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Sample records for asian horseshoe crab

  1. Osmoregulation and acid base regulation of the Asian Horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetter, M.; Cong, N.; Nielsen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    the three other species occur in South East Asia. All four species live in the marine environment and while virtually nothing is known about the physiology of the Asian species, it seems clear that smallest species, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, is common in estuaries and river mouths where they may occur...... extracellular osmolytes at all salinities. Exposure to low salinity is associated with a pronounced influx of water, while high salinity causes efflux. Body mass may accordingly changes by 20% for many days after transfer. Air exposure was associated with an uncompensated respiratory acidosis, whereas exposure...

  2. Biodiversity and Distribution of Horseshoe Crabs in Northern Coast of Java and Southern Coast of Madura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashar, A.; Butet, NA; Juliandi, B.; Qonita, Y.; Hakim, AA; Wardiatno, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Horseshoe crab is an important component of macro-benthos communities in the fine sand or mud substrate in coastal waters, both in the tropical and temperate region. This primitive animal consists of four species in the world, and three species can be found di Asian region, including Indonesia, namely Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Scientific information about species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in Indonesia is limited, also about morphometric characters. This study aims to determine the morphometric characters and species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island. This study was conducted on July-August 2016. The total number of three Asian horseshoe crab obtained in this study was 260 individuals, distributed along north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island, respectively 176 individuals of C. rotundicauda, 35 individuals of T. tridentatus, and 49 individuals of T. gigas. Tachypleus gigas has the largest size and widest class interval among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Morphometric characters is differences among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Carapace width and telson length were not significantly different among sampling locations only in T. tridentatus.

  3. Present and future distributions of horseshoe crabs under predicted climate changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch, Peter; Obst, Matthias; Quevedo, Francisco

    populations with obvious implications for the conservation efforts of the three Asian species. Historical records show that Tachypleus gigas (Müller, 1785) and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille, 1802) have a largely overlapping distribution ranging from the Bay of Bengal to the South China Sea where T......The habitats of South East Asian horseshoe crabs span across the shallow waters of many countries and biogeographic regions in the Indo-Pacific. Such ubiquitous presence makes it difficult to obtain an up-to-date and overall picture of the current distribution, density and wealth of horseshoe crab...

  4. Morphometric characteristics in the horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Arthropoda: Merostomata)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Das, S.; Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The relationships observed between total carapace length with carapace width, carapace weight, telson length, body weight were found statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the male and female horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller). In females...

  5. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  6. Reproductive behavior in horseshoe crabs: Does density matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. MATTEI, Mark A. BEEKEY, Adam RUDMAN, Alyssa WORONIK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available While the four species of horseshoe crabs share many common reproductive traits with respect to their reproductive systems, they do differ with respect to their mating behavior (monogamy vs. polygynandry. Past research has attributed these differences to a number of factors including: spawning densities, operational sex ratios (OSR’s, male condition (or age, environmental and/or genetic factors, or a combination thereof. Mating behaviors in the three Asian horseshoe crab species (Tachypleus gigas, T. tridentatus, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda with low spawning densities and 1:1 operational sex ratios are typically monogamous. In Limulus polyphemus, mating behavior is more variable ranging from monogamy to polygynandry. Here we provide evidence, through a long term behavioral study, that variation in mating behavior is influenced by population density in L. polyphemus. Our study population on two beaches in Connecticut (Long Island Sound have a spawning density 400 times less than that found in Delaware Bay (0.002 females/m2 vs. 0.8 females/m2 but similar operational sex ratios. Between 90%–95% of all spawning females in CT were paired with only one male, thus exhibiting monogamous behavior. In contrast, between 30 and 60% of spawning females in Delaware Bay have more than one mate and produce clutches of eggs with multiple paternities. Male condition played no role in mating behavior in CT populations. We also observed that on average 18% of the females on the spawning beaches are single. These results suggest that population density is an important condition that determines mating behavior. Also, low population density may lead to decreased mate finding ability and lost opportunities for spawning [Current Zoology 56 (5: 634–642, 2010].

  7. Spawning migration of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller), in relation to lunal cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Rathod, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Effects of lunar phases and tidal height on the spawning migration of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas, along the northeastern coast of India were studied. Mature pairs of crabs migrate towards the shore and build their nests in sandy beaches...

  8. 77 FR 55457 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... issued that would allow up to two commercial fishing vessels to conduct fishing operations that are... submitted by Limuli Laboratories would provide morphological data on horseshoe crab catch, would tag a... tagged and released into the Delaware Bay. To date, the tagging of 4,938 horseshoe crabs during 2001-2011...

  9. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... issued that would allow up to two commercial fishing vessels to conduct fishing operations that are... Laboratories would provide morphological data on horseshoe crab catch, would tag a portion of the caught... bled horseshoe crabs were tagged and released into the Delaware Bay. To date, the tagging of 4,413...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin (Convenia) in white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert H; Bulman, Frank; Baine, Katherine; Cox, Sherry

    2014-06-01

    Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.

  11. Long-term in vitro generation of amoebocytes from the Indian horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joshi, B.; Chatterji, A.; Bhonde, R.

    Amoebocyte is the single type of cell circulating in the horseshoe crab hemolymph, which plays a major role in the defense system of the animal. Granules present in these cells are sensitive to nanogram quantities of bacterial endotoxins, which form...

  12. Feeding behaviour and food selection in the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A; Mishra, J.K.; Parulekar, A

    The Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas, is a benthic feeder which subsists mainly on molluscs, decayed organic matter and polychaetes, in order of prevalence. A strong and positive preference was recorded for molluscs over other food organisms...

  13. Energy source in the developing eggs of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Aguiar, Q.; Saldanha, C.

    Wet weight, dry weight, water content, ash weight, soluble and insoluble proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and glycogen were determined from 0 to 40th day after fertilization of the developing eggs of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas...

  14. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, Allan J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  15. Exceptional appendage and soft-tissue preservation in a Middle Triassic horseshoe crab from SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shixue; Zhang, Qiyue; Feldmann, Rodney M; Benton, Michael J; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Huang, Jinyuan; Wen, Wen; Zhou, Changyong; Xie, Tao; Lü, Tao; Hong, Shuigen

    2017-10-26

    Horseshoe crabs are classic "living fossils", supposedly slowly evolving, conservative taxa, with a long fossil record back to the Ordovician. The evolution of their exoskeleton is well documented by fossils, but appendage and soft-tissue preservation is extremely rare. Here we analyse details of appendage and soft-tissue preservation in Yunnanolimulus luopingensis, a Middle Triassic (ca. 244 million years old) horseshoe crab from Yunnan Province, SW China. The remarkable preservation of anatomical details including the chelicerae, five pairs of walking appendages, opisthosomal appendages with book gills, muscles, and fine setae permits comparison with extant horseshoe crabs. The close anatomical similarity between the Middle Triassic horseshoe crabs and their recent analogues documents anatomical conservatism for over 240 million years, suggesting persistence of lifestyle. The occurrence of Carcinoscorpius-type claspers on the first and second walking legs in male individuals of Y. luopingensis indicates that simple chelate claspers in males are plesiomorphic for horseshoe crabs, and the bulbous claspers in Tachypleus and Limulus are derived.

  16. Phospholipids from the hepatopancreas of Indian horseshoe crab Carcinoscropius rotundicauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, R; Basu, M K

    1988-12-01

    Total phospholipids were extracted from the heart, hepatopancreas, and hemolymph of the Indian horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda by the conventional method. Characteristic group reaction and 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on silica gel were used for identification of different phospholipids. The phospholipid profile obtained from hemolymph and 2 major organs are comparable and show phosphatidyl choline (PC) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine to be the major phospholipids. A phospholipid has been consistently detected migrating immediately below the PC in the thin-layer chromatogram of lipids extracted from the hepatopancreas. When mixed methyl esters of this slower moving PC are resolved on a silica gel plate ran in hexane ether:acetic acid 80:20:1, with appropriate controls, an additional spot is seen just below the normal methyl ester, indicating a difference between the fatty acid compositions of 2 PC (e.g., regular and slower). The slower mixed methyl esters were found to comprise mainly the 4 saturated fatty acids: lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic. The slow moving PC seems to consist mainly of molecular species with the above-mentioned saturated fatty acids at both Sn 1 and Sn 2 positions.

  17. Intraspecific shape variation in horseshoe crabs: the importance of sexual and natural selection for local adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Søren; Nielsen, Kasper Sauer Kollerup; Bussarawit, Somchai

    2011-01-01

    A morphometric analysis of the body shape of three species of horseshoe crabs was undertaken in order to infer the importance of natural and sexual selection. It was expected that natural selection would be most intense, leading to highest regional differentiation, in the American species Limulus...... polyphemus, which has the largest climatic differences between different populations. Local adaptation driven by sexual selection was expected in males but not females because horseshoe crab mating behaviour leads to competition between males, but not between females. Three hundred fifty-nine horseshoe crabs....... Differences in shape variation between sexes were tested with F-tests, which showed lower intrapopulation morphometric variation in males than females. These results indicate a lower degree of local adaptation on body shape in C. rotundicauda and T. gigas than in L. polyphemus and a lower degree of local...

  18. DMPD: A Toll-like receptor in horseshoe crabs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mmunol Rev. 2004 Apr;198:106-15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show A Toll-like receptor in horseshoe crabs....blication Immunol Rev. 2004 Apr;198:106-15. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html

  19. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... issued that would allow up to two commercial fishing vessels to conduct fishing operations that are... submitted by Limuli Laboratories would provide morphological data on horseshoe crab catch, would tag a... proposed/utilized during the EFPs in 2001-2012. Limuli proposes to continue to tag at least 15 percent of...

  20. A freak twin trilobite larva of the Indian horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, J.K.; Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Early embryonic stages of a horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas were studied using micrographs of live embryo. A freak egg showing two trilobite larvae bridged with each other was noticed on 38th day after fertilization. Morphology of this egg has been...

  1. Fecundity of the Indian Horse-shoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Fecundity in the horse-shoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda ranges from 4217 to 10,982 with an average of 7438. The ova diameter varies between 1.5-2.3 mm with a model value of 1.7 mm. Number of ova per mm carapace length, per g body weight...

  2. Demographic consequences of migratory stopover: linking red knot survival to horseshoe crab spawning abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David; Kalasz, Kevin S.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Dey, Amanda D.; Clark, Nigel A.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Minton, Clive D.T.; Kendall, William

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how events during one period of the annual cycle carry over to affect survival and other fitness components in other periods is essential to understanding migratory bird demography and conservation needs. Previous research has suggested that western Atlantic red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations are greatly affected by horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) egg availability at Delaware Bay stopover sites during their spring northward migration. We present a mass-based multistate, capturerecapture/resighting model linking (1) red knot stopover mass gain to horseshoe crab spawning abundance and (2) subsequent apparent annual survival to mass state at the time of departure from the Delaware Bay stopover area. The model and analysis use capture-recapture/resighting data with over 16,000 individual captures and 13,000 resightings collected in Delaware Bay over a 12 year period from 1997–2008, and the results are used to evaluate the central management hypothesis that red knot populations can be influenced by horseshoe crab harvest regulations as part of a larger adaptive management effort. Model selection statistics showed support for a positive relationship between horseshoe crab spawning abundance during the stopover and the probability of red knots gaining mass (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 1.71, SE = 0.46). Our analyses also supported the link between red knot mass and apparent annual survival, although average estimates for the two mass classes differed only slightly. The addition of arctic snow depth as a covariate influencing apparent survival improved the fit of the data to the models (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 0.50, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate that managing horseshoe crab resources in the Delaware Bay has the potential to improve red knot population status.

  3. Effects of perivitelline fluid obtained from Horseshoe crab on the proliferation and genotoxicity of dental pulp stem cells

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Musa, M.; Ali, K.M.; Kannan, T.P.; Azlina, A.; Omar, N.S.; Chatterji, A.; Mokhtar, K.I.

    Perivitelline fluid (PVF) of the horseshoe crab embryo has been reported to possess an important role during embryogenesis by promoting cell proliferation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of PVF on the proliferation, chromosome aberration (CA...

  4. Effects of Perivitelline Fluid Obtained from Horseshoe Crab on The Proliferation and Genotoxicity of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marahaini Musa; Khadijah Mohd Ali; Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan; Ahmad Azlina; Nor Shamsuria Omar; Anil Chatterji; Khairani Idah Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perivitelline fluid (PVF) of the horseshoe crab embryo has been reported to possess an important role during embryogenesis by promoting cell proliferation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of PVF on the proliferation, chromosome aberration (CA) and mutagenicity of the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Materials and Methods: This is an in vitro experimental study. PVF samples were collected from horseshoe crabs from beaches in Malaysia and the crude extract was ...

  5.  The diversity of horseshoe crabs - protecting an endangered resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch, Peter; Cong, Nguyen Van; Intanai, Itsara

    without damaging the animals by taking blood and tissue samples. Hundreds of animals from all over their known distribution area worldwide will give us the opportunity to analyze their patterns of diversity. The results from this investigation will provide a scientific basis for choosing coasts...... that people often call them "living fossils". Unfortunately, the existing populations are threatened by overfishing of the adults as well as by destruction and pollution of the beaches where they mate and deposit their eggs. All four extant species are on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The blue blood...... of the horseshoe crabs saves thousands of human lives every year. An extract from their blood are used worldwide to determine whether medicine, blood donations, and medical supplies are infected by bacteria or contain toxins. Horseshoe crabs are also fished for human consumption in Asia, are heavily used as bait...

  6. Orientation of larval and juvenile horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus to visual cues: Effects of chemical odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. MEDINA, Richard A. TANKERSLEY

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus have long served as models for the study of vision in marine arthropods. Yet, little is known about the ability of early life history stages to detect and respond to visual cues. We examined the visually directed movements of larvae and first stage juveniles to horizons containing dark visual targets of different sizes. The study tested the hypotheses that (1 larval and juvenile crabs can detect and respond to visual targets and (2 the direction of orientation varies with the presence of chemical cues associated with settlement habitats. Orientation of larval and juvenile crabs to rectangles subtending angles from 30-330o was tested in a circular arena containing water that either lacked estuarine chemical cues (offshore water or contained odors from aquatic vegetation or known predators. In the absence of chemical odors, larvae oriented toward and juveniles moved away from dark horizons subtending angles > 60°. When placed in water containing chemical odors from potential nursery habitats, including the seagrasses Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme, crabs reversed their direction of orientation relative to their responses in offshore water. Odors from two known predators, the mummichug Fundulus grandis and blue crab Callinectes sapidus, had no affect on the orientation of larvae. Yet, juveniles responded to both odors by moving toward the visual target. Results support the hypothesis that the visual orientation of larval and juvenile horseshoe crabs changes upon exposure to habitat and predator cues and that the direction of the response undergoes an ontogenetic shift following metamorphosis [Current Zoology 56 (5: 618–633, 2010].

  7. Epibiotic community of the horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    mortality of epibionts on females. Burying behavior of basibionts/hosts adversely aC128ects the settlement and survival of epibionts (Mori and Zunino 1987; Abello et al. 1990; Becker and Wahl 1996). Barnacles were not found on the steep rim surrounding... behavior have been used to interpret the distribution diC128erences of bar- nacles and bryozoans on the carapace of portunid crabs, e.g. Bathynectes piperitus Manning and Hol- thuis, 1981 (Gili et al. 1993). Mapping studies in this investigation revealed...

  8. Assessment and Mmanagement of North American horseshoe crab populations, with emphasis on a multispecies framework for Delaware Bay, U.S.A. populations: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Michael J.; Sweka, John A.; McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe crab fishery on the US Atlantic coast represents a compelling fishery management story for many reasons, including ecological complexity, health and human safety ramifications, and socio-economic conflicts. Knowledge of stock status and assessment and monitoring capabilities for the species have increased greatly in the last 15 years and permitted managers to make more informed harvest recommendations. Incorporating the bioenergetics needs of migratory shorebirds, which feed on horseshoe crab eggs, into the management framework for horseshoe crabs was identified as a goal, particularly in the Delaware Bay region where the birds and horseshoe crabs exhibit an important ecological interaction. In response, significant effort was invested in studying the population dynamics, migration ecology, and the ecologic relationship of a key migratory shorebird, the Red Knot, to horseshoe crabs. A suite of models was developed that linked Red Knot populations to horseshoe crab populations through a mass gain function where female spawning crab abundance determined what proportion of the migrating Red Knot population reached a critical body mass threshold. These models were incorporated in an adaptive management framework wherein optimal harvest decisions for horseshoe crab are recommended based on several resource-based and value-based variables and thresholds. The current adaptive framework represents a true multispecies management effort where additional data over time are employed to improve the predictive models and reduce parametric uncertainty. The possibility of increasing phenologic asynchrony between the two taxa in response to climate change presents a potential challenge to their ecologic interaction in Delaware Bay.

  9. The Effect of a Horseshoe Crab Citizen Science Program on Middle School Student Science Performance and STEM Career Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Suzanne E.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the impact of a horseshoe crab citizen science program on student achievement and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career motivation with 86 (n = 86) eighth-grade students. The treatment group conducted fieldwork with naturalists and collected data for a…

  10. Allozyme polymorphisms in horseshoe crabs, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, collected from polluted and unpolluted intertidal areas in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Chong, C M; Tan, S G

    2011-03-01

    It has been widely reported that allozyme frequency variation is a potential indicator of heavy metal-induced impacts in aquatic populations. In the present study, wild populations of horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda) were collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites of Peninsular Malaysia. By adopting horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, seven enzyme systems were used to study allozyme polymorphisms. Nine polymorphic loci were observed in C. rotundicauda. The relationships of allozyme variations with the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in sediments and in muscle tissues of horseshoe crabs were determined. Based on genetic distance, the lower mean value of Nei's D (0.017) indicated that both of the contaminated populations of Kg. Pasir Puteh and Kuala Juru were very closely related when compared to the relatively uncontaminated Pantai Lido population. Higher heterozygosities were shown by the contaminated populations when compared to the uncontaminated population. Different allelic frequencies could be observed for the aldolase (ALD; E.C. 2.7.5.1) locus between the contaminated and uncontaminated populations of C. rotundicauda. The dendrogram of genetic relationships of the three populations of C. rotundicauda showed the same clustering pattern as the dendrograms are based on heavy metals in the sediments and in the horseshoe crabs' abdominal muscles. From the F statistics, the present study showed that the three populations of horseshoe crabs were considered to have undergone moderate genetic differentiation with a mean F (ST) value of 0.092 .The current results suggest that allozyme polymorphism in horseshoe crabs is a potential biomonitoring tool for metal contamination, although further validation is required.

  11. American Horseshoe Crab Abundance in the Northern Central Gulf of Mexico from 2012-05-21 to 2013-08-20 (NCEI Accession 0149391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains sightings of American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, during shoreline surveys conducted in late spring and summer in 2012 and 2013. The...

  12. Circalunidian clocks control tidal rhythms of locomotion in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Christopher C.; Ramberg-Pihl, Nicole C.; Watson, Winsor H.

    2016-01-01

    While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24.8h. First, spontaneous “skipping” of one of the daily bouts was observed under several different conditions. Second, the presence of two bouts of activity/day, with different periods, was observed. Lastly, we were able to separately synchronize bouts of activity to two artificial tidal regimes with different periods. These results, taken together, argue in favor of two separate circalunidian clocks in Limulus, each of which controls one of the two bouts of their daily tidal activity rhythms. PMID:27559270

  13. Toxicity assessment for the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngy, Laymithuna; Yu, Chun-Fai; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we assessed the toxicity of the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia within two successive months during rainy (April-May) and dry (December-January) seasons, respectively. Toxicity assessments of the collected specimens by standard mouse bioassay showed marked individual variation, and their toxin profiles by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) revealed tetrodotoxin (TTX) was the main toxin while no paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were detected. All specimens were toxic and the highest toxicity values were 315, 113, 60, 47, 44 and 38 mouse units (MU)/g in the tissues of hepatic caecum, egg, viscera, muscle, intestine and testis, respectively. Although the current findings showed that the Cambodian C. rotundicauda was a moderately toxic species, they are not suitable for human consumption due to their toxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific study on toxic marine seafood ever investigated in Cambodian territorial waters.

  14. Maternal transfer of trace elements in the Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs. The greatest concentrations on average transferred to egg tissue were Zn (140 µg/g), Cu (47.8 µg/g), and Fe (38.6 µg/g) for essential elements and As (10.9 µg/g) and Ag (1.23 µg/g) for nonessential elements. For elements that were maternally transferred, correlation analyses were run to assess if the concentration in the eggs were similar to that of adult tissue that is completely internalized (leg) or a boundary to the external environment (gill). Positive correlations between egg and leg tissue were found for As, Hg, Se, Mn, Pb, and Ni. Mercury, Mn, Ni, and Se were the only elements correlated between egg and gill tissue. Although, many trace elements were in low concentration in the eggs, we speculate that the higher transfer of essential elements is related to their potential benefit during early development versus nonessential trace elements, which are known to be toxic. We conclude that maternal transfer as a source of trace elements to horseshoe crabs should not be overlooked and warrants further investigation.

  15. Rhythms of locomotion expressed by Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab: I. Synchronization by artificial tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Christopher C; Skinner, Stephen J; Watson, Winsor H

    2008-08-01

    Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab, has an endogenous clock that drives circatidal rhythms of locomotor activity. In this study, we examined the ability of artificial tides to entrain the locomotor rhythms of Limulus in the laboratory. In experiments one and two, the activity of 16 individuals of L. polyphemus was monitored with activity boxes and "running wheels." When the crabs were exposed to artificial tides created by changes in water depth, circatidal rhythms were observed in animals exposed to 12.4-h "tidal" cycles of either water depth changes (8 of 8 animals) or inundation (7 of 8 animals). In experiment three, an additional 8 animals were exposed to water depth changes under cyclic conditions of light and dark and then monitored for 10 days with no imposed artificial tides. Most animals (5) clearly synchronized their activity to the imposed artificial tidal cycles, and 3 of these animals showed clear evidence of entrainment after the artificial tides were terminated. Overall, these results demonstrate that the endogenous tidal clock that influences locomotion in Limulus can be entrained by imposed artificial tides. In the laboratory, these tidal cues override the influence of light/dark cycles. In their natural habitat, where both tidal and photoperiod inputs are typically always present, their activity rhythms are likely to be much more complex.

  16. Evaluation of a small beach nourishment project to enhance habitat suitability for horseshoe crabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Smith, David R.; Tiyarattanachai, Ronnachai; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2007-09-01

    This field study evaluates the effect of nourishing an estuarine beach with gravel to enhance spawning rates by horseshoe crabs. A total of 564 m 3 of coarse sand and gravel were emplaced in two 90 m-long treatment segments at Bowers Beach, Delaware, USA from 9 to 11 April 2002. Field data were gathered between 6 April and 24 May 2002 to characterize the two fill segments and the un-nourished segments between them as well as two control segments at the adjacent Ted Harvey Beach. Sediment samples were taken from the foreshore surface and at depth before and after the nourishment. Bay water levels, wave heights, and beach ground water characteristics were monitored over a 12-hour tidal cycle at one of the nourished (15 May 2002) and the unnourished segment (16 May 2002) at Bowers Beach and at one of the control segments at Ted Harvey Beach (21 May 2002) using piezometers and pressure transducers inserted in wells. The beaches were cored to estimate the density of horseshoe crab eggs deposited during the spawning season. Horseshoe crab eggs were buried in pouches at 0.15 to 0.20 m depth for 30 to 40 days to evaluate their survival in developing into embryo or larval stage. Bulk sediment samples were taken to evaluate moisture characteristics near locations where egg pouches were buried. Density of spawning females at Bowers Beach was 1.04 m - 2 in 2001 and 1.20 m - 2 in 2002. These rates are lower than at Ted Harvey Beach but reveal an increase in spawning while Ted Harvey Beach underwent a considerable decrease (2.63 m - 2 to 1.35 m - 2 ). Sediments low on the foreshore remained nearly saturated throughout the tidal cycle at both beaches. The average hydraulic conductivity on the upper foreshore at the non-treatment section at Bowers Beach (0.19 cm s - 1 ) was less than at Ted Harvey Beach (0.27 cm s - 1 ), and the finer, better sorted sediments at depth at Bowers Beach resulted in a higher porosity, creating greater moisture retention potential. Egg development was

  17. Population dynamics of American horseshoe crabs-historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurby, S.; King, T.L.; Obst, M.; Hallerman, E.M.; Pertoldi, C.; Funch, P.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, have declined, but neither the causes nor the magnitude are fully understood. In order to evaluate historic demography, variation at 12 microsatellite DNA loci surveyed in 1218 L. polyphemus sampled from 28 localities was analysed with Bayesian coalescent-based methods. The analysis showed strong declines in population sizes throughout the species' distribution except in the geographically isolated southern-most population in Mexico, where a strong increase in population size was inferred. Analyses suggested that demographic changes in the core of the distribution occurred in association with the recolonization after the Ice Age and also by anthropogenic effects, such as the past overharvest of the species for fertilizer or the current use of the animals as bait for American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and whelk (Busycon spp.) fisheries. This study highlights the importance of considering both climatic changes and anthropogenic effects in efforts to understand population dynamics-a topic which is highly relevant in the ongoing assessments of the effects of climate change and overharvest. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Local tidal regime dictates plasticity of expression of locomotor activity rhythms of American horseshoe crabs,Limulus polyphemus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rebecca L; Watson, Winsor H; Chabot, Christopher C

    2017-04-01

    While horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus from regions with two daily tides express endogenous circatidal (~ 12.4 h) activity rhythms, much less is known about locomotor rhythm expression in horseshoe crabs from other tidal regimes. This study investigated whether horseshoe crabs (1) always express activity rhythms consistent with their natural tides, and (2) can alter activity rhythm expression in response to novel tide cycles. Activity rhythms of animals from environments with two daily tides (Gulf of Maine, 43°6' N/70°52' W, and Massachusetts, 41°32' N/70°40'W), one dominant daily tide (Apalachee Bay, Florida, 29°58' N/84°20' W), and microtides (Indian River Lagoon, Florida, 28°5' N/80°35' W) were recorded in 2011-2013 during three artificial tide conditions: no tides, a 12.4 h tidal cycle, and a 24.8 h tidal cycle. Interestingly, L. polyphemus from the microtidal site ( n = 7) appeared "plastic" in their responses; they were able to express both bimodal and unimodal rhythms in response to different tide cycles. In contrast, the other two populations exhibited more fixed responses: regardless of the tides they were exposed to, animals from areas with one dominant daily tide ( n = 18) consistently expressed unimodal rhythms, while those from areas with two daily tides ( n = 28) generally expressed bimodal rhythms. Rhythms expressed by L. polyphemus thus appear to be a function of endogenous clocks, the tidal cues to which animals are exposed, and tidal cues that animals experience throughout ontogeny.

  19. Functional and structural diversities of C-reactive proteins present in horseshoe crab hemolymph plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, D; Osaki, T; Mizunoe, Y; Wai, S N; Iwanaga, S; Kawabata, S

    1999-09-01

    Limulin, a sialic-acid-binding and phosphorylethanolamine-binding hemagglutinin in the hemolymph plasma of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), is a hemolytic C-reactive protein [Armstrong, P.B., Swarnakar, S., Srimal, S., Misquith, S., Hahn, E.A., Aimes, R. T. & Quigley, J.P. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 14717-14721]. We have now identified three types of C-reactive protein in the plasma of the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus), based on different affinities against fetuin-agarose and phosphorylethanolamine-agarose determined by quantitative precipitin assays using fetuin and an artificial phosphorylethanolamine-protein conjugate. Partial amino acid sequences of the isolated C-reactive proteins identified homologous proteins which were named Tachypleus tridentatus CRP-1 (tCRP-1), tCRP-2 and tCRP-3, each of which possibly constitute isoprotein mixtures. tCRP-2 and tCRP-3, but not tCRP-1, agglutinated mammalian erythrocytes. tCRP-1, the most abundant C-reative protein in the plasma, exhibited the highest affinity to the phosphorylethanolamine-protein conjugate but lacked both sialic-acid-binding and hemolytic activities. tCRP-2 bound to both fetuin-agarose and phosphorylethanolamine-agarose, and exhibited Ca2+-dependent hemolytic and sialic-acid-binding activities, suggestive of limulin-like properties. Furthermore, tCRP-2 exhibited a higher affinity to colominic acid, a bacterial polysialic acid. By contrast, tCRP-3 shows stronger hemolytic, sialic-acid-binding and hemagglutinating activities than tCRP-2. tCRP-3 has no affinity to phosphorylethanolamine-agarose, phosphorylethanolamine-protein conjugate and colominic acid. This suggests tCRP-3 is a novel hemolytic C-reactive protein lacking a common characteristic of phosphorylethanolamine-agarose binding affinity. Twenty-two clones of tCRPs with different deduced amino acid sequences were obtained by PCR using oligonucleotide primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequences of t

  20. Multiple-stressor interactions influence embryo development rate in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, M Christina; Murillo, Andrea; Brockmann, H Jane; Julian, David

    2015-08-01

    Fertilized eggs of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, are buried in shallow nests above the high tide line, where they are exposed to variations in abiotic conditions during early development. Using a multiple-stressors approach, we examined whether the rate of embryonic development is affected by exposure to combinations of three factors: temperature (25, 30 and 35°C), salinity (5, 15 and 34 ppt) and ambient O2 (5%, 13% and 21% O2). Newly fertilized eggs were incubated under 27 fully factorial stressor combinations for 14 days, then allowed to recover in control conditions (30°C, 34 ppt, 21% O2) for an additional 14 days. Growth rate was measured every 2 days throughout the experiment (N=1289). We found that the effect of isolated stressors (high temperature, low salinity or low O2) reduced developmental success by up to 72% (low salinity), and that stressor combinations showed stronger effects and evidence of complex interactions. For example, low O2 had little effect individually but was lethal in combination with high temperature, and low temperature in isolation slightly decreased the rate of development but reduced the negative effects of low salinity and low O2. Development was delayed under exposure to low O2 but resumed upon return to control conditions after a 10 day lag. These data demonstrate that complex, synergistic interactions among abiotic stressors can substantially alter the development of a coastal invertebrate in ways that may not be predicted from the effects of the stressors in isolation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Age and sex specific timing, frequency, and spatial distribu-tion of horseshoe crab spawning in Delaware Bay: Insights from a large-scale radio telemetry array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. SMITH, Lorne J. BROUSSEAU, Mary T. MANDT, Michael J. MILLARD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To study horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning behavior and migration over a large-spatial extent (>100 km, we arrayed fixed station radio receivers throughout Delaware Bay and deployed radio transmitters and archival tags on adult horseshoe crabs prior to their spawning season. We tagged and released 160 females and 60 males in 2004 and 217 females in 2005. The array covered approximately 140 km of shoreline. Recapture rates were >70% with multi-year recaptures. We categorized adult age by carapace wear. Older females tended to spawn earlier in the season and more frequently than young females, but those tendencies were more apparent in 2004 when spawning overall occurred earlier than in 2005 when spawning was delayed possibly due to decreased water temperatures. Timing of initial spawning within a year was correlated with water temperature. After adjusting for day of first spring tide, the day of first spawning was 4 days earlier for every 1 degree (°C rise in mean daily water temperature in May. Seventy nine % of spawning occurred during nighttime high tides. Fifty five % of spawning occurred within 3 d of a spring tide, which was slightly higher than the 47% expected if spawning was uniformly distributed regardless of tidal cycle. Within the same spawning season, males and females were observed spawning or intertidally resting at more than one beach separated by >5 km. Between years, most (77% did not return to spawn at the same beach. Probability of stranding was strongly age dependent for males and females with older adults experiencing higher stranding rates. Horseshoe crabs staging in the shallow waters east of the channel spawned exclusively along the eastern (NJ shoreline, but those staging west of the channel spawned throughout the bay. Overall, several insights emerged from the use of radio telemetry, which advances our understanding of horseshoe crab ecology and will be useful in conserving the Delaware Bay horseshoe crab

  2. Preliminary assessment of the effects of Delaware Bay water and a known endocrine disrupting compound on horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) using proteomics and observation of embryonic development and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The eggs, larvae, and juveniles of horseshoe crabs (L. polyphemus) contribute significantly to the forage base of many species in Delaware Bay. The eggs also provide...

