-Rákos; Zoltán Gabnai; Péter Balogh; Gabriella Antal; Attila Bai

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of h...

  1. Petroleum product pricing in Asian developing countries: Lessons from the past and future issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper looks at the pricing of petroleum products in ten Asian developing countries using a data series for 1973--1992. Prices of petroleum products are compared with international prices. Differential prices are measured with respect to diesel prices. It is found that energy prices are used as instruments for revenue earnings. Pricing policies vary widely among countries and neighbors have different fuel prices. Countries try to align the local prices of petroleum products in line with international prices but with a lag of 1--2 years. The wave of liberalization and privatization is sweeping many developing countries. Additionally, environmental issues are gaining importance even in developing countries. The paper also discusses these emerging issues that need to be taken into account in the petroleum product pricing

  2. Productivity of duckweed (Lemna minor as alternative forage feed for livestock in different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uti Nopriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed (Lemna minor is a small aquatic plant that grow and float in water and spread extensively. Lemna minor is potential as a source of high quality forage. This study aimed to determine optimal light intensity on Lemna minor to generate maximum productivity. Parameters observed were physical-biological and chemical characteristics of the media (pH value, temperature, cover area, decreased of media volume, BOD, COD, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate, plant growth acceleration (number of shoots, leaf diameter and chlorophyll-a, biomass production, doubling time of cover area and the number of daughters. This study was done based on a completely randomized design with 4 levels of shading. While treatment was: without shading, shading 30%, shading 50% and shading 70% using paranet shade. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Result showed that the productivity of Lemna minor included the number of daughters, chlorophyll-a, biomass production, cover area, absorbed phosphate and doubling time the number of daughters reached the highest level without shading treatment (1007,21-2813,57 lux. The decrease of intensity of light, the increase the diameter of leaf. Decrease of media volume was positively correlated to size of cover area. Biomass production influenced by a wide doubling time of cover area and number of daughters.

  3. Ethanol and agriculture: Effect of increased production on crop and livestock sectors. Agricultural economic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expanded ethanol production could increase US farm income by as much as $1 billion (1.4 percent) by 2000. Because corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, growers in the Corn Belt would benefit most from improved ethanol technology and heightened demand. Coproducts from the conversion process (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and others) compete with soybean meal, soybean growers in the South may see revenues decline. The US balance of trade would improve with increased ethanol production as oil import needs decline

  4. Livestock and health: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Maria Angeles

    2006-01-01

    "The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring both benefits and problems for human health... Livestock production and consumption can lead to four main types of human health risks: (1) diseases transmitted from livestock to humans; (2) environmental pollution; (3) foodborne diseases and risks; a...

  5. Teaching Risk Management Principles to Livestock Producers Through Production-Oriented Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, C. Kim

    2008-01-01

    This bulletin explains how to effectively marry risk management education, which producers do not have a natural affinity for, and production-oriented education, which is usually very popular with producers. The Beehive Master Beef Manager Program is used as a model.

  6. Minimizing the environmental footprint of livestock production: which measure to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing and wealthier human population implies an increase in demand for their needs, such as housing, infrastructure, energy and food, including animal-source food. Current animal production levels, however, already pose severe pressure on the environment, via their emissions to air, water and so

  7. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  8. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  9. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve;

    region, but these are generally not well quantified and there are clear opportunities for increasing productivity and resilience through diversification, genetic improvement, improved farm-input delivery and better modelling of future scenarios. We relate, and illustrate with the example of current- and...

  10. Milking the data : measuring income from milk production in extensive livestock systems -- experimental evidence from Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Zezza, Alberto; Federighi, Giovanni; Adamou, Kalilou; Hiernaux, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Milk is an important source of cash and nutrients for many households in developing countries. Yet, the understanding of the role of dairy production in livelihoods and nutritional outcomes is hindered by the lack of decent quality household survey data. Data on milk off-take for human consumption are difficult to collect in household surveys for several reasons that make accurate recall c...

  11. Novel Production Method for Plant Polyphenol from Livestock Excrement Using Subcritical Water Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Yamamoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenol, including vanillin, is often used as the intermediate materials of the medicines and vanilla flavoring. In agriculture generally vanillin is produced from vanilla plant and in industry from lignin of disposed wood pulp. We have recently developed a method for the production of plant polyphenol with the excrement as a natural resource of lignin, of the herbivorous animals, by using the subcritical water. The method for using the subcritical water is superior to that of the supercritical water because in the latter complete decomposition occurs. We have successfully produced the vanillin, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid in products. Our method is simpler and more efficient not only because it requires the shorter treatment time but also because it releases less amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

  12. Novel Production Method for Plant Polyphenol from Livestock Excrement Using Subcritical Water Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mayu Yamamoto; Yasuhiro Futamura; Kouki Fujioka; Kenji Yamamoto

    2008-01-01

    Plant polyphenol, including vanillin, is often used as the intermediate materials of the medicines and vanilla flavoring. In agriculture generally vanillin is produced from vanilla plant and in industry from lignin of disposed wood pulp. We have recently developed a method for the production of plant polyphenol with the excrement as a natural resource of lignin, of the herbivorous animals, by using the subcritical water. The method for using the subcritical water is superior to that of the su...

  13. Livestock system sustainability and resilience in intensive production zones : which form of ecological modernization ?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agriculture during the twentieth century led to high levels of food production based on increasing inputs and specialization of farms and agricultural regions. To address negative externalities of these changes, two forms of ecological modernization of agriculture are promoted: ‘‘weak’’ ecological modernization, mainly based on increasing input efficiency through crop and animal monitoring and nutrient recycling, and ‘‘strong’’ ecological modernization, based on increasing agrobiod...

  14. Dynamics of livestock farming in extensive livestock farming territories: what processes are going on?

    OpenAIRE

    Cournut, Sylvie; Rapey, Hélène; Nozieres, Marie-Odile; Poccard-Chapuis, René; Corniaux, Christian; Choisis, Jean Philippe; Ryschawy, Julie; Madelrieux, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of family livestock farming in extensive livestock farming territories are crucial for the future of these territories. Indeed livestock farming is an activity anchored in a society, with its agro-food chains and its local environment. It provides products and multiple services: social and economic dynamics, desirable landscape, biodiversity… Family livestock farming has to reshape itself, and face up to local factors of change, such as demographic evolution or land pressur...

  15. Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, P.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Keulen, van, M.; Thornton, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarises the development of a ruminant livestock component for the Farm System Simulator (FSSIM). This includes treatments of energy and protein transactions in ruminant livestock that have been used as a basis for the biophysical simulations that will generate the input production parameters for FSSIM. The treatments are derived principally from the “French” feed evaluation and rationing system for protein and energy. Currently, we have constructed routines that are capable o...

  16. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  17. The effect of El-Niño on South Asian Monsoon and agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mukherjee A, Wang S.Y.Abstract:The South Asian Monsoon has a prominent and significant impact on South Asian countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and it is one of the most studied phenomena in the world. The monsoon is historically known to be influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of seasonal precipitation over India strongly depends upon the ENSO phasing. The average southwest monsoon rainfall received during the years with El Niño was found to be less compared to normal years and the average rainfall during the northeast monsoon is higher in coastal Andhra Pradesh. ENSO is anti-correlated with Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The last prominent effect of ENSO on India's monsoon occurred in 2009 with 23% reduction in annual rainfall, reducing summer sown crops such as rice, sugar cane etc. and pushing up food prices. Climatic resources endowment plays a major role in planning agricultural production in tropical and sub-tropical environment especially under rain-fed agriculture, and so contingent crop planning drawn on this relationship would help to mitigate the effects of ENSO episodes in the region. The unexplored area in this domain of research is the changes in the frequency and intensity of ENSO due to global warming and its impact on ENSO prediction and agricultural management practices. We analyze the last 30 years datasets of Pacific SST, and precipitation and air temperature over Southeast Asia to examine the evolution of ENSO teleconnections with ISM, as well as making estimates of drought indices such as Palmer Drought Severity Index. This research can lead toward better crop management strategies in the South Asian monsoon region.

  18. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of radionuclides in organs and tissues, which makes it

  19. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  20. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFFS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING IN VITRO GAS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. KHANUM, T. YAQOOB1, S. SADAF1, M. HUSSAIN, M. A. JABBAR1, H. N. HUSSAIN, R. KAUSAR AND S. REHMAN1

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05 differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME and digestibility of organic matter. Predicted metabolizable energy values were very low in feedstuffs having high fiber and low protein contents. These feedstuffs included various grasses, crop residues and wheal straw. Lowest ME value of 4.7 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM was found in wheat straw. Many of the roughages (Sorghum vulgare, Kochia indica, Leptochloa fusca studied were found to be deficient in fermentable carbohydrates, resulting in low organic matter digestibility. Concentrate feed stuffs like cotton seed meal, sunflower meal, cotton seed cakes, rice polish, rapeseed meal and Zea mays (maize grains had higher ME values (9.27 – 12.44 MJ/kg DM. The difference of ME of various feedstuffs reflects different contents of fermentable carbohydrates and available nitrogen in cereals and protein supplements. Among the non-conventional feedstuffs, Acacia ampliceps, Acacia nilotica, Sesbania aculeata, Leptochloa fusca and Prosopis juliflora were found potential fodders. Extensive use of in vitro gas method proved its potential as a tool to evaluate various ruminant feeds for energy component.

  1. Use of edible fishery by-products as sources of nutrients for fish and livestock in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results show percentage fish waste (%ww) between individual genera and species varied significantly (10.47 ± 0.93; P < 0.001). Average annual fish waste produced is 2.040t out of total 1.84, 1.81, 1.79 and 2.72 thousand tonnes from the years 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 catches respectively. The body parts of fish significantly determined fat and mineral composition (LSM for gills = 10.85 ± 1.486 g/100 g DM EE vs. guts = 15.45 ± 1.486 g/100 g DM EE; P = 0.033 and LSM for gills = 23.49 ± 1.494 g/100 g DM mineral vs. guts = 14.27 ± 1.494 g/100 g DM Ash; P < 0.001), while treatment (boiling at 95 - 105 deg C) had no effect on both fat, protein and mineral. Significant variation in overall protein content between species (LSM = 57.68 ± 2.33; P < 0.001) is observed. Slight dispersions between sites for mineral (LSM = 29.1 ± 2.01 g/100 g DM) and fat (LSM = 13.93 ± 1.05 g/100 g DM) showed up in bulky wastes. It was concluded that valuable quantity of fish waste is available to reduce the limiting protein supplementation problem in both livestock and fish farming in the western Indian Ocean region. Furthermore, effective utilization of fish waste could help in recycling of the by-product and clearing the environment. Additional on-station and on-farm studies are required to measure the intakes and effects of the fish waste supplement on milk yields and growth performances. (author)

  2. Nutrient use efficiency: a valuable approach to benchmark the sustainability of nutrient use in global livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Uwizeye, U.A.; Schulte, R.P.O.; Opio, C.I.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock have a large impact on nutrient cycles, with repercussions on environmental and public health issues. Designing interventions for better environmental sustainability will require indicators adapted to the increasingly long and complex supply chains. Nutrient use efficiency is a well know a

  3. Drought risk management for increased cereal production in Asian Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious abiotic factor inhibiting nutrient acquisition by roots and limiting cereal crop production in Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs. Many studies revealed that balanced fertilization can improve photosynthetic activity by stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, improve proline, abscisic acid (ABA and make the crop drought tolerant with efficient root system and finally improve crop yield. To mitigate drought stress, along with the usage of resistant and efficient genotypes, soil and foliar applications of macro- and micro-nutrients are being used in Asia. According to drought sensitivity index, the efficient genotypes are found more drought-tolerant than the inefficient ones. Studies revealed that irrigation alone is not sufficient to obtain satisfactory grain yield without balanced fertilization. At drought stress, the efficient genotypes accumulate higher quantities of ABA and proline, and exhibit higher activities of SOD, as compared with inefficient genotypes through greater nutrient accumulation by their longer and thinner root systems with high efficiency. Under severe drought with low nutritional status, the rate of photosynthesis, particularly water-use efficiency (WUE increases in the efficient genotypes than in the inefficient ones. Consequently, these physiological and morphological parameters result in better yield performance by efficient use of water. Under drought, soil application of NPK along with foliar application of zinc (Zn, boron (B and manganese (Mn increase grain yield as well as micronutrients concentration of the grain. The rate of photosynthesis, pollen viability, number of fertile spikes, number of grains per spike, and WUE are increased by late foliar application of these micronutrients. This indicates that, by increasing WUE foliar application of Zn, B and Mn at booting to anthesis can reduce the harmful effects of drought that often occur during the late stages of cereal

  4. Overview of current status of SLR production and uses in Japan and other Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of short-lived radionuclide (SLR) production and use in Japan and other Asian countries is reviewed. The activities of six cyclotrons for medical use in Asia (except Japan) and Australia are reported. In Japan 10 dedicated medical cyclotrons were installed by 1983. Even though SLR application in Japan is in the cradle stage and is limited to only a few institutions, an analysis of these applications indicates the high efficacy of the dedicated small cyclotrons as compared with large, multipurpose cyclotrons. Because of the lack of high-energy commercial cyclotrons by 1982, a satisfactory iodine-123 supply of labeling quality has been limited. However, since two of the three medical cyclotron manufacturers and more than three positron camera producers are located there, Japan has high potential for the routine practice of nuclear medicine

  5. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary object...

  6. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  7. The Role of Livestock in Economic Development and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the diverse and changing roles of livestock as they relate to the process of economic development and poverty reduction, departing from the premise that livestock production plays an important role in contributing to the livelihoods of most of the world's poor and in meeting the fast growing demand for livestock products in the developing countries. It is argued that investment in livestock raises farm production by extending the area of land utilised, diversifying producti...

  8. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  9. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  10. CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: ¿CÓMO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN GANADERA? (Climatic change: How affect the livestock production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzón Alfonso, J.E.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl cambio climático es un proceso inequívoco; se dice cómo la producción bovina estimula uno de los factores que lo produce: el efecto invernadero; sin embargo es importante conocer su efecto contrario: cómo el cambio climático afecta la ganadería.SummaryClimate change is a distinct process; it’s knew how the cattle production stimulates one of the factors that produced it: the greenhouse effect, however it’s important to know the opposite effect: how climate change affects livestock.

  11. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, José M.; Laura Purriños; Javier Carballo

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springine...

  12. Assessing export performance of India in livestock sector

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    India is known for its livestock wealth and ranks high among the nations having bovine population. However, despite having huge livestock population, India stands insignificant in the world trade of livestock products. The recent concerted efforts made by the government in the era of liberalization after opening up of the national economy to the international market have certainly boosted India’s export trade of livestock products to newer heights. The dairy industry of India is already at a ...

  13. Livestock waste-to-energy opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based livestock wastes as feedstocks for waste-to-energy production has the potential to convert the livestock waste treatment from a liability into a profit center that can generate annual revenues and diversify farm income. This presentation introduces tw...

  14. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  15. Report on the third research co-ordination meeting of the coordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third RCM for the CRP on the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries was held in Natal, Brazil, from 11-15 April 2005. The meeting was attended by ten Research Contract Holders, a second representative of the research group of the host country, two Research Agreement Holders, two Technical Contract Holders and the Scientific Secretary. The work in the second phase of this CRP has built upon the progress reported from the first phase, resulting in good quality immunoassay reagents, confirmatory methods and a number of validated methods. It is recommended that all contracts (with one exception), including technical contracts, be renewed to facilitate the completion of the work plans agreed at the meeting. A protocol for the validation of immunoassays will be provided by a Research Agreement Holder. The protocol has already been successfully applied for validation of an RIA method in Brazil. It is recommended that this protocol be adopted by all participants in the project to harmonize the validation of immunoassay methods developed. Work on the development of the 125I-radioimmunoassay for chloramphenicol has not been satisfactory. It is recommended that this work is transferred to the research group in Brazil. The meeting agreed that the FAO/IAEA Joint Division's INFOCRIS database and associated e-learning modules are a very useful resource for developing country scientists. It is recommended to proceed with the expansion of the database as planned. In addition, it was suggested that a database and bibliography of original literature on, for example, pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies on veterinary drugs and hormonal growth promoters should be included. Much of this data was published many years ago and is very difficult to access, but is of importance in the design and development of methods. Some of the results generated by CRP participants should be

  16. Organic livestock farming – a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Based on production guidelines, organic livestock farming has set itself the goal to establish an environmentally friendly production, to sustain animals in good health, to realise high animal welfare standards, and to produce products of high quality. By striving for these goals, organic livestock farming meets the demands of an increasing number of consumers, which are critical towards the conventional production methods. The paper gives an overview of the present state of the art in the di...

  17. Risk Management Capability Maturity and Performance of Complex Product and System (CoPS Projects with an Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex Products and Systems (CoPS are high value, technology and engineering-intensive capital goods. The motivation of this study is the persistent high failure rate of CoPS projects, Asian CoPS provider’s weak capability and lack of specific research on CoPS risk management. This paper evaluates risk management maturity level of CoPS projects against a general CoPS risk management capability maturity model (RM-CMM developed by the authors. An Asian based survey was conducted to investigate the value of RM to project performance, and Asian (non-Japanese CoPS implementers’ perceived application of RM practices, their strengths and weaknesses. The survey result shows that higher RM maturity level leads to higher CoPS project performance. It also shows project complexity and uncertainty moderates the relationship between some RM practices and project performance, which implies that a contingency approach should be adopted to manage CoPS risks effectively. In addition, it shows that Asian CoPS implementers are weak in RM process and there are also rooms for improvement in the softer aspects of organizational capabilities and robustness.

  18. Regional Comparative Advantage of Livestock Production in Xinjiang%新疆畜牧业生产区域比较优势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永仁; 王惠; 李捷

    2014-01-01

    各区域不同的资源条件形成了不同畜种的分布和区域优势畜产品。通过新疆对畜牧业比较优势指标以及牲畜比较优势测算模型的构建,计算各地区的牲畜生产区域比较优势,分析各地区间的比较优势差异,确定东疆地区、北疆地区和南疆地区的优势畜种结构。%The resource conditions of different regions to form the distribution of different breeds form the advantage of different animal products area. In this paper, by constructing comparative advantage in⁃dex of animal husbandry and livestock comparative advantage calculation model, through calculating the regional livestock production area of comparative advantage, quantitative analysis of the range around the difference of comparative advantage, determine the east region, the north and the advantage of southern Xinjiang region breeds structure.

  19. Magnesium production from Asian Abe-Gram dolomite in pidgeon-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ore mineral characterization and various experimental test work were carried out on Asian Abe-Garm dolomite, Qazvin province, Iran. The test work consisted of calcining, chemical characterization, LOI determination, and reduction tests on the calcined dolomite (doloma), using Semnan ferrosilicon. Calcining of dolomite sample was carried out at about 1400degreeC in order to remove the contained CO2, moisture, and other easily volatilised impurities. The doloma was milled, thoroughly mixed with 21percentSemnan ferrosilicon and briquetted in hand press applying 30 MPa pressure. The briquettes were heated at 1125-1150degreeC and 500 Pa in a Pidgeon-type tube reactor for 10-12 hours to extract the magnesium. Ferrosilicon addition, relative to doloma, was determined based on the chemical analysis of the two reactants using Mintek's Pyrosim software package. Magnesium extraction calculated as 77.97percentand Mg purity of 96.35percent. The level of major impurities in the produced magnesium crown is similar to those in the crude metal production.

  20. The Application of Valine in Livestock and Aquatic Production%缬氨酸在畜禽和水产生产中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉学光; 胡友军; 赖水彬

    2014-01-01

    Valine, an important material for nutrition additive, feed additive and flavoring, was widely used in the fields of medicine, pesticide, health protection and so on. It was one of branched chain amino acids and played important roles in animal production, such as elevating the quality of the milk, developing immunity, accommodating the protein metabolism, and providing energy. Its application, production technology and prospect in livestock and aquatic production were summarized. Valine can improve the milk of sow. Growth performance of weanling piglets and poultry could be improved significantly by the suitable dietary valine levels. The development in production technology for valine was largely promoted by its application. The research advances of the preparation of valine by synthesis and fermentation methods at home and abroad were introduced. It could offer a basis on application of valine in livestock and aquatic production and for industrial production of valine.%缬氨酸是一种支链氨基酸,在生命体内物质代谢调控和信息传递等许多方面扮演着重要角色,广泛应用于营养添加剂、饲料添加剂、调味品、医药、农药和保健品等方面。本文综述了缬氨酸在畜禽和水产生产中的应用,缬氨酸能改善母猪母乳营养成分,促进仔猪生长,提高家禽生产性能,以及在水产生产方面的影响。同时,还对生产缬氨酸的主要技术路线及应用有关进展情况与前景作介绍。

  1. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    change processes in the European food culture facilitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? 4. Our contribution to an answer to the first question is based on interviews concerning food consumption with 20,000 consumers in 16 European countries. The data suggest ways of clustering...... different European countries and regions to more homogeneous export markets but in general confir heterogeneity of the European food cultures. 5. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated...... because Denmark in the macro-level analysis showed signs of being one of the most generally open food cultures in Europe with relatively many overlapping characteristics with other European food cultures. It consisted of five focus grou interviews and six auto-driven interviews with selected households. 7...

  2. Ganadería y Contaminación Difusa, Implicancias para el Sur de Chile Livestock Production and Diffuse Pollution, Implications for Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alfaro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Producto de los tratados de libre comercio firmados por Chile, que auguran la apertura de mercados para la exportación de productos lácteos y cárnicos, se espera que la actividad ganadera del Sur del país se incremente e intensifique. A pesar del conocimiento técnico disponible para el incremento de la productividad del rubro, poco se sabe con certeza sobre el impacto ambiental de esta actividad, en especial sobre cursos de agua, a pesar de que los ríos y lagos de la región son además la base de otras actividades económicas de importancia, como la acuicultura y el turismo. En países desarrollados se ha demostrado que existe una fuerte relación causa-efecto entre la actividad ganadera y la polución difusa de cursos de agua superficiales, en especial de su eutroficación por altas concentraciones de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P. Realizando un análisis de los mecanismos que controlan dichas pérdidas, es posible plantear un escenario futuro para la Región de Los Lagos, en el sur de Chile. El mayor uso de insumos, el incremento de la carga animal, la falta de normas de manejo mejoradas y la incorporación de zonas de mayor pendiente o con implementación de drenaje artificial a la actividad permiten prever un bajo nivel de eficiencia en el uso del N y P que ingresan como fertilizantes a los sistemas ganaderos de la región, incrementándose sus pérdidas y pudiendo generarse con ello la subsecuente eutroficación de los cursos de agua aledaños.As a result of the free trade agreements signed by Chile, which will open markets for the export of dairy and beef products, it is expected that the livestock production activity will be increased and intensified in Southern Chile. Despite the technological knowledge available for livestock production in the area, little is known about the environmental impact of this activity, especially on surface waters, in spite of the fact that the rivers and lakes of the region are also the main resources

  3. Principles of livestock development in the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović M.P.; Petrović M.M.; Petrović Caro V.; Muslić Ružić D.; Ilić Z.; Petrović M.; Pavlovski Z.

    2012-01-01

    Livestock production is an important branch of agriculture in the Republic of Serbia because it provides necessary products (milk, meat, eggs). In addition, livestock production provides raw materials for food industry and leather industry. Livestock production is expected to provide quality products for export, primarily beef and lamb. There is an opportunity for export of cheese (especially sheep and goat milk cheese) with defined origin and standard of q...

  4. Managing livestock in degrading environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While overgrazing is often blamed for environmental degradation, there is clear evidence that livestock are not inherently damaging to rangelands or farming landscapes, and, in fact, may be required for their sustained health and profitability. Moderate to heavy grazing has, in some cases created highly resilient and ecologically sound systems while under-grazing has resulted in dense woody growth and reduced species diversity. Conversion of rangelands into intensive crop/fodder production has also led to progressive loss of diversity, species connectivity and ability to recover. Well-managed livestock in either a grassland or mixed crop/livestock system offer a highly efficient method of increasing the production of high quality food with minimal environmental impact. Although an ecological case can be established for the continued use of livestock in degrading landscapes, the reality is, livestock will only be grazed responsibly if the owner receives a benefit from the process. Importantly, by providing a potentially profitable option, the revegetation of degraded or partly degraded landscapes may take place through the expenditure of private rather than public funding. Given the vastness of the landscapes in question and the urban priorities in the expenditure of public funds, significant progress is only likely if profitable solutions are available. This use of livestock may or may not contribute to the return of the landscape to its original state. In some cases stable vegetation that provides some of the functional benefits of the original landscape, combined with the productive benefits of a profitable livestock system may be the best option available. This then provides an opportunity to design a landscape based on a range of predetermined objectives which include both profit and ecosystem services. For example, in Western Australia, the revegetation of 10% of the 1 million ha of saline land with halophytic shrubs and salt tolerant forage has resulted in a

  5. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other official designated by the area supervisor. No anthrax vaccine (live organisms) shall be used on... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens...

  6. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. PMID:23357510

  7. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  8. Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Francis, G; Becker, K

    2007-10-01

    Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth; for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for

  9. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella serovars in integrated crop-livestock farms and their products sold in local markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengfei; Salaheen, Serajus; Almario, Jose Alejandro; Tesfaye, Bezait; Buchanan, Robert; Biswas, Debabrata

    2016-05-01

    Major concern in the Mixed Crop-Livestock (MCL) farms, in which livestock and vegetables grown closely in the same facility, is cross-contamination of zoonotic bacterial pathogens especially Salmonella. To investigate the distribution of Salmonella serovars in MCL and their products, a total of 1287 pre-harvest samples from various farms and 1377 post-harvest samples from retail supermarkets in Maryland and Washington D.C. areas were collected and analysed. A total of 315 Salmonella isolates were recovered, with 17.44% and 5.88%, from MCL and conventional farms samples (P post-harvest level, the prevalence of Salmonella was 30.95%, 19.83%, and 8.38% in chicken meat (P < 0.001) from farmers, organic, and conventional retail markets respectively, and 16.81% and 6.06% in produce products (P < 0.001) from farmers and organic retail markets, but none from conventional retail markets. From the isolated Salmonella, 34.50% was confirmed S. Typhimurium, followed by S. Heidelberg (10.86%) and S. Enteritidis (9.90%). The overall multi-antibiotic resistance in recovered Salmonella was 23.81% versus 4.55% in conventional and MCL farms (P = 0.004) and 66.67% versus 7.76% in conventional and farmers markets (P < 0.001). Overall the data reveals higher Salmonella risks in MCL farms' environment and their products sold in farmers markets and warrants taking necessary measures to limit Salmonella transmission. PMID:26914740

  10. Prevalence of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the surface water of a livestock production region in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Zhang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L(-1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment.

  11. ANALYSIS OF LIVESTOCK AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Silviu BECIU; Raluca Georgiana LĂDARU

    2013-01-01

    In Romania the livestock sector generates significant outputs for the agricultural and the national economy. Geographical distribution of the livestock production systems varies between regions of development, due local traditions, production conditions, and consumer choices options. This paper analysis the livestock sector at regional level for all animal species considered for production. For the research method, based on regional analysis has been considered statistical approach, based of ...

  12. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce McCarl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  13. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  14. The Impact of Trade Openness on Gross Domestic Product : A study of the Asian Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Glommen Andersson, Elin; Severin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis in economics examines the Asian financial crisis, the impact on the countries in the region and how well they recovered financially. The countries that are taken into consideration are Japan, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.  The variables used to explain the implications of the crisis are GDP, trade openness, unemployment and current account. Descriptive statistics show that the most closed economy that was affected by a current acco...

  15. GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY OF RANKING OF LIVESTOCK IN SOLAPUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. MASKE

    Full Text Available Livestocks are one of most different breeds of animals which are reared together in farms and used either to produce food, fiber or raw material. Livestock farming is the raising of animals for food or raw material. Livestock animals play an important role in rural economic development. Some of these animals include cattle or dairy cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep. Other livestock animals include pigs, horse, camel, donkey and mules. Bees can be raised generally for production of honey. The aim of present paper is to study ranking of livestock in Solapur district of Maharashtra. The entire investigation is based on secondary sources of data. The data obtained from socio-economic review and District statistical abstract of Solapur district, department of animal husbandry zilla parishad Solapur, livestock census etc. It is also observed that the Goat, Cattle, buffalo and sheep are the first, second, third and fourth ranking livestock in the study region respectively.

  16. Produção pecuária no montado: suínos Livestock production in the “montado”: pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção pecuária no montado alentejano é muito importante, ao nível da exploração e à escala regional. Baseia-se no sistema silvo-pastoril, com aproveitamento directo dos recursos alimentares naturais por raças autóctones. O porco alentejano é considerado o rei dos montados alentejanos, destaca-se no aproveitamento pecuário desta floresta de uso múltiplo. Na primeira metade do século passado a raça alentejana representava cerca de 50% do armentio suíno português. A intensificação dos sistemas de produção, agrícolas e pecuários, contribuiu para um decréscimo acentuado, da suinicultura extensiva tradicional. Em 1986 a população de suínos autóctones no Alentejo tinha decaído para cerca de 2% do total nacional. As raças locais, seja de porcos ou ruminantes tem conhecido recentemente uma notoriedade nova, quando se aliam os produtos delas derivados ao território, numa perspectiva de fileira. A evolução da PAC e a consciencialização para os problemas ambientais contribuíram para reenquadrar os sistemas silvopastoris e, particularmente, a montanheira numa óptica produtiva sustentável. A montanheira tradicional consiste na engorda de porcos, com idades de 14 a 18 meses, em regime de pastoreio durante o Outono e Inverno, nos sob-cobertos dos montados de azinho e sobro. A engorda tardia, fortemente amilácea, produz carcaças pesadas de 120 kg a 140 kg com grande adiposidade. Porém, com a desejável infiltração de gordura intermuscular. O maneio adequado, à optimização das características da carcaça e à aptidão tecnológica da carne e gordura nos sistemas silvo-pastoris, implica conhecer objectivamente: os recursos naturais, a fisiologia particular das raças locais, as características físicas químicas e sensoriais requeridas pelos produtos tradicionais e pela carne fresca.Livestock production in Alentejo has been very important considering both farm and general economy. It is based on natural

  17. Prospects of Sustainable Livestock Farming in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Sati; R. B. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Livestock farming forms an integral part in the economy of the Uttarakhand Himalaya and plays an important role in the mixed crop farming system. In addition, high diversity in livestock composition is the characteristic features of the mainland of Uttarakhand. The state obtains high potential of milk production because of availability of fodder as a form of extensive grasslands, which are locally known as bugyals or kharaks and fodder trees. Livestock, other than milk production, are widely ...

  18. Strategy of Utilization of Locally Available Crop Residues and By-Products for Livestock Feeding in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Moujahed-Raach, A.; Moujahed, N.; Kayouli, C.

    2000-01-01

    Important quantifies of crops residues and by-products are yearly available in North African countries. This paper presents the screening of the most important by-products in Tunisia, their nutritional characteristics and the appropriate strategies to use most of them in order to improve ruminants feeding systems. One or several by-products are specifie of each region of the country, but most of them are localised in the northern region. Some of the agricultural wastes are available in import...

  19. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands–livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop–livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling. (paper)

  20. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, M. C.; Brandt, P.; Herrero, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-10-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands-livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop-livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling.

  1. Study on Measures and Policies to Reduce Pollution in Raising Livestock and Poultry in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yonghong; GUAN, Yongxiang; Wu, Hao; Wang, Zichen

    2013-01-01

    As a developed province in China, Jiangsu Province is competitive in the livestock and poultry production industry. With the development and growing intensity of livestock and poultry industry, animal pollution has become the major source of panel agricultural pollution. This paper studied the characteristics of livestock and poultry industry in Jiangsu Province: large amount of livestock poultry, imbalanced development of livestock and regional differences, large pollution, large amount of p...