  3. Fusarium solani species complex associated with carapace lesions and branchitis in captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuxbury, Kathryn A; Shaw, Gillian C; Montali, Richard J; Clayton, Leigh Ann; Kwiatkowski, Nicole P; Dykstra, Michael J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2014-07-03

    Captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus housed at the National Aquarium presented with a variety of shell and gill lesions over a 3 yr period. Carapace lesions were located on both the dorsal and ventral prosoma and opisthosoma and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, ulcerations, and/or pitting lesions, extending from superficial to full thickness. Gill lesions involved both the book gill cover (operculum) and individual book gill leaflets and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, tan to off-white opaque proliferative lesions, and/or areas of black discoloration. Histopathology revealed fungal hyphae, with variable morphology throughout the thickened and irregular cuticle of the carapace and occasionally penetrating into subcuticular tissues, with associated amebocytic inflammation. Book gill leaflets were infiltrated by fungal hyphae and contained necrotic debris and amebocytes. Thirty-eight of 39 animals (97%) evaluated via histopathological examination had intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal cultures of carapace and gill lesions were attempted in 26 tissue samples from 15 individuals and were positive in 13 samples (50%), with 10 cultures (77%) yielding identification to genus. Fusarium sp. was identified in 8 of the 10 cultures (80%) via culture morphology. The Fusarium solani species complex was confirmed in 6 of these 8 (75%) via polymerase chain reaction amplification of 2 different ribosomal-specific sequences of isolated fungal DNA. Ante-mortem systemic and topical treatments were performed on some affected individuals, but no appreciable change in lesions was observed. Mycotic dermatitis and branchitis are serious health issues for captive American horseshoe crabs.

  4. Mineralization of soft-part anatomy and invading microbes in the horseshoe crab Mesolimulus from the Upper Jurassic Lagerstätte of Nusplingen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E.G; Moore, Rachel A; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Schweigert, Günter

    2005-01-01

    A remarkable specimen of Mesolimulus from the Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) of Nusplingen, Germany, preserves the musculature of the prosoma and associated microbes in three dimensions in calcium phosphate (apatite). The musculature of Mesolimulus conforms closely to that of modern horseshoe crabs. Associated with the muscles are patches of mineralized biofilm with spiral and coccoid forms. This discovery emphasizes the potential of soft-bodied fossils as a source for increasing our knowledge of the diversity of fossil microbes in particular settings. PMID:15817437

  5. Ultrastructure of book gill development in embryos and first instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farley Roger D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmission electron microscope (TEM is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM and scorpion book lungs (TEM are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. Results The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. Conclusions The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous

  6. Genetic variation and geographic differentiation in the marine triclad Bdelloura candida (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Maricola), ectocommensal on the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Burke, Emily A; Laumer, Christopher; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Bdelloura candida (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Maricola) is an ectocommensal symbiont on the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, living on the book gills and appendages, where it spends its entire life. Given its limited dispersal capabilities and its inability to live outside of the host, we hypothesized a genetic structure that parallels that of its host. We obtained 84 planarian individuals from 19 horseshoe crabs collected from 10 sites from Massachusetts to Florida. We amplified the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 and conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses, which show a clear and strong genetic break between the populations in the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts. Among the Atlantic populations, two additional, weaker barriers located along Cape Hatteras and Cape Cod restrict gene flow. Even though previous studies have suggested that the populations of the host may be in decline, those of B. candida remain stable, and some even shows signatures of expansion. Our results indicate that the phylogeography of these marine ectocommensal triclads closely mirrors that of its Limulus host, and highlight the challenges to both host and symbiont to genetically connect populations across their distribution.

  7. Physiological energetics of the fourth instar of Chinese horseshoe crabs (Tachypleus tridentatus) in response to hypoxic stress and re-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Paul K S; Chan, Cathy S K; Cheung, S G

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia associated with eutrophication is a potential threat to the Chinese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus which inhabits intertidal sand flats in Asia. This study investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen level (DO) (6, 4 and 2 mg O2 l(-1)) on the physiological energetics in the juvenile T. tridentatus. They were exposed to various oxygen levels for three days and then transferred to normoxia for three days to examine the recovery from low oxygen stress. Feeding rate, respiration rate and scope for growth were reduced at lower DO levels while absorption efficiency and excretion rate were independent of DO levels. Although full recovery of the physiological responses and scope for growth from hypoxis stress was observed when normoxia resumed, their long term survival in suboptimal habitats with frequent occurrence of hypoxia deserves a close monitoring as hypoxia may be even more common in future in a warming world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbe-specific C3b deposition in the horseshoe crab complement system in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Tagawa

    Full Text Available Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3, and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg(2+-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg(2+-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca(2+-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca(2+-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1 was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

  9. Seasonal variations in the volume of the haemolymph and body weight of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Rathod, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    whereas, minimum (30 ml) in higher salinities during summer and post flood periods. The body weight of the crab was found to be affectEd. by the fluctuations in salinity. During flood period (October-November) average body weight of the crab increas...

  10. New record of the sympatric distribution of two Asian species of the horseshoe crab

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.

    stream_size 4514 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Sci_77_746.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Sci_77_746.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 New record of the sympatric...... http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/sep25/articles14.htm 2 of 3 2/11/05 9:47 AM This species was found breeding actively on relatively clean and sandy beaches. The other species (C. rotundicauda) was not reported in these areas.However, during the survey...

  11. Structural Basis for Dual-Inhibition Mechanism of a Non-Classical Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Horseshoe Crab in Complex with Subtilisin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Rajesh T. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Thangamani, Saravanan [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain); Ho, Bow [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Ding, Jeak Ling [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Sivaraman, J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Kursula, Petri [Univ. of Oulu (Germany)

    2011-04-26

    Serine proteases play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. In the innate immune system of invertebrates, multi-domain protease inhibitors are important for the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial activities. Serine protease inhibitors, 9.3-kDa CrSPI isoforms 1 and 2, have been identified from the hepatopancreas of the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. The CrSPIs were biochemically active, especially CrSPI-1, which potently inhibited subtilisin (Ki=1.43 nM). CrSPI has been grouped with the non-classical Kazal-type inhibitors due to its unusual cysteine distribution. Here we report the crystal structure of CrSPI-1 in complex with subtilisin at 2.6 Å resolution and the results of biophysical interaction studies. The CrSPI-1 molecule has two domains arranged in an extended conformation. These two domains act as heads that independently interact with two separate subtilisin molecules, resulting in the inhibition of subtilisin activity at a ratio of 1:2 (inhibitor to protease). Each subtilisin molecule interacts with the reactive site loop from each domain of CrSPI-1 through a standard canonical binding mode and forms a single ternary complex. In addition, we propose the substrate preferences of each domain of CrSPI-1. Domain 2 is specific towards the bacterial protease subtilisin, while domain 1 is likely to interact with the host protease, Furin. Elucidation of the structure of the CrSPI-1: subtilisin (1:2) ternary complex increases our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in the innate immune system at the molecular level and provides new strategies for immunomodulation.

  12. Intensive use of an intertidal mudflat by foraging adult American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus in the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Jean LEE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although concerns about harvesting levels of the American Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus have prompted increased research into its ecology, current understanding of the species’ foraging ecology is mostly limited to mid-Atlantic populations. This study elucidates the spatial and temporal pattern of Limulus foraging on an intertidal mudflat of a northern New England estuary. A novel survey method was used to monitor Limulus foraging activity without disturbing the sediment. A fixed 50 m´2 m transect was monitored with monthly surveys of the number of Limulus feeding pits from June to October 2009, May and June 2010. Snorkelling surveys were also carried out to observe individual behavior and examine the spatial scale of activity of individual animals. Results showed frequent and intensive use of the mudflat by foraging Limulus. Limulus were actively foraging within the survey area during all months surveyed. Foraging patterns exhibited a seasonal pattern with activity levels peaking in August 2009 and increased significantly towards the end of the study in June 2010. It was also shown that Limulus intertidal foraging persisted and peaked after the spring breeding season. Observations of foraging Limulus revealed that individual predators dig multiple pits within a single high tide, with little disturbance to the sediment in between. In addition to altering the perception of Limulus as a subtidal predator outside of the breeding season, findings from this study suggests a segregation of spawning and feeding habitats, thus underscoring the need to consider a wider range of critical habitats in the management of Limulus populations [Current Zoology 56 (5: 611–617, 2010].

  13. Effect of an escape vent in accordion-shaped traps on the catch and size of Asian paddle crabs Charybdis japonica in an artificial reef area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Chao; Li, Wentao; Zhang, Xiumei

    2016-11-01

    Accordion-shaped traps are widely used in China to catch the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonica but traps of conventional design often catch juvenile crabs. A new type of accordion-shaped trap with an escape vent (L×W=4.3 cm×3.0 cm) was designed and a comparative study between the newly designed and conventional traps was performed in the artificial reef area of Zhuwang, Laizhou Bay, China from June to August 2012. The mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) of undersized crabs was significantly lower in the vented traps than in the conventional traps (paired t -test, n=30, P<0.001), while the CPUE of marketable crabs was significantly higher in the vented traps (paired t-test, n=30, P<0.001). The mean size of crabs (carapace length) caught in the vented traps was significantly larger than in conventional traps (paired t-test, n=29, P<0.001). The ratio of undersized crabs was 35.05±2.57% in conventional traps and 12.53±0.69% in vented traps (significantly lower, paired t-test, n=29, P<0.001). Therefore, a 4.3 cm×3.0 cm escape vent was considered appropriate for C. japonica fishing in the artificial reef area. This finding will assist the development of more sustainable and efficient crab fishing methods using accordion-shaped traps.

  14. When Indian crabs were not yet Asian - biogeographic evidence for Eocene proximity of India and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The faunal and floral relationship of northward-drifting India with its neighboring continents is of general biogeographic interest as an important driver of regional biodiversity. However, direct biogeographic connectivity of India and Southeast Asia during the Cenozoic remains largely unexplored. We investigate timing, direction and mechanisms of faunal exchange between India and Southeast Asia, based on a molecular phylogeny, molecular clock-derived time estimates and biogeographic reconstructions of the Asian freshwater crab family Gecarcinucidae. Results Although the Gecarcinucidae are not an element of an ancient Gondwana fauna, their subfamily Gecarcinucinae, and probably also the Liotelphusinae, evolved on the Indian Subcontinent and subsequently dispersed to Southeast Asia. Estimated by a model testing approach, this dispersal event took place during the Middle Eocene, and thus before the final collision of India and the Tibet-part of Eurasia. Conclusions We postulate that the India and Southeast Asia were close enough for exchange of freshwater organisms during the Middle Eocene, before the final Indian-Eurasian collision. Our data support geological models that assume the Indian plate having tracked along Southeast Asia during its move northwards.

  15. The Indian horseshoe crab: A living fossil

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Indian_Ocean_Studies_1_43.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Indian_Ocean_Studies_1_43.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Horseshoeing: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Karle; P. H. Tank; H. S. Vedpathak; H. K. Mahida; R. G. Shah and M. A. Dhami

    2010-01-01

    The horseshoeing is one of the oldest surviving traditional craft popularly known as “Farriery”. Shoeing was invented because even the best footed horses would become foot sore when traveling long distance or carrying heavy load. Physiological horseshoeing can be defined as the process that promotes a healthy functional foot, bio-mechanical efficiency and prevents lameness. A horse shoe is simply a bar of steel which is bent to the shape of the hoof and nailed to it. Diffe...

  17. Contracting singular horseshoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C. A.; San Martín, B.

    2017-11-01

    We suggest a notion of hyperbolicity adapted to the geometric Rovella attractor (Robinson 2012 An Introduction to Dynamical Systems—Continuous and Discrete (Pure and Applied Undergraduate Texts vol 19) 2nd edn (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society)) . More precisely, we call a partially hyperbolic set asymptotically sectional-hyperbolic if its singularities are hyperbolic and if its central subbundle is asymptotically sectional expanding outside the stable manifolds of the singularities. We prove that there are highly chaotic flows with Rovella-like singularities exhibiting this kind of hyperbolicity. We shall call them contracting singular horseshoes.

  18. Horseshoeing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Karle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The horseshoeing is one of the oldest surviving traditional craft popularly known as “Farriery”. Shoeing was invented because even the best footed horses would become foot sore when traveling long distance or carrying heavy load. Physiological horseshoeing can be defined as the process that promotes a healthy functional foot, bio-mechanical efficiency and prevents lameness. A horse shoe is simply a bar of steel which is bent to the shape of the hoof and nailed to it. Different varieties of horses require different styles of shoeing. Shoe protects the foot from bruising, splitting and wearing, provides working comfort and also prevents sliping. Additionally, it is advocated in treatment of hoof defects. Assessment of horse shoeing includes measurement of hoof angle, position of hoof balance, tubular alignment of toe with heel, position of medio-lateral imbalance, tubular alignment of the toe alone, status of dorso-palmar balance along with hoof pastern axis and so also the hoof symmetry in contest to status of sole. Neglecting regular attention to a horse’s feet, whether shoed or not, can easily cause problems which can be hard to correct. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 148-151

  19. Horseshoe lung with left lung hypoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ersöz, A; Soncul, H; Gökgöz, L; Kalaycioğlu, S; Tunaoğlu, S; Kaptanoğlu, M; Yener, A

    1992-01-01

    Horseshoe lung is an uncommon congenital malformation in which the bases of the right and the left lungs are fused to each other by a narrow isthmus posterior to the cardiac apex. So far 22 cases have been described: most of these were associated with right lung hypoplasia and the scimitar syndrome. A horseshoe lung anomaly with left lung hypoplasia is described.

  20. Scimitar syndrome with horseshoe lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitzke, A.; Gypser, G.; Sager, W.D.

    1982-03-01

    A combination of two rare malformations of the lung was observed in a four-year-old asymptomatic boy. He had typical scimitar syndrome (dextrocardia, hypoplastic right lung and right-sided anomalous pulmonary venous drainage into the v. cava inferior) together with horseshoe lung. Diagnosis was established by angiocardiography and computerized tomography. In the absence of recurrent pulmonary infections operative intervention is not necessary with normal pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance. To the best of our knowledge this case with both malformations seems to be the fourth which is reported in the literature.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Liu; Keping Sun; Yung Chul Park; Jiang Feng

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relati...

  2. American Horshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus) : Population Ecology within the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S. C.; Carmichael, R. H.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; McBarnes, M.

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the occurrence and population structure of horseshoe crabs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, we sampled animals on Petit Bois Island, Dauphin Island, and Fort Morgan. To determine if major life history events such as spawning, molting, or mortality occurred more frequently at certain locations and times, we counted molts, live animals (noted whether animals were alone or amplexed for spawning), and carcasses. We also tested the hypothesis that demographics of molts or carcasses found on local beaches represent nearby live animal populations by tracking the redistribution of tagged molts placed at variable distances from shore (2, 50, 100 m). Overall, our data suggested a greater occurrence of spawning adults and actively molting juveniles on Petit Bois Island compared to other sites. The number of specimens found at Dauphin Island and Fort Morgan declined since 2012, possibly due to a regional-scale change in environmental conditions. Size frequency distributions of molts and carcasses collected during 2015 were similar to values from previous studies, but showed a higher number of subadult horseshoe crab carcasses in 2015 compared to other years. Tagged molts were recovered at a rate of 2.5%, suggesting that few molts deposited in nearby waters make it to local beaches. Tagged molts were recovered at 1 - 22 days following field placement, with the majority of recovered molts found after 1 day. Because smaller crabs (<40 mm size) stay close to natal beaches when molting, their molts are most likely to wash ashore. Data provided by this study will help inform future research on horseshoe crab ecology and assess how natural and anthropogenic perturbaRons may affect horseshoe crab populaRons in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Traumatic parenchymal laceration in a horseshoe kidney.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stunell, H

    2011-03-01

    An 18-year-old man was transferred to the authors\\' institution after a motor vehicle collision in which he was a restrained front seat passenger. The referring hospital performed contrast-enhanced computed tomography which revealed a previously undiagnosed horseshoe kidney with a laceration of the right lower pole moiety. On transfer, he was pale and mildly tachycardic but normotensive.

  4. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  5. Crab Cavity Development

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Burt, G; Ratti, A

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC upgrade will use deflecting (or crab) cavities to compensate for geometric luminosity loss at low β* and non-zero crossing angle. A local scheme with crab cavity pairs across the IPs is used employing compact crab cavities at 400 MHz. Design of the cavities, the cryomodules and the RF system is well advanced. The LHC crab cavities will be validated initially with proton beam in the SPS.

  6. Horseshoe lung associated with diaphragmatic herniation of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicak, Biserka; Mihatov-Stefanović, Iva; Vrsalović, Renata; Babić, Nenad; Markicević-Ruzicić, Karmen

    2010-12-01

    Horseshoe lung is a rare congenital pulmonary anomaly in which the caudal and basal segments of the left and right lungs are joined together behind the pericardium at the height of cardiac apex. Most patients with horseshoe lung have many other cardiovascular anomalies typical of the scimitar syndrome or the hypogenetic right lung syndrome. We report on a patient with horseshoe lung not associated with scimitar syndrome, but presented with a focal diaphragmatic herniation of the liver, such as never reported before in case of horseshoe lung without associated scimitar syndrome.

  7. Dynamics of biosonar systems in Horseshoe bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Horseshoe bats have an active ultrasonic sonar system that allows the animals to navigate and hunt prey in structure-rich natural environments. The physical components of this biosonar system contain an unusual dynamics that could play a key role in achieving the animals' superior sensory performance. Horseshoe bat biosonar employs elaborate baffle shapes to diffract the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic wave packets; ultrasound is radiated from nostrils that are surrounded by noseleaves and received by large outer ears. Noseleaves and pinnae can be actuated while ultrasonic diffraction takes place. On the emission side, two noseleaf parts, the anterior leaf and the sella, have been shown to be in motion in synchrony with sound emission. On the reception side, the pinnae have been shown to change their shapes by up to 20% of their total length within ˜100 milliseconds. Due to these shape changes, diffraction of the incoming and outgoing waves is turned into a dynamic physical process. The dynamics of the diffraction process results in likewise dynamic device characteristics. If this additional dynamic dimension was found to enhance the encoding of sensory information substantially, horseshoe bat biosonar could be a model for the use of dynamic physical processes in sensing technology.

  8. [Surgical therapy of lithiasis in horseshoe kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, J L; Amoros, A; Ramírez, M; Pastor, J C; Benedicto, A

    2012-01-01

    To present our centre's experience in the surgical treatment of lithiasis in patients with horseshoe kidney. From October 2007 to March 2011 we treated 10 patients with renal lithiasis in their horseshoe kidneys. Retrospectively, we reviewed the symptoms, medical and surgical history, the characteristics of the stones (size, location, composition) and treatments that were carried out. In all the cases, the study was carried out by CT, with volume reconstruction and with an angiographic study. A percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or an endoscopic retrograde intrarrenal surgery (RIRS) was carried out, depending on the size and location of the stone. Three percutaneous nephrolithotomies were carried out (2 on staghorn lithiasis stones, 1 pseudocoraliform stone) with a combined rigid and flexible single-access nephroscopy. In one case there was haemorrhage that required treatment by selective embolization. In the rest, RIRS was carried out, all with stones lithiasis in horseshoe kidneys is complex, given their peculiar anatomy. The usual surgical techniques can be reproduced in these cases with good results. We opt for PCNL in complete staghorn stone and pseudocoraiform stones, whereas RIRS is a valid option in cases with stones < 3 cm. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Robotic transmesocolonic Pyelolithotomy of horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad S Rajih

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the use of the robot to perform a transmesocolonic pyelolithotomy of a horseshoe kidney. Materials and Methods A 35-year old female presented with vague abdominal pain. CT scan imaging revealed the presence of a left horseshoe kidney with multiple pelvicalyceal stones. The patient was positioned in the supine position. A total of 4 ports were introduced. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. First, the dilated renal pelvis was identified behind the thin mesocolon. The mesocolon was entered and renal pelvis was dissected completely from the surrounding fat. Then, the renal pelvis was opened after adequate dissection and stones were visualized inside the calyces. By Prograsp forceps, stones were removed from all the calyces under vision and were extracted from the assistant trocar. Finally, the pylotomy incision was closed using 4 0 Maxon in a continuous fashion and the mesocolon was closed using 3 0 PDS interrupted sutures. A JP drain was placed. Result Operative time was forty-five minutes, blood loss was 100 ml. The patient was discharged after 48 hours with no immediate complications. Conclusion The utilization of minimal invasive surgery using the robot to extract multiple pelvicalyceal stones from a horseshoe kidney without reflecting the mesocolon proved to be a feasible and novel way in the management of complex stone disease improving the outcome with minimal morbidity.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Sun, Keping; Park, Yung Chul; Feng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum , is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations.

  12. Multimodality imaging spectrum of complications of horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik U Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400–600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in greater than 90% of the cases, with the rest depicting fusion at the upper poles, resulting in an inverted horseshoe kidney. Embryologically, there are two theories hypothesizing the genesis of horseshoe kidney – mechanical fusion theory and teratogenic event theory. As an entity, horseshoe kidney is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation. It is also associated with other anomalies including vascular, calyceal, and ureteral anomalies. Horseshoe kidney is prone to a number of complications due to its abnormal position as well as due to associated vascular and ureteral anomalies. Complications associated with horseshoe kidney include pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal stones, infection, tumors, and trauma. It can also be associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Conventional imaging modalities (plain films, intravenous urogram as well as advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the evaluation of horseshoe kidney. This article briefly describes the embryology and anatomy of the horseshoe kidney, enumerates appropriate imaging modalities used for its evaluation, and reviews cross-sectional imaging features of associated complications.

  13. Our percutaneous nephrolitotomy experience in patients with horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Suelozgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Horseshoe kidney is the most common renal congenital fusion anomaly. Kidney stone formation is more common in horseshoe kidneys and some of them requires surgical procedure. So we want to evaluate the results of PNL in patients with horseshoe kidney anomaly. Matherial and method: Between January 2009-January 2014 PNL operation was performed in 6 patients with horseshoe kidney anomaly in our clinic. Success of surgery and postoperative/peroperative complications were evalutaed retrospectively. Results: No severe complications occured in any patient caused by surgery. Three patients became stonefree. One patient had less than 4 mm. residual stone, two patients had more than 4 mm. residual stone. Conclusion: PNL is safe surgical method and it can be performed successfully in patients with horseshoe kidney anomaly.

  14. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage during pregnancy: a case with horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Amini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is an acute hemorrhage during pregnancy, which can be tragic for the mother and the baby. We report a unique spontaneous hemorrhage during pregnancy in a case with horseshoe kidney with separated adrenal, presented for the first time in the world. Computed tomography scan showed a horseshoe kidney fused with left normal kidney. Interestingly the adrenal gland was remained in right flank and separated from the horseshoe kidney, which prepares a probable physical stress for the hemorrhage. Diagnosis and surgery were done successfully and the case was fully recovered after several days.

  15. Noseleaf Dynamics during Pulse Emission in Horseshoe Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Feng; Li Gao; Hongwang Lu; Rolf Müller

    2012-01-01

    Horseshoe bats emit their biosonar pulses nasally and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves by conspicuous structures that surrounded the nostrils. Here, we report quantitative experimental data on the motion of a prominent component of these structures, the anterior leaf, using synchronized laser Doppler vibrometry and acoustic recordings in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). The vibrometry data has demonstrated non-random motion patterns in the anterior leaf. In these p...

  16. Horseshoe kidney - is the diagnosis possible by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenss, H.; Schulze, K.; Klott, K.J.

    1980-07-01

    Within one year among six-thousand patients eight with horseshoe kidney were examined by sonography. In four patients the primary diagnosis was made by ultrasonic demonstration. In two patients a lymphoma and an aortic aneurysm were supposed; the correct diagnosis was established by angiography and computertomography. In the other two patients with already known diagnosis a typical ultrasonic picture was found. The diagnosis difficulties in ultrasonic demonstration of horseshoe kidney are discussed.

  17. Horseshoe Drag in Three-dimensional Globally Isothermal Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masset, F. S.; Benítez-Llambay, P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the horseshoe dynamics of a low-mass planet in a three-dimensional, globally isothermal, inviscid disk. We find, as reported in previous work, that the boundaries of the horseshoe region (separatrix sheets) have cylindrical symmetry about the disk’s rotation axis. We interpret this feature as arising from the fact that the whole separatrix sheets have a unique value of Bernoulli’s constant, and that this constant does not depend on altitude, but only on the cylindrical radius, in barotropic disks. We next derive an expression for the torque exerted by the horseshoe region on the planet, or horseshoe drag. Potential vorticity is not materially conserved as in two-dimensional flows, but it obeys a slightly more general conservation law (Ertel’s theorem) that allows an expression for the horseshoe drag identical to the expression in a two-dimensional disk to be obtained. Our results are illustrated and validated by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The horseshoe region is found to be slightly narrower than previously extrapolated from two-dimensional analyses with a suitable softening length of the potential. We discuss the implications of our results for the saturation of the corotation torque, and the possible connection to the flow at the Bondi scale, which the present analysis does not resolve.

  18. Enhancement of vertebrate cardiogenesis by a lectin from perivitelline fluid of horseshoe crab embryo

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghaskadbi, S.; Patwardhan, V.; Chakraborthy, M.; Agrawal, S.; Verma, M.K.; Chatterji, A.; Lenka, N.; Parab, P.B.

    for discussions and suggestions. 19 References 1 Hatada, Y. and Stern, C. D. (1994). A fate map of the epiblast of the early chick embryo. Development 120, 2879-2889. 2 Hamburger, V. and Hamilton, H. L. (1951). A series of normal stages in the development... in the induction of cardiac myogenesis. Genes Dev. 11, 451-462. 9 Streit, A, Lee, K. J., Woo, I., Roberts, C., Jessell, T. M. and Stern, C. D. (1998) Chordin regulates primitive streak development and the stability of induced neural cells...

  19. Regeneration of gill lamellae of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Alam, H.; Joshi, B.K.; Bhonde, R.R.

    and energies of regeneration in reef rubble brittle - stars. In Echinoderm Biology (eds Burke, R. D. et al. ), A.A. Balkema, Ro t- terdam, 1988, pp. 523 ? 529. 14. Williams, G. C., Am. Nat ., 1966, 100 , 687 ? 690. 15. Bell, G., Am. Nat... Pradesh Ginkgo biloba Linn . (maiden - hair tree), the only extant species of Ginkgo a les shows several ancestors in fossil r e cords. It is the sole living member among the race of dominant plants that probably e x isted on t he earth longer...

  20. Effect of salinity on larval growth of horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Kotnala, S.; Mathew, R.

    , U., Annu. Rev. Bi o- chem ., 1996, 65 , 271 ? 303. 3. Lutcke, H., Eur. J. Biochem. , 1995, 228 , 531 ? 550. 4. Keenan, R. J., Freymann, D. M., Stoud, R. M. and Wa l ter , P., Annu. Rev. Biochem ., 2001, 70 , 755 ? 775. 5. Zwieb, C..., M. S., Wei, J. and Xu, A., Curr. Sci ., 2002, 83 , 101 ? 104. 14. Burla nd, T. G., Methods Mol. Biol ., 2000, 132 , 71 ? 91. 15. Moshe, T., Michael, R. W., Detlef, B. and Chantal, D. V., Bi o- chem. Biophys. Res. Commun ., 1999, 256...

  1. A sexual mosaic with internal embryogenesis in the dioecious Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, D.C.; Pezalla, P.D.; Herman, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    The chelicerate arthropod Limulus polyphemus is a dioecious species, with external fertilization and development, in which the sexes can usually be readily distinguished (Shuster, 1960). In males the genital papillae are pointed, while in females they are blunt. In addition, the first walking leg of

  2. The effects of oil and oil dispersant on gametes of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Short-term, static exposure toxicity tests were conducted in the New Jersey Field Office laboratory to evaluate the potential for the water accommodated fractions of...

  3. Availability of contaminants to migratory shorebirds consuming horseshoe crab eggs on Delaware Bay Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A perceived decline in the shorebird population has raised concern regarding contamination at shorebird breeding, staging, and wintering grounds. Thousands of...

  4. Nesting behaviour of the Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller) (Xiphosura)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.; Qasim, S.Z.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indias_EEZ_1996_142.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indias_EEZ_1996_142.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Population dynamics of American horseshoe crabs—historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Søren; King, Tim L.; Obst, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Populations of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, have declined, but neither the causes nor the magnitude are fully understood. In order to evaluate historic demography, variation at 12 microsatellite DNA loci surveyed in 1218 L. polyphemus sampled from 28 localities was analysed wi....... This study highlights the importance of considering both climatic changes and anthropogenic effects in efforts to understand population dynamics—a topic which is highly relevant in the ongoing assessments of the effects of climate change and overharvest....... with Bayesian coalescent-based methods. The analysis showed strong declines in population sizes throughout the species’ distribution except in the geographically isolated southern-most population in Mexico, where a strong increase in population size was inferred. Analyses suggested that demographic changes...... in the core of the distribution occurred in association with the recolonization after the Ice Age and also by anthropogenic effects, such as the past overharvest of the species for fertilizer or the current use of the animals as bait for American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and whelk (Busycon spp.) fisheries...