  2. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It t

  3. Development, evaluation and popularization of medicated and non-medicated urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks for ruminant livestock production under smallholder conditions of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory and field experiments led to development of four suitable urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) formulas to suit different agro-ecological zones of Sri Lanka, for improving livestock productivity. The formulas developed were based on the production potential of the target animals and the quality of available roughage feeds. Feeding of UMMB to dairy cattle and buffalo resulted in both 'catalytic' and 'supplementary' effects. These effects were demonstrated by improved feed intake and digestibility and increased live weight gain of cattle and buffalo calves. The body condition of adult cows was satisfactorily maintained with UMMB use. Supplementation with UMMB improved milk yield and butterfat content, and extended the persistency of the lactation curve compared to traditional concentrate feedings. Reproductive performance was also improved by reducing the number of days from parturition to first service. Benefit : cost ratio for UMMB use was variable between the management systems, basal feed on offer and the agro-ecological zones but the benefits were, overall, satisfactory. Medicated blocks for goats substantially reduced the parasitic burden as indicated by reduced faecal worm egg counts. Supplementation with molybdenum also significantly decreased the parasite burden of goats. For cattle, due to logistical reasons the medicated block was considered unsuitable under local conditions in Sri Lanka. (author)

  4. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  5. Mountain Home Geothermal Project: geothermal energy applications in an integrated livestock meat and feed production facility at Mountain Home, Idaho. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B.; Brink, W.R.; Fisher, L.A.; Matherson, R.H.; Neilson, J.A.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-02-01

    The Mountain Home Geothermal Project is an engineering and economic study of a vertically integrated livestock meat and feed production facility utilizing direct geothermal energy from the KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) southeast of Mountain Home, Idaho. A system of feed production, swine raising, slaughter, potato processing and waste management was selected for study based upon market trends, regional practices, available technology, use of commercial hardware, resource characteristics, thermal cascade and mass flow considerations, and input from the Advisory Board. The complex covers 160 acres; utilizes 115 million Btu per hour (34 megawatts-thermal) of geothermal heat between 300/sup 0/F and 70/sup 0/F; has an installed capital of $35.5 million;produces 150,000 hogs per year, 28 million lbs. of processed potatoes per year, and on the order of 1000 continuous horsepower from methane. The total effluent is 200 gallons per minute (gpm) of irrigation water and 7300 tons per year of saleable high grade fertilizer. The entire facility utilizes 1000 gpm of 350/sup 0/F geothermal water. The economic analysis indicates that the complex should have a payout of owner-invested capital of just over three years. Total debt at 11% per year interest would be paid out in 12 (twelve) years.

  6. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES versus Semi-Extensive System (SES] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones.

  7. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  8. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  9. Livestock Update. August 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; Eller, A. L. (Arthur Laxton), 1933-

    2011-01-01

    Contains articles on August beef management, Tri-State Cow Calf Conference, Virginia Livestock Hall of Fame, tips for successful sheep breeding, sheep field day, and an upcoming conference on parasite control in sheep and goats.

  10. Women and Common Property Resources in the Management and Health of Livestock in Thai Villages

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Tatjana; Tisdell, Clem

    1996-01-01

    In many Asian countries, women play a significant but varying role in the management of livestock and the use of common resources plays an important role in animal husbandry, and can affect the health of some types of livestock. This paper concentrates on village livestock in Thailand and makes use of survey data as well as national statistics. It first of all outlines the nature and development of livestock industries in Thailand. It then considers the role which women play in the village li...

  11. Research Progress and Analysis of Carbon Footprint of Livestock Products%畜禽产品碳足迹研究进展与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文强; 董红敏; 朱志平; 刘翀; 陶秀萍; 王悦

    2015-01-01

    放量占整个系统的(55.42±2.7)%,N2O 是猪肉生产碳足迹中贡献率最高的温室气体,占整个系统其排放量的(56.8±10.4)%,CH4是牛肉和牛奶生产碳足迹中贡献率最高的温室气体,分别占牛肉和牛奶碳足迹的(50.2±8.3)%和(58.6±8.3)%。目前国外尤其是欧美等发达国家关于畜禽产品碳足迹研究相对较多,但采用的评估方法和计算模型不同,需要建立统一的畜禽产品碳足迹评估方法。中国在畜禽产品碳足迹评估领域仍处于起步阶段,建议在国内外现有研究的基础上,建立符合中国生产实际的评价方法,系统评估中国畜禽产品的碳足迹,同时针对不同畜禽产品碳足迹贡献率高的环节开展减排技术研究,为科学评估中国畜禽产品的碳足迹,筛选减排技术,降低碳排放强度提供支持。%Livestock production is one of the important emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), evaluation of the carbon footprint of livestock products is vital for selection of mitigation technology and promotion of low-carbon agriculture. Based on current evaluation methods of carbon footprint, this study summarized the domestic and overseas researches on assessment of the carbon footprint of animal products (eggs, pork, beef and milk), and made a comprehensive analysis based on the present research achievements. Carbon footprint of livestock products varies with unit of animal products. The carbon footprint in producing 1 kg of beef is the greatest and reaches (20.51±8.39) kg CO2-eq, followed by 1 kg of pork and eggs production with (4.24±1.07) kg CO2-eq and (2.24±0.83) kg CO2-eq, respectively, while that in producing 1 kg milk is the minimum of (1.19±0.40) kg CO2-eq. The carbon footprint in producing 1 kg protein from animal products is in a descending order as beef>milk>pork and egg, with values of (103.05±42.14), (39.72±13.20), (32.09±8.14) and (19.37±7.15) kg CO2-eq, respectively. The carbon footprint in

  12. Recycling of solid wastes in Mexico City in livestock and agricultural production systems as a sustainable alternative

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Cortes, J; Rivera, J.; Vargas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of solid organic wastes (manure and  fruit and vegetable refusals) as a way to recycle rubbish from peri-urban areas for the production of crops for local consumption, has been designated by some researchers as an alternate method to partially reduce city waste disposal problems as well as to generate employment and promote the consumption of local products. This model production has also been suggested as a closed system ideally suited for urban environments in order to reduce the us...

  13. Global Climate Change: Role of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Naqvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. The GHG emissions from the agriculture sector account for about 25.5% of total global radiative forcing and over 60% of anthropogenic sources. Animal husbandry accounts for 18% of GHG emissions that cause global warming. Reducing the increase of GHG emissions from agriculture, especially livestock production should therefore be a top priority, because it could curb warming fairly rapidly. Among the GHGs, CH4 is considered to be the largest potential contributor to the global warming phenomenon. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. Indian livestock system is a large contributor to GHGs and therefore also to the global warming phenomenon. Methane emission from enteric fermentation from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.

  14. Relationship between food polyamines and gross domestic product in association with longevity in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between gross domestic pro- duct (GDP and dietary profile, with a focus on polyamine intake, was investigated in 35 Asian countries. Data on food supply, GDP, and health condition were collected from databases of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Health Organization, respectively. The amount of polyamine intake from food was estimated using polyamine concentrations listed in published sources. The amounts of putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and total polyamines in 1000 kcal of food in Asian countries were 39.07 ± 17.98, 33.74 ± 14.35, 14.05 ± 6.60 and 86.85 ± 33.96 μmol/1000 kcal, respectively. Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine constituted 44, 39, and 17% of total polyamine, respectively. Vegetables contributed the largest amount of both putrescine and spermidine and the second largest amount of spermine (45.5%, 62.2% and 27.2% of total putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively. Meat was the richest source of spermine and contributed the greatest amount (50% of this polyamine. We showed a significant positive association between GDP and the amount of polyamine per 1000 kcal of food. Lifespan was associated with both GDP and the amount of polyamine per energy quotient of food. As several basic research studies have shown that polyamines help prolong longevity, it follows that polyamines may have a role in determining the lifespan of humans.

  15. Strategy of Utilization of Locally Available Crop Residues and By-Products for Livestock Feeding in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moujahed-Raach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Important quantifies of crops residues and by-products are yearly available in North African countries. This paper presents the screening of the most important by-products in Tunisia, their nutritional characteristics and the appropriate strategies to use most of them in order to improve ruminants feeding systems. One or several by-products are specifie of each region of the country, but most of them are localised in the northern region. Some of the agricultural wastes are available in important quantifies but are of nutritionally poor or moderate qualifies (straw, olive wastes, poultry litter, etc, while others are produced in limited amounts but are of very interesting feeding values (sugar beet pulp, brewers grain, date residue, etc. The main applied strategies to valorise Tunisian agricultural by-products consist in ammoniation of cereal straws along with supplementation with multinutriment blocks and formulation of balanced diets based totally or partially on them. These alternatives are crucial in the improvement of feeding values of studied diets and animal performances essentially by improving microbial activity in the rumen. In Tunisia such solution could be applied both in extensive and moderate animal production systems.

  16. Managing livestock in degrading environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degraded environments are both widespread (being found on all continents on earth) and diverse. They have been broadly classified as: irrigated (and rain-fed) farmland with elevated water tables causing salinity; rain-fed farmland with soil erosion, loss of organic matter, nutrient depletion and weed invasion; and degraded rangeland. This review considers all these but with a focus on the first two, and particularly addresses options for simultaneous improvement in livestock production and landscape health. There is evidence that responsible grazing is consistent with ecosystem benefits and resilient land use systems; exclusion from grazing may reduce diversity and create management complexity. Responsible grazing however will only prevail if the land owner or user receives a financial benefit in the process. Solutions need to be profitable. In the development and management of grazing systems, expectations need to be realistic. The prescriptive approach to livestock feeding based on the selection and cultivation of a small range of improved plant species to meet predetermined energy, protein and mineral requirements is inappropriate. Degraded landscapes are often associated with a high edaphic and climatic variability that is best suited to a diverse range of plant species in an assembly that will fluctuate over time and space. This diversity means that under some circumstances degraded land may contribute to reduced risk within a whole farm business. Simultaneous objectives for livestock and landscape improvement may or may not contribute to the return of the landscape to its original state. In some cases stable vegetation that provides some of the functional benefits of the original landscape, such as improved biodiversity and soil health, combined with production benefits is the best option available. This provides an opportunity to establish a range of objectives in vegetation management and design. In Australia, such an approach is leading to the development

  17. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of livestock feed. 205.306 Section 205.306... feed. (a) Livestock feed products described in § 205.301(e)(1) and (e)(2) may display on any package... modify the name of the feed product; (2) The USDA seal; (3) The seal, logo, or other identifying mark...

  18. Southern Hemisphere imprint for Indo-Asian summer monsoons during the last glacial period as revealed by Arabian Sea productivity records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, T.; Zaragosi, S.; Bourget, J.; Martinez, P.; Malaizé, B.; Eynaud, F.; Rossignol, L.; Garlan, T.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.

    2013-11-01

    The monsoon is one of the most important climatic phenomena: it promotes inter-hemispheric exchange of energy and affects the economical prosperity of several countries exposed to its seasonal seesaw. Previous studies in both the Indian and Asian monsoon systems have generally suggested a dominant northern hemispheric (NH) control on summer monsoon dynamics at the scale of suborbital-millennial climatic changes, while the forcing/response of Indian and Asian monsoons at the orbital scale remains a matter of debate. Here, six marine sediment cores distributed across the whole Arabian Sea are used to build a regional surface marine productivity signal. The productivity signal is driven by the intensity of Indian summer monsoon winds. Our results demonstrate the existence of an imprint of suborbital southern hemispheric (SH) temperature changes (i.e. Antarctica) on the Indian summer monsoon during the last glacial period that is generally not recognized. During the last deglaciation, the NH played a more significant role. This suggests that fluctuations in the Indian monsoon are better explained in a bipolar context. The δ18O signal recorded in the Asian monsoon speleothem records could be exported by winds from the Indian summer monsoon region, as recently proposed in modelling exercise, explaining the SH signature observed in Asian cave speleothems. Contrary to the view of a passive response of Indian and Asian monsoons to NH anomalies, the present results appear to suggest that the Indo-Asian summer monsoon plays an active role in amplifying millennial inter-hemispheric asymmetric patterns. Additionally, this study confirms previously observed differences between Indian and Asian speleothem monsoonal records at the orbital-precession scale.

  19. Use of nuclear techniques for improving livestock production and health in Sri Lanka: A review of studies conducted and strategies for technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear techniques for studies on livestock production in Sri Lanka commenced in the 1970's with the establishment of Radioimmunoassay(RIA) technique for measuring reproductive hormones in the blood and milk of buffaloes, cattle and goats. Progesterone measurement was used in a series of studies to monitor reproductive status of ruminants under small-holder farming conditions in different agro-ecological zones, to identify the major constraints and to test methods for improving fertility. Thereafter, other isotopic techniques were established and used together with conventional methods for studies on nutrition, environmental physiology and disease control. In the early 1980's the nuclear-related technique of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was established and applied for studies on the immune response of buffaloes to Toxocara vitulorum infection. Subsequently, ELISA techniques were used for studies on sero-epidomology and control of important viral and bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes (rotavirus infection, haemorrhagic specticaemia, brucellosis, rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease). The most recent development has been the use of ELISA for diagnosing viral diseases of poultry. In order to transfer the findings from research to the end-users, a multi disciplinary programme was launched in 1995, with the focus on improving buffalo production. Selected farms in three regions of the country participated in the testing, modification and evaluation of appropriate technology packages aimed at imroving the productivity and health of their animals in a sustainable and economically feasible manner. They were provided assistance to upgrade their operations to the status of farms, which are now serving as demonstration sites and training locations for other farmers (AU)

  20. 100% Organic Livestock Feeds – preparing for 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Jake; Weller, Richard; McCalman, Heather

    2003-01-01

    A project entitled “100% Organic Livestock Feeds – Preparing for 2005” looking at the implications for organic farmers of the removal of the current derogation to use a percentage of non-organic livestock feeds. 1) Researching the required volume of feed stuff, in particular protein crops, and potential for feed production within Wales. 2) Researching the suitability of alternative protein sources, and evaluating livestock systems regarding the potential for a reduction in energy and pr...

  1. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce McCarl; S. Niggol Seo

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species ...

  2. The Burden of Livestock Parasites on the Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Cassidy L; Garchitorena, Andres; Ngonghala, Calistus N; Gillespie, Thomas R; Bonds, Matthew H

    2015-11-01

    Parasitic diseases of humans and livestock are ubiquitous in the developing world and have substantial impacts on human wellbeing. For the estimated one billion people living in poverty who rely on livestock for their livelihoods, parasites steal valuable nutritional resources through multiple pathways. This diversion of nutrients ultimately contributes to chronic malnutrition, greater human disease burdens, and decreased productivity of both humans and livestock. PMID:26604161

  3. Living with Livestock: Dealing with Pig Waste in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Ma. Angeles O.; Moises A. Dorado; Elpidio Agbisit, Jr

    2001-01-01

    As livestock production increases worldwide, livestock waste is becoming a serious environmental hazard. In some cases, the damages have been spectacular and even tragic. In June 1995, the artificial waste lagoon at a hog farm in North Carolina burst. The sudden release of nearly 100 million litres of hog urine and feces polluted neighbouring communities and killed millions of fish in nearby rivers (Worldwatch, March/April, 2001). In 2000, drinking water contaminated by livestock waste led to...

  4. Environmental benefits of extensive livestock farming: wildfire prevention and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Jabier

    2012-01-01

    Livestock production systems are progressively shifting towards an industrialized model that is outcompeting extensive livestock farms in regions such as Mediterranean Europe. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate on the environmental sustainability of these changing livestock systems by focusing on two linked environmental issues (wildfires and climate change) and on Spain as a representative study case. In recent decades, wildfires have dramatically increased in...