  6. Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals in Chinese mitten crabs from Dutch rivers and lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, Marion; van der Lee, Martijn K; Mennes, Wim C; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-03-01

    Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated high levels of dioxins and PCBs, in particular in the brown meat in the body. This was confirmed by studies in the Netherlands, showing average levels of dioxins and PCBs in the meat in the body of 43 pg TEQ g(-1) ww in crabs caught in the large rivers. Levels in crab of lakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands were on average 3.7-fold lower. Consumption of crabs from polluted areas results in a relatively high dose of dioxins and dl-PCBs and could significantly increase the intake above the TWI. However, in general consumption of these crabs is low, even in the Asian sub-population in the Netherlands. Cadmium and lead levels were higher in crabs from contaminated areas, but for mercury and arsenic there was no clear difference. Consumption of crabs would not result in significant risks for cadmium and mercury. For lead the daily intake could be raised above the BMDL01 for neurodevelopmental toxicity, but this would only occur on a limited number of days. For arsenic the exposure would exceed the lower end of the BMDL01 values for certain cancers, but again, the infrequent consumption by most consumers reduces this risk. Furthermore, speciation showed that most arsenic in crabs was probably not a toxic inorganic form, but likely to be in an organic form. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Horseshoe kidney, stone disease and prostate cancer: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernández, A; Hernández Guerra, J S; Sobenes Gutierrez, R J

    2013-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomalies. It occurs in 0.25% of the population, or 1 in every 400 people. It is more frequent in males (ratio 2:1). The most observed complication of horseshoe kidney is stone disease, although there may be others such as, abdominal pain, urinary infections, haematuria, hydronephrosis, trauma and tumours (most commonly associated with hypernephroma and Wilms tumour). We describe a case of a male patient with horseshoe kidney, stone disease and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. One carrier of this condition who suffered a transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate was found in a review of the literature. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation in child with horseshoe kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Bin

    2012-02-01

    We describe a 12-year-old girl with a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation (LM) and horseshoe kidney. The imaging characteristics of the lesions are reported. Retroperitoneal LM coexisting with horseshoe kidney is extremely rare. We hypothesized that they might share the similar etiologic factors. Imaging examinations are helpful in the definition of the 2 lesions and the relationship between them, but no characteristic findings are available to diagnose retroperitoneal LM before surgery. Surgical excision is ideal to treat LM, and the prognosis is good. Although asymptomatic horseshoe kidney need not be treated, it is important for patients to receive regular follow-up because of the propensity for various complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Pregnant Woman With Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Scavuzzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal cell carcinoma in kidney horseshoe diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy. We performed open radical nephrectomy when the pregnancy was completed. Kidney cancer is rare during pregnancy and the symptoms can be mimic urinary infection. The diagnosis and its management can be a challenge.

  10. Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Pregnant Woman With Horseshoe Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Scavuzzo; Zael Santana Rios; Cristobal Diaz-Gomez; Beatriz Varguez Gonzalez; Victor Osornio-Sanchez; Edgar Bravo-Castro; Edgar Linden-Castro; Pedro Martinez-Cervera; Miguel Angel Jimenez-Rios

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal cell carcinoma in kidney horseshoe diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy. We performed open radical nephrectomy when the pregnancy was completed. Kidney cancer is rare during pregnancy and the symptoms can be mimic urinary infection. The diagnosis and its management can be a challenge.

  11. Conjoined twins with a horseshoe kidney | Modi | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjoined twins are rare variants of monozygotic twins. There are many types of conjoined twins, usually classified according to the site of fusion. The most common type of renal fusion anomaly is the horseshoe kidney, comprising two distinct functioning kidneys on either side of the midline, which are more likely to be ...

  12. Carcinoid in a horseshoe kidney - Morphology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBerg, E; Gouw, ASH; Storkel, S; Dijkhuizen, T; Mensink, HJA; deJong, B

    1995-01-01

    Renal carcinoids are very rare neoplasms. We were able to culture and subsequently karyotype a carcinoid located in the isthmus of a horseshoe kidney, which revealed the following chromosomal pattern: 47,XX, + 13[8]/46,XX,t(13;14) (q31;q11.2)[5]/46,XX[2]. The DNA index was 1. Our results, compared

  13. Reproduction in the Cape horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spermatogenesis and follicular development are. described and are· similar to those described for other members of the genus Rhinolophus. The reproductive cycle of the Cape horseshoe bat is characterized by spermatogenesis between. October and May (spring to autumn) with sperm released to the cauda epididymis in ...

  14. Idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masaomi Kubota,1 Tomohiro Shibata,1 Hisato Gunji,1 Hiroshi Tsuneoka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine Kashiwa Hospital, Chiba, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Although a few cases with idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear have been reported, the mechanism remains unknown and a standard treatment has yet to be determined. Objective: To report the outcome for a patient with idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear who underwent vitreous surgery. Case report: A 65-year-old man with no previous injury or ophthalmic disease presented with abnormal vision in his left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 0.8 in the right and 0.3 in the left, and the relative afferent pupillary defect was negative. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a horseshoe-like tear on the temporal side of the macula in the left eye. The tear size was 0.75 disc diameters (DD. Optical coherence tomography showed that the focal retinal detachment reached the fovea. A few days after the first visit, there was no longer adhesion of the flap of the tear to the retina and the tear size had increased to 1.5 DD. The patient underwent vitreous surgery similar to large macular hole surgery, with the tear closure repaired using the inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique with 20% SF6 gas tamponade. Although the tear decreased to 0.5 DD after the surgery, complete closure of the tear was not achieved. Conclusion: While cases with horseshoe-like macular tear following trauma and branch retinal vein occlusion have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported idiopathic case. In the present case, there was expansion of the tear until the patient actually underwent surgery. If vertical vitreous traction indeed plays a role in horseshoe-like macular tears, this will need to be taken into consideration at the time of the vitreous surgery in these types of cases. Keywords

  15. On the Horseshoe Drag of a Low-Mass Planet. I. Migration in Isothermal Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formalism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horseshoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, and not only of the horseshoe region, thereby deserving to be called corotation torque. We find that evanescent waves launched downstream of the horseshoe U-turns by the perturbations of vortensity exert a feedback on the upstream region, that render the horseshoe region asymmetric. This asymmetry scales with the vortensity gradient and with the disk's aspect ratio. It does not depend on the planetary mass, and it does not have any impact on the horseshoe drag. Since the horseshoe drag has a steep dependence on the width of the horseshoe region, we provide an adequate definition of the width that needs to be used in horseshoe drag estimates. We then consider the case of locally isothermal disks, in which the temperature is constant in time but depends on the distance to the star. The horseshoe drag appears to be different from the case of a globally isothermal disk. The difference, which is due to the driving of vortensity in the vicinity of the planet, is intimately linked to the topology of the flow. We provide a descriptive interpretation of these effects, as well as a crude estimate of the dependency of the excess on the temperature gradient.

  16. Horseshoe orbits in the restricted four-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Garcia, Jaime; Bengochea, Abimael

    2017-11-01

    The circular restricted four-body problem studies the dynamics of a massless particle under the gravitational force produced by three point masses that follow circular orbits with constant angular velocity, the configuration of these circular orbits forms an equilateral triangle for all time; this problem can be considered as an extension of the celebrated restricted three-body problem. In this work we investigate the orbits which emanate from some equilibrium points. In particular, we focus on the horseshoe shaped orbits (rotating frame), which are well known in the restricted three-body problem. We study some families of symmetric horseshoe orbits and show their relation with a family of the so called Lyapunov orbits.

  17. RESECTIONOF A HORSESHOE KIDNEY IN A PATIENT WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nyushko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the most urgent problems of modern urology, due to the steady increase in the incidence of this disease worldwide. Horseshoe kidney is a rare observation, the frequency of detection of this disease in the population is 2.8% of all malformations. RCC horseshoe kidney are rare, less than 2% of all cases of horseshoe kidney. Surgical treatment remains the golden standard of therapy of patients with RCC. The article presents a clinical case of resection of horseshoe kidney in a patient with RCC.

  18. Crab as a Coconut Oil Separating Agent

    OpenAIRE

    MARGINO, SEBASTIAN

    1991-01-01

    The role of sterilized and nonsterilized crab extract on the separation of coconut oil was examined using grated coconut meat as substrate. Sterilized crab extract was prepared by suspension and centrifugation of crushed crab and then filtrated using Millipore Utter. Sterilized crab extract has proteolytic activity but not lipolytic one. It was found that the sterilized crab extract supported the growth of proteolytic microbes, isolated from fermentation process of coconut oil. Both sterilize...

  19. Crab As A Coconut Oil Separating Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Margino, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The role of sterilized and nonsterilized crab extract on the separation of coconut oil was examined using grated coconut meat as substrate. Sterilized crab extract was prepared by suspension and centrifugation of crushed crab and then filtrated using Millipore Utter. Sterilized crab extract has proteolytic activity but not lipolytic one. It was found that the sterilized crab extract supported the growth of proteolytic microbes, isolated from fermentation process of coconut oil. Both sterilize...

  20. Noseleaf dynamics during pulse emission in horseshoe bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Horseshoe bats emit their biosonar pulses nasally and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves by conspicuous structures that surrounded the nostrils. Here, we report quantitative experimental data on the motion of a prominent component of these structures, the anterior leaf, using synchronized laser Doppler vibrometry and acoustic recordings in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. The vibrometry data has demonstrated non-random motion patterns in the anterior leaf. In these patterns, the outer rim of the walls of the anterior leaf twitches forward and inwards to decrease the aperture of the noseleaf and increase the curvature of its surfaces. Noseleaf displacements were correlated with the emitted ultrasonic pulses. After their onset, the inward displacements increased monotonically towards their maximum value which was always reached within the duration of the biosonar pulse, typically towards its end. In other words, the anterior leaf's surfaces were moving inwards during most of the pulse. Non-random motions were not present in all recorded pulse trains, but could apparently be switched on or off. Such switches happened between sequences of consecutive pulses but were never observed between individual pulses within a sequence. The amplitudes of the emitted biosonar pulse and accompanying noseleaf movement were not correlated in the analyzed data set. The measured velocities of the noseleaf surface were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a magnitude with a likely significance. However, the displacement amplitudes were significant in comparison with the overall size of the anterior leaf and the sound wavelengths. These results indicate the possibility that horseshoe bats use dynamic sensing principles on the emission side of their biosonar system. Given the already available evidence that such mechanisms exist for biosonar reception, it may be hypothesized that time-variant mechanisms play a pervasive role in the biosonar

  1. Noseleaf dynamics during pulse emission in horseshoe bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Li; Lu, Hongwang; Müller, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Horseshoe bats emit their biosonar pulses nasally and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves by conspicuous structures that surrounded the nostrils. Here, we report quantitative experimental data on the motion of a prominent component of these structures, the anterior leaf, using synchronized laser Doppler vibrometry and acoustic recordings in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). The vibrometry data has demonstrated non-random motion patterns in the anterior leaf. In these patterns, the outer rim of the walls of the anterior leaf twitches forward and inwards to decrease the aperture of the noseleaf and increase the curvature of its surfaces. Noseleaf displacements were correlated with the emitted ultrasonic pulses. After their onset, the inward displacements increased monotonically towards their maximum value which was always reached within the duration of the biosonar pulse, typically towards its end. In other words, the anterior leaf's surfaces were moving inwards during most of the pulse. Non-random motions were not present in all recorded pulse trains, but could apparently be switched on or off. Such switches happened between sequences of consecutive pulses but were never observed between individual pulses within a sequence. The amplitudes of the emitted biosonar pulse and accompanying noseleaf movement were not correlated in the analyzed data set. The measured velocities of the noseleaf surface were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a magnitude with a likely significance. However, the displacement amplitudes were significant in comparison with the overall size of the anterior leaf and the sound wavelengths. These results indicate the possibility that horseshoe bats use dynamic sensing principles on the emission side of their biosonar system. Given the already available evidence that such mechanisms exist for biosonar reception, it may be hypothesized that time-variant mechanisms play a pervasive role in the biosonar sensing of horseshoe

  2. Vocal communication in adult greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Kobayasi, Kohta; Zhang, Shuyi; Metzner, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Whereas echolocation in horseshoe bats is well studied, virtually nothing is known about characteristics and function of their communication calls. Therefore, the communication calls produced by a group of captive adult greater horseshoe bats were recorded during various social interactions in a free-flight facility. Analysis revealed that this species exhibited an amazingly rich repertoire of vocalizations varying in numerous spectro-temporal aspects. Calls were classified into 17 syllable types (ten simple syllables and seven composites). Syllables were combined into six types of simple phrases and four combination phrases. The majority of syllables had durations of more than 100 ms with multiple harmonics and fundamental frequencies usually above 20 kHz, although some of them were also audible to humans. Preliminary behavioral observations indicated that many calls were emitted during direct interaction with and in response to social calls from conspecifics without requiring physical contact. Some echolocation-like vocalizations also appeared to clearly serve a communication role. These results not only shed light upon a so far widely neglected aspect of horseshoe bat vocalizations, but also provide the basis for future studies on the neural control of the production of communicative vocalizations in contrast to the production of echolocation pulse sequences.

  3. Our Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery Experience with Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Süelözgen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To share our experience with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS done in patients with horseshoe kidney anomaly. Materials and Methods: Data from 107 patients who underwent RIRS for kidney stones between 2013 and 2016 in our clinic was retrospectively analyzed and 6 patients with horseshoe kidney anomaly detected on computed tomography (CT were included in the study. Achieving stone-free status or having residual stones of ≤4 mm were considered operational success. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.5±6.7 years. Four patients were male (66.6% and two were female (33.3%. The mean stone size was 14.5±4.1 (10-22 mm. Three patients had pelvis stones (50% and the rest 3 (50% had lower calyx stones. Two patients (33.3% were found to be stone-free on post-operative non-contrast CT results. Conclusion: RIRS should be performed by experienced surgeons in patients with horseshoe kidney.

  4. What regulates crab predation on mangrove propagules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nedervelde, Fleur; Cannicci, Stefano; Koedam, Nico; Bosire, Jared; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2015-02-01

    Crabs play a major role in some ecosystems. To increase our knowledge about the factors that influence crab predation on propagules in mangrove forests, we performed experiments in Gazi Bay, Kenya in July 2009. We tested whether: (1) crab density influences propagule predation rate; (2) crab size influences food competition and predation rate; (3) crabs depredate at different rates according to propagule and canopy cover species; (4) vegetation density is correlated with crab density; (5) food preferences of herbivorous crabs are determined by size, shape and nutritional value. We found that (1) propagule predation rate was positively correlated to crab density. (2) Crab competitive abilities were unrelated to their size. (3) Avicennia marina propagules were consumed more quickly than Ceriops tagal except under C. tagal canopies. (4) Crab density was negatively correlated with the density of A. marina trees and pneumatophores. (5) Crabs prefer small items with a lower C:N ratio. Vegetation density influences crab density, and crab density affects propagule availability and hence vegetation recruitment rate. Consequently, the mutual relationships between vegetation and crab populations could be important for forest restoration success and management.

  5. Golden Crab Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November 1995, a voluntary logbook program for the golden crab fishery in the waters under the jurisdiction of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

  6. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw J Griffiths

    Full Text Available Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura, and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW. Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  7. Bilateral supernumerary kidneys in conjunction with horseshoe anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare urogenital anomaly, with four cases reported in the literature thus far. To the best of our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney in conjunction with horseshoe fusion anomaly is not reported till date. Herein, we report a 63-year-old male patient with persistent lower abdominal pain. Complete radiological evaluation including ultrasound, computed tomography scan, excretory urography and retrograde pyelography were done and the diagnosis was established. The dilemma faced in the diagnosis and management of patients with supernumerary kidneys is discussed.

  8. Differential escape from parasites by two competing introduced crabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, April M.; Keogh, Carolyn L.; Byers, James E.; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Torchin, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Although introduced species often interact with one another in their novel communities, the role of parasites in these interactions remains less clear. We examined parasite richness and prevalence in 2 shorecrab species with different invasion histories and residency times in an introduced region where their distributions overlap broadly. On the northeastern coast of the USA, the Asian shorecrab Hemigrapsus sanguineus was discovered 20 yr ago, while the European green crab Carcinus maenas has been established for over 200 yr. We used literature and field surveys to evaluate parasitism in both crabs in their native and introduced ranges. We found only 1 parasite species infecting H. sanguineus on the US East Coast compared to 6 species in its native range, while C. maenas was host to 3 parasite species on the East Coast compared to 10 in its native range. The prevalence of parasite infection was also lower for both crabs in the introduced range compared to their native ranges; however, the difference was almost twice as much for H. sanguineus as for C. maenas. There are several explanations that could contribute to C. maenas' greater parasite diversity than that of H. sanguineus on the US East Coast, including differences in susceptibility, time since introduction, manner of introduction (vector), distance from native range, taxonomic isolation, and the potential for parasite identification bias. Our study underscores not just that non-native species lose parasites upon introduction, but that they may do so differentially, with ramifications for their direct interactions and with potential community-level influences.

  9. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Horseshoe Kidney: Our First Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Baş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To share our experience in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL procedures in patients with horseshoe kidney. Materials and Methods The data of 7 patients undergoing PCNL were analyzed retrospectively. Preoperative clinical and laboratory data of patients (including complete urinalysis, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and coagulation tests were recorded. The stone surface area (mm2 was calculated by graph paper tracing of two dimensional projection of the stone on a plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB in the anteroposterior view by investigators. In addition, per-operative and post-operative findings were evaluated. Success and complication rates (according to the classification of Clavien were also determined. Results The mean stone surface area was 1234 (range 250-2460 mm2 mm2. Six patients were treated through a single tract, and one patient required additional access. Access was directed to the middle calyx (n=2, superior calyx (n=4, middle and inferior calyx (n=1 through the supracostal (n=2 and subcostal (n=5 areas. Mean operative time was 131 (range 70-215 minutes minutes. Stone-free rate after single session PCNL was 71% (n=5 and increased to 86% (n=6 with a post-operative secondary ureterorenoscopy procedure. Complications including bleeding necessitating blood transfusion (Clavien grade 2 and prolonged drainage (Clavien degree 3a were occurred in only 2 patients (24%. Conclusion PCNL is a safe and successful procedure in patients with horseshoe kidney and comparable with PNL procedures in patients with normal renal anatomy

  10. Trial by fire: underbalanced drilling for Horseshoe Canyon coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, K. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Four wells were drilled in August 2007 in the lower portion of Horseshoe Canyon. These wells were underbalanced and used air as the drilling fluid. The purpose was to establish the feasibility of under-reaming. This presentation discussed under balanced drilling for Horseshoe Canyon coals. It presented a review of the project and discussed the various project phases. Phase one involved under balanced drilling and under-reaming. The presentation of this phase addressed risk management; review of results; lessons learned; and recommended practices. An illustration of the risk management process was offered. This illustration included identification of hazards, categorization, evaluation, management, and communication. A risk matrix was also provided. Phase two was also presented which included a discussion of planning considerations; revised risk management; underbalanced redesign; and implementation. It was concluded that in order to eliminate the risk, oxygen must be removed or lowered to less than four per cent. It was also found that caution must be used when evaluating whether downhole conditions are in the explosive envelope. figs.

  11. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  12. Caught in the Crab's claws

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    'The crab', a new cryo magnet transport vehicle, starts work at CERN. Produced by the ESI group of EST division and built in Finland, it has the job of transporting LHC magnets in buildings SM18 and SMA18. If you see a huge crab scuttling around building SMA18 don't be afraid! It is the new Cryo Magnet Transport Vehicle produced by the ESI group (Engineering Support for Infrastructure, EST Division) for CERN's LHC project and built by Finnish Company ROCLA. This orange vehicle, nicknamed 'The Crab', is perhaps the strangest piece of equipment used for the construction of LHC magnets. It will start work at the end of this month. The crab will be used to transport LHC cryo-magnets and their components in the assembly and preparation building, SMA18, and test building, SM18. It has many capabilities that will allow CERN staff and contractors transport magnets between the two buildings and to locate them in the right position on the test beds. The crab in action during its first tests on 8 February. How does th...

  13. On the horseshoe drag of a low-mass planet. I - Migration in isothermal disks

    OpenAIRE

    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formal- ism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horse- shoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, ...

  14. Bilateral partial ureteral duplication with double collecting system in horseshoe kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, S; Erdoğan, N; Kurt, A; Tan, S; Ipek, A

    2009-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is the most common renal fusion anomaly. Approximately one-third is associated with other congenital anomalies. The combination of horseshoe kidney and bilateral ureteral duplication is a very rare entity. The horseshoe kidney anomaly discovered incidentally in ultrasound examination in our patient when he was being detected for urinary incontinence. Because he had dilated renal pelvis he had undergone intravenous pyelography (IVP). Bilateral double collecting system and bilateral partial hydronephrosis was detected on IVP. Magnetic resonance urography was also performed in the same patient for better delineation.

  15. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, Albert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  16. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... senticosus) is not related to true ginseng. In traditional Chinese medicine, Asian ginseng was used as a ... recommend against its use by infants, children, and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. The most common ...

  17. Horseshoe kidney: a review of anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Piagkou, Maria; Skotsimara, Antonia; Protogerou, Vassilis; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal fusion, which is characterized by three anatomic anomalies: ectopia, malrotation and vascular changes. Patients with HSK are prone to a variety of complications, genitourinary and non-genitourinary. In this paper, the anatomy of HSK is delineated with a great emphasis on its blood supply. After reviewing the literature, the arterial supply patterns found by each author were categorized according to the classification system proposed by Graves. The majority of HSKs were found to be supplied by renal arteries derived from the abdominal aorta below the isthmus or by vessels originating from the common iliac arteries. In addition, the abnormalities associated with HSK are highlighted and classified in anatomical variations, congenital anomalies as well as in pathologic conditions related to HSK.

  18. Congenital arteriovenous fistula of the horseshoe kidney with multiple hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital renal arteriovenous fistulas (AVF are rare, especially if they are associated with other developmental renal anomalies. Case Outline. A 34-year-old female was hospitalized due to total painless hematuria and bladder tamponade. Excretory urography revealed a horseshoe kidney with normal morphology of pyelocaliceal system and ureters. Aortography and selective renovasography detected a cluster-like vascular formation with multiple arteriovenous fistulas (AVF. Due to a large AVF gauge and poor flow of the efferent vein to the inferior vena cava, a surgical procedure of two renal artery segmentary branches ligation and division was performed. During the operative procedure, the presence of multiple superficial renal hemangiomas was detected. Conclusion. Although selective arterial embolization represents the preferable treatment option, conventional surgery remains favorable alternative in selected cases with large and complex AVF.

  19. Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth

    2003-01-01

    Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and th...

  20. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  1. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikai He

    Full Text Available Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves' that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  2. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Jensen: Bitter crab disease mortality in SE Alaska Tanner crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from a laboratory experiment in which wild caught male Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) from Stephens Passage, SE Alaska were held to evaluate crab...

  3. LHC crab cavity final report

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, G et al

    2013-01-01

    A compact 400 MHz SRF crab cavity is designed for LHC. The design has low surface fields, has no hard multipactor barriers and fits within the transverse space available on the HL-LHC. The structure has been designed to have a constant deflecting voltage across the beam-pipe aperture and this has been verified on an aluminium model. The structure includes designs for the input and lower order mode couplers.

  4. The Crab Nebula flaring activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Montani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery made by AGILE and Fermi of a short time scale flaring activity in the gamma-ray energy emission of the Crab Nebula is a puzzling and unexpected feature, challenging particle acceleration theory. In the present work we propose the shock-induced magnetic reconnection as a viable mechanism to explain the Crab flares. We postulate that the emitting region is located at ∼1015 cm from the central pulsar, well inside the termination shock, which is exactly the emitting region size as estimated by the overall duration of the phenomenon ∼1 day. We find that this location corresponds to the radial distance at which the shock-induced magnetic reconnection process is able to accelerate the electrons up to a Lorentz factor ∼109, as required by the spectral fit of the observed Crab flare spectrum. The main merit of the present analysis is to highlight the relation between the observational constraints to the flare emission and the radius at which the reconnection can trigger the required Lorentz factor. We also discuss different scenarios that can induce the reconnection. We conclude that the existence of a plasma instability affecting the wind itself as the Weibel instability is the privileged scenario in our framework.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2013-03-01

    As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

  6. Invasive Crabs in the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Kourantidou, Melina

    The recent invasions of the red king crab (RKC) and the snow crab (SC) in the Barents Sea represent the sorts of integrated ecological and economic shifts we may expect as climate change affects arctic seas. Economic incentives and ecological unknowns have combined to change the current and poten...

  7. The Crab Boat Engineering Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Crab cakes and football, that's what Maryland does!" (Abrams, Levy, Panay, & Dobkin, 2005). Although the Old Line State is notorious for harvesting delectable blue crabs, the movie "Wedding Crashers" failed to highlight something else Maryland does well: engineering design competitions. This article discusses how a multistate…

  8. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delayen, Jean [Yorktown, VA

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  9. Massive Renal Replacement Lipomatosis With Foci of Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis in a Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutake Sawazaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL is a rare condition that occurs at the end of the spectrum of renal tissue replacement by fat. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP is a granulomatous inflammation characterized by destruction of renal parenchyma and replacement by lipid-laden macrophages. We present the case of a 75-year-old man who complained of severe anemia 34 years after right nephrolithotomy. Computed tomography revealed a huge low-density mass with renal parenchyma atrophy on the right side of horseshoe kidney. Right nephrectomy was performed. Pathological diagnosis was RRL with XGP. This is the first report of RRL with XGP in a horseshoe kidney.

  10. Novel Geometries for the LHC CRAB Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme b...

  11. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084369; Levichev, Evgeny; Piminov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA$\\Phi$NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA$\\Phi$NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  12. Characterize and Gene Expression of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Marine Crab Charybdis japonica following Bisphenol A and 4-Nonylphenol Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important in the maturation of a broad spectrum of protein. In this study, an HSP90 gene was isolated from Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, as a bio-indicator to monitor the marine ecosystem. Methods This work reports the responses of C. japonica HSP90 mRNA expression to cellular stress by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) using real-time. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results The deduced amino acid sequence of HSP90 from C. japonica shared a high degree of homology with their homologues in other species. In a phylogenetic analysis, C. japonica HSP90 is evolutionally related with an ortholog of the other crustacean species. The expression of HSP90 gene was almost distributed in all the examined tissues of the C. japonica crab but expression levels varied among the different body parts of the crabs. We examined HSP90 mRNA expression pattern in C. japonica crabs exposed to EDCs for various exposure times. The expression of HSP90 transcripts was significantly increased in C. japonica crabs exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours. The mRNA expression of HSP90 gene was significantly induced in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after BPA or NP exposures for 96 hours. Conclusions Taken together, expression analysis of Asian paddle crab HSP90 gene provided useful molecular information about crab responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the EDCs stressors in marine environments. PMID:24955332

  13. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. I...

  14. Comparison of brain transcriptome of the greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in active and torpid episodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an energy-saving strategy which is widely adopted by heterothermic mammals to survive in the harsh environment. The greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum can hibernate for a long period in the hibernation season. However, the global gene expression changes between hibernation and non-hibernation season in the greater horseshoe bat remain largely unknown. We herein reported a comprehensive survey of differential gene expression in the brain between winter hibernating and summer active greater horseshoe bats using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 90,314,174 reads were generated and we identified 1,573 differentially expressed genes between active and torpid states. Interestingly, we found that differentially expressed genes are over-represented in some GO categories (such as metabolic suppression, cellular stress responses and oxidative stress, which suggests neuroprotective strategies might play an important role in hibernation control mechanisms. Our results determined to what extent the brain tissue of the greater horseshoe bats differ in gene expression between summer active and winter hibernating states and provided comprehensive insights into the adaptive mechanisms of bat hibernation.

  15. Comparison of brain transcriptome of the greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in active and torpid episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong; Mu, Shuo; Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is an energy-saving strategy which is widely adopted by heterothermic mammals to survive in the harsh environment. The greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) can hibernate for a long period in the hibernation season. However, the global gene expression changes between hibernation and non-hibernation season in the greater horseshoe bat remain largely unknown. We herein reported a comprehensive survey of differential gene expression in the brain between winter hibernating and summer active greater horseshoe bats using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 90,314,174 reads were generated and we identified 1,573 differentially expressed genes between active and torpid states. Interestingly, we found that differentially expressed genes are over-represented in some GO categories (such as metabolic suppression, cellular stress responses and oxidative stress), which suggests neuroprotective strategies might play an important role in hibernation control mechanisms. Our results determined to what extent the brain tissue of the greater horseshoe bats differ in gene expression between summer active and winter hibernating states and provided comprehensive insights into the adaptive mechanisms of bat hibernation.

  16. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Crab...

  17. Epizoic and ectoparasitic protozoans from crab larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    A suctorian, Ephelota gemmipara Hertwig, infesting the zoea of the peacrab, Porcellana and an ectoparasitic flagellate Ellobiopsis chattoni Caullery infecting the zoea of the crab were observed from off Cape Comorin, the south-east coast of India...

  18. Monitoring the Crab Nebula with LOFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2008-2010, the Crab Nebula was found to decline by 7% in the 15-50 keV band, consistently in Fermi GBM, INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEMX, RXTE PCA, and Swift BAT. From 2001-2010, the 15-50 keV flux from the Crab Nebula typically varied by about 3.5% per year. Analysis of RXTE PCA data suggests possible spectral variations correlated with the flux variations. I will present estimates of the LOFT sensitivity to these variations. Prior to 2001 and since 2010, the observed flux variations have been much smaller. Monitoring the Crab with the LOFT WFM and LAD will provide precise measurements of flux variations in the Crab Nebula if it undergoes a similarly active episode.

  19. The anatomy of the king crab Hapalogaster mertensii Brandt, 1850 (Anomura: Paguroidea: Hapalogastridae): new insights into the evolutionary transformation of hermit crabs into king crabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keiler, J.; Richter, S.; Wirkner, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of king crabs from a hermit crab-like ancestor is one of the most curious events in decapod evolution. King crabs comprise two taxa, Lithodidae and Hapalogastridae, and while lithodids have formed the focus of various anatomical studies, the internal anatomy of hapalogastrids has never

  20. Animal behaviour: coalition among male fiddler crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backwell, Patricia R Y; Jennions, Michael D

    2004-07-22

    Until now, no compelling evidence has emerged from studies of animal territoriality to indicate that a resident will strategically help a neighbour to defend its territory against an intruder. We show here that territory-owning Australian fiddler crabs will judiciously assist other crabs in defending their neighbouring territories. This cooperation supports the prediction that it is sometimes less costly to assist a familiar neighbour than to renegotiate boundaries with a new, and possibly stronger, neighbour.

  1. Dominance and population structure of freshwater crabs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-06

    Feb 6, 1997 ... E-mail: mjs@m-web.co.za. Despite freshwater crabs of the genus Potamonautes being locally abundant (up .... mm deep, and 10-20 m below the dam wall. At site 2 the river was ca 2 m wide and 400 mm deep and 600 m down- stream from the dam. Crabs were collected from both sites on. 22 October 1993 ...

  2. On corotation torques, horseshoe drag and the possibility of sustained stalled or outward protoplanetary migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2009-04-01

    We study the torque on low-mass protoplanets on fixed circular orbits, embedded in a protoplanetary disc in the isothermal limit. We consider a wide range of surface density distributions including cases where the surface density increases smoothly outwards. We perform both linear disc response calculations and non-linear numerical simulations. We consider a large range of viscosities, including the inviscid limit, as well as a range of protoplanet mass ratios, with special emphasis on the co-orbital region and the corotation torque acting between disc and protoplanet. For low-mass protoplanets and large viscosity, the corotation torque behaves as expected from linear theory. However, when the viscosity becomes small enough to enable horseshoe turns to occur, the linear corotation torque exists only temporarily after insertion of a planet into the disc, being replaced by the horseshoe drag first discussed by Ward. This happens after a time that is equal to the horseshoe libration period reduced by a factor amounting to about twice the disc aspect ratio. This torque scales with the radial gradient of specific vorticity, as does the linear torque, but we find it to be many times larger. If the viscosity is large enough for viscous diffusion across the co-orbital region to occur within a libration period, we find that the horseshoe drag may be sustained. If not, the corotation torque saturates leaving only the linear Lindblad torques. As the magnitude of the non-linear co-orbital torque (horseshoe drag) is always found to be larger than the linear torque, we find that the sign of the total torque may change even for mildly positive surface density gradients. In combination with a kinematic viscosity large enough to keep the torque from saturating, strong sustained deviations from linear theory and outward or stalled migration may occur in such cases.

  3. Crabs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.6_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.6_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  5. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  6. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmo Angélica MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural

  7. Pure Laparoscopic Radical Heminephrectomy for a Large Renal-Cell Carcinoma in a Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B Reboucas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Horseshoe Kidneys are the most common renal fusion anomaly. When surgery is contemplated for renal-cell carcinoma in such kidneys, aberrant vasculature and isthmusectomy are the major issues to consider. We describe a case of a pure laparoscopic radical heminephrectomy with hand-sewn management of the isthmus for a 11 cm tumour in a horseshoe kidney. Presentation A 47-year-old man complaining of palpable left flank mass for two months. Magnetic resonance of the abdomen revealed a 11 cm renal mass arising from the left moiety of an incidentally discovered horseshoe kidney. Preoperative CT angiography revealed a dominant anterior renal artery feeding the upper and midpole, with two other arteries feeding the lower pole and isthmus. The patient was placed in a modified flank position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used, the colon was reflected. Renal pedicle was dissected and the renal arteries and renal vein were secured with polymer clips. The kidney was fully mobilized and a Satinsky clamp was placed on the isthmus for its division. A running 2-0 vicryl hand-sewn was used for parenchyma hemostasis. The specimen was extracted intact in a plastic bag through an inguinal incision. Results The operative time was 220 minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 200 mL. There were no immediate or delayed complications. The patient resumed oral intake on postoperative day 1 and was discharged on postoperative day 2. Pathologic examination of the specimen confirmed a 11 cm organ-confined chromophobe renal-cell carcinoma, with negative margins. Discussion Laparoscopic oncologic surgery in patients with horseshoe kidneys can be technically challenging. The presence of a large cancer in a horseshoe kidney should not preclude a purely laparoscopic approach. With the aid of a Satinsky clamp, the isthmus can be sharply divided and sutured in a fashion similar to the open technique. To our knowledge, this report represents the largest

  8. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 680 - Crab Species Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Species Code 2 Table 2 to Part 680..., Table 2 Table 2 to Part 680—Crab Species Code Species code Common name Scientific name 900 Box Lopholithodes mandtii. 910 Dungeness Cancer magister. 921 Red king crab Paralithodes camtshaticus. 922 Blue king...

  9. Genetic population structure of the Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fragment of 376 bp at the mitochondrial ND2 gene was sequenced for 133 individuals of Japanese mitten crab, Eriocheir japonica from 17 localities of Japan and 30 individuals of Chinese mitten crab, E. sinensis from 2 localities of China. In Japanese mitten crab, sequence comparison of this segment revealed 23 ...

  10. Cannibalistic interactions of juvenile mud crabs Scylla serrata : the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the culture of mud crab Scylla serrata, cannibalism is often the greatest cause of mortality. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the influence of size class differences and shelter on cannibalism and limb loss in juvenile mud crabs (20–70 mm internal carapace width; ICW). Four size classes of juvenile crab (A: ...

  11. Nutritional quality of selected Ghanaian crab species | Oduro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crabs form a substantial proportion of the diet of the Ghanaian populace. However, effective management of this food resource is lacking, due to paucity of data on the food value of these species. Studies were carried out to determine the nutritional quality of three commonly consumed crab species, the African ghost crab, ...

  12. Shell utilization and morphometries of the hermit crab Diogenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fecundity, shell utilization, and crab and associated shell morphometries were investigated for the hermit crab Diogenes brevirostris collected from three intertidal sites in the eastern Cape. The relationship between crab fresh mass and egg number was linear. D. brevirostris was found to occupy 33 gastropod shell species ...

  13. Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) Culture: Understanding the Technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-return analysis on a per year basis/50 crabs showed that the use of either bamboo or fito as cage construction material was economically viable with a return on capital investment of 122.3 -181.7%. Therefore the integration of mud crab culture in mangrove forest is feasible in Kenya. Keywords: Mud crab, Pens, Cages, ...

  14. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  15. A New 3D Autonomous Continuous System with Two Isolated Chaotic Attractors and Its Topological Horseshoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 3D autonomous continuous Lü chaotic system, a new 3D autonomous continuous chaotic system is proposed in this paper, and there are coexisting chaotic attractors in the 3D autonomous continuous chaotic system. Moreover, there are no overlaps between the coexisting chaotic attractors; that is, there are two isolated chaotic attractors (in this paper, named “positive attractor” and “negative attractor,” resp.. The “positive attractor” and “negative attractor” depend on the distance between the initial points (initial conditions and the unstable equilibrium points. Furthermore, by means of topological horseshoes theory and numerical computation, the topological horseshoes in this 3D autonomous continuous system is found, and the topological entropy is obtained. These results indicate that the chaotic attractor emerges in the new 3D autonomous continuous system.

  16. Black yeast-like fungi associated with Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) in the mangrove-land crab, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente, V.A.; Orelis-Ribeiro, R.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Sun, J.; Schier Guerra, R.; Miesch, S.; Ostrensky, A.; Meis, J.F.; Klaassen, C.H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Boeger, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) caused extensive epizootic mortality of the mangrove land crab Ucides cordatus (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) along the Brazilian coast, mainly in the Northeastern region. The disease was named after the symptoms of slow movement of infected crabs. Causative agents were

  17. Positive feedback fishery: Population consequences of `crab-tiling' on the green crab Carcinus maenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Thompson, R. C.; Coleman, R. A.; Attrill, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies. Crab-tiling is a largely unregulated and un-researched fishery, which operates commercially in the south-west UK. The target species is the green crab Carcinus maenas. Those crabs which are pre-ecdysis and have a carapace width greater than 40 mm are collected to be sold to recreational anglers as bait. Collection involves laying artificial structures on intertidal sandflats and mudflats in estuaries. Crabs use these structures as refugia and are collected during low tide. However, the effect that this fishery has on populations of C. maenas is not known. The impact of crab-tiling on C. maenas population structure was determined by sampling crabs from tiled estuaries and non-tiled estuaries using baited drop-nets. A spatially and temporarily replicated, balanced design was used to compare crab abundance, sizes and sex ratios between estuaries. Typically, fisheries are associated with a reduction in the abundance of the target species. Crab-tiling, however, significantly increased C. maenas abundance. This was thought to be a result of the extra habitat in tiled estuaries, which probably provides protection from natural predators, such as birds and fish. Although crabs were more abundant in tiled estuaries than non-tiled estuaries, the overall percentage of reproductively active crabs in non-tiled estuaries was greater than in tiled estuaries. As with most exploited fisheries stocks, crabs in exploited (tiled) estuaries tended to be smaller, with a modal carapace width of 20-29 mm rather than 30-39 mm in non-tiled estuaries. The sex ratio of crabs however; was not significantly different between tiled and non

  18. Minimally Invasive Pyeloplasty in Horseshoe Kidneys with Ureteropelvic Junction obstruction: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Faddegon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose Horseshoe kidney is an uncommon renal anomaly often associated with ureteropelvic junction (UPJ obstruction. Advanced minimally invasive surgical (MIS reconstructive techniques including laparoscopic and robotic surgery are now being utilized in this population. However, fewer than 30 cases of MIS UPJ reconstruction in horseshoe kidneys have been reported. We herein report our experience with these techniques in the largest series to date. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of nine patients with UPJ obstruction in horseshoe kidneys who underwent MIS repair at our institution between March 2000 and January 2012. Four underwent laparoscopic, two robotic, and one laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS dismembered pyeloplasty. An additional two pediatric patients underwent robotic Hellstrom repair. Perioperative outcomes and treatment success were evaluated. Results Median patient age was 18 years (range 2.5-62 years. Median operative time was 136 minutes (range 109-230 min. and there were no perioperative complications. After a median follow-up of 11 months, clinical (symptomatic success was 100%, while radiographic success based on MAG-3 renogram was 78%. The two failures were defined by prolonged t1/2 drainage, but neither patient has required salvage therapy as they remain asymptomatic with stable differential renal function. Conclusions MIS repair of UPJ obstruction in horseshoe kidneys is feasible and safe. Although excellent short-term clinical success is achieved, radiographic success may be lower than MIS pyeloplasty in heterotopic kidneys, possibly due to inherent differences in anatomy. Larger studies are needed to evaluate MIS pyeloplasty in this population.

  19. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2013-02-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.

  20. Efficient Monitoring of CRAB Jobs at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J. M.D. [Sao Paulo, IFT; Balcas, J. [Caltech; Belforte, S. [INFN, Trieste; Ciangottini, D. [INFN, Perugia; Mascheroni, M. [Fermilab; Rupeika, E. A. [Vilnius U.; Ivanov, T. T. [Sofiya U.; Hernandez, J. M. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    CRAB is a tool used for distributed analysis of CMS data. Users can submit sets of jobs with similar requirements (tasks) with a single request. CRAB uses a client-server architecture, where a lightweight client, a server, and ancillary services work together and are maintained by CMS operators at CERN. As with most complex software, good monitoring tools are crucial for efficient use and longterm maintainability. This work gives an overview of the monitoring tools developed to ensure the CRAB server and infrastructure are functional, help operators debug user problems, and minimize overhead and operating cost. This work also illustrates the design choices and gives a report on our experience with the tools we developed and the external ones we used.

  1. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2010-05-23

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  2. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Hall,G. Burt,C. Lingwood,Robert Rimmer,Haipeng Wang; Hall, B. [CI Lancaster University (Great Britain); Burt, G. [CI Lancaster University (Great Britain); Lingwood, C. [CI Lancaster University (Great Britain); Rimmer, Robert [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  3. Efficient monitoring of CRAB jobs at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. M. D.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Ciangottini, D.; Mascheroni, M.; Rupeika, E. A.; Ivanov, T. T.; Hernandez, J. M.; Vaandering, E.

    2017-10-01

    CRAB is a tool used for distributed analysis of CMS data. Users can submit sets of jobs with similar requirements (tasks) with a single request. CRAB uses a client-server architecture, where a lightweight client, a server, and ancillary services work together and are maintained by CMS operators at CERN. As with most complex software, good monitoring tools are crucial for efficient use and longterm maintainability. This work gives an overview of the monitoring tools developed to ensure the CRAB server and infrastructure are functional, help operators debug user problems, and minimize overhead and operating cost. This work also illustrates the design choices and gives a report on our experience with the tools we developed and the external ones we used.

  4. Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Jones

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and this proved to be a useful predictor of habitat use. Habitat use was studied in detail by radio-tracking 67 bats at three sites, with further small-scale studies to investigate the generality of landscape use patterns. We also studied the development of foraging behaviour in juveniles to determine critical foraging habitats that may promote juvenile survival. In Britain, greater horseshoe bats feed frequently in winter, and the extent of winter activity has been quantified by acoustic surveys and telemetry of hibernating bats. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided fascinating insights into the conservation biology of threatened populations of this species, for example illustrating genetic effects of population isolation, and how outbreeding influences survival.

  5. The photoreceptor populations in the retina of the greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Jeon, Young-Ki; Lee, Jea-Young; Lee, Eun-Shil; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2008-10-31

    Recently, we reported the existence of AII "rod" amacrine cells in the retina of the greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Jeon et al., 2007). In order to enhance our understanding of bat vision, in the present study, we report on a quantitative analysis of cone and rod photoreceptors. The average cone density was 9,535 cells/mm2, giving a total number of cones of 33,538 cells/retina. The average rod density was 368,891 cells/mm2, giving a total number of rods of 1,303,517 cells. On average, the total populations of rods were 97.49%, and cones were 2.51% of all the photoreceptors. Rod: cone ratios ranged from 33.85:1 centrally to 42.26:1 peripherally, with a mean ratio of 38.96:1. The average regularity index of the cone mosaic in bat retina was 3.04. The present results confirm the greater horseshoe bat retina to be strongly rod-dominated. The rod-dominated retina, with the existence of AII cells discovered in our previous study, strongly suggests that the greater horseshoe bat retina has a functional scotopic property of vision. However, the existence of cone cells also suggests that the bat retina has a functional photopic property of vision.

  6. A robotic reproduction of the dynamic sonar sensing in Horseshoe bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Brandon; Castro, Rebecca; Fu, Yanqing; Mueller, Rolf; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae) are a group of bats with a particularly sophisticated biosonar system that allows them to navigate and pursue prey in dense and complex living areas. One conspicuous feature of horseshoe bat biosonar is that the pulses are emitted nasally and diffracted by a special baffle structure - the noseleaf - as the exit into the free field. Furthermore, the noseleaves can change their shapes while diffracting the outgoing ultrasonic waves. The aim of this research project is to determine the relationship between the deformation of the noseleaf during pulse emission and the ultrasonic field through experiments. 3D models of horseshoe bat noseleaf were obtained by tomographic imaging, reconstructed, and modified in the digital domain to meet the needs of additive manufacturing prototypes for an experimental setup. A data acquisition and instrument control system was developed and integrated with ultrasonic transducers to characterize the dynamic emission system acoustically, actuators for displacing the lower and top portion of bat noseleaf, and pan-tilt unit for orienting the noseleaf. A cone and tube waveguide was designed to match the loudspeaker to the nostrils of bat noseleaf. By using this system, it was possible to reproduce the dynamic effect of the noseleaf and characterize it as a basis for inspired dynamic acoustic devices. Future research will address the relationship between the deformations of the noseleaf and the acoustic field.

  7. An unusual complication of blunt ocular trauma: A horseshoe-shaped macular tear with spontaneous closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Karaca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of horseshoe-shaped macular tear after blunt trauma with the course of the tear and the relevant findings obtained by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT is described. A 21-year-old man who had suffered blunt trauma 5 days previously visited our clinic complaining of vision loss in his left eye. Ophthalmic examination and SD-OCT images revealed a horseshoe-shaped macular tear. A month later at the second visit, the macular tear was found to have spontaneously closed. There have been many cases reported previously of the spontaneous closure of traumatic macular holes. A horseshoe-shaped macular tear is an atypical clinical presentation. However, the mechanism of spontaneous closure is hypothetically as same as that for a macular hole. High-resolution images and three-dimensional maps taken with SD-OCT can provide more details on macular diseases and are more useful than time-domain OCT images.

  8. An unusual complication of blunt ocular trauma: A horseshoe-shaped macular tear with spontaneous closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Umut; Durukan, Hakan A; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Erdurman, Cuneyt; Hurmeric, Volkan

    2014-01-01

    A case of horseshoe-shaped macular tear after blunt trauma with the course of the tear and the relevant findings obtained by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is described. A 21-year-old man who had suffered blunt trauma 5 days previously visited our clinic complaining of vision loss in his left eye. Ophthalmic examination and SD-OCT images revealed a horseshoe-shaped macular tear. A month later at the second visit, the macular tear was found to have spontaneously closed. There have been many cases reported previously of the spontaneous closure of traumatic macular holes. A horseshoe-shaped macular tear is an atypical clinical presentation. However, the mechanism of spontaneous closure is hypothetically as same as that for a macular hole. High-resolution images and three-dimensional maps taken with SD-OCT can provide more details on macular diseases and are more useful than time-domain OCT images. PMID:24817754

  9. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to the Electron Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2008-05-28

    In order to improve the luminosity, two crab cavities have been installed in KEKB HER and LER [1]. Since there is only one crab cavity in each ring, the crab cavity generates a horizontally titled bunch along the whole ring. The achieved specific luminosity with crabbed bunch is higher, but it is not as high as that from beam-beam simulation [2]. One of the suspicions is the electron cloud. The electron cloud in LER (positron beam) may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This note briefly estimates the bunch shape distortion due to the electron cloud in KEKB LER.

  10. Spontaneous alternation and locomotor activity in three species of marine crabs: green crab (Carcinus maenas), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and fiddler crab (Uca pugnax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Fuat; Ramey-Balcı, Patricia A; Ruamps, Perrine

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous alternation refers to the tendency of organisms to explore places that they have least recently visited. Our previous work showed that alternation performance of Carcinus maenas (invasive European green crab) was significantly higher than Callinectes sapidus (native blue crab), and chance level performance (Ramey, P. A., Teichman, E., Oleksiak, J., & Balcı, F. [2009]. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: Invasive versus native species. Behavioural Processes, 82, 51-55.). In the current study, we first tested the robustness of these findings in the absence of visual cues, longer test durations, and wider maze dimensions. These manipulations enabled us to determine whether these two crab species relied on the visual cues provided during the spontaneous alternation task in our prior work, and allowed for better characterization of their exploratory activity in the maze. Our original findings were reproduced in the present study under these new task conditions, suggesting no role for visual cues during alternation, and emphasizing the robustness and generalizability of the corresponding interspecies differences in alternation performance. We also tested whether the lower alternation performance of C. sapidus also applied to another native crab species, Uca pugnax (fiddler crab). Spontaneous alternation performance of U. pugnax was significantly lower than C. maenas but indistinguishable from C. sapidus. Finally, we examined whether the potentially higher inherent risk-sensitivity of C. sapidus could have contributed to their lower alternation performance by testing C. maenas in the presence of a larger natural predator (stressor). Higher risk sensitivity presumably induced by the stressor led to locomotor activity patterns that better resembled those of C. sapidus, however the resultant reduction in alternation performance was not statistically significant. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Frequency Tuning for a DQW Crab Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, Rama; Capatina, Ofelia; Leuxe, Raphael; Skaritka, John; Wu, Qiong; Xiao, Binping; Zanoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The nominal operating frequency for the HL-LHC crab cavities is 400.79 MHz within a bandwidth of ±60kHz. Attaining the required cavity tune implies a good understanding of all the processes that influence the cavity frequency from the moment when the cavity parts are being fabricated until the cavity is installed and under operation. Different tuning options will be available for the DQW crab cavity of LHC. This paper details the different steps in the cavity fabrication and preparation that may introduce a shift in the cavity frequency and introduces the different tuning methods foreseen to bring the cavity frequency to meet the specifications.

  12. Changing Asian American Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Burris, Juanita

    1978-01-01

    Social science literature on stereotypes is reviewed. Negative stereotypes of Asian Americans are examined and their relationship to Asian American political and economic status and self image is discussed. Specific actions to counter these stereotypes are advocated. (GC)

  13. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  14. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  15. Asian Australian Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Deborah Lea

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the range of Asian-Australian writers, within the context of changing historical and political conditions, as well as the complexity of defining a single category of literature written by Australians of Asian heritage. Such a category is difficult to define in strictly nationalistic terms as ‘Asian Australian literature’: where Australian literature is the controlling noun and ‘Asian’ functions as an adjective. Some Asian Australian writers are Australian-bo...

  16. Studies of finite molecular chains: synthesis, structural, magnetic and inelastic neutron scattering studies of hexa- and heptanuclear chromium horseshoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenbein, Stefan T; Tuna, Floriana; Rancan, Marzio; Davies, Rachel S G; Muryn, Christopher A; Waldmann, Oliver; Bircher, Roland; Sieber, Andreas; Carver, Graham; Mutka, Hannu; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; Podlesnyak, Andrew; Engelhardt, Larry P; Timco, Grigore A; Güdel, Hans U; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis and structural characterisation of a family of finite molecular chains, specifically [{[R(2)NH(2)](3)[Cr(6)F(11)(O(2)CCMe(3))(10)]}(2)] (in which R=nPr 1, Et 2, nBu 3), [{Et(2)NH}(2){[Et(2)NH(2)](3)[Cr(7)F(12)(O(2)CCMe(3))(12)][HO(2)CCMe(3)](2)}(2)] (4), [{[Me(2)NH(2)](3)[Cr(6)F(11)(O(2)CCMe(3))(10)]2.5 H(2)O}(4)] (5) and [{[iPr(2)NH(2)](3)[Cr(7)F(12)(O(2)CCMe(3))(12)]}(2)] (6). The structures all contain horseshoes of chromium centres, with each Cr...Cr contact within the horseshoe bridged by a fluoride and two pivalates. The horseshoes are linked through hydrogen bonds to the secondary ammonium cations in the structure, leading to di- and tetra-horseshoe structures. Through magnetic measurements and inelastic neutron scattering studies we have determined the exchange coupling constants in 1 and 6. In 1 it is possible to distinguish two exchange interactions, J(A)=-1.1 meV and J(B)=-1.4 meV; J(A) is the exchange interactions at the tips of the horseshoe and J(B) is the exchange within the body of the horseshoe (1 meV=8.066 cm(-1)). For 6 only one interaction was needed to model the data: J=-1.18 meV. The single-ion anisotropy parameters for Cr(III) were also derived for the two compounds as: for 1, D(Cr)=-0.028 meV and |E(Cr)|=0.005 meV; for 6, D(Cr)=-0.031 meV. Magnetic-field-dependent inelastic neutron scattering experiments on 1 allowed the Zeeman splitting of the first two excited states and level crossings to be observed. For the tetramer of horseshoes (5), quantum Monte Carlo calculations were used to fit the magnetic susceptibility behaviour, giving two exchange interactions within the horseshoe (-1.32 and -1.65 meV) and a weak inter-horseshoe coupling of +0.12 meV. Multi-frequency variable-temperature EPR studies on 1, 2 and 6 have also been performed, allowing further characterisation of the spin Hamiltonian parameters of these chains.

  17. THE OSMOREGULATORY ABILITY OF THREE GRAPSOID CRAB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The freezing points of the haemolymph samples were determined using the method and apparatus described by Ramsay & Brown (1955). The freezing point of the haemolymph collected from the arthrodial membrane at the base of the first pereiopod of any particular crab did not differ from that collected from its heart or.

  18. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Luke F; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Piehler, Michael F; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B

    2015-07-07

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Histopathology of Gladiator Swimming Crab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Callinectes pallidus is an economically important species of crab which inhabits both inshore and estuaries often susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources. The present study examined histopathology of the tissues of Callinectes pallidus from two coastal areas in Lagos, Nigeria, as a possible ...

  20. Comparative histopathology of gladiator swimming crab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Callinectes pallidus is an economically important species of crab which inhabits both inshore and estuaries often susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources. The present study examined histopathology of the tissues of Callinectes pallidus from two coastal areas in Lagos, Nigeria, as a possible measure of ...

  1. Corneal laceration caused by river crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuthinee N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Naidu Vinuthinee,1,2 Anuar Azreen-Redzal,1 Jaafar Juanarita,1 Embong Zunaina2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia Abstract: A 5-year-old boy presented with right eye pain associated with tearing and photophobia of 1-day duration. He gave a history of playing with a river crab when suddenly the crab clamped his fingers. He attempted to fling the crab off, but the crab flew and hit his right eye. Ocular examination revealed a right eye corneal ulcer with clumps of fibrin located beneath the corneal ulcer and 1.6 mm level of hypopyon. At presentation, the Seidel test was negative, with a deep anterior chamber. Culture from the corneal scrapping specimen grew Citrobacter diversus and Proteus vulgaris, and the boy was treated with topical gentamicin and ceftazidime eyedrops. Fibrin clumps beneath the corneal ulcer subsequently dislodged, and revealed a full-thickness corneal laceration wound with a positive Seidel test and shallow anterior chamber. The patient underwent emergency corneal toileting and suturing. Postoperatively, he was treated with oral ciprofloxacin 250 mg 12-hourly for 1 week, topical gentamicin, ceftazidime, and dexamethasone eyedrops for 4 weeks. Right eye vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole at the 2-week follow-up following corneal suture removal. Keywords: corneal ulcer, pediatric trauma, ocular injury

  2. The tree-climbing crabs of Trinidad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, von Heinrich-Otto

    1977-01-01

    An annotated list of the brachyuran (12) and anomuran (1) tree-climbing crabs of Trinidad (West Indies) is presented (see Table 1 for species names). Some of the species mentioned (e.g. Aratus pisonii, Goniopsis cruentata) are well-known treeclimbers, in others (e.g. Sesarma roberti, S. ricordi)

  3. Grooming behaviors and gill fouling in the commercially important blue crab (Callinectes sapidus and stone crab (Menippe mercenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen L. Wortham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grooming behaviors reduce fouling of body regions. In decapods, grooming time budgets, body regions groomed, and grooming appendages are known in several species; however, little data exists on brachyuran crabs. In this study, grooming behaviors of two commercially important crabs were documented (blue crabs: Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896; stone crabs: Menippe mercenaria Say, 1818. These crabs are harvested by fishermen and knowing their grooming behaviors is valuable, as clean crabs are preferred by consumers and the stone crab fishery consequence of removing one cheliped to grooming behaviors is unknown. Crabs were observed individually and agonistically to determine how grooming behaviors vary in the presence of another conspecific. Both species frequently use their maxillipeds and groom, with the gills being cleaned by epipods. Respiratory and sensory structures were groomed frequently in both species. Removal of a grooming appendage resulted in higher fouling levels in the gills, indicating that grooming behaviors do remove fouling. Overall, stone crabs had a larger individual time budget for grooming, but agonistic grooming time budgets were similar. Stone crab chelipeds are used in grooming, especially cleaning the other cheliped. The chelipeds are not the main grooming appendage; however, implications of losing one cheliped may have large impacts.

  4. The Effects of Season and Sex on the Nutritional Quality of Muscle Types of Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus and Swimming Crab Portunus segnis

    OpenAIRE

    AYAS, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The effects of season and sex on the nutritional quality of muscle types (lump crab meatLCM, claw crab meat-CCM) of swimming crab (Portunus segnis) and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) were investigated. Carapace width, carapace length and total weight of both crab species were measured. High protein content in spring and low protein content in autumn were observed for both crab species. The levels of lipid content of both crab species were found to be similar. Higher lipid contents in spri...

  5. Dynamic testing of horseshoe designs at impact on synthetic and dirt Thoroughbred racetrack materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, C A; Peterson, M L; Thomason, J J; McIlwraith, C W

    2016-01-01

    Different horseshoe designs have been developed in an attempt to optimise footing for equine athletes. Horseshoe performance is assumed to be dependent on the surface and gait, but there are limited data on horseshoe performance on different surfaces, independent of gait variation. To quantify the dynamic loading for 3 aluminium racing shoe designs on Thoroughbred racetrack surface materials, using a biomechanical surface tester. A flat racing plate, a serrated V-Grip and a shoe with a 6 mm toe grab and 10 mm heel calks were tested on synthetic and dirt surfaces under typical operating conditions of temperature and moisture content for the respective material samples. Samples were tested under laboratory conditions, replicating a track surface by compacting material into a latex-lined mould surrounded by silica sand for representative boundary conditions. Peak loading and loading rates were measured vertically and horizontally (craniocaudal), simulating aspects of primary and secondary impacts of the hoof in a galloping horse. Maximum vertical and shear loads and loading rates were not significantly different between shoe types, with the exception of a reduced craniocaudal loading rate for the V-Grip shoe on the synthetic surface. All other statistical significance was related to the surface material. These 3 different Thoroughbred racing shoes do not have a significant impact on loading and loading rate, with the exception of the V-Grip shoe on a synthetic surface. Although the V-Grip may reduce craniocaudal peak load rates in a synthetic material with relatively high wax and/or low oil content, the reduction in load rate is less than the difference found between materials. This study indicates that shoeing has little effect, and that a track's surface material and its preparation have a significant effect on the dynamic loading during the impact phase of the stance. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. A nonlinear mechanics model of bio-inspired hierarchical lattice materials consisting of horseshoe microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Cheng, Huanyu; Jang, Kyung-In; Luan, Haiwen; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    Development of advanced synthetic materials that can mimic the mechanical properties of non-mineralized soft biological materials has important implications in a wide range of technologies. Hierarchical lattice materials constructed with horseshoe microstructures belong to this class of bio-inspired synthetic materials, where the mechanical responses can be tailored to match the nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves of human skins. The underlying relations between the J-shaped stress-strain curves and their microstructure geometry are essential in designing such systems for targeted applications. Here, a theoretical model of this type of hierarchical lattice material is developed by combining a finite deformation constitutive relation of the building block (i.e., horseshoe microstructure), with the analyses of equilibrium and deformation compatibility in the periodical lattices. The nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves and Poisson ratios predicted by this model agree very well with results of finite element analyses (FEA) and experiment. Based on this model, analytic solutions were obtained for some key mechanical quantities, e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, peak modulus, and critical strain around which the tangent modulus increases rapidly. A negative Poisson effect is revealed in the hierarchical lattice with triangular topology, as opposed to a positive Poisson effect in hierarchical lattices with Kagome and honeycomb topologies. The lattice topology is also found to have a strong influence on the stress-strain curve. For the three isotropic lattice topologies (triangular, Kagome and honeycomb), the hierarchical triangular lattice material renders the sharpest transition in the stress-strain curve and relative high stretchability, given the same porosity and arc angle of horseshoe microstructure. Furthermore, a demonstrative example illustrates the utility of the developed model in the rapid optimization of hierarchical lattice materials for

  7. Determinants and patterns of reproductive success in the greater horseshoe bat during a population recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helen L; Ransome, Roger D; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    An individual's reproductive success will depend on traits that increase access to mates, as well as the number of mates available. In most well-studied mammals, males are the larger sex, and body size often increases success in intra-sexual contests and thus paternity. In comparison, the determinants of male success in species with reversed sexual size dimorphism (RSD) are less well understood. Greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) exhibit RSD and females appear to exert mate choice when they visit and copulate with males in their underground territories. Here we assessed putative determinants of reproductive success in a colony of greater horseshoe bats during a 19-year period of rapid population growth. We genotyped 1080 bats with up to 40 microsatellite loci and assigned maternity to 99.5% of pups, and paternity to 76.8% of pups. We found that in spite of RSD, paternity success correlated positively with male size, and, consistent with our previous findings, also with age. Female reproductive success, which has not previously been studied in this population, was also age-related and correlated positively with individual heterozygosity, but not with body size. Remarkable male reproductive skew was detected that initially increased steadily with population size, possibly coinciding with the saturation of suitable territories, but then levelled off suggesting an upper limit to a male's number of partners. Our results illustrate that RSD can occur alongside intense male sexual competition, that male breeding success is density-dependent, and that male and female greater horseshoe bats are subject to different selective pressures.