  5. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  6. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  7. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  8. Rapid screening method for quinolone residues in livestock and fishery products using immobilised metal chelate affinity chromatographic clean-up and liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, N; Gotoh, M; Matsuoka, T

    2011-09-01

    An efficient LC method was developed for screening the presence of quinolones (QLs)--comprising fluoroquinolones (FQs) and acidic quinolones (AQs)--residues in various livestock and fishery products. Targeted analytes were for nine FQs of marbofloxacin (MAR), ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR), danofloxacin (DAN), orbifloxacin (ORB), difloxacin (DIF) and sarafloxacin (SAR), and three AQs of oxolinic acid (OXA), nalidixic acid (NAL) and flumequine (FMQ). Samples comprised ten different food products covering five matrices: muscle (cattle, swine and chicken), liver (chicken), raw fish (shrimp and salmon), egg (chicken), and processed food (ham, sausage and fish sausage). This method involved a simple extraction with (1:1) acetonitrile-methanol, a highly selective clean-up with an immobilised metal chelate affinity column charged with Fe(3+), a fast isocratic LC analysis using a short column (20 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with a mobile phase of (15:85:0.1) methanol/water/formic acid, and fluorescence detection (excitation/emission wavelengths of 295 nm/455 nm for FQs (495 nm for MAR), and 320 nm/365 nm for AQs). Among FQs, pairs of NOR/OFL, ORB/DIF and ENR/DAN were incompletely resolved. A confirmatory LC run with a Mg(2+) containing methanolic mobile phase was also proposed for the samples suspected of being positive. The optimised method gave satisfactory recoveries of 88.5% (56.1-108.6%) and 78.7% (44.1-99.5%) for intra- and inter-day assays with relative standard deviations of 7.2% (0.7-18.4%) and 6.8% (1.4-16.6%), respectively. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.8 µg kg(-1) (DAN) to 6.5 µg kg(-1) (SAR). This method was successfully employed to analyse 113 real samples and two positive samples were found: fish sausage (CIP 990 µg kg(-1)) and shrimp (ENR 20 µg kg(-1)). PMID:21749230

  9. Livestock systems and competing claims for land at the wildlife-bsed tourism/livestock interface

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminuka, P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Zijpp, van der, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses competition for land between communal grazing livestock systems and emerging preferences for wildlife-based tourism land uses in the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Renewed efforts to improve livestock production as a tool for rural development in Southern Africa come at a time that new transfrontier parks present new opportunities for rural communities to generate incomes from tourism. These multiple opportunities for rural livelihoods intensify competing claims on g...

  10. Projecting Livestock Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Rod; Gardiner, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) undertakes forecasts and projections of livestock numbers as part of the twice yearly contribution to The Treasury’s economic and fiscal updates. MAF’s Pastoral Supply Response Model (PSRM) was recently re-developed and used for the first time in the Budget Economic and Fiscal Update round of 2004. The PSRM projects annual inventory numbers as at 30 June, births and livestock numbers for slaughter. The paper discusses the PSRM, the post-model adj...

  11. Vulnerability, climate change and livestock – research opportunities and challenges for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Thornton

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in developing countries are characterised by rapid change, driven by factors such as population growth, increases in the demand for livestock products as incomes rise, and urbanisation. Climate change is adding to the considerable development challenges posed by these drivers of change. How can livestock keepers take advantage of the increasing demand for livestock products, where this is feasible, and how can the livestock assets of the poor be protected in the face of changing and increasingly variable climates? Given the complexity of livestock and crop-livestock systems, a mix of technological, policy and institutional innovations will inevitably be required. Here we outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems, and discuss some of the resultant priority livestock development issues: water and feeds, livestock genetics and breeding, and animal health. We highlight livestock's role in alleviating poverty and helping households to deal with climate variability. However, there are considerable gaps in our knowledge of how climate change and increasing climate variability will affect livestock systems and the livelihoods of the people who depend on them. We highlight the need for detailed assessment of localised impacts, and the importance of identifying appropriate options that can help livestock keepers adapt to climate change.

  12. Livestock intensification and use of natural resources in smallholder mixed farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Viets, T.C.; Zijpp, van der, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bhutan aims to intensify livestock production not only to improve livelihoods of farming households and to meet the increasing demands of livestock products, but also to sustainably use natural resources. This paper assesses the impact and trends of livestock intensification on the use of Common Property Resources (CPR), and how this affects the cattle numbers that can be maintained and the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows at the farm. Data on household, cropping and livestock activities...

  13. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van, T.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  14. Livestock Update. January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott P.; McCann, Mark A.; Smith, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This issue of Livestock Update includes articles on dates to remember, herd management, selection for marbling in a cowherd, 2014 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale results, 2015 Stocker Cattle Summit to focus on forage management for optimal animal gain, sheep update, and the 48th Virginia Pork Industry Conference.

  15. Virtual herding for flexible livestock management - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-ranging livestock play a pivotal role globally in the conversion of plant tissue into products and services that support man’s many and changing lifestyles. With domestication came the task of providing livestock with an adequate plane of nutrition while simultaneously managing vegetation for s...

  16. Livestock development planning in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Todd; Mugarura, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Livestock are an important element of the livelihoods of many Ugandan households, and considerable efforts at economic development by the government of Uganda have focused on the livestock sector. However, these development efforts have suffered due to a lack of detailed data on the distribution of livestock in Uganda to guide the targeting of such programs. In this paper we use data from the 2008 National Livestock Census to develop a better understanding of where in Uganda there might be po...

  17. Spatial characteristics of phosphorus flow in crop-livestock production systems in Shanxi, China%山西省农牧生产体系磷流动空间变异特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建杰; 郭彩霞; 张一弓; 张强

    2016-01-01

    为揭示山西省农牧生产体系磷流动空间分布特征,进一步为养分资源综合管理提供科学建议,本研究使用食物链养分流动模型(NUFER)与ArcGIS相结合,以2011年山西省11个地市农牧生产体系为研究对象,计算了农牧生产体系中的磷流动、损失及账户平衡,并对各个生产体系的磷利用效率(PUE)、有机废弃物中磷的循环利用效率、磷的损失途径等重要指标进行了综合评价,描述了2011年山西省各地市农牧生产体系与区域尺度的磷流动变化特征。研究结果表明,山西省各地市农牧体系磷的投入和损失差异较大,农田生产体系投入范围在22.5~83.0 kg·hm-2,而整个农牧生产体系损失区间在2.7~8.8 kg·hm-2;磷的投入和损失均总体呈现东南部高、西北部低的空间分布格局;各地市农田磷素均有盈余但程度不均,为9.4~48.4 kg·hm-2。农田生产系统的磷素利用效率(PUEc)高于全国平均水平;农牧生产体系的磷利用效率(PUEc+a)较低,全省平均水平仅为30.3%,主要是由于农牧分离较为严重;有机废弃物的循环利用效率较低(60%)。省域东南部存在潜在环境风险,晋城、晋中等地市有大量的粪尿磷未得到回收利用,可作为周边农业主产区的农田养分资源。因此通过提高农牧生产体系的养分管理水平和区域间养分资源协同管理,能够大幅提高磷的利用效率,同时有效降低环境风险,实现山西农业可持续发展。%A quantitative understanding of phosphorus (P) flow, loss and use efficiency is critical for improving the productivity and sustainability of agriculture while minimizing environment impact. However, most studies have focused primarily on either crop systems or livestock systems. Hence the analysis of P flow in integrated crop-livestock production systems has been largely lacking and the spatial characteristics of P flow has not been entirely known. Here, we quantified P

  18. Climbing the technology ladder too fast?: an international comparison of productivity in South and East-Asian manufacturing, 1963-1993

    OpenAIRE

    Timmer, MP Marcel

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a star comparison of manufacturing productivity levels in China, India, Indonesia, South Korea and Taiwan with the US as the reference country for the period 1963-1993. South Korea and Taiwan showed prolonged catch up in labour productivity with the US, whereas the other countries had long periods of relative stagnation. This is reflected in relative performance of seven detailed manufacturing branches. Physical capital per hour worked in the Asian countries is still well ...

  19. Radiation effects on livestock: physiological effects, dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farm livestock show no measurable effects from being exposed to ionizing radiation unless the level is greatly in excess of the natural background radiation. Possible sources of ionizing radiation which might affect livestock or contribute to radioactivity in the food chain to humans are reactor accidents, fuel reprocessing plant accidents and thermonuclear explosions. Most data on ionizing radiation effects on livestock are from whole body gamma doses near the LD 50/60 level. However, grazing livestock would be subjected to added beta exposure from ingested and skin retained radioactive particles. Results of attempts to simulate exposure of the Hereford cattle at Alamogardo, NM show that cattle are more sensitive to ingested fallout radiation than other species. Poultry LD 50/60 for gamma exposure is about twice the level for mammals, and swine appear to have the most efficient repair system being able to withstand the most chronic gamma exposure. Productivity of most livestock surviving an LD 50/60 exposure is temporarily reduced and longterm effects are small. Livestock are good screeners against undesirables in our diet and with the exception of radiosotopes of iodine in milk, very little fission product radioactivity would be expected to be transferred through the food chain in livestock products for humans. Feeding of stored feed or moving livestock to uncontaminated pastures would be the best protective action to follow. 29 references

  20. Mitigating GHG emissions from ruminant livestock systems

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, Katja; Doreau, Michel; Faverdin, Philippe; Jeuffroy, Marie-Helene; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaïc; Soussana, Jean-François; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Improving the net GHG budget of ruminant livestock systems without a reduction in productivity and economic sustainability, requires effective mitigation options in terms of abatement potential and costs. Grasslands and grassland management have a large potential to mitigate livestock GHG emissions at a low (or even negative) cost. A synthesis of eddy flux covariance data (i.e. 189 site years) shows on a mean net carbon storage equal to 0.76 ±0.1 MgC m-2yr-1, indicating a significant carbon s...

  1. Model based quantification of global virtual water trade and the sources of water withdrawal for major crops and livestock products (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Inuzuka, T.; Kanae, S.

    2010-12-01

    ) and three livestock products (beef, pork, and chicken) is 545 km3 yr-1. Of the total virtual water exports, 61 km3 yr-1 (11%) are blue water (i.e., irrigation water) and 26 km3 yr-1 (5%) are nonrenewable and nonlocal blue water.

  2. An Empirical Study of the Transnational Production Sharing of the Asian NICs with Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ken I Kim; Kyoo H Kim; Lesage, James P.

    1986-01-01

    The Purpose of the present study are: (1) to extend Kim and Kim's [1984] original study of transnational product sharing (TPS) of the newly Industrializing Countries (NICs) of Asia with Japan from an aggregate-flow analysis to a product sectoral analysis; and (2) to provide additional empirical evidence for the macro economic approach to trade.The results obtained from a time-serious multiple regression analysis of trade data of four product groups confirm that the hypothesized TPS is most ro...

  3. Factors Associated with Research Productivity among Oral Healthcare Educators in an Asian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Bernardo E., Jr.; Clerigo, Maria Eloisa C.

    2013-01-01

    Research writing confidence and organizational support toward research activities are two essential factors that may affect research productivity among higher educational institutions. This study investigated the possible relationships of these two factors to research productivity among faculty members of the College of Dentistry at Lyceum of the…

  4. The Economic Impact of Global Warming on Livestock Husbandry in Kenya: A Ricardian Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane (School of Economics, Univ. of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The results further suggest possible gains from rising temperatures; losses from increased precipitation, but gains in net revenues resulting from a combined effect of rising temperatures and increased precipitation

  5. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  6. Precision livestock production: tools and concepts Precisão de produção de gado: ferramentas e conceitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Laca

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Precision livestock production (PLP is the augmentation of precision agriculture (PA concepts to include all components of agroecosystems, particularly animals and plant-animal interactions. Soil, plants and soil-plant interactions are the subjects of PA or site-specific farming, where the main principle is to exploit natural spatial heterogeneity to increase efficiency and reduce environmental impacts. For the most part, PA has been studied and developed for intensive cropping systems with little attention devoted to pastoral and agropastoral systems. PLP focuses on the animal component and exploits heterogeneity in space and among individual animals towards more efficient and environmentally friendly production. Within PLP, precision grazing consists of the integration of information and communication technologies with knowledge about animal behavior and physiology to improve production of meat, milk and wool in grazing conditions. Two main goals are to minimize overgrazing of sensitive areas and to maximize the quality of the product through enhanced traceability. An integrated precision grazing system is outlined with its components: sensors of animal position, behavior and physiological status, real-time transmission of information to a decision support system, and feed-back through a series of actuators. Control of animal movement and diets is based on knowledge about species specific responses to various stimuli within the paradigms of flavor aversions and operant conditioning. Recent advances in the technologies and instrumentation available are reviewed briefly and linked to current livestock identification systems. The precision grazing vision is presented in full and the areas that need further research and development are discussed.A precisão de produção de gado (PPG se constitui em ampliação do conceito de agricultura de precisão (AP e que inclui todos os componentes de ecossistemas agrícolas, especialmente as intera

  7. Livestock Update. October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-; Callan, Peter; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; November Herd Management Advisor; Evaluate Nutrition Needs and Plan for Winter; 2014 Culpeper Senior Bull Sale; Tax and Financial Management in Profitable Years; Sheep Management Tips- Late Fall; Sheep Update; and Methods for Improving Pre-Weaning Survival Rates of Piglets.

  8. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... otherwise covered in this part, which would preclude release of the animal for slaughter for human food... diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  9. 9 CFR 89.3 - Feeding, watering, and resting livestock in the car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock in the car. 89.3 Section 89.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... livestock in the car. (a) Livestock should be unloaded into pens of the character described in § 89.5(a) for feeding, watering, and resting, unless there is ample room in the car for all of the animals to lie...

  10. An estimation of global virtual water flow and sources of water withdrawal for major crops and livestock products using a global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, Naota; Inuzuka, Toshiyuki; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-04-01

    SummaryThe concept of virtual water, which is the volume of water consumption required to produce commodities traded to an importing or exporting nation (or any region, company, individual, etc.), is a useful complement to water resource analyses of water availability and use by region. Identifying the source of virtual water, such as precipitation (green water) and irrigation water (blue water), further enhances this concept because each differs in the level of sustainability and opportunity cost. Recent improvements in global hydrological models consisting of both physically based hydrological and anthropogenic activity modules enabled us to simulate the virtual water content of major crops consistent with their global hydrological simulation. Enhancing one of these models, called H08, we were able to assess two major sources of virtual water flow or content simultaneously: green water and blue water. Blue water was further subdivided into three subcategories ( i. e., streamflow, medium-size reservoirs, and nonrenewable and nonlocal blue water). We conducted a global hydrological simulation for 15 years from 1985 to 1999 at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° (longitude and latitude). Total precipitation on land was 113,900 km 3 yr -1, with 72,080 km 3 yr -1 on average evaporating in the period 1985-1999. Green water evapotranspiration from rainfed and irrigated cropland and blue water evapotranspiration from irrigated cropland was estimated at 7820, 1720, and 1530 km 3 yr -1, respectively. Next, using global trade data for 2000 and the simulated virtual water content of major crops, the virtual water flow was estimated globally. Our results indicated that the global virtual water export ( i. e., the volume of water that an exporting nation consumes to produce the commodities that it trades abroad) of five crops (barley, maize, rice, soybean, and wheat) and three livestock products (beef, pork, and chicken) is 545 km 3 yr -1. Of the total virtual water exports

  11. THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN THE GROWTH OF LIVESTOCK SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF FAISALABAD

    OpenAIRE

    ABEDULLAH, N. MAHMOOD, M. KHALID1 AND S. KOUSER

    2009-01-01

    This study employed stratified random sampling approach to collect the input-output and socioeconomic data set to see the impact of credit on the growth of livestock sector in the rural areas. The income elasticities of meat and livestock products were highest compared to all other food items except fruits, defining the future role of livestock sector in our food basket. It was observed that credit availability expanded the livestock sector more than double (economies of size), which increase...

  12. Supplying Vegetables to Asian Cities: Is there a Case for Peri-Urban Production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midmore, D.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the dynamic interplay between peri-urban vegetable producers and their changing production and marketing environments in Asia, using examples from urban conglomerates in South, Southeast and East Asia. We discuss income generation, labour use, management of land and water r

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  14. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  15. Function of Probiotics and Its Application in the Livestock and Poultry Production%益生菌的功能及其在畜禽生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 文宇; 张佩华

    2014-01-01

    本文就益生菌的生物学功能及其在畜牧业中的应用等方面作以概述,并对其发展前景进行展望,以期为益生菌制剂在畜禽生产中更好地应用提供理论依据和实践参考。%In this paper, we have reviewed the probiotics biological functions, application and development prospects in animal husbandry, so as to provide theoretical basis and practical refer-ence for popularization and application in the production of livestock and poultry.

  16. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Battaglini; Stefano Bovolenta; Fausto Gusmeroli; Sara Salvador; Enrico Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only mil...

  17. 9 CFR 309.13 - Disposition of condemned livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 309.13 Section 309.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... ketosis, swine erysipelas, vesicular diseases, grass tetany, transport tetany, parturient paresis... the local, State, or Federal livestock sanitary official having jurisdiction....