  8. Determinants and patterns of reproductive success in the greater horseshoe bat during a population recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Ward

    Full Text Available An individual's reproductive success will depend on traits that increase access to mates, as well as the number of mates available. In most well-studied mammals, males are the larger sex, and body size often increases success in intra-sexual contests and thus paternity. In comparison, the determinants of male success in species with reversed sexual size dimorphism (RSD are less well understood. Greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum exhibit RSD and females appear to exert mate choice when they visit and copulate with males in their underground territories. Here we assessed putative determinants of reproductive success in a colony of greater horseshoe bats during a 19-year period of rapid population growth. We genotyped 1080 bats with up to 40 microsatellite loci and assigned maternity to 99.5% of pups, and paternity to 76.8% of pups. We found that in spite of RSD, paternity success correlated positively with male size, and, consistent with our previous findings, also with age. Female reproductive success, which has not previously been studied in this population, was also age-related and correlated positively with individual heterozygosity, but not with body size. Remarkable male reproductive skew was detected that initially increased steadily with population size, possibly coinciding with the saturation of suitable territories, but then levelled off suggesting an upper limit to a male's number of partners. Our results illustrate that RSD can occur alongside intense male sexual competition, that male breeding success is density-dependent, and that male and female greater horseshoe bats are subject to different selective pressures.

  9. Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in an Incompletely Duplicated Collecting System in a Patient with a Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Tsuru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of UPJO associated with an incompletely duplicated collecting system in a horseshoe kidney that was successfully treated by laparoscopic pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy. A 53-year-old man had three urological anomalies and urolithiasis. We performed a pyeloplasty and pyelolithotomy using a fully intracorporeal technique. Clinical and radiographic evaluation confirmed complete resolution of the patient’s condition. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of UPJO in an incompletely duplicated collecting system with a horseshoe kidney in the same patient. We also provide convincing evidence that laparoscopic pyeloplasty is feasible in complex cases of renal anatomic anomalies.

  10. Studies on the vaginal plug of the Japanese greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Y K; Mori, T; Uchida, T A

    1983-07-01

    The vaginal plug of the Japanese greater horseshoe bat is composed of an outer, thick, hard and homogeneous layer originating from the stratum disjunctum of the vaginal mucosa and a thin, soft and opaque central core containing accidentally trapped dead spermatozoa. The vaginal plug appeared to be expelled just before or after ovulation in spring. Immediately after copulation in autumn, uterine spermatozoa were dead but few leucocytes were present. As time passes after copulation, however, the infiltration of leucocytes into the uterus increased gradually, and extensive leucocytic phagocytosis of dead spermatozoa occurred during hibernation.

  11. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  12. Prevalence, characterization and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Parveen, Salina; Rippen, Thomas; Luchansky, John B; Call, Jeffrey E; Tamplin, Mark L; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2012-09-01

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crabs, 624 cooked crab meat (crab meat) and 624 environmental samples were tested by standard methods. Presumptive Listeria spp. were isolated from 19.5% of raw crabs, 10.8% of crab meat, and 69.5% of environmental samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 4.5% of raw crabs, 0.2% of crab meat, and 2.1% of environmental samples. Ninety-seven percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the ten antibiotics tested. Eight different serotypes were found among 76 L. monocytogenes isolates tested with the most common being 4b, 1/2b and 1/2a. Automated EcoRI ribotyping differentiated 11 ribotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates. Based on ribotyping analysis, the distribution of the ribotypes in each processing plant had a unique contamination pattern. A total of 92 ApaI and 88 AscI pulsotypes among the 106 L. monocytogenes isolates were found and distinct pulsotypes were observed in raw crab, crab meat and environmental samples. Ribotypes and serotypes recovered from crab processing plants included subtypes that have been associated with listeriosis cases in other food outbreaks. Our findings suggest that molecular methods may provide critical information about sources of L. monocytogenes in crab processing plants and will augment efforts to improve food safety control strategies such as targeting specific sources of contamination and use of aggressive detergents prior to sanitizing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FACT. Energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Fabian; Einecke, Sabrina; Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5, Otto-Hahn-Str.4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope which uses silicon photon detectors (G-APDs aka SiPM) as photo sensors. With more than four years of operation, FACT proved an application of SiPMs is suitable for the field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. Due to the stable flux at TeV energies, the Crab Nebula is handled as a ''standard candle'' in Cherenkov astronomy. The analysis of its energy spectrum and comparison with other experiments, allows to evaluate the performance of FACT. A modern analysis chain, based on data stream handling and multivariate analysis methods was developed in close cooperation with the department of computer science at the TU Dortmund. In this talk, this analysis chain and its application are presented. Further to this, results, including the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula, measured with FACT, are shown.

  14. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; /Daresbury; Bellantoni, L.; /Fermilab; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  15. Bacteriological survey of the blue crab industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, F A; Peeler, J T

    1972-12-01

    During sanitation inspections of 46 crabmeat processing plants on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, 487 samples of whole crabs immediately after cooking, cooked crabs after cooling, backed or washed (or both) crab bodies and whole crab claws, as well as 1,506 retail units of finished product were collected and analyzed bacteriologically. The 1,506 retail units (1-lb [373.24-g] cans) included 518 cans of regular (special) meat, 487 cans of claw meat, and 501 cans of lump meat. Statistical analyses showed that crabmeat from plants in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas had higher counts in 19 of 24 cases for the four bacteriological indices than crabmeat from plants located along the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf Coast of Florida. Aerobic plate counts of retail units collected from a previous day's production were significantly higher than those collected on the day of inspection. Regular crabmeat had consistently higher aerobic plate counts than claw or lump meat. When the product was handled expeditiously under good sanitary conditions, the bacteriological results were significantly better than the results from plants operating under poor sanitary conditions. Crabmeat produced in plants operating under good sanitary conditions had the following bacteriological content: (i) coliform organisms average most-probable-number values (geometric) of less than 20 per g; (ii) no Escherichia coli; (iii) coagulase-positive staphylococci average most-probable-number values (geometric) of less than 30 per g in 93% of the plants; (iv) aerobic plate count average values (geometric) of less than 100,000 per g in 93% of the plants, with the counts from 85% of these plants below 50,000 per g.

  16. Characterization of a Freshwater Crab Sudanonautes aubryi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Apart from fish, other groups of animals subject to exploitation in ... Moyle, 1990). Student's test was used to determine the ... Sex Ratio. 1.62. 0.68. 3.3. Measurements of all crabs: Overall, the weight is between 0.19 and 19.95 g, width of the cephalothorax width that ranges from 8.71 to 42.35 mm and the clip.

  17. The Porcelain Crab Transcriptome and PCAD, the Porcelain Crab Microarray and Sequence Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Wang, Mei; Lindquist, Erika; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Teranishi, Kristen S.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wong, Mike; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2010-01-27

    Background: With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Methodology/Principal Findings: A set of ~;;30K unique sequences (UniSeqs) representing ~;;19K clusters were generated from ~;;98K high quality ESTs from a set of tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66percent of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD), a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases.Conclusions/Significance: The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the transcriptome as can reasonably be captured in

  18. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breadcrumb Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  19. Interplay of lancet furrows and shape change in the horseshoe bat noseleaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anupam K; Webster, Dane; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    Horseshoe bats emit biosonar pulses through the nostrils and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic pulses with baffles, so-called "noseleaves," that surround the nostrils. The noseleaves have complex static geometries and can furthermore undergo dynamic shape changes during emission of the biosonar pulses. The posterior noseleaf part, the lancet, has been shown to carry out anterior-posterior flicking motions during biosonar emissions with average lancet tip displacements of about 1 mm. Here, the acoustic effects of the interplay between the lancet furrows and shape change (lancet rotation) on the emission beam were investigated using the animated digital models obtained from the noseleaves of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). It was found that forward lancet rotations increase the amount of sound energy allocated to secondary amplitude maxima (sidelobes) in the beampattern, but only in the presence of the furrows. The interaction between static and dynamic features can be readily quantified by roughness (standard deviation about local mean) of the amplitude distribution of the beampatterns. This effect goes beyond the static impact of the furrows on the width of the mainlobe. It could allow the bats to send out their pulses through a sequence of qualitatively different beampatterns.

  20. Phylogeography of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum: contrasting results from mitochondrial and microsatellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Jon; Jones, Gareth; Benda, Petr; Dietz, Christian; Zhang, Shuyi; Li, Gang; Sharifi, Mozafar; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Phylogeographical studies are typically based on haplotype data, occasionally on nuclear markers such as microsatellites, but rarely combine both. This is unfortunate because the use of markers with contrasting modes of inheritance and rates of evolution might provide a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of a species' history. Here we present a detailed study of the phylogeography of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, using 1098 bp of the mitochondrial ND2 gene from 45 localities from across its Palaearctic range to infer population history. In addition, we re-analysed a large microsatellite data set available for this species and compared the results of both markers to infer population relationships and the historical processes influencing them. We show that mtDNA, the most popular marker in phylogeography studies, yielded a misleading result, and would have led us to conclude erroneously that a single expansion had taken place in Europe. Only by combining the mitochondrial and microsatellite data sets are we able to reconstruct the species' history and show two colonization events in Europe, one before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and one after it. Combining markers also revealed the importance of Asia Minor as an ancient refugium for this species and a source population for the expansion of the greater horseshoe bat into Europe before the LGM.

  1. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.

    2016-02-01

    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  2. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Zotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus. The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  3. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  4. Neuronal classification and distribution in the central nervous system of the female mud crab, Scylla olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornthong, Napamanee; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Khornchatri, Kanjana; Saeton, Jirawat; Magerd, Sirilug; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Kruangkum, Thanapong; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-03-01

    The mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is one of the most economically valuable marine species in Southeast Asian countries. However, commercial cultivation is disadvantaged by reduced reproductive capacity in captivity. Therefore, an understanding of the general and detailed anatomy of central nervous system (CNS) is required before investigating the distribution and functions of neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and other biomolecules, involved with reproduction. We found that the anatomical structure of the brain is similar to other crabs. However, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) is unlike other caridian and dendrobrachiate decapods, as the subesophageal (SEG), thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused, due to the reduction of abdominal segments and the tail. Neurons in clusters within the CNS varied in sizes, and we found that there were five distinct size classes (i.e., very small globuli, small, medium, large, and giant). Clusters in the brain and SEG contained mainly very small globuli and small-sized neurons, whereas, the VNC contained small-, medium-, large-, and giant-sized neurons. We postulate that the different sized neurons are involved in different functions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  6. Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy in horseshoe kidneys with pelviureteric junction obstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy in horseshoe kidney with pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients of horseshoe kidney with PUJO operated in our institute between June 1998 and June 2012 were reviewed. Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy was performed in all patients. The surgical outcome was evaluated with emphasis on the changes in degree of hydronephrosis by ultrasonography, renal drainage and function assessed by diuretic renal scans. Results: We studied the records of eight children of horseshoe kidney having unilateral PUJO. Obstruction was caused by a crossing lower-pole vessel in two cases, a high ureteral insertion in three and narrowing of the PUJ in three cases. Post-operative follow-up (median 4.4 years, range 18 months to 10 years revealed improved renal function and good drainage in all cases. Hydronephrosis disappeared in 3, 4 showed Grade 1 and one showed Grade 2 hydronephrosis. All children are doing well and have no symptoms. Conclusion: Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy is a highly effective and safe procedure for treating PUJO in horseshoe kidney in children.

  7. Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Terrence L; Small, Hamish J; Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Gibbs, David A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of an unidentified ciliate have occurred on several occasions in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay held during winter months in flow-through systems. The parasite was initially thought to be Mesanophrys chesapeakensis, but molecular analysis identified it as Orchitophyra stellarum, a facultative parasite of sea stars (Asteroidea). We investigated the host-parasite association of O. stellarum in the blue crab host. Crabs were inoculated with the ciliate, or they were held in bath exposures after experimentally induced autotomy of limbs in order to determine potential mechanisms for infection. Crabs inoculated with the ciliate, or exposed to it after experimental autotomy, rapidly developed fatal infections. Crabs that were not experimentally injured, but were exposed to the ciliate, rarely developed infections; thus, indicating that the parasite requires a wound or break in the cuticle as a portal of entry. For comparative purposes, fiddler crabs, Uca minax, were inoculated with the ciliate in a dose-titration experiment. Low doses of the ciliate (10 per crab) were sometimes able to establish infections, but high intensity infections developed quickly at doses over 500 ciliates per crab. Chemotaxis studies were initiated to determine if the ciliate preferentially selected blue crab serum (BCS) over other nutrient sources. Cultures grown on medium with BCS or fetal bovine serum showed some conditioning in their selection for different media, but the outcome in choice experiments indicated that the ciliate was attracted to BCS and not seawater. Our findings indicate that O. stellarum is a facultative parasite of blue crabs. It can cause infections in exposed crabs at 10-15°C, but it requires a portal of entry for successful host invasion, and it may find injured hosts using chemotaxis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The biology of the burrowing crab, Corystes cassivelaunus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartnoll, R.G.

    1972-01-01

    Corystes cassivelaunus (Brachyura, Corystidae), a crab which burrows in clean sublittoral sand, was investigated at several inshore locations around the Isle of Man. It usually buries itself so as to leave little or no external sign of its presence. Immature crabs remain buried by day throughout the

  9. Ghost crabs on a treadmill: Oxygen uptake and haemocyanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-04-17

    Apr 17, 1990 ... change gases. Full (1987) studied the aerobic and anaerobic energetics of the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata during and after locomotion. He found considerable amounts of I-lac- tate production in both large (16 g) and small (2 g) crabs. Morris & Bridges (1985) studied the oxygen affinity of non-exercised ...

  10. How to get more collisions at the LHC / crab cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    (short version) HL-LHC crab cavity engineer Ofelia Capatin, HL-LHC RF system leader Rama Calaga and HL-LHC project leader Lucio Rossiexplain how the introduction of the new Crab Cavities will enable higher luminosities at the HL-LHC.

  11. Evolutionary diversification of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Sancia Esmeralda Theonilla van der

    2015-01-01

    Gall crabs (Crustacea : Cryptochiridae) are small, coral-dwelling crabs that live in obligate association with their host corals (Scleractinia), on which they rely for food and shelter. They have been recorded from shallow and deeper waters (over 500 m), but the majority of the species live in reef

  12. Fecundity of the Pantropical Fiddler Crab Uca annulipes (H. Milne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) is probably the most abundant brachyuran crab inhabiting mangrove forests in East Africa. However, its fecundity is poorly understood. Crabs were randomly sampled during spring low tides from January to April 2002 at Costa do Sol mangrove, Maputo Bay, southern Mozambique.

  13. Has the Crab Pulsar Magnetic Field Grown after its Birth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Application of these results to the Crab pulsar strongly indicates that its parameters cannot be ... mass transfer effects in such systems, it will be most likely the second explosion and not the first one which will ... If the Crab pulsar were born in the explosion of AD 1054 which created the nebula, its age is. Also, at present. (9).

  14. The Rhizocephalan parasite of the crab Xantho incisus (Leach)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1955-01-01

    As shown by Holthuis (1954), the correct name for the European crab commonly referred to as Xantho floridus (Montagu) is Xantho incisus (Leach). A Rhizocephalan parasite of this crab was first mentioned (without an indication of specific characters) by Gerbe (1862); afterwards specimens were

  15. Glitches and pinned vorticity in the Crab pulsar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpar, M.A. (Bogazici Univ., Istanbul, Turkey); Anderson, P.W.; Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1981-09-01

    It is suggested that the glitch behavior observed in the Crab pulsar is associated with vorticity jumps induced by a starquake or a comparable external fluctuation in the weakly pinned vortex region expected in the crust of a young neutron star, and that the differences in the glitch behavior of the Crab, Vela, and older pulsars may be explained on evolutionary grounds.

  16. Subsistence utilization of the crab Neosarmatium meinerti in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsistence utilization of the crab Neosarmatium meinerti in the Kosi Lakes ecosystem, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The red mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti de Man, 1884 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae: Sesarminae) constituted the major proportion of these catches, while Scylla serrata and Cardisoma ...

  17. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  18. A test of Rensch's rule in greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) with female-biased sexual size dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Huang, Xiaobin; Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Lei; Niu, Hongxing; Feng, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is widespread within the animal kingdom. Rensch's rule describes a relationship between SSD and body size: SSD increases with body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. Rensch's rule is well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD but patterns of allometry among taxa with female-biased size dimorphism are mixed, there is evidence both for and against the rule. Furthermore, most studies have investigated Rensch's rule across a variety of taxa; but among-population studies supporting Rensch's rule are lacking, especially in taxa that display only slight SSD. Here, we tested whether patterns of intraspecific variation in SSD in greater horseshoe bats conform to Rensch's rule, and evaluated the contribution of latitude to Rensch's rule. Our results showed SSD was consistently female-biased in greater horseshoe bats, although female body size was only slightly larger than male body size. The slope of major axis regression of log10 (male) on log10 (female) was significantly different from 1. Forearm length for both sexes of greater horseshoe bats was significantly negatively correlated with latitude, and males displayed a slightly but nonsignificant steeper latitudinal cline in body size than females. We suggest that variation in patterns of SSD among greater horseshoe bat populations is consistent with Rensch's rule indicating that males were the more variable sex. Males did not have a steeper body size-latitude relationship than females suggesting that sex-specific latitudinal variation in body size may not be an important contributing factor to Rensch's rule. Future research on greater horseshoe bats might best focus on more comprehensive mechanisms driving the pattern of female-biased SSD variation.

  19. A test of Rensch's rule in greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum with female-biased sexual size dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wu

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is widespread within the animal kingdom. Rensch's rule describes a relationship between SSD and body size: SSD increases with body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. Rensch's rule is well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD but patterns of allometry among taxa with female-biased size dimorphism are mixed, there is evidence both for and against the rule. Furthermore, most studies have investigated Rensch's rule across a variety of taxa; but among-population studies supporting Rensch's rule are lacking, especially in taxa that display only slight SSD. Here, we tested whether patterns of intraspecific variation in SSD in greater horseshoe bats conform to Rensch's rule, and evaluated the contribution of latitude to Rensch's rule. Our results showed SSD was consistently female-biased in greater horseshoe bats, although female body size was only slightly larger than male body size. The slope of major axis regression of log10 (male on log10 (female was significantly different from 1. Forearm length for both sexes of greater horseshoe bats was significantly negatively correlated with latitude, and males displayed a slightly but nonsignificant steeper latitudinal cline in body size than females. We suggest that variation in patterns of SSD among greater horseshoe bat populations is consistent with Rensch's rule indicating that males were the more variable sex. Males did not have a steeper body size-latitude relationship than females suggesting that sex-specific latitudinal variation in body size may not be an important contributing factor to Rensch's rule. Future research on greater horseshoe bats might best focus on more comprehensive mechanisms driving the pattern of female-biased SSD variation.

  20. Oxygen consumption in trilobite larvae of the mangrove horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda; Latreille, 1802): effect of temperature, salinity, pH, and light–dark cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srijaya, Thekkeparambil Chandrabose; Pradeep, Padmaja Jayaprasad; Hassan, Anuar; Chatterji, Anil; Shaharom, Faizah; Jeffs, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    .... rotundicauda was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The trilobite larvae were exposed to different levels of temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C), salinity (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppt), pH (5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) and dark...

  1. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji, Sawssen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-08-01

    Crab shells waste were fermented using six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus subtilis A26, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6, Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Bacillus cereus BG1) for the production of chitin and fermented-crab supernatants (FCSs). In medium containing only crab shells, the highest demineralization DM was obtained with B. licheniformis NH1 (83±0.5%) and B. pumilus A1 (80±0.6%), while the highest deproteinization (DP) was achieved with A1 (94±1%) followed by NH1 (90±1.5%) strains. Cultures conducted in medium containing crab shells waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose, were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, and enhance slightly deproteinization rates. FTIR spectra of chitins showed the characteristics bands of α-chitin. FCSs showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities which were in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). In fact, FCS produced by B. amyloliquefaciens An6 exhibited the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging activity (92% at 4 mg/ml), while the lowest hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (60% at 4 mg/ml) was obtained with B. subtilis A26 hydrolysates. However, the highest reducing power (OD700nm=2 at 0.5 mg/ml) was obtained by B.amyloliquefaciens An6 hydrolysates. These results suggest that crab hydrolysates are good sources of natural antioxidants. Further, FCSs were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A technology analysis of the U.S. Atlantic blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Gi-Pyo

    1990-01-01

    The dehydration rates of crabs during low temperature storage and various cooking processes were determined. Season, cooking time, and cooking method significantly affected the weight loss of crabs. The thermal energy (F250 ) crabs received during a commercial cooking process was evaluated by season, cooking method and time, and crab type. The effects of sex, size, and type (sexual maturity) of crab and season on the yields of lump, top flake, bottom flake, and claw...

  3. Identification of irradiated crab using EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, A. [Radiation Dosimetry Department, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Ministry of Scientific Research, Haram, 12211- Giza, P.O. Box: 136 (Egypt)]. E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com

    2007-02-15

    EPR spectroscopy is a fast and powerful technique for the identification of irradiated food. Crab exoskeleton was divided into six parts: dactyl, cheliped, carapace, apron, swimming legs, and walking legs. Samples of the exoskeleton were prepared and irradiated to Cs-137 gamma radiation in the range (1.156-5.365 kGy). EPR spectra of unirradiated as well as irradiated samples were recorded and analyzed. Response to gamma radiation was plotted for each part of the exoskeleton, dactyl was found to be the most sensitive part, followed by the apron (38%), cheliped (37%), walking legs (30%), swimming legs (24%), and carapace (21%) relative to the dactyl response.

  4. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  5. Public Hearing & Comment Period Document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of public hearing & comment period document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  6. Genetic variation and population structure in the endangered greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, S J; Jones, G; Ransome, R D; Barratt, E M

    2000-08-01

    Following a dramatic decline last century, the British population of the endangered greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum is highly fragmented. To examine the consequences of fragmentation and limited dispersal on patterns of genetic structure and variation, we used microsatellite markers to screen bats from around 50% of the known maternity colonies in Britain, and two areas from continental Europe. Analyses revealed that Welsh and English colonies were genetically isolated. This, and lower variability in Britain than north France, may result from either genetic drift, or the species' colonization history. Gene flow among most neighbouring colonies was not generally restricted, with one exception. These findings have important implications for the ongoing conservation management of this species.

  7. Ureteral rupture after blunt abdominal trauma in a child with unknown horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Mariotto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of renal injuries in children result from blunt abdominal trauma. A 10-year-old female had a blunt abdominal trauma with macro-hematuria. The computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a horseshoe kidney and a 3rd grade renal lesion and contrast leakage from the right ureter. The ureteral rupture was confirmed by cystoscopy and ascendant pyelography and than a double J-stent was implanted. The stent was removed one month later. Non-surgical management has become the standard of care for both ureteral and renal lesions in children. Non-surgical treatment is a safe procedure for renal trauma with ureteral rupture in children.

  8. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  9. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and diabetes. Asian Americans also have a high prevalence of the following conditions and risk factors: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, smoking, tuberculosis, and liver ...

  10. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  11. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  12. Different auditory feedback control for echolocation and communication in horseshoe bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    Full Text Available Auditory feedback from the animal's own voice is essential during bat echolocation: to optimize signal detection, bats continuously adjust various call parameters in response to changing echo signals. Auditory feedback seems also necessary for controlling many bat communication calls, although it remains unclear how auditory feedback control differs in echolocation and communication. We tackled this question by analyzing echolocation and communication in greater horseshoe bats, whose echolocation pulses are dominated by a constant frequency component that matches the frequency range they hear best. To maintain echoes within this "auditory fovea", horseshoe bats constantly adjust their echolocation call frequency depending on the frequency of the returning echo signal. This Doppler-shift compensation (DSC behavior represents one of the most precise forms of sensory-motor feedback known. We examined the variability of echolocation pulses emitted at rest (resting frequencies, RFs and one type of communication signal which resembles an echolocation pulse but is much shorter (short constant frequency communication calls, SCFs and produced only during social interactions. We found that while RFs varied from day to day, corroborating earlier studies in other constant frequency bats, SCF-frequencies remained unchanged. In addition, RFs overlapped for some bats whereas SCF-frequencies were always distinctly different. This indicates that auditory feedback during echolocation changed with varying RFs but remained constant or may have been absent during emission of SCF calls for communication. This fundamentally different feedback mechanism for echolocation and communication may have enabled these bats to use SCF calls for individual recognition whereas they adjusted RF calls to accommodate the daily shifts of their auditory fovea.

  13. Different Auditory Feedback Control for Echolocation and Communication in Horseshoe Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Auditory feedback from the animal's own voice is essential during bat echolocation: to optimize signal detection, bats continuously adjust various call parameters in response to changing echo signals. Auditory feedback seems also necessary for controlling many bat communication calls, although it remains unclear how auditory feedback control differs in echolocation and communication. We tackled this question by analyzing echolocation and communication in greater horseshoe bats, whose echolocation pulses are dominated by a constant frequency component that matches the frequency range they hear best. To maintain echoes within this “auditory fovea”, horseshoe bats constantly adjust their echolocation call frequency depending on the frequency of the returning echo signal. This Doppler-shift compensation (DSC) behavior represents one of the most precise forms of sensory-motor feedback known. We examined the variability of echolocation pulses emitted at rest (resting frequencies, RFs) and one type of communication signal which resembles an echolocation pulse but is much shorter (short constant frequency communication calls, SCFs) and produced only during social interactions. We found that while RFs varied from day to day, corroborating earlier studies in other constant frequency bats, SCF-frequencies remained unchanged. In addition, RFs overlapped for some bats whereas SCF-frequencies were always distinctly different. This indicates that auditory feedback during echolocation changed with varying RFs but remained constant or may have been absent during emission of SCF calls for communication. This fundamentally different feedback mechanism for echolocation and communication may have enabled these bats to use SCF calls for individual recognition whereas they adjusted RF calls to accommodate the daily shifts of their auditory fovea. PMID:23638137

  14. The Asian Face Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2009-01-01

    The face-lift procedure (rhytidectomy) is increasingly popular in Asia. There is extensive literature on different techniques in Western patients. Cultural and anthropomorphologic differences between Asian and Caucasians require the adaptation of current techniques to obtain a satisfactory outcome for both the patient and the surgeon. This article therefore attempts to define important differences between Asians and Caucasians in terms of signs of facial aging, perception of beauty, and surgi...

  15. Crab death assemblages from Laguna Madre and vicinity, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnick, R.E.; McCarroll, S. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Powell, E. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Crabs are a major component of modern marine ecosystems, but are only rarely described in fossil assemblages. Studies of brachyuran taphonomy have examined either the fossil end-products of the taphonomic process or the very earliest stages of decay and decomposition. The next logical step is the analysis of modern crab death assemblages; i.e., studies that examine taphonomic loss in areas where the composition of the living assemblage is known. The authors studied crab death assemblages in shallow water sediments at several localities in an near Laguna Madre, Texas. Nearly every sample examined contained some crab remains, most commonly in the form of isolated claws (dactyl and propodus). A crab fauna associated with a buried grass bed contained abundant remains of the xanthid crab Dyspanopeus texanus, including carapaces, chelipeds, and thoraxes, as well as fragments of the portunid Callinectes sapidus and the majiid Libinia dubia. Crab remains may be an overlooked portion of many preserved benthic assemblages, both in recent and modern sediments.

  16. The porcelain crab transcriptome and PCAD, the porcelain crab microarray and sequence database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Tagmount

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A set of approximately 30K unique sequences (UniSeqs representing approximately 19K clusters were generated from approximately 98K high quality ESTs from a set of tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66% of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD, a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the

  17. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Effects of Ocean Acidification on Juvenile Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) Growth, Condition, Calcification, and Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is the results of a laboratory experiment. Juvenile red king crab and Tanner crab were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing...

  18. The Effects of Season and Sex on the Nutritional Quality of Muscle Types of Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus and Swimming Crab Portunus segnis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Ayas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of season and sex on the nutritional quality of muscle types (lump crab meatLCM, claw crab meat-CCM of swimming crab (Portunus segnis and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus were investigated. Carapace width, carapace length and total weight of both crab species were measured. High protein content in spring and low protein content in autumn were observed for both crab species. The levels of lipid content of both crab species were found to be similar. Higher lipid contents in spring and winter, lower lipid contents in summer and autumn for both sexes were found. Although both crab species contain small amounts of fat, they are good sources of n-3 PUFA content (especially EPA and DHA for all seasons regardless of sex and muscle types.

  19. Open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horseshoe and elliptic composite curved bars subjected to end forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    The multilayer theory of anisotropic elasticity and a finite element method were used to analyze the open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horseshoe and elliptic laminated composite curved bars. Two types of laminations, solid laminations and sandwich laminations, were analyzed. It was found that the open-mode delamination stress concentration could be greatly increased in these two types of curved bars by decreasing their aspect ratios. The open-mode delamination stress concentration generated in the solid laminations was found to be far more severe than that generated in the sandwich laminations. The horseshoe curved bar may be used to determine both the open-mode delamination strength of solidly laminated composites and the open-mode debonding strength of sandwiched laminated composites. However, the elliptic curved bar is only good for determining the open-mode delamination strength of solidly laminated composites.

  20. Sperm invasion of the oviducal mucosa, fibroblastic phagocytosis and endometrial sloughing in the Japanese greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T A; Mori, T; Oh, Y K

    1984-01-01

    In the Japanese greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon, a vast number of spermatozoa invade the oviducal epithelial cells of the caudal isthmus and become concentrated in the endometrial lamina propria of the bicornuate horns. They are subsequently phagocytised and digested by fibroblasts. Then, finally, they become deposited in the uterine lumen together with a large quantity of secretory material from the endometrial connective tissue which, prior to this event, undergoes a massive infiltration by polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

  1. Crab Cavities: Past, Present, and Future of a Challenging Device

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Q

    2015-01-01

    In two-ring facilities operating with a crossing-angle collision scheme, luminosity can be limited due to an incomplete overlapping of the colliding bunches. Crab cavities then are introduced to restore head-on collisions by providing the destined opposite deflection to the head and tail of the bunch. An increase in luminosity was demonstrated at KEKB with global crab- crossing, while the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) at CERN currently is designing local crab crossing for the Hi-Lumi upgrade. Future colliders may investigate both approaches. In this paper, we review the challenges in the technology, and the implementation of crab cavities, while discussing experience in earlier colliders, ongoing R&D, and proposed implementations for future facilities, such as HiLumi-LHC, CERN’s compact linear collider (CLIC), the international linear collider (ILC), and the electronion collider under design at BNL (eRHIC).

  2. Narrative report : 1973 [Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Narrative report : 1967. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by...

  4. Domoic acid excretion in dungeness crabs, razor clams and mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Woodruff, Dana

    2008-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species of the Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) genus. We studied the elimination of DA from hemolymph after intravascular (IV) injection in razor clams (Siliqua patula), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). Crabs were also injected with two other organic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and kainic acid (KA). For IV dosing, hemolymph was repetitively sampled and DA concentrations measured by HPLC-UV. Toxicokinetic analysis of DA in crabs suggested most of the injected dose remained within hemolymph compartment with little extravascular distribution. This observation is in sharp contrast to results obtained from clams and mussels which exhibited similarly large apparent volumes of distribution despite large differences in overall clearance. These findings suggest fundamentally different storage and elimination processes are occurring for DA between bivalves and crabs.

  5. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Furbearer Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly...

  6. Narrative report : 1969. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  7. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Inventory Plan outlines the strategy, techniques and purpose of a wildlife inventory on the Refuge. Futhermore the...

  8. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : May - August, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : January - April, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  11. Narrative report : 1966. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : January - April, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1957. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Narrative report : 1965. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by...

  14. Narrative report : 1971. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  15. Narrative report : 1970. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by...

  16. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : May - August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1951. The report begins by...

  18. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Urban: Golden King Crab tagging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is comprised of the records of individual male golden king crab (GKC) tagged at the Kodiak Laboratory. Initial size, shell condition and missing limbs was...

  19. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  20. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by...

  1. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by...

  2. AFSC/REFM: BSAI Crab Economic Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Economic data collected for years 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2005 and onward for the BSAI Crab Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of any owner or...

  3. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : May - August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by...

  5. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge [Annual narrative : September - December, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by...

  6. Differential Expression of Hepatic Genes of the Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum between the Summer Active and Winter Torpid States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Xiao

    Full Text Available Hibernation is one type of torpor, a hypometabolic state in heterothermic mammals, which can be used as an energy-conservation strategy in response to harsh environments, e.g. limited food resource. The liver, in particular, plays a crucial role in adaptive metabolic adjustment during hibernation. Studies on ground squirrels and bears reveal that many genes involved in metabolism are differentially expressed during hibernation. Especially, the genes involved in carbohydrate catabolism are down-regulated during hibernation, while genes responsible for lipid β-oxidation are up-regulated. However, there is little transcriptional evidence to suggest physiological changes to the liver during hibernation in the greater horseshoe bat, a representative heterothermic bat. In this study, we explored the transcriptional changes in the livers of active and torpid greater horseshoe bats using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 1358 genes were identified as differentially expressed during torpor. In the functional analyses, differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in metabolic depression, shifts in the fuel utilization, immune function and response to stresses. Our findings provide a comprehensive evidence of differential gene expression in the livers of greater horseshoe bats during active and torpid states and highlight potential evidence for physiological adaptations that occur in the liver during hibernation.

  7. Differential Expression of Hepatic Genes of the Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) between the Summer Active and Winter Torpid States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Wu, Yonghua; Sun, Keping; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Song, Shuhui; Du, Zhenglin; Jiang, Tinglei; Shi, Limin; Wang, Lei; Lin, Aiqing; Yue, Xinke; Li, Chenji; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Hibernation is one type of torpor, a hypometabolic state in heterothermic mammals, which can be used as an energy-conservation strategy in response to harsh environments, e.g. limited food resource. The liver, in particular, plays a crucial role in adaptive metabolic adjustment during hibernation. Studies on ground squirrels and bears reveal that many genes involved in metabolism are differentially expressed during hibernation. Especially, the genes involved in carbohydrate catabolism are down-regulated during hibernation, while genes responsible for lipid β-oxidation are up-regulated. However, there is little transcriptional evidence to suggest physiological changes to the liver during hibernation in the greater horseshoe bat, a representative heterothermic bat. In this study, we explored the transcriptional changes in the livers of active and torpid greater horseshoe bats using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 1358 genes were identified as differentially expressed during torpor. In the functional analyses, differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in metabolic depression, shifts in the fuel utilization, immune function and response to stresses. Our findings provide a comprehensive evidence of differential gene expression in the livers of greater horseshoe bats during active and torpid states and highlight potential evidence for physiological adaptations that occur in the liver during hibernation.

  8. Emittance Growth due to Crab Cavity Ramping for LHC Beam-1 Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, A

    2008-01-01

    In LHC upgrade scenarios using global crab crossing, it is desired to turn on the crab cavity only at top energy. Turning on the crab cavity could increase the emittance of the stored beam, since the transverse kick of the crab cavity excites betatron oscillations. For a sufficiently slow ramping speed of the crab cavity voltage, however, the changes in z-dependent closed orbit are sufficiently adiabatic that the emittance growth becomes negligible. In order to determine the safe ramping speed of the LHC crab-cavity voltage, the dependence of the emittance growth on the ramping speed is estimated via a 6D particle-tracking simulation.

  9. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  10. Burrowing and foraging activity of marsh crabs under different ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England salt marshes are susceptible to degradation and habitat loss as a result of increased periods of inundation as sea levels rise. Increased inundation may exacerbate marsh degradation that can result from crab burrowing and foraging. Most studies to date have focused on how crab burrowing and foraging can impact the dominant low marsh plant species, Spartina alterniflora. Here we used a mesocosm experiment to examine the relationship of foraging and burrowing activity in two dominant New England crab species, Sesarma reticulatum and Uca pugilator, and the combined effect of inundation, on the dominant high marsh plant species Spartina patens using a 3 × 2 factorial design with three crab treatments (Sesarma, Uca, control) at two levels of inundation (low, high). Plants were labeled with a nitrogen (N) stable isotope tracer to estimate plant consumption by the two crab species. At both levels of inundation, we found that S. reticulatum had a significant negative impact on both above- and below-ground biomass by physically clipping and uprooting the plants, whereas U. pugilator had no significant impact. Low inundation treatments for both crab species had significantly greater aboveground biomass than high inundation. Stable N isotope tracer levels were roughly the same for both S. reticulatum and U. pugilator tissue, suggesting that the impact of S. reticulatum on S. patens was not through consumption of the plants. Overall, our results suggest the pot

  11. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  12. The efficacy of crab condos in capturing small crab species and their use in invasive marine species monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hewitt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Crab condos are designed to sample for invasive species, which are not specifically targeted using current Australian biosecuritymethodologies. Smaller crab species are often excluded, overlooked and damaged to be collected via current trapping or collection methods.An artificial habitat collector such as the ‘crab condo’ (PVC tubes 25cm long and 50mm diameter arranged in a 3×3 square matrix aims toprovide shelter among an animal’s natural environment. Twenty condos were deployed on a weekly basis for 48 hours during the months ofApril and July 2012 within Hillarys Boat marina, Western Australia. Condos proved to be highly successful, capturing a total of 555specimens from five different phyla, with over half (n=332 of specimens identified as crabs. The detection of 223 other smaller non-crabindividuals, covering four different phyla highlighted the versatility of condos to sample a range of other small species, not only crabs. Giventhe recognized importance of early detection of marine pests at their early life stages and current lack of methods targeting small andcryptogenic species, the crab condo sampling method may fill an important gap in marine pest surveillance capacity.

  13. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  14. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm. Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  15. Asian American Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Asian Americans.

  16. Diabetes in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide.

  17. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  18. HIV Among Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians in the United States Format: Select ...

  19. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  20. Effect of lunar periodicity on the abundance of crabs from the Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A; Ansari, Z.A; Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A; Kanti, A; Parulekar, A

    Lunar periodicity showed a significant influence on the occurrence of edible crabs (@iPortunus pelagicus, Charybdis cruciata and Portunus sanguinolentus@@). High density of these crabs was recorded in the trawl catches during full moon and new moon...

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Embryo development in golden king crab, Lithodes aequispina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data from this study, describes embryo development in Golden king crab, Lithodes aequispinus. Six female multiparous golden king crab were captured from the...

  2. A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

  3. Numerical study of the effect of the noseleaf on biosonar beamforming in a horseshoe bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qiao; Müller, Rolf

    2007-11-01

    Around 300 bat species are known to emit their ultrasonic biosonar pulses through the nostrils. This nasal emission coincides with the presence of intricately shaped baffle structures surrounding the nostrils. Some prior experimental evidence indicates that these “noseleaves” have an effect on the shape of the animals’ radiation patterns. Here, we present a numerical acoustical analysis of the noseleaf of a horseshoe bat species. We show that all three distinctive parts of its noseleaf (“lancet," “sella," “anterior leaf”) have an effect on the acoustic near field as well as on the directivity pattern. Furthermore, we show that furrows in one of the parts (the lancet) also exert such an influence. The underlying physical mechanisms suggested by the properties of the estimated near field are cavity resonance, as well as reflection and shadowing of the sound waves emitted by the nostrils. In their effects on the near field, the noseleaf parts showed a tendency toward spatial partitioning with the effects due to each part dominating a certain region. However, interactions between the acoustic effects of the parts were also evident, most notably, a synergism between two frequency-dependent effects (cavity resonance and shadowing) to produce an even stronger frequency selectivity.

  4. Overview and economics of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development : briefing note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    These briefing notes are the first of a series of reports reviewing energy topics currently of interest to Canadians. The notes included information on recent coalbed methane (CBM) developments in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (HCF) in central Alberta. Exploitation of the unconventional gas resource began in the region in 2002. Experimentation was needed to identify successful drilling techniques in the region. Coiled tubing in an underbalanced scheme has been widely adopted in the region. Recent surveys by the Alberta Geological Survey estimate that the HSC play contains approximately 66 Tcf of gas in place. Significant cost escalation has been noted in recent years due to staffing and equipment shortages arising as a result of increased production in Alberta. It was estimated that development costs in 2007 will be lower than those observed in 2006. Issues related to landowner resistance to CBM activities were also discussed. The CBM play in the region consists of dry coal. The briefing note described the geology of HSC coals, as well as regulatory requirements related to the exploitation of CBM and its impacts on the environment. The economics of CBM developments were also reviewed, and future trends were discussed. It was concluded that CBM represents 3.7 per cent of Canadian gas production, of which more than 85 per cent is produced in the HSC. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Horseshoe bats and Old World leaf-nosed bats have two discrete types of pinna motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Peiwen; Yang, Lili; Müller, Rolf

    2017-05-01

    Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) and the related Old World leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae) both show conspicuous pinna motions as part of their biosonar behaviors. In the current work, the kinematics of these motions in one species from each family (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Hipposideros armiger) has been analyzed quantitatively using three-dimensional tracking of landmarks placed on the pinna. The pinna motions that were observed in both species fell into two categories: In "rigid rotations" motions the geometry of the pinna was preserved and only its orientation in space was altered. In "open-close motions" the geometry of the pinna was changed which was evident in a change of the distances between the landmark points. A linear discriminant analysis showed that motions from both categories could be separated without any overlap in the analyzed data set. Hence, bats from both species have two separate types of pinna motions with apparently no transitions between them. The deformations associated with open-close pinna motions in Hipposideros armiger were found to be substantially larger compared to the wavelength associated with the largest pulse energy than in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (137% vs 99%). The role of the two different motions in the biosonar behaviors of the animals remains to be determined.

  6. Prey pursuit strategy of Japanese horseshoe bats during an in-flight target-selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuki; Ogata, Daiki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tetsuo; Hiryu, Shizuko

    2014-09-01

    The prey pursuit behavior of Japanese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) was investigated by tasking bats during flight with choosing between two tethered fluttering moths. Echolocation pulses were recorded using a telemetry microphone mounted on the bat combined with a 17-channel horizontal microphone array to measure pulse directions. Flight paths of the bat and moths were monitored using two high-speed video cameras. Acoustical measurements of returning echoes from fluttering moths were first collected using an ultrasonic loudspeaker, turning the head direction of the moth relative to the loudspeaker from 0° (front) to 180° (back) in the horizontal plane. The amount of acoustical glints caused by moth fluttering varied with the sound direction, reaching a maximum at 70°-100° in the horizontal plane. In the flight experiment, moths chosen by the bat fluttered within or moved across these angles relative to the bat's pulse direction, which would cause maximum dynamic changes in the frequency and amplitude of acoustical glints during flight. These results suggest that echoes with acoustical glints containing the strongest frequency and amplitude modulations appear to attract bats for prey selection.

  7. Correlated genetic and ecological diversification in a widespread southern African horseshoe bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Stoffberg

    Full Text Available The analysis of molecular data within a historical biogeographical framework, coupled with ecological characteristics can provide insight into the processes driving diversification. Here we assess the genetic and ecological diversity within a widespread horseshoe bat Rhinolophus clivosus sensu lato with specific emphasis on the southern African representatives which, although not currently recognized, were previously described as a separate species R. geoffroyi comprising four subspecies. Sequence divergence estimates of the mtDNA control region show that the southern African representatives of R. clivosus s.l. are as distinct from samples further north in Africa than they are from R. ferrumequinum, the sister-species to R. clivosus. Within South Africa, five genetically supported geographic groups exist and these groups are corroborated by echolocation and wing morphology data. The groups loosely correspond to the distributions of the previously defined subspecies and Maxent modelling shows a strong correlation between the detected groups and ecoregions. Based on molecular clock calibrations, it is evident that climatic cycling and related vegetation changes during the Quaternary may have facilitated diversification both genetically and ecologically.

  8. Correlated genetic and ecological diversification in a widespread southern African horseshoe bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffberg, Samantha; Schoeman, M Corrie; Matthee, Conrad A

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of molecular data within a historical biogeographical framework, coupled with ecological characteristics can provide insight into the processes driving diversification. Here we assess the genetic and ecological diversity within a widespread horseshoe bat Rhinolophus clivosus sensu lato with specific emphasis on the southern African representatives which, although not currently recognized, were previously described as a separate species R. geoffroyi comprising four subspecies. Sequence divergence estimates of the mtDNA control region show that the southern African representatives of R. clivosus s.l. are as distinct from samples further north in Africa than they are from R. ferrumequinum, the sister-species to R. clivosus. Within South Africa, five genetically supported geographic groups exist and these groups are corroborated by echolocation and wing morphology data. The groups loosely correspond to the distributions of the previously defined subspecies and Maxent modelling shows a strong correlation between the detected groups and ecoregions. Based on molecular clock calibrations, it is evident that climatic cycling and related vegetation changes during the Quaternary may have facilitated diversification both genetically and ecologically.

  9. Gene expression and adaptive evolution of ZBED1 in the hibernating greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Wu, Yonghua; Sun, Keping; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Lin, Aiqing; Huang, Xiaobin; Yue, Xinke; Shi, Limin; Feng, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian hibernators experience physiological extremes, e.g. ischemia, muscle disuse and hypothermia, which are lethal to non-hibernators, implying the existence of underlying mechanisms that allow hibernators to withstand these physiological extremes. Increased cell proliferation is suggested to be such a strategy, but its molecular basis remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the expression pattern of ZBED1 (zinc finger, BED-type containing 1), a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating cell proliferation, in five tissues of the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) during pre-hibernation, deep hibernation and post-hibernation. Moreover, we investigated the ZBED1 genetic divergence from individuals with variable hibernation phenotypes that cover all three known mtDNA lineages of the species. Expression analyses showed that ZBED1 is overexpressed only in brain and skeletal muscle, not in the other three tissues, suggesting an increased cell proliferation in these two tissues during deep hibernation. Evolutionary analyses showed that ZBED1 sequences were clustered into two well-supported clades with each one dominated by hibernating and non-hibernating individuals, respectively. Positive selection analyses further showed some positively selected sites and a divergent selection pressure among hibernating and non-hibernating groups of R. ferrumequinum. Our results suggest that ZBED1 as a potential candidate gene that regulates cell proliferation for hibernators to face physiological extremes during hibernation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Outbreeding increases offspring survival in wild greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, S J; Jones, G; Ransome, R D; Barratt, E M

    2001-05-22

    The factors influencing the survival of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) offspring born over seven years at a maternity colony in south-west Britain were studied. The effects of a range of phenotypic and maternal variables were analysed using a historical data set. In addition, the influence of two genetic measures on mortality, individual heterozygosity and a new measure of outbreeding, termed mean d(2), was assessed. Logistic regressions were undertaken with survival modelled as a binary response variable. Survival to two life stages was studied for each variable and all models were developed for both sexes separately and together. Only one variable, mean d(2), was significantly associated with survival. Male offspring with high mean d(2) scores were more likely to survive to their first and second summers. The influence of mean d(2) was not due to a single locus under selection but a wider multilocus effect and probably represents heterosis as opposed to solely inbreeding depression. Therefore, the extent to which an individual is outbred may determine survival more than widely used phenotypic characteristics such as size and mass. Mean d(2) may reflect immunocompetence, which influences mortality. Protection of mating sites in order to facilitate gene flow and, therefore, outbreeding may help to promote population stability and growth.

  11. Parentage, reproductive success and breeding behaviour in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, S J; Jones, G; Ransome, R D; Barratt, E M

    2000-03-22

    Female greater horseshoe bats form maternity colonies each summer in order to give birth and raise young. During the mating period, females visit males occupying territorial sites, copulation takes place and sperm are stored until ovulation occurs, normally in April. Using microsatellite markers and a likelihood method of parentage analysis, we studied breeding behaviour and male reproductive success over a five-year period in a population of bats in south-west Britain. Paternity was assigned with 80% confidence to 44% of young born in five successive cohorts. While a small annual skew in male reproductive success was detected, the variance increased over five years due to the repeated success of a few individuals. Mating was polygynous, although some females gave birth to offspring sired by the same male in separate years. Such repeated partnerships probably result from fidelity for either mating sites or individuals or from sperm competition. Females mated with males born both within and outside their own natal colony; however, relatedness between parents was no less than the average recorded for male female pairs. Gene flow between colonies is likely to be primarily mediated by both female and male dispersal during the mating period rather than more permanent movements.

  12. Laparoscopic heminephrectomy for benign and malignant diseases of the horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug Tuncel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the current study, we present our pure laparoscopic heminephrectomy experience in 13 patients with horseshoe kidney (HK. Material and Methods: A total of 13 patients with HK underwent pure laparoscopic heminephrectomy (Transperitoneal= 7, Retroperitoneal = 6 due to benign and malign renal conditions (non-functional hydronephrotic and/or infected kidney = 12, kidney mass = 1. Results: The mean age of the patients was 45.8 years. The mean operating time was 140 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 131 ml. The mean hospital stay was 2.3 days. Division of istmus was performed with stapler in 5 patients, ultrasonic scalpel in 3, 15 mm Hem-o-lok clip in 3, 10 mm LigaSure vessel seal system in one and endoscopic suture by 0 polyglactin in one patient without bleeding. Twelve patients underwent pure laparoscopic heminephrectomy due to nonfunctional hydronephrotic and or infected kidney. One patient underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic right heminephrectomy due to kidney mass. According to modifies Clavien classification, Grade I complication (wound infection occurred in one patient (7.7% who underwent heminephrectomy due to non-functional kidney. Conclusions: Laparoscopic heminephrectomy seems to be technically feasible and safe for benign and malignant diseases in patients with HK.

  13. Design and prototyping of HL-LHC double quarter wave crab cavities for SPS test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Alberty, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Artoos, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Calaga, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Capatina, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Capelli, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Carra, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Leuxe, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Kuder, N. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zanoni, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Li, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ratti, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The LHC high luminosity project envisages the use of the crabbing technique for increasing and levelling the LHC luminosity. Double Quarter Wave (DQW) resonators are compact cavities especially designed to meet the technical and performance requirements for LHC beam crabbing. Two DQW crab cavities are under fabrication and will be tested with beam in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN by 2017. This paper describes the design and prototyping of the DQW crab cavities for the SPS test.

  14. Design and Prototyping of HL-LHC Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavities for SPS Test

    CERN Document Server

    Verdú-Andrés, S; Wu, Q; Xiao, B P; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zv, I; Alberty, L; Artoos, Kurt; Calaga, Rama; Capatina, Ofelia; Capelli, Teddy; Carra, Federico; Leuxe, Raphael; Kuder, Norbert; Zanoni, Carlo; Li, Z; Ratti, A

    2015-01-01

    The LHC high luminosity project envisages the use of the crabbing technique for increasing and levelling the LHC luminosity. Double Quarter Wave (DQW) resonators are compact cavities especially designed to meet the technical and performance requirements for LHC beam crabbing. Two DQW crab cavities are under fabrication and will be tested with beam in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN by 2017. This paper describes the design and prototyping of the DQW crab cavities for the SPS test.

  15. An association between a lip arid fish species and the stone crab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-07-19

    Jul 19, 1986 ... Further crabs were then examined for fIsh eggs in their gill cavities during October 1980 and September 1981, to deter- mine what portion of the crab population was irivolved in this relationship. Of the 152 crabs examined, ran~ in size from 76 to. 160 rom carapace length (measured from the tip of the most.

  16. Species-specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Mary R; Grunden, David W; Govindarajan, Annette F

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species-specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab-jellyfish trophic relationship.

  17. Habits and customs of crab catchers in southern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmo, Angélica M S; Tognella, Mônica M P; Tenório, Gabrielle D; Barboza, Raynner R D; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2017-08-23

    Brazilian mangrove forests are widely distributed along the coast and exploited by groups of people with customs and habits as diverse as the biology of the mangrove ecosystems. This study identifies different methods of extracting crabs that inhabit the mangrove belts; some of these activities, such as catching individual crabs by hand, are aimed at maintaining natural stocks of this species in Mucuri (south Bahia), Brazil. In the studied community, illegal hunting activities that violate Brazilian legislation limiting the use of tangle-netting in mangrove ecosystem were observed. According to our observations, fishermen, to catch individual crabs, use the tangle-netting technique seeking to increase income and are from families that have no tradition of extraction. This analysis leads us to conclude that catchers from economically marginalised social groups enter mangroves for purposes of survival rather than for purposes of subsistence, because the catching by tangle-netting is a predatory technique. Tangle-netting  technique increase caught but also increases their mortality rate. We emphasise that traditional catching methods are unique to Brazil and that manual capturing of crab should be preserved through public policies aimed at maintaining the crab population.

  18. Unpulsed Optical Emission from the Crab Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, A.; Shearer, A.; Beskin, G. M.

    2000-05-01

    Based on observations of the Crab pulsar using the TRIFFID high-speed imaging photometer in the UBV bands using the Special Astrophysical Observatory's 6 m telescope in the Russian Caucasus, we report the detection of pronounced emission during the so-called off phase of emission. Following de-extinction, this unpulsed component of emission is shown to be consistent with a power law with an exponent of α=-0.60+/-0.37, the uncertainty being dominated by the error associated with the independent CCD photometry used to reference the TRIFFID data. This suggests a steeper power-law form than that reported elsewhere in the literature for the total integrated spectrum, which is essentially flat with α~0.1, although the difference in this case is only significant at the <=2 σ level. Deeper reference integrated and TRIFFID phase-resolved photometry, in these bands in conjunction with further observations in the UV and R region, would constrain this fit further. Based on observations using the 6 m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhnii Arkhyz, Russia.

  19. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... finalized 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable... Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) allow NMFS to make an in-season adjustment to the...

  20. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP...

  1. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery...

  2. South Asian Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed th...

  3. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  4. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  5. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  6. Perspectives in asian rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Ju; Yi, Jong Sook

    2014-04-01

    Asian patients present with relatively poorly developed dorsal and tip height and thicker skin, so augmentation rhinoplasty is the most commonly performed rhinoplasty procedure. Tip surgery using autologous cartilage followed by dorsal augmentation using an alloplastic implant material is the most widely performed surgical procedure for augmentation rhinoplasty on Asian patients. Cartilage tip grafting procedures, including shield grafting, multilayer tip grafting, onlay grafting, and modified vertical dome division, are key maneuvers for building up and providing better definition on a relatively poorly developed Asian tip. When performing primary cosmetic dorsal augmentation using alloplastic implants, the implant material should be selected according to the surgeon's experience, the pros and cons of available dorsal implant materials, and host factors such as skin thickness, associated deformities, and aesthetic goals. The costal cartilage is best reserved for difficult revisions, except in a limited number of primary cases who present with a very poorly developed nasal skeleton and thick skin. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Design and Prototyping of a 400 MHz RF-dipole Crabbing Cavity for the LHC High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, S U; Delayen, J R; Li, Z; Nicol, T H

    2015-01-01

    LHC High Luminosity Upgrade is in need of two crabbing systems that deflects the beam in both horizontal and vertical planes. The 400 MHz rf-dipole crabbing cavity system is capable of crabbing the proton beam in both planes. At present we are focusing our efforts on a complete crabbing system in the horizontal plane. Prior to LHC installation the crabbing system will be installed for beam test at SPS. The crabbing system consists of two rfdipole cavities in the cryomodule. This paper discusses the electromagnetic design and mechanical properties of the rf-dipole crabbing system for SPS beam test.

  8. Kinematics and aerodynamics of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in horizontal flight at various flight speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, H D

    1986-11-01

    The kinematics and aerodynamics of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in horizontal flight at a range of velocities are described. As flight speed increases there is a gradual change in the bat's wingbeat kinematics, wingbeat frequency decreasing and wingbeat strokeplane angles increasing. Associated with these changes are changes in the wings' incidence angles, particularly during the upstroke. At low speeds these are large and negative, suggesting thrust generation, while at high speeds these are positive and large, indicating that weight support and negative thrust are being generated. The change from one kinematic pattern to the other occurred gradually. The possible energetic and aerodynamic reasons for these changes are discussed.

  9. Isolation and identification of a natural reassortant mammalian orthoreovirus from least horseshoe bat in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    Full Text Available Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs have a wide geographic distribution and can infect virtually all mammals. Infections in humans may be either symptomatic or asymptomatic. This study describes the isolation and identification of a natural reassortant MRV from least horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus pusillu in China, referred to as RpMRV-YN2012.The RpMRV-YN2012 was obtained from urine samples of Rhinolophus pusillus by cell culture. Negative-staining electron microscopy revealed that RpMRV-YN2012 was a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with ∼75 nm in diameter. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE migration patterns of the genome segments showed that RpMRV-YN2012 contained 10 segments in a 3:3:4 arrangement. The whole genome sequence of RpMRV2012 was determined. The consensus terminal sequences of all segments of 5'-GCUAh…yUCAUC-3' (h = A, U or C; y = C or U were similar to the MRV species within the genus Orthoreovirus. Its evolution and evidence of genetic reassortment were analyzed by sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that RpMRV-YN2012 is a novel serotype 2 MRV that may have originated from reassortment among bat, human, and/or pig MRV strains which associated with diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis and necrotizing encephalopathy in animals and humans.RpMRV-YN2012 is a novel bat reassortant MRV, which may have resulted from a reassortment involving MRVs known to infect humans and animals. It is necessary to identify whether RpMRV-YN2012 is associated with diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis and necrotizing encephalopathy in clinical patients. In addition, we should carefully monitor its evolution and virulence in real time.

  10. Mapping UV Properties Throughout the Cosmic Horseshoe: Lessons from VLT-MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bethan L.; Auger, Matt; Pettini, Max; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, V.; Carniani, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    We present the first spatially-resolved rest-frame UV study of the gravitationally lensed galaxy, the `Cosmic Horseshoe' (J1148+1930) at z = 2.38. Our gravitational lens model shows that the system is made up of four star-forming regions, each ˜4-8 kpc2 in size, from which we extract four spatially exclusive regional spectra. We study the interstellar and wind absorption lines, along with C III] doublet emission lines, in each region to investigate any variation in emission/absorption line properties. The mapped C III] emission shows distinct kinematical structure, with velocity offsets of ˜±50 km s-1 between regions suggestive of a merging system, and a variation in equivalent width that indicates a change in ionisation parameter and/or metallicity between the regions. Absorption line velocities reveal a range of outflow strengths, with gas outflowing between -200 ≲ v(km s-1) ≲ -50 relative to the systemic velocity of that region. Interestingly, the strongest gas outflow appears to emanate from the most diffuse star-forming region. The star-formation rates remain relatively constant (˜8-16 M⊙ yr-1), mostly due to large uncertainties in reddening estimates. As such, the outflows appear to be `global' rather than `locally' sourced. We measure electron densities with a range of log (Ne)=3.92-4.36 cm-3, and point out that such high densities may be common when measured using the C III] doublet due to its large critical density. Overall, our observations demonstrate that while it is possible to trace variations in large scale gas kinematics, detecting inhomogeneities in physical gas properties and their effects on the outflowing gas may be more difficult. This study provides important lessons for the spatially-resolved rest-frame UV studies expected with future observatories, such as JWST.