  18. The global feed market: Asian perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhang-Yue

    2004-01-01

    Global demand for feed, especially cereal feed, is expected to increase in the decades to come. At the global level, demand for cereal feed will be met by the supply. There are, however, disparities between regions. As a result of strong livestock industry development, the Asian region as a whole will have a shortage of cereal feed and will become a major cereal feed importer. This paper examines existing projections of feed demand and supply in the Asian region. It also sheds light on the im...

  19. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens, and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, and pig) traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity. PMID:26442116

  20. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  1. Baise City of Guangxi Province Plans to Build a Key Asian Aluminium Production Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Baise City of Guangxi Province is launching a project to build the aluminium industry into a pillar industry worth 100 billion yuan,and make Baise a key aluminium production base in China and Asia at large,said Ma Biao, Chairman of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in a conference that concludes the per- formance of the government in the first half of the year.Guangxi,abundant in bauxite,is one of the four bauxite bases in China.Its potential reserve of bauxite tops 1 billion tons,mainly in

  2. Potency Of Clitoria Ternatea As Forage For Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Sutedi

    2013-01-01

    Availability of forage is one of the factors determining the success of ruminant livestock production, especially during drought that resulting in poor livestock condition. Forage legume is an important group of forage plants, containing high nutritive value. One of the legume plants which potential as ruminant feed is Clitoria ternatea. This plant can grow well in all types of soil and dry conditions, also produces seed continously. The production of forage was 25-29 ton DM/ha with seed prod...

  3. Crop-Livestock Interaction in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    McIntire, J.; Bourzat, D.; P Prabhu

    1992-01-01

    Despite the theoretical benefits of crop-livestock interaction, crop and animal production are not well integrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The transition from separate, extensive crop and animal production to integrated, more intensive forms has been difficult to achieve via projects. The mixed record of projects suggests that the way to achieve greater interaction is not well understood. In attempting to understand crop livestock relations, three basic ideas are proposed in this study: (1) cr...

  4. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; P S Minhas

    2015-01-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant ro...

  5. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. PMID:16220469

  6. Livestock Sector in North-Eastern Region of India: An Appraisal of Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anjani; Staal, Steven J.; Elumalai, K.; Singh, Dhiraj Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Although agriculture is the prime source of livelihood for a majority of rural population in the North-Eastern region (NER) of India, dependence on livestock as an alternative source of income is significant. Responding to the burgeoning demand for livestock products in a sustainable manner is a big challenge. The widening gap between the demand and supply of livestock products can be met through bringing out changes in the production structure or opening up the international trade. In this c...

  7. China’s agriculture, smallholders and trade: driven by the livestock revolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Allan N.

    2008-01-01

    China’s sustained rapid economic growth and development has contributed to the surge in consumption and production of livestock in that country termed the livestock revolution. Consumption trends are first reviewed, and changes in food consumption patterns include a marked shift away from grains and towards meats and dairy products. A question is to what extent this rapid increase in demand for livestock products is reflected in China’s agri-food trade statistics? While her agri-food imports ...

  8. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T;

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions attributable to livestock range from 8 to 51%. This variability creates confusion among policy makers and the public as it suggests that there is a lack of consensus among scientists with regard to the contribution of livestock to global GHG em...

  9. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' was held in the Vienna International Centre from 2 to 6 September 2002. Twelve Research Contracts (RCs) and 3 Research Agreements (RAs) have been awarded under this CRP and all awardees, the Project Officer and a guest speaker from the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AAHFS) participated in the RCM. The objective of the RCM was to plan the first phase of the CRP, initiation of the development and validation of methods. Specific objectives were to: Agree upon a small number of veterinary drugs upon which to focus the research; Agree upon analytical methodologies to be employed; formulate individual work plans for each research contract holder within the framework of the overall work plan. Each RC holder presented an overview of residues monitoring from the perspective of their respective countries. Emphasis was placed on problems encountered and future requirements. The participants visited the Austrian National Reference Laboratory for veterinary drug residues at Moedling and discussed the activities there with Mr. Kuhn and laboratory staff. An overall framework for phase of the CRP, focusing upon the compounds and analytical techniques of major importance to the majority of participants, was formulated. Each RC holder discussed and revised their individual work plan with the RA holders and the PO. The overall framework was then reviewed and a summary of the individual work plans presented. Conclusions and recommendations were drafted

  10. The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS as a tool for animal health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Franceschini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS. GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW, mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA, disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.

  11. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural ...

  12. Mali - A Participatory Approach to Livestock Development

    OpenAIRE

    Metzel, Jeffrey; Menudier, N.

    1997-01-01

    The livestock sector in Mali accounts for 43 percent of cattle exports in the Sahel sub-region. However, while the sub-sector accounted for 28.6 percent of agriculture's contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), investment in it amounted to only 10.7 percent of the total budget allocation to rural development. The African Financial Community (CFA) devaluation in January 1994 increased ...

  13. Integrating crops and livestock in subtropical agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Iain A; Tarawali, Shirley; Blümmel, Michael; Gerard, Bruno; Teufel, Nils; Herrero, Mario

    2012-03-30

    As the demand for livestock products increases, and is expected to continue to increase over the next few decades, especially in developing countries, smallholder mixed systems are becoming more intensive. However, with limited land and water resources and concern about the environmental impact of agricultural practices and climate change, the challenge is to find ways of increasing productivity that do not compromise household food security, but rather increase incomes equitably and sustain or enhance the natural resource base. In developed countries there has been increased specialisation of crop and livestock production. In contrast, the majority of livestock in developing countries is kept in mixed crop/livestock systems. Crops (cereal grains and pulses) and crop residues provide the basis of the diet for animals, e.g. cereal straw fed to dairy cattle or sweet potato vines fed to pigs. Animal manure can provide significant nutrient inputs to crops. Water productivity is higher in mixed crop/livestock systems compared with growing crops alone. Mixed systems allow for a more flexible and profitable use of family labour where employment opportunities are limited. They also spread risks across several enterprises, a consideration in smallholder systems that may become even more important under certain climate change scenarios. Integrated crop/livestock systems can play a significant role in improving global food security but will require appropriate technological developments, institutional arrangements and supportive policy environments if they are to fulfil that potential in the coming decades. PMID:21769884

  14. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF LIVESTOCK SECTOR THROUGH LEADING NGO IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2009-01-01

    In Bangladesh, more than half of the total popula tion is based on agricultural product and livestock. Recognizing this fact, Government has changed its development policy. Government has recognized the fact that equal participation of public and private organization can solve the problem by doing various activities. Apart from this Government encouraged NGOs and private sectors to undertake steps for the development of livestock by liberalizing its policy. Therefore, the study has tried to u...

  16. Is livestock research unproductive? Separating health maintenance from improvement research

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Robert; Thirtle, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Studies of the rates of return to research have usually been based on the implicit assumption that if there were no research, then there would be neither growth nor decline in output or productivity. In the case of livestock, particularly in southern Africa, which has a sub-tropical disease ecology and a long history of disastrous losses due to disease, the assumption is especially unreasonable. It ignores the losses that would have occurred in the absence of livestock health research, result...

  17. Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in Livestock Animals in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), c...

  18. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  19. Remote sensing-based Information for crop monitoring: contribution of SAR and Moderate resolution optical data on Asian rice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Holectz, Francesco; Manfron, Giacinto; Collivignarelli, Francesco; Nelson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Updated information on crop typology and status are strongly required to support suitable action to better manage agriculture production and reduce food insecurity. In this field, remote sensing has been demonstrated to be a suitable tool to monitor crop condition however rarely the tested system became really operative. The ones today available, such as the European Commission MARS, are mainly based on the analysis of NDVI time series and required ancillary external information like crop mask to interpret the seasonal signal. This condition is not always guarantied worldwide reducing the potentiality of the remote sensing monitoring. Moreover in tropical countries cloud contamination strongly reduce the possibility of using optical remote sensing data for crop monitoring. In this framework we focused our analysis on the rice production monitoring in Asian tropical area. Rice is in fact the staple food for half of the world population (FAO 2004), in Asia almost 90% of the world's rice is produced and consumed and Rice and poverty often coincide. In this contest the production of reliable rice production information is of extreme interest. We tried to address two important issue in terms of required geospatial information for crop monitoring: rice crop detection (rice map) and seasonal dynamics analysis (phenology). We use both SAR and Optical data in order to exploit the potential complementarity of this system. Multi-temporal ASAR Wide Swath data are in fact the best option to deal with cloud contamination. SAR can easily penetrate the clouds providing information on the surface target. Temporal analysis of archive ASAR data allowed to derived accurate map, at 100m spatial resolution, of permanent rice cultivated areas. On the other and high frequency revisiting optical data, in this case MODIS, have been used to extract seasonal information for the year under analysis. MOD09A1 Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m have been exploited to derive time series of

  20. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane [School of Economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-05-15

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  1. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  2. Property rights, risk, and livestock development in Africa: Issues and a project approach

    OpenAIRE

    Swallow, B M; McCarthy, N

    2000-01-01

    Metadata only record In 1996, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and the Institute for Rural Development at the University of Goettingen began a research project aimed at providing information to improve the efficiency, equity, and environmental sustainability of livestock production and land use in Sub-Saharan Africa. The project focused on semi-arid areas where mobile livestock-production and mixed crop-livesto...

  3. Potential assessment on biogas production by using livestock manure of large-scale farm in China%中国规模化养殖场畜禽粪便资源沼气生产潜力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宜水

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the discharge of livestock poultry,the productive potentials of biogas and the distribution of scale farms in China,this paper used the statistical data of 2009 to establish the estimation of annually discharge of livestock poultry and parameters of estimation in China,and estimated main annually discharge of livestock poultry,the productive potentials of biogas and the reduction potentials of greenhouse gases. The result showed that the total manure emission of the large-scale farm was 837 million tons in 2009,annual biogas production potential is about 47.21 billion m3 and the reduction potential is 190 million tons CO2. Pigs,cows and beef cattle farming are the main manure sources in China,and manure emission mainly distribute in north-east area,north area and north-west area. The results can provide basis for decision making to control pollution of the large-scale farm.%为探明中国规模化养殖场畜禽粪便排放量、沼气生产潜力及其分布情况,该文利用2009年统计数据,确定了中国畜禽粪便年排放量估算方法和各种估算参数,估算中国主要畜禽年粪尿排放量、产沼气潜力和温室气体减排潜力.结果表明,2009年中国规模化养殖畜禽粪便排放总量约8.37亿t,年沼气生产潜力约为472.1亿m3,减排潜力为1.9亿t CO2.生猪、奶牛和肉牛养殖是中国畜禽粪便的主要来源,粪便排放主要在东北、华北和西北等北方地区.这可为中国规模化养殖场治理污染提供决策依据.

  4. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  5. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument

  6. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakama, M., E-mail: minorusakama@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Nagano, Y. [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Kitade, T. [Department of Laboratory, M and S Instruments Inc., Osaka 532-0005 (Japan); Shikino, O. [Department of Inorganic Analysis, PerkinElmer Japan Co. Ltd., Yokohama 240-0005 (Japan); Nakayama, S. [Department of Nuclear Science, Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  7. THE ROLE OF KAZAKHSTAN IN THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF PRODUCTION AND TRADE BETWEEN THE ASIAN AND EUROPEAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome VERNY; Milhan CHAZE

    2014-01-01

    For over a decade, the global economic order has been undergoing major macro-economic and geographic changes. International relations evolve with the emergence of countries that face new economic superpowers like China. Federated around this new economic Sino-pole, Asian countries are increasingly attractive to major international investors in particular due to the reduced labor costs and a consumer market of several hundred million people. These events are accompanied by a new geography of t...

  8. An education and training programme for livestock transporters in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of live animals is known to be stressful and therefore can have a direct impact on animal welfare and on food safety and quality. The livestock production and transport industries are increasingly interested in improving animal well-being. This can be accomplished through the use of careful animal handling and good driving practices before, during and after transport. The recently developed Certified Livestock Transporter (CLT training programme in Canada is aimed at ensuring livestock transporters are educated and have access to up-to-date information regarding the humane handling of animals. An overview of the CLT includes examples from the main training manual and species-specific modules. The relationship between education and improved animal welfare is discussed and possible future directions proposed. The examples provided may be modified by other users to develop new education and training programmes relevant to their geographic locations and livestock industries.

  9. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... copy shall be furnished to or retained by the live poultry dealer. (c) Feed. (1) Whenever feed...

  10. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  11. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... drought or fire; (5) Any wild free roaming livestock, including horses and deer; and (6) Livestock... eligible livestock producer from using the managed rangeland for grazing due to a fire; (3) Be livestock... qualifying drought or fire: (A) Owned, (B) Leased, (C) Purchased, (D) Entered into a contract to purchase,...

  12. Narrowing the socio-economic gender gap through empowerment of women in micro livestock farming: Opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Never Assan

    2014-01-01

    Micro livestock  appears to be the most sustainable means of producing high quality animal protein for the expanding populations of the lesser developing countries. Diversification in animal agriculture through inclusion of non-conventional livestock such as micro livestock species (goat, sheep, poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, pigeon, ducks, snails, grasscutter etc) provide options that would guarantee fully participation of women in livestock production to alleviate rural households protein s...

  13. A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Dayton; Johnson, Thomas; Guo, Yuanqing; Brandl, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals. PMID:21968824

  14. Livestock waste and its impact on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Ogbuewu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock industries produce meat, milk and egg, and also generate large volumes of wastes that could be harmful to the environment if not well managed. The demand for animal products is driven by increasing per capital incomes, urbanization, changing lifestyles as well as rapid population growth. These increases in demand for animal products are expected to continue in the years to come. Livestock keepers on the quest of optimizing the benefit of the ever increasing demand for their products have resorted in the production and accumulation of large volumes of wastes. However, the disposal of these wastes continues to be a challenge from the standpoints of cost, environmental safety, and biosecurity. The question remains how would these livestock wastes be managed without detrimental effects on food security, natural resources and health? This review was necessitated in an attempt to answer these questions.

  15. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  16. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  17. The livestock roles in the wellbeing of rural communities of Timor-Leste

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Maria Varela Bettencourt; Mário Tilman; Vanda Narciso; Maria Leonor da Silva Carvalho; Pedro Damião de Sousa Henriques

    2015-01-01

    The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste, highlighting the impo...

  18. Role of Livestock in Food Security: An Ascertainment from Punjab Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz Zahid Mahmood; Ijaz Hussain; Sana Iftikhar; Muhammad Khan; Fakh Run Nisa

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production plays a major role in the life of farmers in developing countries like Pakistan. As crops and livestock rearing in rural areas directly affects food security condition of the nations. This study has been devised to observe the impact of Livestock on food security. In this regard data was collected from Food Insecurity Report 2009 (SDPI, SDC and World Food Program 2009), Punjab Development Statistics (Government of Punjab 2009) and Agriculture Census Report 2010 (Governmen...

  19. Trends in the Thai Livestock Industry, Animal Health Implications and Thailand's Development: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas; Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    The Thai livestock industry has experienced significant change over the last two decades in its cattle/buffalo, pigs and poultry sectors. Increasing human population and income levels, political and technological change in Thailand have meant changes in the traditional roles of livestock within the Thai village economy and have caused a heightened demand amongst Thai consumers for livestock products such as meat and milk. These changing socio-economic conditions in Thailand have seen the poul...

  20. Integrated models of livestock systems for climate change studies. 1. Grazing systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, David J.; Armstrong, A. C.; Turnpenny, J. R.; Matthews, A M; Cooper, K. C.; Clark, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential impact of climate change by the year 2050 on British grazing livestock systems is assessed through the use of simulation models of farming systems. The submodels, consisting of grass production, livestock feeding, livestock thermal balance, the thermal balance of naturally ventilated buildings and a stochastic weather generator, are described. These are integrated to form system models for sheep, beef calves and dairy cows. They are applied to scenarios represe...