  11. Dominant glint based prey localization in horseshoe bats: a possible strategy for noise rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vanderelst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinolophidae or Horseshoe bats emit long and narrowband calls. Fluttering insect prey generates echoes in which amplitude and frequency shifts are present, i.e. glints. These glints are reliable cues about the presence of prey and also encode certain properties of the prey. In this paper, we propose that these glints, i.e. the dominant glints, are also reliable signals upon which to base prey localization. In contrast to the spectral cues used by many other bats, the localization cues in Rhinolophidae are most likely provided by self-induced amplitude modulations generated by pinnae movement. Amplitude variations in the echo not introduced by the moving pinnae can be considered as noise interfering with the localization process. The amplitude of the dominant glints is very stable. Therefore, these parts of the echoes contain very little noise. However, using only the dominant glints potentially comes at a cost. Depending on the flutter rate of the insect, a limited number of dominant glints will be present in each echo giving the bat a limited number of sample points on which to base localization. We evaluate the feasibility of a strategy under which Rhinolophidae use only dominant glints. We use a computational model of the echolocation task faced by Rhinolophidae. Our model includes the spatial filtering of the echoes by the morphology of the sonar apparatus of Rhinolophus rouxii as well as the amplitude modulations introduced by pinnae movements. Using this model, we evaluate whether the dominant glints provide Rhinolophidae with enough information to perform localization. Our simulations show that Rhinolophidae can use dominant glints in the echoes as carriers for self-induced amplitude modulations serving as localization cues. In particular, it is shown that the reduction in noise achieved by using only the dominant glints outweighs the information loss that occurs by sampling the echo.

  12. Estimating the Fair Insurance Premium for Dungeness Crab Yields in the Western U.S. Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chia-Lan; Richardson, James W.; Leatham, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The Dungeness is a popular food and the most commercially important crab in the western states in the U.S. Like all agricultural production, the crab fisherman face yield risks and must manage these risks. In addition to weather risk, crab fisherman may experience low yields if the crabs are over fished in previous years. Farmers for many traditional agricultural crops can purchase crop insurance to insure against low yields. However, crab fishermen at this time do not have this option. The p...

  13. Preliminary survey of a nemertean crab egg predator, Carcinonemertes, on its host crab, Callinectes arcuatus (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848

  14. Habitat selection and energetics of the fiddler crab ( Uca tangeri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Marcel; Ens, Bruno J.

    We tried to unravel the possible links between the skewed predation risk in Uca tangeri (where large individuals are more at risk from avian predators) and size-dependent changes in the physiology and habitat choice of this fiddler crab species. Over a transect running from low to high in the tidal zone of a beach in Mauritania, the temperature profile at various depths in the substrate, the water-table level of seep water, salt concentration of seep water, depth of the aerobic level, operative temperatures on the surface, and size distribution of crabs were assessed. In addition, resting metabolic rates, Q 10 and thermal and starvation tolerances were estimated. Going from low to high in the tidal zone, crab size and burrow depth increased. At the preferred burrowing depth, microclimatological conditions appeared to be equally favourable at all sites. At the surface, conditions were more favourable low in the tidal zone, where also food availability is sufficient to enable small crabs to forage in the vicinity of their burrows. Large crabs have higher energy requirements and are thereby forced to forage in flocks low in the tidal zone where food is probably more abundant. Low in the tidal zone, digging deeply is impossible as the aerobic layer is rather thin. Large crabs prefer living high in the tidal zone as (1) deep burrows ensure better protection against predators, (2) more time is available for digging holes and (3) the substrate is better suited for reproduction. Energy reserves in late summer ensured an average of 34 days of survival. It is argued that the allotment of energy to growth must be considerable even in reproducing animals; the rewards of growth being the disproportional increase in reproductive output with size.

  15. Associational resistance protects mangrove leaves from crab herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy A.; Bell, Susan S.; Dawes, Clinton J.

    2012-05-01

    While associational defenses have been well documented in many plant and algal ecosystems, this study is the first to document associational resistance in mangroves. Mangrove tree crab (Aratus pisonii) density and herbivory on three life-stages of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were documented in pure red versus mixed-species and predominantly non-red mangrove stands containing black (Avicennia germinans) and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangroves in 1999-2000 in Tampa Bay, Florida. This study first established that R. mangle is the focal species in the context of associational resistance because it is damaged more than either of the other mangrove species. Next, it was hypothesized that crab density and leaf damage on R. mangle would be lower when in mixed-species and predominantly non-red versus red mangrove stands. A non-significant trend suggested that crab density varies among stands, and crab damage on R. mangle leaves was significantly lower in mixed-species and non-red stands. Mechanisms to explain associational resistance were examined. Positive Pearson correlations between the percent of adult R. mangle in a stand and both crab density and R. mangle leaf damage provided support for the resource concentration hypothesis. Limited support was found for the attractant-decoy hypothesis because the total amount of damaged leaves of all mangrove species combined typically differed among stands, suggesting that crabs were not shifting to alternative mangrove species to offset reduced availability of R. mangle leaves. Finally, while R. mangle seedlings were shorter in non-red stands compared to others, intra-specific differences in R. mangle leaf chemistry and sclerophylly among stands failed to explain associational patterns. These combined results argue for the need for additional experiments to elucidate mechanisms responsible for defensive plant associations in mangrove ecosystems and to determine whether such associations could be of use in mangrove

  16. Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sulistiono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro had been done since June - November 2004 and December - 2005 February 2006.  Study was carried out in two locations namely Laboratory of Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu to study adult crab, and Laboratory of Ecobiology of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University to study crab in clomang stage.  Adult crabs were collected by using some fishing gears namely trap, net and directly using bamboo stick.  Domestication was done in rearing batch sized 1x1x1 m3 with artificial nests (30x15x15 cm3, and small batch for water (7x10x10 cm3.  While for clomang stage, crabs were reared in aquarium (80x40x40 cm3 with debris and small water batch.  Result showed that adult crab had a survival rate around 12.5-0%, and mortality around 50-87.5%.  A similar result was also in clomang stage, which was 12.5% for survival rate and 87.5% for mortality.  Adult coconut crab was preferred to feed coconut than other food likely vegetable and chick. Keywords: domestication, coconut crab, Birgus latro, food habit   ABSTRAK Penelitian awal mengenai kajian awal penangkaran kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan pada bulan Juni - November 2004 dan Desember 2005 Februari 2006.  Pelaksanaan penelitian di lakukan di dua tempat, yaitu Laboratorium Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu untuk percobaan kepiting dewasa, dan Laboratorium Ekobiologi Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB Bogor,  untuk percobaan kepiting tahap klomang.  Kepiting dewasa ditangkap dengan menggunakan beberapa peralatan a.l. perangkap, jaring dan secara langsung dengan tongkat.  Penangkaran dilakukan di bak-bak peliharaan berukuran 1x1x1 m3 yang dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (30x15x15 cm3, dan bak kecil tempat air (7x10x10 cm3.  Sedangkan kepiting tahap klomang dipelihara di akuarium (80x40x40 cm3 yang diberi daun/serasah dan tempat air.  Hasil uji coba penangkaran

  17. The use of artificial crabs for testing predatory behavior and health in the octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, Piero; Andrews, Paul; Salemme, Marinella; Ponte, Giovanna; Fiorito, Graziano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris to attack a live crab is traditionally used as a method to assess the overall health and welfare of octopuses in the laboratory. This method requires placing a crab in the home tank of an animal, measuring the time (latency) taken for the octopus to initiate an attack and withdrawing the crab immediately prior to capture. The same crab is commonly used to assess multiple octopuses as part of daily welfare assessment. Growing concern for the welfare of crustaceans and a review of all laboratory practices for the care and welfare of cephalopods following the inclusion of this taxon in 2010/63/EU prompted a study of the utility of an artificial crab to replace a live crab in the assessment of octopus health. On consecutive days O. vulgaris (N=21) were presented with a live, a dead or an artificial crab, and the latency to attack measured. Despite differences in the predatory performance towards the three different crab alternatives, octopuses readily attacked the artificial (and the dead) crab, showing that they can generalize and respond appropriately towards artificial prey. Researchers should consider using an artificial crab to replace the use of a live crab as part of the routine health assessment of O. vulgaris.

  18. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnytzer, Yisrael; Giman, Yaniv; Karplus, Ilan; Achituv, Yair

    2017-01-01

    Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae). These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a "splitting" behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the "theft" of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs "split" their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism) it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  19. Boxer crabs induce asexual reproduction of their associated sea anemones by splitting and intraspecific theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisrael Schnytzer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crabs of the genus Lybia have the remarkable habit of holding a sea anemone in each of their claws. This partnership appears to be obligate, at least on the part of the crab. The present study focuses on Lybia leptochelis from the Red Sea holding anemones of the genus Alicia (family Aliciidae. These anemones have not been found free living, only in association with L. leptochelis. In an attempt to understand how the crabs acquire them, we conducted a series of behavioral experiments and molecular analyses. Laboratory observations showed that the removal of one anemone from a crab induces a “splitting” behavior, whereby the crab tears the remaining anemone into two similar parts, resulting in a complete anemone in each claw after regeneration. Furthermore, when two crabs, one holding anemones and one lacking them, are confronted, the crabs fight, almost always leading to the “theft” of a complete anemone or anemone fragment by the crab without them. Following this, crabs “split” their lone anemone into two. Individuals of Alicia sp. removed from freshly collected L. leptochelis were used for DNA analysis. By employing AFLP (Fluorescence Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism it was shown that each pair of anemones from a given crab is genetically identical. Furthermore, there is genetic identity between most pairs of anemone held by different crabs, with the others showing slight genetic differences. This is a unique case in which one animal induces asexual reproduction of another, consequently also affecting its genetic diversity.

  20. Symbiosis of sea anemones and hermit crabs: different resource utilization patterns in the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton

    2012-09-01

    The small-scale distribution and resource utilization patterns of hermit crabs living in symbiosis with sea anemones were investigated in the Aegean Sea. Four hermit crab species, occupying shells of nine gastropod species, were found in symbiosis with the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. Shell resource utilization patterns varied among hermit crabs, with Dardanus species utilizing a wide variety of shells. The size structure of hermit crab populations also affected shell resource utilization, with small-sized individuals inhabiting a larger variety of shells. Sea anemone utilization patterns varied both among hermit crab species and among residence shells, with larger crabs and shells hosting an increased abundance and biomass of C. parasitica. The examined biometric relationships suggested that small-sized crabs carry, proportionally to their weight, heavier shells and increased anemone biomass than larger ones. Exceptions to the above patterns are related either to local resource availability or to other environmental factors.

  1. Species–specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Mary R.; Grunden, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species–specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab–jellyfish trophic relationship. PMID:29085761

  2. Species–specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Carman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species–specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab–jellyfish trophic relationship.

  3. The Crab Pulsar and Relativistic Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility that the Crab pulsar produces a separated ion-dominated and pair-plasma-dominated, magnetically striped relativistic wind is assessed by rough estimates of the polar cap acceleration of the ion and electron primary beams, the pair production of secondary electrons and positrons, and a simple model of the near-magnetosphere-wind zone. For simplicity, only the orthogonal rotator is considered. Below (above) the rotational equator, ions (electrons) are accelerated in a thin sheath, of order (much less than) the width of the polar cap, to Lorentz factor {γ }i≈ (5{--}10)× {10}7({γ }e≈ {10}7). The accelerating parallel electric field is shorted out by ion-photon (curvature synchrotron) pair production. With strong, but fairly reasonable, assumptions, a set of general magnetic geometry relativistic wind equations is derived and shown to reduce to conservation relations that are similar to those of the wind from a magnetic monopole. The strength of the field-aligned currents carried by the primary beams is determined by the wind’s Alfvén critical point condition to be about eight times the Goldreich-Julian value. A simple model for the transition from the dipole region wind to the asymptotic monopole wind zone is developed. The asymptotic ratio of Poynting flux to ion (pair plasma) kinetic energy flux—the wind {σ }w∞ -parameter—is found to be of order {σ }w∞ ≈ 1/2({10}4). The far wind zone is likely to be complex, with the ion-dominated and pair-plasma-dominated magnetic stripes merging, and the oppositely directed azimuthal magnetic fields annihilating.

  4. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  5. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  6. Food Habits of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    43: 225–240. Sumpton, W.D. & Smith, G.S. (1990) Effect of temperature on the emergence, activity and feeding of male and female sand crabs (Portunus pelagicus). Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 41: 545–. 550. Underwood, A.J. (1981) Techniques of analysis of variance in experimental marine biology and ecology. Oceanogr.

  7. LAMBRACHAEUS RAM/FER ALCOCK, A RARE SPIDER CRAB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAMBRACHAEUS RAM/FER ALCOCK, A RARE SPIDER CRAB FROM THE. EAST COAST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (DECAPODA, BRACHYURA,. MAJIDAE). BRIAN KENS LEY. South African Museum. Cape Town. Accepted: May 1977. ABSTRACT. Lambrachaew rami/er Alcock, previously known only from a single record ...

  8. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Profile of the Blue Crab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology and serum biochemistry of the crab, Callinectes amnicola from Epe and Lagos Lagoon in southwest Nigeria were investigated from March –August, 2013. Haemocyte samples were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. The Total Haemocyte count (THC) of C. amnicola from Epe and ...

  9. 50 CFR 680.21 - Crab harvesting cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... during the fishing season to reflect the transfer of QS due to the death or dissolution of a QS holder... harvesting cooperatives that have formed for the purpose of applying for and fishing under a crab harvesting... permit may appeal the IAD using the appeals procedures described in § 680.43. (c) Restrictions on fishing...

  10. Diurnal Changes in Angular Sensitivity of Crab Photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leggett, L.M.W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The electrophysiological and anatomical consequences of diurnal changes in screening pigment position were investigated in the apposition eye of the portunid crab Scylla serrata. Intracellular recordings revealed that the acceptance angles of dark-adapted photoreceptors enlarged up to four-fold at

  11. Project "Flappy Crab": An Edu-Game for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Gomes, Cristina Maria; Guerreiro Figueiredo, Mauro Jorge; Bidarra, José; Cardoso Gomes, José Duarte

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some possibilities of gamification and remixing process for music education. Analyses also the concepts of gamification, mashup, remix and presents its possible usage in education--music teaching--through the development of the project/educational game "Flappy Crab". The article begins with a brief introduction to…

  12. Breeding of the land crab Cardiosoma armatum (Herklots 1851) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Tests of breeding of 70 juveniles (35♂ and 35♀) and 5 berried females of Cardiosoma armatum (Herklots 1851) were carried out in captivity for 42 days. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the growth performance of the land crab, the ability to domesticate (water and soil quality) traits.

  13. Multibaseline Observations of the Occultation of Crab Nebula by the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Multibaseline Observations of the Occultation of Crab Nebula by the Solar Corona at Decameter Wavelengths. K. R. Subramanian. Session X – Cycle Variation in the Quiet Corona & Coronal Holes Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 421-422 ...

  14. The abundance and composition of crabs (Decapoda) in Uta Ewa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... abundant accounting for 46.6% of the percentage abundance. Station 2 had the highest Shannon diversity index of 1.22, while Station 1 had 1.15. The abundance and composition of crab species in the study areas is an indication that the area is an important ecological zone for benthos macroinvertebrates conservation.

  15. Reproduction in crabs: strategies, invasiveness and environmental influences thereon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the interconnectedness of crab reproductive biology, the selective forces leading to their development, the possible links to invasiveness and the influences of environmental factors thereon. The empirical data collected and presented in this thesis can be used to

  16. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  17. Distribution patterns of the ghost crab Ocypode cursor on sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of the ghost crab Ocypode cursor was determined for beaches on eastern Boa Vista Island, Cabo Verde Archipelago. The main objectives were to analyse the across-shore distribution by means of burrow counts and to identify preferential zones and spatial segregation. Six beaches were investigated ...

  18. Size at Sexual Maturity in the Red Mangrove Crab Neosarmatium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sesarmid crab Neosarmatium meinertiis one of the most abundant species inhabiting the upper mangrove areas of many East African mangrove forests. However, several aspects concerning its reproduction are scarcely known. In this study, sexual maturity of N. meinerti is investigated. Samples were obtained during ...

  19. Sesarma (Sesarma) cerberus, a new cavernicolous crab from Amboina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1964-01-01

    Though the number of species of macrurous Decapoda known from subterranean waters is rather extensive, there are surprisingly few species of crabs that have been found in that habitat. Wolf (1934: 105, 106) listed only four species of Brachyura, three of which are epigeal forms, which had only

  20. A new cavernicolous freshwater crab from New Guinea (Crustacea Decapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Through the kindness of Mr. Philip Chapman of Culford, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, it was made possible for me to examine a male and a female of a species of cavernicolous crab from the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea, collected there by Mr. N. Plumley. The species proved to be new to science

  1. Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/ PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately 3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab Nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL and MAXI, and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.

  2. Hermit Crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridea) from the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, P.A.; Hogarth, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    A report on the hermit crabs collected during the Netherlands Seychelles Expedition, 1992-1993, supplemented by materials collected for Enterprise Oil and examined by one of the authors. Twentyseven species, representing three families, are recognized, including one new genus and four new species.

  3. Substrate use and selection in sympatric intertidal hermit crab species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TURRA

    Full Text Available Coexisting hermit crabs may competitively interact for shells and microhabitats, mainly when shell availability is habitat-related. Three species of Clibanarius (C. antillensis, C. sclopetarius, and C. vittatus coexist in the intertidal region of Pernambuco Islet, Araçá Region, São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil. This study evaluated crab preferences for four substrate types used by these species in nature (rocky shore, pebbles, sand, and mud in allopatric (single species and sympatric (three species treatments in simulations of high tide and low tide. The substrate preference of the three hermit crabs did not vary between low and high tide situations. At low tide the crabs either moved into holes in the highly complex rocky substrate or buried themselves in mud. Substrate selection may explain the patterns of substrate use in nature only for C. vittatus. Clibanarius antillensis and C. sclopetarius showed closer similarities in the pattern of substrate selection in the sympatric treatment with the substrate use in nature than in allopatric treatment, indicating a positive influence (dependence of the presence of one species on the presence of another. Use of sub-optimal substrates, mainly by C. antillensis, may be caused by other factors such as its low desiccation tolerances. If competition for space takes place among these species, it would be more intense between C. sclopetarius and C. vittatus given their higher overlap in substrate preference than between them and C. antillensis.

  4. Substrate use and selection in sympatric intertidal hermit crab species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURRA A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexisting hermit crabs may competitively interact for shells and microhabitats, mainly when shell availability is habitat-related. Three species of Clibanarius (C. antillensis, C. sclopetarius, and C. vittatus coexist in the intertidal region of Pernambuco Islet, Araçá Region, São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil. This study evaluated crab preferences for four substrate types used by these species in nature (rocky shore, pebbles, sand, and mud in allopatric (single species and sympatric (three species treatments in simulations of high tide and low tide. The substrate preference of the three hermit crabs did not vary between low and high tide situations. At low tide the crabs either moved into holes in the highly complex rocky substrate or buried themselves in mud. Substrate selection may explain the patterns of substrate use in nature only for C. vittatus. Clibanarius antillensis and C. sclopetarius showed closer similarities in the pattern of substrate selection in the sympatric treatment with the substrate use in nature than in allopatric treatment, indicating a positive influence (dependence of the presence of one species on the presence of another. Use of sub-optimal substrates, mainly by C. antillensis, may be caused by other factors such as its low desiccation tolerances. If competition for space takes place among these species, it would be more intense between C. sclopetarius and C. vittatus given their higher overlap in substrate preference than between them and C. antillensis.

  5. Aggression and food resource competition between sympatric hermit crab species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Tran

    Full Text Available The vertical zonation patterns of intertidal organisms have been topics of interest to marine ecologists for many years, with interspecific food competition being implicated as a contributing factor to intertidal community organization. In this study, we used behavioral bioassays to examine the potential roles that interspecific aggression and food competition have on the structuring of intertidal hermit crab assemblages. We studied two ecologically similar, sympatric hermit crab species, Clibanarius digueti [1] and Paguristes perrieri [2], which occupy adjacent zones within the intertidal region of the Gulf of California. During the search phase of foraging, C. digueti showed higher frequencies of aggressive behaviors than P. perrieri. In competition assays, C. digueti gained increased access to food resources compared to P. perrieri. The results suggest that food competition may play an important role in structuring intertidal hermit crab assemblages, and that the zonation patterns of Gulf of California hermit crab species may be the result of geographical displacement by the dominant food competitor (C. digueti.

  6. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  7. 50 CFR 680.6 - Crab economic data report (EDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic fluids; capitalized expenditures for vessel, gear and equipment (city and state where purchased..., that made at least one landing from fisheries listed in Table 1 to this part between January 1, 1998...), insurance deductible fees, quantity and cost of pots purchased, line, and other crab fishing gear purchases...

  8. Breeding of the land crab Cardiosoma armatum (Herklots 1851) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-12-31

    Dec 31, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Tests of breeding of 70 juveniles (35♂ and 35♀) and 5 berried females of Cardiosoma armatum. (Herklots 1851) were carried out in captivity for 42 days. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the growth performance of the land crab, the ability to domesticate (water ...

  9. Detection of naphthalene by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.H.; Olla, B.L.

    1979-03-01

    Increases in the antennular flicking rate indicated that blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, detected the petroleum hydrocarbon naphthalene. A low incidence of aggressive displays but no food searching or gathering followed naphthalene detection. The results suggest that the chemosensory abilities of decapod crustaceans cover a broader range of substances than previously supposed.

  10. Ghost crab burrow density at Watamu Marine National Park: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghost crab (Ocypode species) burrow densities have previously been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impact. This study aimed to assess the burrow density of Ocypode species (O. ryderi and O. cordimanus) at four sites across Watamu Marine National Park, Kenya. Two sites were in front of hotel complexes ...

  11. Southeast Asian Refugee Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Mary M.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a descriptive research project conducted among Southeast Asian parents in an Oregon school district, and discusses the issue of fieldwork methodology among refugee populations. The district studied had a student population of 18,000 (kindergarten through grade 12), with Southeast Asian refugees accounting for…

  12. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  13. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  14. STRESS STATE OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS NEAR PRESSURIZED HYDRAULIC TUNNEL OF HORSESHOE CROSS-SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautdinov Damir Tahirovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The parametric analysis of the stress state of a transversally isotropic rock mass near a pressurized hydraulic tunnel of a box-shaped form is carried out. Pressurized hydro-technical tunnels of box-shaped cross-section are widely used in the field of hydraulic engineering construction and are one of the complex, labor-intensive and expensive types of structures that make up the main structures of waterworks, melioration systems and water supply systems. As a culvert and water supply facilities they are built underground if the open excavation is impossible or not economical, or when the tunnel runs through a densely populated or densely built-up area, or when landslides, screes, rockfalls are possible. Violation of integrity of the rock mass, in particular, caused by tunneling, modifies the stress-strain state (SSS of the rock mass, which leads to appearance of tensile stresses in some places, and in some cases, to significant compressive stresses. If these stresses exceed the design strengths of rock to tension and compression, respectively, then the collapse of the working roof and buckling of the side walls and the bottom of the tunnel may occur. Subject: analysis of the stress state of transversally isotropic rocks near the pressurized hydraulic tunnel of horseshoe cross-section caused by the internal head of water. Research objectives: determination of real values of circumferential stresses along the development contour. Materials and methods: solution of the problem of plane deformation of the theory of elasticity for a transversely isotropic medium containing tunnel excavation cannot be obtained by analytical methods, and therefore the stress-strain analysis was carried out by the finite element method using the ANSYS software package, MCE. Results: determination of stresses along the development contour, construction of diagrams and graphs showing the effects of the anisotropy conditions and Poisson’s ratio. The tangential stresses

  15. Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Dredging For The Columbia River Channel Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2002-12-01

    The studies reported here focus on issues regarding the entrainment of Dungeness crab related to the proposed Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and provided direct measurements of crab entrainment rates at three locations (Desdomona Shoals, Upper Sands, and Miller Sands) from RM4 to RM24 during summer 2002. Entrainment rates for all age classes of crabs ranged from zero at Miller Sands to 0.224 crabs per cy at Desdemona Shoals in June 2002. The overall entrainment rate at Desdomona Shoals in September was 0.120 crabs per cy. A modified Dredge Impact Model (DIM) used the summer 2002 entrainment rates to project crab entrainment and adult equivalent loss and loss to the fishery for the Channel Improvement Project. To improve the projections, entrainment data from Flavel Bar is needed. The literature, analyses of salinity intrusion scenarios, and the summer 2002 site-specific data on entrainment and salinity all indicate that bottom salinity influences crab distribution and entrainment, especially at lower salinities. It is now clear from field measurements of entrainment rates and salinity during a period of low river flow (90-150 Kcfs) and high salinity intrusion that entrainment rates are zero where bottom salinity is less than 16 o/oo most of the time. Further, entrainment rates of 2+ and older crab fall with decreasing salinity in a clear and consistent manner. More elaboration of the crab distribution- salinity model, especially concerning salinity and the movements of 1+ crab, is needed.

  16. Distribution and shell selection by two hermit crabs in different habitats on Egyptian Red Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kareem Ismail, Tarek Gad

    2010-05-01

    The present work aims to assess the spatial distribution, analyze shell utilization, shell fitness and determine the effect of coexistence of two hermit crabs Calcinus latens and Clibanarius signatus on used shell resources in various habitats on the Red Sea Coast. Also, to determine the choice of shells and investigate the shell species preference of C. latens and C. signatus in the laboratory. The hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus were found to occupy shells of 39 gastropod species. The most commonly occupied gastropod shells are those belonging to genera Strombus, Nerita, Cerithium and Planaxis. The results showed that crab individuals utilized mainly the shell with elongate aperture. Laboratory experiments showed that two crab species preferred shells of Strombus followed by Cerithium and Nerita when offered shells of nearly similar size (optimal). Crab individuals showed a significant preference for optimal sized shells when given suboptimal shells as an alternative choice. Also, the hermit crabs avoid damaged shells when given a choice of optimal sized damaged shell and optimal sized intact one. In addition, two hermit crab species chose shells of smaller than optimal size when given a choice of damaged optimal sized shells and smaller intact ones. On the other hand, field observations showed that most crab individuals lived in adequate sized shells. The present data conclude that shell selection by hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus depends mostly on shell internal volume, shell quality and shell aperture size than other factors, because they provide a maximum protection for hermit crabs.

  17. Incidence of bacteremia in stressed and unstressed populations of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, P C; Sizemore, R K

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of bacteremia in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is reported to be in excess of 80%. Because these results have been controversial, a field study was initiated to determine the effect of commercial capture and handling stresses on the incidence and levels of infection in blue crabs. The majority (75%) of "unstressed" crabs which were captured individually and bled immediately upon removal from the water were bacteremic, with a geometric mean level of infection of 14 CFU/ml of hemolymph. Crabs collected by crab pot, confined within these pots for as long as 24 h, and sampled immediately after removal from the water had a similar mean level of infection. Crabs subjected to the stresses of commercial capture, handling, and transport showed a higher incidence of infection (91%) and a mean infection level of 46 CFU/ml. Injuries sustained by crabs during commercial handling are thought to be associated with the higher incidence of infection. Vibrio spp. were primarily responsible for progressive infections in commercially stressed crabs and were the predominant bacterial type in heavily infected crabs. Our results indicated that uninjured healthy crabs do not have sterile hemolymph but instead harbor low-level bacterial infections. PMID:4051486

  18. Signals from 'crabworld': cuticular reflections in a fiddler crab colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, J; Hofmann, M

    2001-07-01

    Fiddler crabs inhabit intertidal sand- and mudflats, where they live in dense colonies and are active on the surface during low tide. They exhibit a rich behavioural repertoire, with frequent interactions between animals in the context of territorial and mating activities. Male fiddler crabs have one massively enlarged and conspicuously coloured claw, which they use in waving displays and in fights with other males. The crabs carry their eyes on long, vertically oriented stalks high above the body and, as a consequence, see the bodies of conspecifics in the ventral visual field, below the local visual horizon, and against the mudflat surface as background. We filmed events in a colony of Uca vomeris with a normal video camera and an ultraviolet-sensitive camera placed at the eye height of an average crab, approximately 2-3 cm above ground. We also used a spectrographic imager and linear polarized filters to analyse the cues potentially available to the animals for detecting, monitoring and possibly identifying each other. Areas of high contrast in mudflat scenes include specular reflections on the wet cuticle of crabs that are horizontally polarised. Besides specular reflections, some parts of the cuticle generate high-contrast signals against the mudflat background, both at wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm, and in the ultraviolet region between 300 and 400 nm. Uca vomeris can be very colourful: the different parts of the large claw of the male are white, orange or red. The carapace colours of both males and females can range from a mottled yellowish green brown, to a brilliant light blue. White and blue colours contrast starkly with the mudflat background, especially in the ultraviolet wavelengths. Under stress, the blue and white colours can change within minutes to a duller and darker blue or to a dull white.

  19. CRABS IN CRISIS:BIOGEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS, ABUNDANCES, AND VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE OF BRACHYURAN AND LITHODID CRABS FROM THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA TO THE BEAUFORT SEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    To predict the relative vulnerability of near-coastal species to climate change we analyzed the biogeographic and abundance patterns of the brachyuran or ‘True’ crabs (n=368) and lithodid or ‘King’ crabs (n=20) that are found in the twelve MEOW (“Mar...

  20. Effect of daily chlorhexidine bathing on acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in the medical intensive care unit with CRAB endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Kyung; Kim, Jae-Seok; Lee, Seung Soon; Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Han-Sung; Shin, Kyong-Sok; Park, Eun Young; Kang, Bog Soun; Lee, Hee Jung; Kang, Hyun Joo

    2015-11-01

    There is insufficient evidence for daily chlorhexidine bathing to reduce nosocomial spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in endemic situations. An interrupted time series study was performed to evaluate the effect of daily chlorhexidine bathing on the acquisition of CRAB in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) with CRAB endemicity. There was a 14-month control period and 12-month chlorhexidine bathing period. Segmented Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of chlorhexidine bathing on the level and trend of the series of prevalence rates and incidence density. Also, chlorhexidine susceptibility testing was performed on CRAB isolates collected during the chlorhexidine bathing period. There was a 51.8% reduction of CRAB acquisition rates after an introduction of daily chlorhexidine bathing (44.0 vs 21.2 cases/1,000 at-risk patient days, P chlorhexidine against a total of 98 CRAB isolates ranged from 8-64 μg/mL. Daily chlorhexidine bathing significantly reduces the acquisition of CRAB in a medical ICU with CRAB endemicity. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  2. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  3. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  4. Toxicity of the dispersant Corexit 9500 to early life stages of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Lively, Julie A; McKenzie, Jon

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon well released 4.4 million barrels of light crude oil offshore of Louisiana into one of the world's largest and most productive blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) fisheries. The objectives of this paper were to determine the toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A used in the 2010 oil spill on juvenile and larval blue crabs, and the long-term effects of sublethal acute exposure. Only the highest treatment levels of dispersant significantly increased mortality in larval and juvenile blue crabs (100 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L, respectively). This correlated to concentrations well above levels found in the Gulf of Mexico following the spill. Smaller and younger crabs showed higher mortality than older and larger crabs. This research indicates direct application of dispersants on crab larvae could cause acute mortality, but dilution through diffusion and natural weathering processes would minimize long-term effects.