  1. Narrowing the socio-economic gender gap through empowerment of women in micro livestock farming: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro livestock  appears to be the most sustainable means of producing high quality animal protein for the expanding populations of the lesser developing countries. Diversification in animal agriculture through inclusion of non-conventional livestock such as micro livestock species (goat, sheep, poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, pigeon, ducks, snails, grasscutter etc provide options that would guarantee fully participation of women in livestock production to alleviate rural households protein shortage or deficiencies. The micro livestock   are likely to become increasingly important source of animal protein as a result of rapid increase in human population and in the light of dwindling land sizes and natural resources in general. This is on the backdrop that micro livestock have  diverse economic and social functions in rural communities, and different types of micro livestock have been associated with women due to their  significant potential for alleviating malnutrition and food insecurity. Therefore, supporting micro livestock should be considered as a means to empower women in  rural development which has the capacity to improve household nutrition and food security.  This discussion looks at the opportunities of empowering women through micro livestock as a mean of alleviating poverty and  solving the food insecurity challenges in rural communities. The challenges which women might face in engaging in micro livestock are also highlighted. The basis of micro livestock farming may be taken from the perspective of animal products supply being outpaced with the increased human population in Africa. In this case, alternative sources of animal protein such as micro livestock need to be promoted, and if not, livestock products will be  beyond the reach of the majority of the ordinary persons.  The space for classic livestock rearing have decreased, and this scenario will suit the keeping of smaller animals which are prolific and easy to

  2. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, ...

  3. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.236 Origin of... management beginning no later than the second day of life; (2) Dairy animals. Milk or milk products must...

  4. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  5. LivestockPlus: Forages, sustainable intensification, and food security in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K; Paul, Birthe; White, Douglas; Rao, I M; Van Der Hoek, Rein; Castro, Aracely; Boval, Maryline; Lerner, Amy; Schneider, Laura; Peters, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The increased use of grain-based feed for livestock during the last two decades has contributed, along with other factors, to a rise in grain prices that has reduced human food security. This circumstance argues for feeding more forages to livestock, particularly in the tropics where many livestock are reared on small farms. Efforts to accomplish this end, referred to as the 'LivestockPlus' approach, intensify in sustainable ways the management of grasses, shrubs, trees, and animals. By decoupling the human food and livestock feed systems, these efforts would increase the resilience of the global food system. Effective LivestockPlus approaches take one of two forms: (1) simple improvements such as new forage varieties and animal management practices that spread from farmer to farmer by word of mouth, or (2) complex sets of new practices that integrate forage production more closely into farms' other agricultural activities and agro-ecologies. PMID:26121947

  6. The impact of organic livestock standards on animal welfare – a questionnaire survey of advisors, inspectors and veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Hovi, Malla; Kossaibati, Mohamad; Bennett, Richard; Edwards, Sandra A; Robertson, Jamie; Roderick, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. A questionnaire survey of organic sector body inspectors, organic advisors and farm animal veterinarians was conducted to examine the respondents’ perceptions of the ability of the organic standards to deliver positive impacts on welfare of organic livestock. A total of 44 separate standards concerning livestock production were extracted from the United Kingdom Register of Organic Food Production livestock production standa...

  7. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  8. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  9. Livestock Update. April 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; Saville, Joi; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-

    2011-01-01

    Contains articles on April beef management, the southwest bull test and assured plus bred heifer sale report, recipient of Superior Service Award, spring breeding of sheep, and an upcoming workshop on breeding swine for small-scale production.

  10. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  11. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  12. Livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions: impacts and options for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research shows that livestock account for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global consumption of livestock products is growing rapidly. This paper reviews the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to quantifying these emissions and argues that, given the dynamic complexity of our food system, it offers a limited understanding of livestock's GHG impacts. It is argued that LCA's conclusions need rather to be considered within a broader conceptual framework that incorporates three key additional perspectives. The first is an understanding of the indirect second order effects of livestock production on land use change and associated CO2 emissions. The second compares the opportunity cost of using land and resources to rear animals with their use for other food or non-food purposes. The third perspective is need-the paper considers how far people need livestock products at all. These perspectives are used as lenses through which to explore both the impacts of livestock production and the mitigation approaches that are being proposed. The discussion is then broadened to consider whether it is possible to substantially reduce livestock emissions through technological measures alone, or whether reductions in livestock consumption will additionally be required. The paper argues for policy strategies that explicitly combine GHG mitigation with measures to improve food security and concludes with suggestions for further research.

  13. Reproductive Biotechnology and Gene Mapping: Tools for Conserving Rare Breeds of Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 40 livestock species, shaped by a long history of domestication and development, contribute to today’s agriculture and food production. During the past 100 years, however, there has been a net loss of diversity because of an increased rate of extinction of livestock breeds and varieti...

  14. Foundations, fallacies, and assumptions of science for livestock in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetics is a new scientific discipline offering the technology to transfer exotic genes into livestock species. Scientific and business interests aim to apply this technology in the near future to make genetically modified (GM) livestock for the food chain. In Europe there is a strong move by citizens against milk and meat products from GM livestock. The possibility of using the technology on livestock in the developing world is under consideration as advocates claim that it would be a major contributor to world food security. This paper presents the opposite view. There are several sets of reasons against using this new technology at this time that are explored here. First, scientific knowledge of the mammalian genome is inadequate and a vast amount of research is needed before success will be ensured without negative consequences for humans and animals. Second, livestock are an essential resource for survival of billions of rural poor in the developing world and they should not be exposed to risk. Third, ethical considerations are not evident but are essential because the plans are so radical and affect public interest at many levels. Scientists today show lack of wisdom in failing to see the consequences of using their limited knowledge. Reasons for this absence of wisdom are explored in a brief review of the historic development of science. Livestock scientists need to learn lessons from the sagas of GM crops and mad cow disease (BSE). Other ways to empower the poor to increase food security are described. Scientists are urged to continue research and to seek a moratorium against GM livestock being used for food until objective and tested results enable stakeholders to decide. (author)

  15. Factores de éxito y fracaso en el comportamiento innovador de las empresas ganaderas cubanas Success and failure factors in the innovating performance of the Cuban livestock production enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Suárez

    2007-09-01

    de éxito y fracaso de la innovación en el sector ganadero cubano son muy similares a los obtenidos en el sector industrial y referidos en la literatura internacionalWith the objective of learning the factors that favor the success of innovation and those that cause its failure, in the Cuban livestock production sector, a questionnaire was applied to the directors of a non probabilistic sample of 34 livestock production enterprises (36% of the sector, which comprised the different geographical zones of the country, all the types of production systems existing in Cuban livestock production, organizations in the different stages of the Enterprise Improvement process and the different enterprise sizes. The internal factors with the highest incidence on the success of innovation in the enterprises were considered to be: A Top Management opened to new ideas and inclined to assuming risks, the decentralization in decision-making and a participatory management, motivation and commitment to innovation in the managers, constant training of the personnel and execution of team work; while the external factors were the dynamics and turbulence of the surroundings, which demand changes in the enterprise, the establishment of cooperation links and networks in the country, the existence of state policies of support to innovation, having facility of access to international funding sources and possibilities of national financing for the development of innovation. Regarding the obstacles that constrain to a higher extent innovation in the enterprises, they are: scarcity of financial resources, external pressures on the enterprise, which have incidence on the productive and management processes, the possession of insufficient scientific and technological information, problems of availability and utilization of computing equipment, lack of efficient financing mechanisms for innovation, as well as insufficient mechanisms of incentives that encourage to innovate and establish links with

  16. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  17. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  18. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  19. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in livestock in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suepaul, Sharianne M; Carrington, Christine V; Campbell, Mervyn; Borde, Gustave; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2011-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and infecting serovars across livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs) in Trinidad using the microscopic agglutination test with an international panel of 23 serovars. Of a total of 590 cattle tested, 21.5% were seropositive with agglutinations to 13 of the 23 antigens used in the panel. Icterohaemorrhagiae (9.3%), Sejroe (4.1%), Ballum (4.1%), and Autumnalis (1.9%) were the predominant serogroups detected in the cattle sampled (n = 590). Of 222 sheep tested, 5.0% were seropositive with agglutinations to five serovars belonging to two serogroups. These serogroups were Autumnalis at 2.7%, and Icterohaemorrhagiae at 2.3% of all sheep tested (n = 222). Of a total of 180 goats tested, 3.3% were seropositive, all agglutinating to the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup, 1.7% to serovar Copenhageni, 1.1% to serovar Mankarso, and 0.6% to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. Among pigs (n = 200), 5.0% were seropositive for five serovars belonging to three serogroups. These serogroups were Icterohaemorrhagiae at 2.5%, Australis at 2%, and Ballum at 0.5%. Overall, age and sex of animals were not significantly associated with leptospirosis with the exception of cattle where age was a significant factor for seropositivity. It was concluded that for livestock, leptospirosis may be an important zoonotic and economic disease, particularly in the case of cattle. It is imperative that the impact of leptospirosis on abortion, stillbirths, and decreased milk production in livestock in the country be assessed. PMID:20953838

  20. Livestock, Liberalization and Democracy: Constraints and Opportunities for Rural Livestock Producers in a Reforming Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Robin L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the policy environment surrounding livestock policy improvements in Uganda, with a view to identify opportunities for pro-poor interventions and reforms. The paper reviews challenges facing livestock producers and analyzes the broad political economic context in which livestock sector dynamics are situated. A review of the livestock sector highlights the constraints facing poor rural livestock producers based on: missing or inadequate infrastructure; the small size of the ...

  1. Nitrogen dynamics in integrated crop-livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture has been utterly transformed by the availability of manufactured fertilizers that are inexpensive and easy to transport and handle. Fertilizers severed the need for livestock and poultry manure in crop production. Improved transport systems have allowed farmers to utilize distant markets...

  2. Numerical Prediction of Buoyant Air Flow in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    In modern livestock buildings air distribution and air quality are important parameters to animal welfare and to the health of full-tithe employees in animal production. Traditional methods for calculating air distribution in farm buildings are mainly based on formulas for air jets which do not i...

  3. Empowerment Of Position And Roles Of Traditional Leaders In The Development Of Livestock Hamlet In The Banten Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kedi Suradisastr; D. Priyanto

    2011-01-01

    Developing livestock village is a suitable effort to enhance meat production for fulfilling increasing of the product demand. Developing livestock village in form of Sheep Hamlet in the Regency of Pandeglang, Province of Banten, is also function as forest and environmental buffer zone. Another target of such a livestock development center is to improve farmer’s income by at least 50% of Banten’s Minimum Regional Wage. The success of Sheep Hamlet so far depends upon the following socio-cultura...

  4. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major constraint to animal production in developing countries is poor nutrition due to inadequate or fluctuating nutrient supply. This results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to disease and mortality. Microbial cells formed as a result of rumen degradation of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions are a major source of protein for ruminants. They provide the majority of the amino acids that the host animal requires for tissue maintenance, growth and production. In roughage-fed ruminants, micro-organisms are virtually the only source of protein. Therefore, a knowledge of the microbial contribution to the nutrition of the host animal is essential to developing feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant production. While this factor has been recognized for many years, it has been extremely difficult to determine the microbial protein contribution to ruminant nutrition. The methods generally used for determining microbial protein production depend on the use of natural microbial markers such as RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DAPA (diamino-pimelic acid) or of isotopes 35S, 15N or 32P. However, these methods involve surgical intervention such as post-rumen cannulation and complex procedures that require accurate and quantitative information on both digesta and microbial marker flow. A calorimetric technique using enzymatic procedures was developed for measuring purine derivatives (PD) in urine under a Technical Contract. With knowledge of the amount of PD excreted in the urine, the microbial protein supply to the host animal can be estimated. The principle of the method is that nucleic acids leaving the rumen are essentially of microbial origin. The nucleic acids are extensively digested in the small intestine and the resulting purines are absorbed

  5. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  6. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R. Kaffka; John Maas; James D. Oster; Máximo F. Alonso; Dennis L. Corwin

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV). We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dac...

  7. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carresse Gerald; Christi McPherson; Tha’Mes McDaniel; Zhigang Xu; Bryce Holmes; Leonard Williams; Niki Whitley; Jenora Turner Waterman

    2014-01-01

    The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building d...

  8. Integrated approaches for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment on smallholder farms in north-east Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were undertaken to investigate approaches to reducing ruminant methane production, and N and P losses, on small-scale dairy farms in northeast Thailand. Cassava hay (CH) supplementation and three methods of manure management (non-covered, covered, covered with EM-treated) were evaluated. Methane production was predicted using rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, while N and P contents in urine, fecal and fertilizer were also measured. Supplementation with CH tended to decrease methane production by changing the proportion of volatile fatty acids. Milk yield and compositions were the same for non- and supplemented groups, however, milk fat content increased with CH supplementation. Nitrogen and P excretions were not decreased by CH supplementation. Manure management strategies (covered and covered with EM treated) did not reduce N and P losses during preservation when compared with non-covered group. EM-treated, covered-manure decreased N losses but not the P content of fertilizer when compared with the covered treatment. Based on these results it could be recommended that CH supplementation was advantageous to smallholder-dairy farms and manure preserving with covering should be given strategic consideration. (author)

  9. ROYALTY COLLECTION FOR PATENTED LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Allowing animal patents provides potential benefits and costs for livestock producers. Costs, considered here, are royalty payments and collection mechanisms, made more complex by the unknown future distribution of multiple patented traits in the herd. This article evaluates three proposed collection systems, Qualified Sales, registration and pooled royalties. The first two are imposed only on breeding stock and at first sale, creating a cash flow and risk factor for producers. The third coll...

  10. Asian drivers and the future of responsible production and consumption: Exploring a research question and hypotheses for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Knorringa, Peter

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper raises two questions to take a first step in developing a research agenda to assess the developmental relevance of responsible production, which includes both Fair Trade and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The first question is: How likely is it that responsible production becomes increasingly mainstreamed? After defining responsible production and contrasting the models and realities of Fair Trade and CSR, I present the rather optimistic "business ca...

  11. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BASED ON CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT. CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Meerim SYDYKOVA; Rodríguez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In most developing countries, where agriculture is the main economical source, clusters have been found as a booster to develop their economy. The Asian countries are now starting to implement agro-food clusters into the mainstream of changes in agriculture, farming and food industry. The long-term growth of meat production in the Kyrgyz Republic during the last decade, as well as the fact that agriculture has become one of the prioritized sectors of the economy, proved the importance of live...

  12. Consumer Perception of Animal Welfare and Livestock Production in the Araucania Region , Chile Percepción de los Consumidores sobre el Bienestar Animal y la Producción Ganadera en Región de La Araucanía, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler M; Ricardo Vidal M; Roberto Silva F; Lisette Vallejos C; Néstor Sepúlveda B

    2008-01-01

    Given the importance of animal welfare (AW) in developed countries, a survey was carried out among 384 consumers in Temuco, Chile, to establish their knowledge and perceptions about animals handling during production, to detect preferences for meat produced under AW principles, their willingness to pay a higher price for this and to distinguish different consumer segments. Approximately 60% of people surveyed knew about livestock management practices, half of them considered that these practi...

  13. Empowerment Of Position And Roles Of Traditional Leaders In The Development Of Livestock Hamlet In The Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedi Suradisastr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing livestock village is a suitable effort to enhance meat production for fulfilling increasing of the product demand. Developing livestock village in form of Sheep Hamlet in the Regency of Pandeglang, Province of Banten, is also function as forest and environmental buffer zone. Another target of such a livestock development center is to improve farmer’s income by at least 50% of Banten’s Minimum Regional Wage. The success of Sheep Hamlet so far depends upon the following socio-cultural factors: (a the basic culture of the Bantams, (b local leadership, and (c decision making pattern and process. The development of livestock hamlet depends on the roles of local informal figure in the respective area. Such a local leader can help accelerating the success of a livestock development in a sustainable fashion. The existence of a respected local figure is a crucial entry point in the process of livestock hamlet development in the such area.

  14. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  15. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Livestock Credence Attribute Claim Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Olynk, Nicole J.; Tonsor, Glynn T.; Christopher A. Wolf

    2010-01-01

    A choice experiment was used to determine consumer value for verification of livestock production process attributes. Willingness to pay for verification of production process attributes varied for both milk and pork chops across attributes and verifying entity. Statistically significant evidence of social desirability bias was found by comparing estimates of consumer preferences solicited using direct and indirect questioning. Indirect questioning may yield more accurate representations of c...

  16. Genotype by environment interaction and breeding for robustness in livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Rauw, Wendy M.; Gomez-Raya, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of the human population is projected to result in an increase in meat consumption. However, at the same time, the dominant position of meat as the center of meals is on the decline. Modern objections to the consumption of meat include public concerns with animal welfare in livestock production systems. Animal breeding practices have become part of the debate since it became recognized that animals in a population that have been selected for high production efficiency are m...

  17. Understanding and managing zoonotic risk in the new livestock industries

    OpenAIRE

    Liverani, M; Waage, J.; Barnett, T.; Pfeiffer, DU; Rushton, J; Rudge, JW; Loevinsohn, ME; Scoones, I; Smith, RD; Cooper, BS; White, LJ; Goh, S.; Horby, P; Wren, B.; Gundogdu, O

    2013-01-01

    Background: In many parts of the world, livestock production is undergoing a process of rapid intensification. The health implications of this development are uncertain. Intensification creates cheaper products, allowing more people to access animal-based foods. However, some practices associated with intensification may contribute to zoonotic disease emergence and spread: for example, the sustained use of antibiotics, concentration of animals in confined units, and long distances and frequen...

  18. Measures to reduce ammonia emissions from livestock manures: now, soon and later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Smits, M.C.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    Various possible options to further decrease ammonia emissions from livestock manure were explored in a desk study. Techniques and their impact on the processes leading to NH3 production and volatilization are described. Research priorities are identified.

  19. The Regional Efficiency of Mixed Crop and Livestock Type of Farming and Its Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Špička

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mixed crop and livestock farming represents significant share in agricultural output in the Czech Republic. So, it raises questions about determinants of its production efficiency. The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of mixed crop and livestock farming among the EU regions. The DEA method with variable returns to scale (DEAVRS reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labor by capital/ contract work positively affects income indicator Farm Net Value Added per AWU. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in mixed type of farming are crop output per hectare, livestock output per livestock unit, productivity of energy and capital. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have more extensive structure and produce more non-commodity output (public goods.

  20. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  1. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  2. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIOCULTURAL ROLE OF LIVESTOCK IN THE WELLBEING OF RURAL COMMUNITIES OF TIMOR-LESTE

    OpenAIRE

    Bettencourt, Elisa Maria Varela; Tilman, Mário; Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa; Narciso, Vanda; Carvalho, Maria Leonor da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The livestock species play very important economic and socio-cultural roles for the wellbeing of rural households, such as food supply, source of income, asset saving, source of employment, soil fertility, livelihoods, transport, agricultural traction, agricultural diversification and sustainable agricultural production. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the different roles that livestock and livestock species play in rural communities of Timor-Leste, highli...

  3. Managing Water and Soils to Achieve Adaptation and Reduce Methane Emissions and Arsenic Contamination in Asian Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wichelns

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is susceptible to damage from the changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, and in the frequency of major storm events that will accompany climate change. Deltaic areas, in which millions of farmers cultivate from one to three crops of rice per year, are susceptible also to the impacts of a rising sea level, submergence during major storm events, and saline intrusion into groundwater and surface water resources. In this paper, I review the current state of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on rice production and I describe adaptation measures that involve soil and water management. In many areas, farmers will need to modify crop choices, crop calendars, and soil and water management practices as they adapt to climate change. Adaptation measures at the local, regional, and international levels also will be helpful in moderating the potential impacts of climate change on aggregate rice production and on household food security in many countries. Some of the changes in soil and water management and other production practices that will be implemented in response to climate change also will reduce methane generation and release from rice fields. Some of the measures also will reduce the uptake of arsenic in rice plants, thus addressing an important public health issue in portions of South and Southeast Asia. Where feasible, replacing continuously flooded rice production with some form of aerobic rice production, will contribute to achieving adaptation objectives, while also reducing global warming potential and minimizing the risk of negative health impacts due to consumption of arsenic contaminated rice.

  4. LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES USE: A CASE STUDY OF BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Leslie Carole

    1991-01-01

    Pastoralism and communal livestock production are important economic activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to FAO production figures the number of cattle in two countries, Botswana and Namibia, outnumber the human population (FAO, 1989). In Southern Africa, Botswana's agricultural sector is largely dependent on livestock, because most of the country lacks adequate rainfall for arable agriculture. A complicating factor is the unreliability of the rainfall and the potential for recurrent ...

  5. Systems thinking methodology in researching the impacts of climate change on livestock industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quan; Nguyen, Nam Cao

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on livestock production are complex problems, existing in the rela-tionship among this sector and others sectors such as environmental, social, economic and political systems. The complexity and dynamic of these impacts cannot be solved simply in isolation with the linear approach. A system thinking methodology is introduced in this paper to understand the impacts of climate change on livestock production, and identify effective interventions strategies to addres...

  6. Waste Not, Want Not: Managing Livestock Waste for Income and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Christoe, Jock

    2003-01-01

    The world-wide intensification of livestock industries poses major challenges for waste disposal. For example, the total solids wastes discharged from livestock farms in China exceeded 1.7 billion tons in 1997, with a further 20 billion tons of waste water being discharged to the environment — only 10% of these wastes were treated! A key element of sustainable development is Cleaner Production. Cleaner Production is an approach in which wastes are handled in such a way that environmental poll...

  7. The Regional Efficiency of Mixed Crop and Livestock Type of Farming and Its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    J. Špička

    2014-01-01

    The mixed crop and livestock farming represents significant share in agricultural output in the Czech Republic. So, it raises questions about determinants of its production efficiency. The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of mixed crop and livestock farming among the EU regions. The DEA method with variable returns to scale (DEAVRS) reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test dete...

  8. Asian drivers and the future of responsible production and consumption : Exploring a research question and hypotheses for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Knorringa (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper raises two questions to take a first step in developing a research agenda to assess the developmental relevance of responsible production, which includes both Fair Trade and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The first question is: How likely is it that respons

  9. The Phosphorus Release Characteristics and Fertility of Recovery Product from the Livestock Wastewater After Digestion%畜禽废水磷回收产物的磷素释放特性及肥效试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹璇; 王德汉; 李亮; 马磊; 李东; 孙永明

    2011-01-01

    以畜禽废水沼气发酵液为磷回收对象,采用曝气沉淀结晶法磷回收工艺,对回收产物进行水溶性磷连续浸提试验和玉米盆栽试验,考察畜禽废水磷回收产物的磷素动态释放情况、玉米盆栽的肥效以及磷素利用情况.浸提试验表明,磷回收产物经6次浸提,水溶性磷的释放量呈缓慢下降的趋势,第6次与第1次相比只下降了1.42%,总释放量占总磷的57.97%,证明磷回收产物(RPP)具有良好的缓释性,作为肥料使用时不易被水淋失.盆栽试验表明,用RPP以不同比例代替磷酸一铵作为肥料对玉米均能起到显著的增产作用,最佳的质量替代比例为40%;RPP较磷酸一铵的地上部分和地下部分磷素利用率分别高出19.14%和2.50%,显示其具有较高的磷吸收效率.因此,从畜禽废水沼气发酵液中回收得到的磷回收产物具有较高的肥效价值,是一种节约资源、保护环境、缓解磷资源危机的新型肥料.%The precipitating crystallization with aeration was used to recover phosphorus from the livestock wastewater after anaerobic digestion.The release characteristics of soluble phosphorus in RPP(recovery product of phosphorus) were examined with the continuous water extraction method and a pot experiment was carried out to investigate the fertility of RPP.The results of the extraction experiment indicated that the release amount of soluable phosphorus decreased slowly when more extractions occurred; the phosphorus release amount of the sixth time extraction was only 1.42% lower than that of the first time; the cumulative release amount of phosphorus accounted for 57.97% of the total phosphorus; it proved that RPP was a good slow-released fertilizer whose nutrient was not easy to lose.The results of the pot experiment indicated that the biomass of maize all increased when RPP was used in different proportion, with monoammonium phosphate ( MAP); the optimal application proprotion was 40

  10. Impact on Asian firms of product-related environmental regulations through global supply chains : a study of firms in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Michida, Etsuyo; Ueki, Yasushi; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the important role played by global supply chains in the adaptation to product-related environmental regulations imposed by importing countries, with a focus on chemicals management. By utilizing a unique data collected in Penang, Malaysia, we depict the supply chain structures and how differences among firms in participation to global supply chain link to differences in chemical management. We found that firms belonging to a supply chain are in a better position to ...

  11. Managing Water and Soils to Achieve Adaptation and Reduce Methane Emissions and Arsenic Contamination in Asian Rice Production

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Wichelns

    2016-01-01

    Rice production is susceptible to damage from the changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, and in the frequency of major storm events that will accompany climate change. Deltaic areas, in which millions of farmers cultivate from one to three crops of rice per year, are susceptible also to the impacts of a rising sea level, submergence during major storm events, and saline intrusion into groundwater and surface water resources. In this paper, I review the current state of knowledge regard...

  12. Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manceron Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition between direct consumption of plant production and the feeding of livestock is key to global food availability. This is because livestock consume edible commodities that could be available for (food insecure populations but also because it diverts arable land from food production. The share of total plant production redirected towards feeding livestock is (roughly known but estimations of land surfaces virtually occupied by livestock production are scarce. In this study, following up on the Agrimonde Terra** project, we estimate areas devoted to the feeding livestock. First, we estimate the protein composition of an averaged feed basket at the global scale in 2005 and detail the evolution of the protein-source feed component during the period 1961–2009. We focus on protein-rich crops such as oil crops and show its proportion in the global livestock diets has tripled since 1960, though only accounting for about one fourth of total proteins. Then, we estimate land virtually occupied by crop feed at the global scale using a set of straightforward hypotheses. Our estimates suggest that, although livestock and feed production has continuously increased and despite uncertainties in available data, competition for land between feed and food uses has decreased over the last two decades. The share of areas cultivated for feed requirements decreased from about 50% in the 1970s to 37% nowadays. This trend is attributable to the increase of crop yields and to a decrease of the share of cereals in livestock diets to the benefit of oilseeds by-products. However, estimating the share of total areas used for feed is complicated by the significant role played by by-products.

  13. Livestock wastewater treatment: ammonia removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock wastewater contains high concentration of ammonia. Removal of this inorganic species of nitrogen could be achieved through nitrification and de-nitrification. Nitrification process was conducted in the laboratory using activated sludge process with HRT of three and five days. After wastewater undergone nitrification process at Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant the concentration of influent for N-NH4+ reduced from 400 mg/l to 0 mg/l and concentration of N-NO3- increased from 11 mg/l to 300 mg/l. Nitrification using lab-scale activated sludge process also recorded similar result. Concentration of N-NH4+ reduced from 400 mg/l to 2 mg/l and 380 mg/l to 1.1 mg/l for HRT=5 days and HRT=3 days respectively. N-NO3- was increased from 11 mg/l to 398 mg/l and 14 mg/l to 394 mg/l for HRT=5 days and HRT=3 days, respectively. However changes of N-NH4+ and N=NO3- were not observed using gamma irradiation. The combination of gamma irradiation with activated sludge process indicated difference and its contribution is still investigated

  14. The challenges and importance of structural variation detection in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M Bickhart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in humans and other model organisms have demonstrated that structural variants (SVs comprise a substantial proportion of variation among individuals of each species. Many of these variants have been linked to debilitating diseases in humans, thereby cementing the importance of refining methods for their detection. Despite progress in the field, reliable detection of SVs still remains a problem even for human subjects. Many of the underlying problems that make SVs difficult to detect in humans are amplified in livestock species, whose lower quality genome assemblies and incomplete gene annotation can often give rise to false positive SV discoveries. Regardless of the challenges, SV detection is just as important for livestock researchers as it is for human researchers, given that several productive traits and diseases have been linked to Copy Number Variations (CNVs in cattle, sheep and pig. Already, there is evidence that many beneficial SVs have been artificially selected in livestock such as a duplication of the ASIP gene that causes white coat color in sheep. In this review, we will list current SV and CNV discoveries in livestock and discuss the problems that hinder routine discovery and tracking of these polymorphisms. We will also discuss the impacts of selective breeding on CNV and SV frequencies and mention how SV genotyping could be used in the future to improve genetic selection.

  15. Emergency management of disasters involving livestock in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, S E; Kenyon, S J; Zepeda Sein, C A

    1999-04-01

    Different disasters have similar consequence on the health and welfare of livestock. Numerous geophysical disasters can exacerbate epizootics, resulting in the deaths of many animals and the reduction of production efficiency. These disasters also present a considerable threat of spoilage of processed foods, endangering public health. Furthermore, large-scale disasters involving animals can modify the long-term stability of national economies, the environment and social structures. The authors discuss the vulnerability of the livestock industry to natural disasters and the impact of floods, droughts and transboundary diseases and pests on national economies. Examples are given on how some losses can be avoided, evaluated and compensated. The role of the veterinarian is presented in relation to work conducted by other relief organisations in cases of emergency. In developing countries, mitigation programmes should focus on strengthening global animal health services. Preparedness needs to be community based, with education provided in a timely manner. Effective recovery from disasters should be based on mitigation programmes, including international trade and mutual aid agreements between neighbouring countries to supply appropriate goods and environmentally and culturally appropriate breeds of livestock. Disaster relief for the care of livestock should be recognised as a form of humanitarian assistance, given the benefits to be derived for public health and the socio-economic implications of successful intervention. PMID:10190219

  16. The Big Mac Index, Consumer Price Index and Productivity Bias: Does Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis Hold for Asian Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Shiao Wern

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate market basket to be used in conducting PPP tests has long been the object of debate in literature (Sarno and Taylor, 2002). Perhaps, the different compositions of goods and services and the existence of non-tradable elements in the market basket could play the important roles in explaining deviations from PPP. Given the issues on the choice of an appropriate price measure and the non-tradable productivity bias, therefore in this paper, we attempt to assess and com...

  17. 7 CFR 760.906 - Eligible livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be considered eligible livestock for contract growers, livestock must be poultry or swine as defined... designated. (3) Been maintained for commercial use as part of a farming operation on the day they died; and... of a farming operation, including, but not limited to, wild free roaming animals or animals used...

  18. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration... § 205.603 may be used as feed additives and supplements. (b) The producer of an organic operation must... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or...

  19. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock di

  20. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution, locally and to the wider environment. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts, but there is a need for methodologies to precisely quantify emissions. This paper describes and evaluates a novel...... storage facility for livestock slurry consisting of eight 6.5-m3 cylindrical units. The stores may be equipped with airtight covers and ventilated during storage or during measurement only. Each store has eight air inlets (160 mm diameter) and a single outlet in the cover connected to a main ventilation...

  1. Producer observations of the long term effects of acid forming emissions in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of interviews with livestock producers is presented to illustrate the environmental problems caused by sour gas plants in the Pincher Creek area of Alberta. Farmers located in the emission plume from the Shell Waterton plant and Gulf sour gas plants were interviewed and provided anecdotal evidence of adverse impacts of sour gas plant emissions on livestock. Common problems that are noticed in livestock include eye irritation, increased respiratory infections, mineral deficiencies, eye cancer, waterhole water quality deterioration, low calf birth weights, decreased cattle weight gain, and birth defects. Crop losses, lowered grass production, machinery corrosion, and water pollution also occur. 1 fig

  2. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  3. Spatio-temporal characteristics of livestock and their effects on pollution in China based on geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yongyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen

    2016-07-01

    Livestock pollution, caused by rural household's scatter breeding mainly, is one of the major non-point sources. Different animal manures are abundant with different nutrients. Adopting the policies, management practices, and technologies related to livestock production based on livestock structure analysis can improve the efficiency on preventing pollution. Based on statistical data, the component structure of livestock was analyzed and corresponding effect on pollution was evaluated during the period of 1992-2012 in China. The results showed that the average annual growth rate (AAGR) of total China was 1.58 % during the 20 years. Larger amounts of livestock were concentrated in Southwest China and East China. In the view of component structure, each type of livestock had different distribution characteristics and constant increasing amounts were presented during the 20 years. Cattle took the largest proportion in almost every province, and the number of heads was over 40 % of all the livestock quantity for most provinces. Pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) caused by livestock excretion in East and Southeast China was much more serious than that in other regions. However, the load of COD was far less than that of TN and TP. Cattle accounted most for the livestock pollution, and swine was the second one. The intensity characteristics of TN, TP, and COD were different from that of total pollution loads. The spatio-temporal characteristics of amounts and component structure of livestock were influenced by three kinds of factors (natural, economic, and social), such as climate, topography, modes of production, feed grain sector, related policies, and area of the study regions. Different livestock excrements had different impacts on environment. According to various livestock structures and economy conditions, different disposal methods should be adopted. PMID:27053044

  4. Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

    2014-10-01

    Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock

  5. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  6. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread of diseases between farms, and the relationship between microorganisms and dust remain unclear. In order to better understand airborne transmission and to set up effective control techniques, this s...

  7. GROWTH INHIBITION OF FUSARIUM SP. IN LIVESTOCK FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Kanižai Šarić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination with phytopathogenic forms of Fusarium, besides field crops, may also occur in stored products. Addition of antifungal substances to stored livestock feed is therefore common. This paper examined the effectiveness of a mixture of synthetic and natural antioxidants against the growth of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides in a concentrate mixture. The most effective inhibition of growth was achieved with a mixture of butylated hydroxyanisole, propyl paraben and thymol

  8. GROWTH INHIBITION OF FUSARIUM SP. IN LIVESTOCK FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Kanižai Šarić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination with phytopathogenic forms of Fusarium, besides field crops, may also occur in stored products. Addition of antifungal substances to stored livestock feed is therefore common. This paper examined the effectiveness of a mixture of synthetic and natural antioxidants against the growth of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides in a concentrate mixture. The most effective inhibition of growth was achieved with a mixture of butylated hydroxyanisole, propyl paraben and thymol.

  9. Do organic livestock farms in Switzerland earn higher work incomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Lips, Dr. Markus

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyse the influence of organic farming on work income per standard working day, a multiple regression is carried out for Swiss farms engaged in livestock production, using farm accounts as a data basis. The work income of organic farms is CHF 24 (20%) higher per standard working day than that of farms participating in the “Proof of Ecological Performance” programme.

  10. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: A general framework for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-borde

  11. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  12. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  13. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  14. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Ramanzin; Meriam Mrad; Luigi Gallo; Giampaolo Cocca; Enrico Sturaro

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers&rsq...

  15. LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND FEEDING SYSTEM IN ENSET (Ensete ventricosum) DOMINATED MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel MENBERE AFELE

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers’ livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale) were included in the study. According to the order of importance, nat...

  16. Livestock waste treatment systems for environnemental quality, food safety, and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, J.; Dabert, P.; Barrington, S.; Burton, C.

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of livestock operations has benefited production efficiency but has introduced major environmental issues, becoming a concern in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this paper is primarily to address the impact of the livestock sector on environmental pollution (ammonia, greenhouse gases and pathogens), evaluate the related health risks and, subsequently, assess the potential role of waste treatment systems in attenuating these environmental and health i...

  17. 中国近30年畜禽养殖量及其耕地氮污染负荷分析%Analysis on livestock and poultry production and nitrogen pollution load of cultivated land during last 30 years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 杨世琦; 诸云强; 王卷乐

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, China's livestock and poultry industry developed rapidly, and their wastes have become an important pollution source, and made a serious threat to China's environment. Due to the significant differences in natural conditions and economic development level in different provinces or regions, the scale and speed of livestock and poultry production show a large regional differences. Based on the statistical data of major livestock and poultry in recent 30 years of main provinces in China, we studied the spatial heterogeneity and temperal changes of livestock and poultry production and their annual growth rate, and further analzed their nitrogen pollution load per cultivated land area. The studied results show that, in recent years, China's livestock and poultry industry have developed rapidly, especially in the north and northeastern of China. The average annual growth rate of pigs, sheep and poultry generally increased grealtly all over the regions, which were even more than 12%. Relatively, the regional differences of the average annual growth rate of cattle or sheep exist in China, the North and Northeast China show the most obvious growth. During the last 30 years, the livestock and poultry development process can basically be divided into three stages:the steady development stage (1980-1995), the comprehensive development stage (1996-2006), the mordern development stage (2007-present). On the whole, the nitrogen excreted by the livestock and poultry are mostly distributed in north, middle, south, and southwestern of China, especially in Henan, Sichuan and Shandong provinces. These three provinces showed the largest growth rate, breeding production and nitrogen excretion of livestock and poultry. However, at present, the nitrogen pollution load for the unit cultivated land area in the middle, south and southwestern of China are the most, the farmland and water resource in these regions are facing the most serious pollution risk. In 2009, the

  18. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carresse Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building dust will provide insight into understanding exposures experienced by animals, workers and farm visitors. The goal was to characterize biophysiochemical features of livestock dusts from swine, small ruminant, equine, poultry and cattle husbandry units. Settled dust samples were collected from livestock and poultry housing units at the University Farm and other livestock farms across the state. Morphological features were determined by electron microscopy and gravimetry. Biochemical evaluation consisted of pH determination and trace metal detection via mass spectrometry. Biological assessment centered on bacterial characterization via selective media, DNA analysis and endotoxin quantitation. Morphological analyses revealed higher levels of respirable and thoracic particles in poultry, swine, small ruminant and equine units compared to the dairy unit (p<0.01. Dusts were slightly acidic with the exception of the NCAT small ruminant unit (p<0.05. Dust endotoxin levels were consistent and bacterial species detected include Listeria and Escherichia coli. These findings suggest animal husbandry buildings harbor higher levels of smaller respirable and thoracic dust particles compared to inhalable particles. This information may be helpful in understanding dust exposures experienced by animals, farmers and agricultural workers.

  19. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  20. 基于“钻石模型”的内蒙古畜产品加工产业集群竞争力分析%Competitiveness Analysis of Processing Industry Cluster of Livestock Products in Inner Mongolia Based on "Diamond Model"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雅彤; 杨兴龙

    2012-01-01

    运用迈克尔·波特的“钻石模型”,结合自身区域发展特点,从要素条件、需求状况、企业战略、结构和竞争、相关与支持性产业、政府和机遇6个方面对内蒙古畜产品加工产业集群竞争力进行了分析.并提出提高内蒙古畜产品加工产业集群竞争力的合理化建议:政府方面,加大资金投入,集中扶持畜产品加工业,发挥财政资金的引导、聚集效应;企业方面,大力发展龙头企业,充分发挥龙头企业的集群效应.%Using Michael Porter's "diamond model" , based on regional development characteristics, we conduct analysis of the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia from six aspects (the factor conditions, demand conditions, corporate strategy, structure and competition, related and supporting industries, government and opportunities). And we put forward the following rational recommendations for improving the competitiveness of processing industry cluster of livestock products in Inner Mongolia: (i) The government should increase capital input, focus on supporting processing industry of livestock products, and give play to the guidance and aggregation effect of financial funds; (ii) In terms of enterprises, it is necessary to vigorously develop leading enterprises, to give full play to the cluster effect of the leading enterprises.

  1. Shallow Discussion on both Sides of the Logistics Characteristic Differences between the Circulation of Livestock and Poultry Meat Products%浅议两岸畜禽肉类产品流通的物流特征差异比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓辉; 吕琪琳

    2013-01-01

    Under the market economic system , with the development of technology and economy , livestock and meat industries on both sides have been more emphasis , its corresponding logistics industry is also rapidly emerging. Under the pressure of the improved livestock production , the rapidly increased amount of per capita consumption products, people's preference for livestock nutrition and flavor, especially the increasing emphasis on quality and safety, making the logistics system constantly improved and enhanced. But can not be ignored is that although Taiwan and mainland has an unbroken material civilization and spiritual civilization , due to the differ-ences between capital, technology and labor, the both sides have showed their different logistics characteristics on the circulation in poultry meat products.%在市场经济体制下,随着科技和经济发展,两岸畜禽肉类产业也越来越得到重视,其相应的物流业也迅速崛起。大大提高的畜产品产量,迅速增加的人均消费产品量,人们对畜产品的营养和风味的偏好,尤其是质量安全越来越重视的压力,这些都使得两岸畜禽肉物流体系不断改善和提高。但不容忽视的是,虽然台湾地区和大陆有着一脉相传的物质文明与精神文明,但由于资金、技术、劳动力等方面的差异,两岸在畜禽肉类产品流通上也呈现出了各自不同的物流特征。

  2. A comparison of economic and cultural incentives in the marketing of livestock in some districts of the northern communal areas of Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Duvel, G H; Stephanus, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    In an endeavour to improve the livestock production and particularly the marketing of livestock in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia, this study analyses the perception of livestock farmers in this regard. The findings show that the decision making is significantly influenced by numerous socio-cultural considerations, which in many cases even overshadow the economic ones. This is manifested in the low off-take percentage, the lacking interest in commercial production, and the fact that t...

  3. Estimation of Airflow in livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    The well-being of the animals (e.g. pigs) in livestock buildings is contingent on adequate ventilation. Depending on the construction of the ventilation system draught may be introduced into the buildings. Obviously this is an unwanted effect, that might lead to decreasing growth of and increasing...... sickness among the livestock. Therefore it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow introduced by a given ventilation system. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke or soapbubles) into the air-inlets of a model of a livestock building, the airflow in an laser...

  4. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  5. Patterns of Asian and non-Asian morbidity in hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, L. J.; Taylor, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of surname, 6418 Asians were identified out of a total of 109 187 deaths and discharges of Leicestershire residents who had been treated in hospitals in the Trent Regional Health Authority over two years. After linkage to Hospital Activity Analysis computerised records, hospital morbidity in Asians and non-Asians was compared. Asian patients in certain age groups were more likely than non-Asian patients to be diagnosed as having asthma; leukaemia; diabetes mellitus; blood, thyroi...

  6. Nitrogen food-print: N use and N cascade from livestock systems in relation to pork, beef and milk supply to Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimpiros, P.; Barles, S.

    2012-02-01

    A bottom-up approach is constructed to determine N losses from livestock farming systems and to relate these losses to the supply of fresh milk, pig and beef to Paris. First, the three products are expressed in terms of their nitrogen content; then, their fodder equivalent is determined by modelling feed formulas for swine, beef and dairy cows to meet their energy and protein requirements. Fodder deficits in livestock farms are determined by comparing the nutrient requirements of the livestock with the fodder production on the livestock farms. This allowed determining the geography of the livestock systems according to the imports of fodder to the livestock farms from external crop farms. Then we assessed the "farm-gate" N budgets in all crop and livestock farms of the entire livestock systems using data on total N fertilization, atmospheric deposition and manure management practices to finally derive N losses in relation to fodder cultivation and to manure management. Measured in N, the supply of milk, beef and pig to Paris sum 1.85 kg N/cap and the corresponding N losses from the farming systems total 8.9 kg N/cap. N losses per unit of product differ among the three livestock systems according to where and how the fodder is grown and to what densities the livestock is reared.

  7. Nitrogen food-print: N use and N cascade from livestock systems in relation to pork, beef and milk supply to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatzimpiros

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A bottom-up approach is constructed to determine N losses from livestock farming systems and to relate these losses to the supply of fresh milk, pig and beef to Paris. First, the three products are expressed in terms of their nitrogen content; then, their fodder equivalent is determined by modelling feed formulas for swine, beef and dairy cows to meet their energy and protein requirements. Fodder deficits in livestock farms are determined by comparing the nutrient requirements of the livestock with the fodder production on the livestock farms. This allowed determining the geography of the livestock systems according to the imports of fodder to the livestock farms from external crop farms. Then we assessed the "farm-gate" N budgets in all crop and livestock farms of the entire livestock systems using data on total N fertilization, atmospheric deposition and manure management practices to finally derive N losses in relation to fodder cultivation and to manure management. Measured in N, the supply of milk, beef and pig to Paris sum 1.85 kg N/cap and the corresponding N losses from the farming systems total 8.9 kg N/cap. N losses per unit of product differ among the three livestock systems according to where and how the fodder is grown and to what densities the livestock is reared.

  8. On sustaining the ecology and livestock industry of the Bayanbuluk Grasslands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian; R; WILLIAMS

    2010-01-01

    A short visit to the Bayanbuluk Grassland in the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, PRC, revealed a number of environmental and livestock production problems, including grassland degradation, loss of grassland biodiversity, soil erosion and flash flooding downstream, decreased pasture productivity, and poor livestock nutrition (especially in winter) leading to stock losses and flocks and herds of low productivity. This paper describes those problems and then suggests some solutions. Short duration, high intensity grazing could be one of the solutions to both improving grassland condition and improving livestock nutrition. Local production of fodder crops for feeding in winter and spring deserves testing, using adapted strains of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and trialling fodder root crop production. It is important to realise that the land management objectives of scientists, administrators, herders and farmers may be similar, and that there are opportunities for land improvement through working together.

  9. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  10. Animating Diversity: Supporting endogenous development of livestock keepers

    OpenAIRE

    Ilse Köhler-Rollefson; Evelyn Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Ilse Kohler-Rollefson and Evelyn Mathias argue that the promotion of endogenous livestock development would help eliminate many of the negative and unintended side effects of industrial livestock. They describe the work of the League for Pastoral Peoples and Endogenous Livestock Development and their work to support small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists.

  11. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Determining sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers for bacteria and virus. Study 1. The overloading problem of the EU reference impaction pre-separator (IPS) was tested in layer houses and c...

  12. LIVESTOCK PRICING IN THE NORTHERN KENYAN RANGELANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Chabari, Francis; Bailey, DeeVon; Coppock, D. Layne; Little, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses detailed, transactions-level data and a structural-heteroskedasticity-in-mean model to identify the determinants of livestock producer prices for pastoralists in the drylands of northern Kenya. The empirical results confirm the importance of animal characteristics, periodic events that predictably shift local demand or supply, and especially rainfall on the prices pastoralists receive for animals. Price risk premia are consistently negative in these livestock markets. The impo...

  13. Precision Livestock Farming: het dier centraal

    OpenAIRE

    Lokhorst, C.

    2010-01-01

    Dit essay gaat over het concept Precision Livestock Farming (PLF). Voor de melkveehouderij is dit beschreven in het Wageningen UR Livestock rapport 358 (Kees Lokhorst, Bert Ipema, Edwin Bleumer, 2010. Haalbaarheid precisielandbouw voor de Melkveehouderij, ISSN 1570 – 8616, 21pp). Het PLF-concept is mede gebaseerd op inspiratie uit de open teelten waar men praat over precisielandbouw. In de veehouderij gebruiken we internationaal PLF en nationaal wordt de term Smart Farming geïntroduceerd. Wag...

  14. Livestock to 2020: the next food revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Christopher L.; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Steinfeld, Henning; Ehui, Simeon K.; Courbois, Claude

    1999-01-01

    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this comprehensive and even-handed attempt at defining the nature, extent, scope, and implications of what they term the "Livestock Revolution” in developing countries. Looking forward to 2020, they argue convincingly that the structural shifts in world agricult...

  15. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  16. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  17. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  18. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  19. The Asian Face Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2009-01-01

    The face-lift procedure (rhytidectomy) is increasingly popular in Asia. There is extensive literature on different techniques in Western patients. Cultural and anthropomorphologic differences between Asian and Caucasians require the adaptation of current techniques to obtain a satisfactory outcome for both the patient and the surgeon. This article therefore attempts to define important differences between Asians and Caucasians in terms of signs of facial aging, perception of beauty, and surgi...

  20. Quantifying Livestock Heat Stress Impacts in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hopson, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Livestock heat stress, especially in regions of the developing world with limited adaptive capacity, has a largely unquantified impact on food supply. Though dominated by ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation all affect heat stress, which can decrease livestock growth, milk production, reproduction rates, and mortality. Indices like the thermal-humidity index (THI) are used to quantify the heat stress experienced from climate variables. Livestock experience differing impacts at different index critical thresholds that are empirically determined and specific to species and breed. This lack of understanding has been highlighted in several studies with a limited knowledge of the critical thresholds of heat stress in native livestock breeds, as well as the current and future impact of heat stress,. As adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change depend on a solid quantitative foundation, this knowledge gap has limited such efforts. To address the lack of study, we have investigated heat stress impacts in the pastoral system of Sub-Saharan West Africa. We used a stochastic weather generator to quantify both the historic and future variability of heat stress. This approach models temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation, the climate variables controlling heat stress. Incorporating large-scale climate as covariates into this framework provides a better historical fit and allows us to include future CMIP5 GCM projections to examine the climate change impacts on heat stress. Health and production data allow us to examine the influence of this variability on livestock directly, and are considered in conjunction with the confounding impacts of fodder and water access. This understanding provides useful information to decision makers looking to mitigate the impacts of climate change and can provide useful seasonal forecasts of heat stress risk. A comparison of the current and future heat stress conditions based on