  5. Disease, parasite, and commensal prevalences for blue crab Callinectes sapidus at shedding facilities in Louisiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Schott, Eric J; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-01-15

    Blue crab diseases, parasites, and commensals are not well studied in the Gulf of Mexico, and their prevalence rates have only been sporadically determined. Commercial soft shell shedding facilities in Louisiana experience high mortality rates of pre-molt crabs, and some of these deaths may be attributable to diseases or parasites. During the active shedding season in 2013, we determined the prevalence of shell disease, Vibrio spp., Lagenophrys callinectes, and Hematodinium perezi at 4 commercial shedding facilities along the Louisiana coast. We also detected Ameson michaelis and reo-like virus infections. Shell disease was moderately prevalent at rates above 50% and varied by shedding facility, collection month, and crab size. Vibrio spp. bacteria were prevalent in the hemolymph of 37% of the pre-molt crabs. Lagenophrys callinectes was highly prevalent in the pre-molt crabs, but because it is a commensal species, it may not cause high mortality rates. Hematodinium perezi was absent in all pre-molt crabs.

  6. Gut-Associated Microbial Symbionts of the Marsh Fiddler Crab, Uca Pugnax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    et al. 2002), as well as alter the chemical composition of egested matter (Lau et al. 2002). To understand the roles of gut microbiota in host...symbionts of the marsh fiddler crab, Uca pugnax .......................... 19 CHAPTER 3: Bacterial gut microbiota of the marsh fiddler crab Uca pugnax...invertebrates (Harris 1993). Fiddler crab significance Much of the research on the gut microbiota of marine invertebrates has focused on crustaceans (Deming

  7. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Dungeness Crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    movement of postlarval Dungeness fish and prefer shrimp ( Crangon spp.; crabs into the estuaries takes place Stevens et al. 1982). Fish also are in May...their first year, to eating attained is about 218 mm CW in males shrimp ( Crangon spp.) their second and 160 - CW in females at the 16th year, and finally...Dungeness crab and Dungeness crab, Cancer magister Crangon shrimp, and dredging-related Dana. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole) mortality of invertebrates and

  8. Gamma rays and neutrinos from the Crab Nebula produced by pulsar accelerated nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, W.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of the acceleration of heavy nuclei (e.g. iron nuclei) by the Crab pulsar. Accelerated nuclei can photodisintegrate in collisions with soft photons produced in the pulsar's outer gap, injecting energetic neutrons which decay either inside or outside the Crab Nebula. The protons from neutron decay inside the nebula are trapped by the Crab Nebula magnetic field, and accumulate inside the nebula producing gamma-rays and neutrinos in collisions with the matter in t...

  9. Comparison of Three Different Traps for Catching Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun 1896) in Beymelek Lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    ATAR, Hasan Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the capture efficiencies and catch rates of three different traps were compared for the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in Beymelek Lagoon, Antalya, Turkey. All gear was used simultaneously and in the same habitats. The mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) was determined to be significantly higher for hoop nets than for traps. Gear effectiveness was examined by comparing CPUE (CPUE as number of crab per trap per haul, and g per trap haul), mean weight of individual crabs, catch comp...

  10. Metals in crab, oyster and sediment in two South Carolina estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    The blue crab Callinectes sapidus and the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica have the ability to concentrate metals from the marine environment. From August 1979 to May 1981, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations were determined quarterly for crab, oyster, and bottom sediment from two estuarine areas in the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina. The results of the analyses indicate that crab muscle and oyster meats obtained from locations nearest domestic and industrial activities have the highest Cu and Zn concentrations.

  11. Evaluation of parenteral drugs for anesthesia in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Rolando J; Smith, Christopher D; Heard, Darryl J

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of several parenteral anesthetics in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). Thirty-one animals were administered one or more of the following drugs by injection into the hemolymph (i.v.) through an arthrodial membrane: etomidate, ketamine, lidocaine, pentobarbital, propofol, tiletamine-zolazepam, xylazine, and ketamine-xylazine. A subset of crabs received intracardiac ketamine. Etomidate had no effect. Lidocaine effects were ultrashort (sapidus as well as in other crab species.

  12. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K H; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S M; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C; Lam, Carol S F; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-01

    Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS-CoV ORF8

  13. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS

  14. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  15. Prolonged survival of the Graafian follicle and fertilization in the Japanese greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Y K; Mori, T; Uchida, T A

    1985-01-01

    After the mating season of the Japanese greater horseshoe bat in mid- or late October, only the right ovary maintained a single Graafian follicle throughout hibernation until early April. During this time the ovum was in prophase of meiosis I (resting stage) with many large lipid droplets as a nutrient source. In synchrony with stigma formation, there was resumption of meiotic activity, separation of the cumulus oophorus from the granulosa layer and dispersion of the follicle cells just before ovulation in spring. The block to polyspermy seemed to reside in the zona pellucida, because no spermatozoa could be detected in the perivitelline space of the 6 fertilized ova examined, although a second spermatozoon was recognized in the zona pellucida of 3 ova.

  16. Reynolds number effects on the dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex: High resolution experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsilidis, Nikolaos; Raben, Sam; Diplas, Panayiotis; Dancey, Clinton; Vlachos, Pavlos; Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2009-11-01

    Turbulent flows past wall-mounted obstacles are dominated by dynamically rich, slowly evolving coherent structures producing most of the turbulence in the junction region. Numerical simulations [Paik et al., Phys. of Fluids 2007] elucidated the large-scale instabilities but important questions still remain unexplored. One such question is with regard to the effect of the Reynolds number on the dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex (THV). We carry out high-resolution laboratory experiments for the flow past a wall mounted cylinder in a laboratory water tunnel for ReD= 26000, 48000 and 117000. We employ the Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry technique to resolve the dynamics of the flow at the symmetry plane of the cylinder and analyze the instantaneous velocity fields using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition technique. The experimental study is integrated with coherent-structure-resolving numerical simulations providing the first comprehensive investigation of Reynolds number effects on the dynamics of the THV.

  17. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the HorseshoeLake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Benson, S.M.

    2006-11-20

    We investigate spatio-temporal relationships between soilCO2 flux (FCO2), meteorological variables, and topography over a ten-dayperiod (09/12/2006 to 09/21/2006) at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill,Mammoth Mountain, CA. Total CO2 discharge varied from 16 to 52 t d-1,suggesting a decline in CO2 emissions over decadal timescales. Weobserved systematic changes in FCO2 in space and time in association witha weather front with relatively high wind speeds from the west and lowatmospheric pressures. The largest FCO2 changes were observed inrelatively high elevation areas. The variations in FCO2 may be due todynamic coupling of wind-driven airflow through the subsurface and flowof source CO2 at depth. Our results highlight the influence of weatherfronts on volcanic gas flow in the near-surface environment and how thisinfluence can vary spatially within a study area.

  18. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, S. James; Mondragon, Jennifer; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  19. Studies on the ecology and behaviour of the ghost crab, Ocypode cursor (L. in northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Strachan

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the ecology and behaviour of Ocypode cursor were studied on the beaches of Northern Cyprus. The crabs were widely distributed around the north coast of the island, occurring on 68 of the 77 sandy beaches investigated. At the main study beach at Alagadi, crabs occupied a band approximately 12 m wide; starting approximately 3 m horizontally from the edge of the sea (tidal fluctuation was minimal. Most small burrows occurred near to the sea, with the burrows of larger crabs predominating higher up the beach. Burrow numbers varied during the summer which was mainly attributable to variations in the numbers of burrows of juveniles. The sex ratio of emergent crabs also varied during the summer, possibly reflecting burrow oriented behaviour of reproductive females. There were strong correlations between burrow diameters and carapace lengths of the occupant crabs. There was a positive correlation between the presence of crab burrows and the number of people using sections of beach. The crabs were principally nocturnal, benefitting from food discarded by tourists. They also scavenged animal carcasses and were active predators of turtle eggs and hatchlings. Crab burrows usually had a single opening oriented towards the sea and those cast were L- or J-shaped. Burrows did not penetrate to the water table. The water content of the sand at the bottom of burrows was around 14 % by weight. Their burrows in the well-sorted sand provided the crabs with a thermally stable environment.

  20. Edible crabs "go west": migrations and incubation cycle of Cancer pagurus revealed by electronic tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Hunter

    Full Text Available Crustaceans are key components of marine ecosystems which, like other exploited marine taxa, show seasonable patterns of distribution and activity, with consequences for their availability to capture by targeted fisheries. Despite concerns over the sustainability of crab fisheries worldwide, difficulties in observing crabs' behaviour over their annual cycles, and the timings and durations of reproduction, remain poorly understood. From the release of 128 mature female edible crabs tagged with electronic data storage tags (DSTs, we demonstrate predominantly westward migration in the English Channel. Eastern Channel crabs migrated further than western Channel crabs, while crabs released outside the Channel showed little or no migration. Individual migrations were punctuated by a 7-month hiatus, when crabs remained stationary, coincident with the main period of crab spawning and egg incubation. Incubation commenced earlier in the west, from late October onwards, and brooding locations, determined using tidal geolocation, occurred throughout the species range. With an overall return rate of 34%, our results demonstrate that previous reluctance to tag crabs with relatively high-cost DSTs for fear of loss following moulting is unfounded, and that DSTs can generate precise information with regards life-history metrics that would be unachievable using other conventional means.

  1. Infestation of parasitic rhizocephalan barnacles Sacculina beauforti (Cirripedia, Rhizocephala in edible mud crab, Scylla olivacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khor Waiho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening of mud crab genus Scylla was conducted in four locations (Marudu Bay, Lundu, Taiping, Setiu representing Malaysia. Scylla olivacea with abnormal primary and secondary sexual characters were prevalent (approximately 42.27% of the local screened S. olivacea population in Marudu Bay, Sabah. A total of six different types of abnormalities were described. Crabs with type 1 and type 3 were immature males, type 2 and type 4 were mature males, type 5 were immature females and type 6 were mature females. The abdomen of all crabs with abnormalities were dented on both sides along the abdomen’s middle line. Abnormal crabs showed significant variation in their size, weight, abdomen width and/or gonopod or pleopod length compared to normal individuals. The mean body weight of abnormal crabs (type 1–5 were higher than normal crabs with smaller body size, while females with type 6 abnormality were always heavier than the normal counterparts at any given size. Sacculinid’s externa were observed in the abdomen of crabs with type 4 and type 6 abnormalities. The presence of embryos within the externa and subsequent molecular analysis of partial mitochondrial COI region confirmed the rhizocephalan parasite as Sacculina beauforti. Future in-depth descriptions of the life cycle and characteristics of S. beauforti are recommended as it involves a commercially important edible crab species and the effect on human health from the consumption of crabs is of crucial concern.

  2. Crabs mediate interactions between native and invasive salt marsh plants: a mesocosm study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil disturbance has been widely recognized as an important factor influencing the structure and dynamics of plant communities. Although soil reworkers were shown to increase habitat complexity and raise the risk of plant invasion, their role in regulating the interactions between native and invasive species remains unclear. We proposed that crab activities, via improving soil nitrogen availability, may indirectly affect the interactions between invasive Spartina alterniflora and native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter in salt marsh ecosystems. We conducted a two-year mesocosm experiment consisting of five species combinations, i.e., monocultures of three species and pair-wise mixtures of invasive and native species, with crabs being either present or absent for each combination. We found that crabs could mitigate soil nitrogen depletion in the mesocosm over the two years. Plant performance of all species, at both the ramet-level (height and biomass per ramet and plot-level (density, total above- and belowground biomass, were promoted by crab activities. These plants responded to crab disturbance primarily by clonal propagation, as plot-level performance was more sensitive to crabs than ramet-level. Moreover, crab activities altered the competition between Spartina and native plants in favor of the former, since Spartina was more promoted than native plants by crab activities. Our results suggested that crab activities may increase the competition ability of Spartina over native Phragmites and Scirpus through alleviating soil nitrogen limitation.

  3. The effect of salinity on experimental infections of a Hematodinium sp. in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Anna H; Li, Caiwen; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2012-06-01

    The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. parasitizes blue crabs along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. Infections in blue crabs have only been reported from waters where salinity is >11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs maintain a hyperosmotic internal concentration at low salinities (0-5 psu), roughly comparable to 24 psu, and should be capable of maintaining an infection in low-salinity waters even if Hematodinium spp. cells are intolerant of low salinities. We tested this notion by observing the effect of low salinity on the progression of disease in crabs experimentally infected with the parasite. Blue crabs were acclimated to 5 psu or 30 psu salinity treatments. They were inoculated with Hematodinium sp. and necropsied 3, 7, 10, and 15 days post-inoculation. The low-salinity treatment did not have an effect on the proliferation of Hematodinium sp. infections in blue crabs; moreover, a greater proportion of infections in crabs in the low-salinity treatment developed dinospore stages than did those in the high-salinity treatment, indicating that salinity may affect the development of the parasite. However, dinospores from in vitro cultures rapidly became inactive when held in salinities <15 psu. Our experiments indicate that Hematodinium spp. can develop in blue crabs at low salinities, but that the parasite is incapable of transmission in this environment, which explains the lack of natural infections in crabs at low salinities.

  4. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lupus among Asians and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...

  6. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asianamericanhealth.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  7. Feeding Behavior of a Crab According to Cheliped Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Diogo Nunes; Christofoletti, Ronaldo Adriano; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2015-01-01

    Cheliped loss through autotomy is a common reflexive response in decapod crustaceans. Cheliped loss has direct and indirect effects on feeding behavior which can affect population dynamics and the role of species in the community. In this study, we assessed the impact of autotomy (0, 1, or 2 cheliped loss) on feeding behavior in the crab Pachygrapsus transversus, an omnivorous and abundant species that inhabits subtropical intertidal rocky shores along the South Atlantic Ocean. Autotomy altered crab feeding patterns and foraging behavior; however, the time spent foraging on animal prey or algae was not affected. These results indicate a plasticity of feeding behavior in P. transversus, allowing them to maintain feeding when injured. PMID:26682546

  8. Shell selection of hermit crabs is influenced by fluid drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Barbara; Ledesma, Rene; Alcaraz, Guillermina; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    The flow around gastropod shells used by hermit crabs (Calcinus californiensis) was visualized experimentally. These crabs choose their shells according to many factors; we found that the choice of shell (shape and weight) is directly related to the drag caused over them by the exposure to wave action. Tests were conducted in a wind tunnel to investigate flow differences for shells of various shapes. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to visualize the flow field. The images above show the flow field around two types of shells (Thais speciosa and Nerita scabircosta) for Reynolds numbers of O(10^5). Using a control volume analysis, the drag coefficient was inferred. Several shell geometries, orientations and mean flow velocities were tested. In this talk, the flow and drag force will be shown for the different arrangements. A discussion of the relation between drag and shape will be presented.

  9. Chemical composition and nutritive significance of the land crab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, nutritionally valuable minerals and anti-nutrient compositions were determined in land crab, Cardisoma armatum. Results showed that ash was the highest with a value of 42.23±0.02% while protein, moisture, fat, fibre and carbohydrate levels were 33.30±1.20%, 9.60±0.06%, 5.35±0.01%, 8.31±0.01% and ...

  10. Modelling the ArH+ emission from the Crab nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, F. D.; Barlow, M. J.; Viti, S.

    2017-12-01

    We have performed combined photoionization and photodissociation region (PDR) modelling of a Crab nebula filament subjected to the synchrotron radiation from the central pulsar wind nebula, and to a high flux of charged particles; a greatly enhanced cosmic-ray ionization rate over the standard interstellar value, ζ0, is required to account for the lack of detected [C I] emission in published Herschel SPIRE FTS observations of the Crab nebula. The observed line surface brightness ratios of the OH+ and ArH+ transitions seen in the SPIRE FTS frequency range can only be explained with both a high cosmic-ray ionization rate and a reduced ArH+ dissociative recombination rate compared to that used by previous authors, although consistent with experimental upper limits. We find that the ArH+/OH+ line strengths and the observed H2 vibration-rotation emission can be reproduced by model filaments with nH = 2 × 104 cm-3, ζ = 107ζ0 and visual extinctions within the range found for dusty globules in the Crab nebula, although far-infrared emission from [O I] and [C II] is higher than the observational constraints. Models with nH = 1900 cm-3 underpredict the H2 surface brightness, but agree with the ArH+ and OH+ surface brightnesses and predict [O I] and [C II] line ratios consistent with observations. These models predict HeH+ rotational emission above detection thresholds, but consideration of the formation time-scale suggests that the abundance of this molecule in the Crab nebula should be lower than the equilibrium values obtained in our analysis.

  11. First Test Results of the 4-ROD Crab Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ambattu, P; Burt, G; Calaga, R; Capatina, O; Calatroni, S; Ciapala, E; Doherty, D; Ferreira, L; Jensen, E; Hall, B; Lingwood, C; Maesen, P; Mongelluzzo, A; Renaglia, T; Therasse, M

    2013-01-01

    The first compact prototype crab cavity with the 4rod geometry has undergone surface treatment and cold testing. Due to the complex geometry and unique fabrication procedure, RF validation of the field at beyond the nominal operating voltage at a sufficiently high Q0 is an important pre-requisite. Preliminary results of the first cold tests are presented along with cavity performance at different stages of the cavity processing is described.

  12. Energy scaling, crab crossing and the pair problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1988-12-01

    Making reasonable assumptions, the luminosities of linear colliders are calculated for center-of-mass energies of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV. A calculation is also mode for a 1/2 TeV collider that could be upgraded to 1 TeV later. The improvements possible using ''crab-like'' crossing are also given. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Crab Hole Mosquito Blues—The Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast reports on a humorous song that takes a look at a very serious human and equine disease. Written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band, Bill Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at CDC, talks about the song, "Crab Hole Mosquito Blues", and the history behind it.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  14. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  15. Observation and Spectral Measurements of the Crab Nebula with Milagro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Allen, B. T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Chen, C.; Christopher, G. E.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Falcone, A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between 1 and 100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton up-scattering scattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a Te V steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fit.

  16. Use of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) embryos for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.; O`Malley, K. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    After fertilization, blue crab embryos develop in egg sacs attached to the female pleopods, often referred to as the sponge. Lipovitellin and lipid droplets in the egg sacs provide energy and nutrition for the developing embryos. Embryos were removed from the sponge and transferred to 24 well culture plates containing sea water with or without toxicants, Each well contained 10 embryos. After 7 to 10 days, embryos hatched to swimming zoea. The effects of toxicants at various concentrations on hatching were determined and the EC{sub 50} calculated. For example, the EC{sub 50} for tributyltin, fenvalerate and mercuric chloride were 50, 30 and 90 ng/liter, respectively. The hatching success of control embryos ranged from 95 to 98%. Formation of the heart, eyespot formation, appendage formation and utilization rate of lipovitellin were also effected by exposure to toxicants. At a low concentration of mercuric ion (30ng/liter) the heart formed, but there was no heart beat. Eyespot formation was abnormal in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium (2 {micro}g/liter) and zinc (5 {micro}g/liter), Crab embryos offer many advantages for toxicity testing of pure compounds or mixtures in water, including toxicity testing of sediment pore water. The crab embryos may also serve as models to understand the effect of specific toxicants on the heart and eye spots of crustaceans.

  17. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Detailed Crab Data From NOAA Fisheries Service 2012 Chukchi Sea Bottom Trawl Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detailed crab data collected from the 2012 NOAA/NMFS/AFSC/RACE crab-groundfish bottom trawl survey of the Chukchi Sea. 71 survey stations were...

  18. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  19. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    New observations of the spectrum of the rapidly spinning neutron star (the `pulsar') in the Crab Nebula have been carried out with the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) by a group of Italian astronomers [1]. Because of greatly improved spectral resolution which allows to register even very fine details in the pulsar's spectrum, they are able to determine for the first time with high accuracy the overall dependance of the emission on wavelength, i.e. the `shape' of the spectrum. Quite unexpectedly, they also detect a hitherto unknown 100 A (10 nm) broad `absorption dip', which can be securely attributed to the pulsar. These results open an exciting new window for the study of the extreme physical processes close to a pulsar. The Nature of Pulsars It is estimated that there may be as many as 100 million neutron stars in our Galaxy. A neutron star is the superdense remnant of the extremely violent supernova explosion that occurs at the end of the life of a comparatively massive star. In fact, all stars that are more than about 6 times heavier than the Sun are believed to end their lives as supernovae. During the explosion, the central core of the dying star collapses in a few milliseconds and the matter at the centre is compressed to a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. Due to the enormous inward pressure, the atomic particles are squeezed together into a kind of neutron jam. The outcome is the formation of a neutron star with a diameter of 10-15 kilometres, weighing as much as the Sun. In accordance with the physical law that implies that the rotation momentum of the exploding star must be conserved, newborn neutron stars will rotate very rapidly around their axis, in some cases as fast as 100 times per second. In the same way, the new neutron star is expected to possess a strong magnetic field. Of these myriads of neutron stars, about 700 have been observed to emit radio pulses (hence the name `pulsar'). A few of these can also be detected

  20. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN THE HERMIT CRAB DARDANUS PEDUNCULATUS AND ITS COMMENSAL SEA ANEMONE CALLIACTIS TRICOLOR ON MOOREA, FRENCH POLYNESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Lesje

    2012-01-01

    Crabs of the species Dardanus pedunculatus form a symbiotic relationship with Calliactis tricolor anemones on Moorea, French Polynesia. Crabs actively collect anemones for protection against octopus predation, while simultaneously giving the anemones a better habitat, defense against predators, and food as a result of the crab’s messy eating. In a laboratory setting, crabs will compete for anemones with larger crabs winning competitions. This paper examined crabs’ field collection patterns, a...

  1. (1)H NMR metabolomic profiling of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) from the Adriatic Sea (SE Italy): A comparison with warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa), and edible crab (Cancer pagurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Del Coco, Laura; Migoni, Danilo; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The metabolomic profile of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) captured in the Acquatina lagoon (SE Italy) was compared to an autochthonous (Eriphia verrucosa) and to a commercial crab species (Cancer pagurus). Both lipid and aqueous extracts of raw claw muscle were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and MVA (multivariate data analysis). Aqueous extracts were characterized by a higher inter-specific discriminating power compared to lipid fractions. Specifically, higher levels of glutamate, alanine and glycine characterized the aqueous extract of C. sapidus, while homarine, lactate, betaine and taurine characterized E. verrucosa and C. pagurus. On the other hand, only the signals of monounsaturated fatty acids distinguished the lipid profiles of the three crab species. These results support the commercial exploitation and the integration of the blue crab in human diet of European countries as an healthy and valuable seafood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 31421 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... issued that would allow up to 3 commercial fishing vessels to conduct fishing operations that are... horseshoe crab catch, would tag caught horseshoe crabs, and would use the blood from the caught horseshoe..., methods, and seasons proposed/utilized during the EFPs in 2001-2009. Limuli proposes to continue to tag at...

  3. Crabbing system for an electron-ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilla, Alejandro [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    As high energy and nuclear physicists continue to push further the boundaries of knowledge using colliders, there is an imperative need, not only to increase the colliding beams' energies, but also to improve the accuracy of the experiments, and to collect a large quantity of events with good statistical sensitivity. To achieve the latter, it is necessary to collect more data by increasing the rate at which these processes are being produced and detected in the machine. This rate of events depends directly on the machine's luminosity. The luminosity itself is proportional to the frequency at which the beams are being delivered, the number of particles in each beam, and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional size of the colliding beams. There are several approaches that can be considered to increase the events statistics in a collider other than increasing the luminosity, such as running the experiments for a longer time. However, this also elevates the operation expenses, while increasing the frequency at which the beams are delivered implies strong physical changes along the accelerator and the detectors. Therefore, it is preferred to increase the beam intensities and reduce the beams cross-sectional areas to achieve these higher luminosities. In the case where the goal is to push the limits, sometimes even beyond the machines design parameters, one must develop a detailed High Luminosity Scheme. Any high luminosity scheme on a modern collider considers|in one of their versions|the use of crab cavities to correct the geometrical reduction of the luminosity due to the beams crossing angle. In this dissertation, we present the design and testing of a proof-of-principle compact superconducting crab cavity, at 750 MHz, for the future electron-ion collider, currently under design at Jefferson Lab. In addition to the design and validation of the cavity prototype, we present the analysis of the first order beam dynamics and the integration of the

  4. Biological traits explain the distribution and colonisation ability of the invasive shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothland, M.; Dauvin, J. C.; Denis, L.; Dufossé, F.; Jobert, S.; Ovaert, J.; Pezy, J. P.; Tous Rius, A.; Spilmont, N.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehending marine invasions requires a better knowledge of the biological traits of invasive species, and the future spread of invasive species may be predicted through comprehensive overviews of their distribution. This study thus presents the current distribution of a non-indigenous species, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi, as well as the species population characteristics (size distribution and cohorts), based on a five-year survey (2008-2012) along the French coast of the English Channel. Two large populations were found near harbours: one on the Opal Coast (where density reached 61 ± 22 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d., in Dunkirk harbour) and one on the Calvados coast (density up to 26 ± 6 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d, in Honfleur harbour). H. takanoi exhibited a short life cycle, a rapid growth, an early sexual maturity and a high adult mortality. These features, combined with previously described high fecundity and high dispersal ability, endow this species with an 'r-selected strategy'. This strategy, which usually characterises species with a high colonisation ability, would explain the success of H. takanoi for colonising the French coast of the Channel. However, the species was found only in harbours and their vicinity; H. takanoi thus exhibited a discontinuous distribution along the 700 km of coastline. These results are discussed regarding sediment preference and potential introduction vectors. Hemigrapsus takanoi is now considered as established on the French coast and further studies are needed to evaluate the consequences of its introduction on the structure and functioning of the impacted shores.

  5. Synopsis of biological data on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun

    OpenAIRE

    Millikin, Mark R.; Williams, Austin B.

    1984-01-01

    This synopsis reviews taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, commercial hard and soft shell crab fisheries, physiology, diseases, ecology, laboratory culture methodology, and influences of environmental pollutants on the blue crab, Callinecles sapidus. Over 300 selected, published reports up to and including 1982 are covered. (PDF file contains 45 pages.)

  6. Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

    2012-01-01

    year, and when combined with crabs that carried sperm from previous mating encounters (females store sperm), the percent of females that would have produced viable eggs was 83%. Crabs that definitely molted during the collection year showed higher mating success (95%). The largest females examined...

  7. Feasibility of extensive, small-scale mud crab farming (Scylla serrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we assess the two dominant culture methods (crab fattening in cages and grow-out farming in ponds) using economic and ecological analyses in Kenya and Tanzania. Cost-revenue analyses of crab-fattening cultures showed negative results at all scales in both countries. High labor costs and poor survival and growth ...

  8. Ex-vivo evaluation of crab shell chitosan as absorption enhancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating crab shell chitosan as absorption enhancer in ciprofloxacin tablet formulation using the ex-vivo model. Six batches of ciprofloxacin tablets containing varying concentrations of crab shell-derived chitosan ranging from 0 to 5% w/w at 1% w/w intervals were produced. Batch CTS-0 ...

  9. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Evolution of crabs – history and deconstruction of a prime example of convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Compared with the elongate bodies of shrimps or lobsters, crabs are characterised by a compact body organisation with a depressed, short carapace and a ventrally folded pleon. The evolutionary transformation from a lobster-like crustacean towards a crab is called ‘carcinization’ and has been

  11. Study with one global crab cavity at IR4 for LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, J; Morita, A; Ralph Assmann, R; Sun, Y; Tomás, R; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we discuss the possible installation and impact on the beam of a single global crab cavity (CC) for both nominal LHC optics and one upgrade LHC optics (Lowbetamax). We also summarize the results on dynamic aperture tracking, luminosity, expected closed orbits, preliminary studies on collimation cleaning efficiency, and the emittance growth due to crab cavity ramping and other sources.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of three protozoan symbionts in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) populations across Louisiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-11

    Louisiana has one of the largest blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) fisheries in the USA, but little is known about blue crab diseases, parasites, and symbionts in this area. In 2013-2014, large juvenile and adult blue crabs were collected at 4 diverse sites to determine the prevalence of the protozoan symbionts associated with black gill disease (Lagenophrys callinectes), buckshot crabs (Urosporidium crescens), and bitter crab disease (Hematodinium perezi). A high aggregate prevalence of L. callinectes (93.2%) was identified across all seasons at all 4 collection sites regardless of salinity. A moderately low aggregate prevalence of U. crescens (22.4%) was identified across all seasons and sites. Prevalence of U. crescens depended on site salinity, with only 10% of infections detected at sites with callinectes and U. crescens are commensal parasites of blue crabs, infections can result in unmarketable and unappealing meat. In the Louisiana fishery, H. perezi has been blamed circumstantially for adult mortalities in the low salinity nearshore fishing grounds. Despite this, H. perezi was not detected in any of the large crabs sampled, even from the low salinity sites. The prevalence data reported here for these 3 protozoans are the first to include blue crabs sampled seasonally at multiple locations along the Louisiana coast over the period of a year.

  13. Status of the mud crab fishery in Kenya: A review | Mirera | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The requirement for wild mud crab seed in aquaculture has also increased over the last decade. The demand for all sizes of mud crab to meet the requirements of the different market chains in Kenya require effective management approaches to guide exploitation of the fishery. The development of Beach Management Units ...

  14. Effect of feeding frequency and various shelter of blue swimming crab larvae, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vutthichai Oniam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to improve blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, rearing techniques by investigating (1 the applied frequency of feeding and (2 the effect of shelter on crab larvae survival. The results showed that the feeding frequency at 2 times (0900 hrs and 1500 hrs, 4 times (0700 hrs, 1300 hrs, 1900 hrs and 2300 hrs and 6 times (0700 hrs, 1100 hrs, 1500 hrs, 1900 hrs, 2300 hrs and 0300 hrs per day did not affect the survival rate of crab larvae from the zoea I (Z1 to first crab (C1 stages. The survival rate of crab larvae from the megalopa (M to C1 stages with shelter was higher than without shelter, and the type of shelter affected the survival rate of the crab larvae. The survival rate of the C1 stage with artificial seaweed made of plastic shield membrane (36.61±3.64% and artificial seaweed made of polyvinyl rope (35.79±6.04% as shelters were not significantly different and higher than for artificial plastic grass as shelter (22.18±4.00%. In addition, the survival rates of the C1 stage with vertical shelter, horizontal shelter and a combination of vertical and horizontal shelter on the bottom of the tank were not significantly different. This study recommends that crab larvae rearing with shelters is important for increasing the survival rate and that the type of shelter affected the survival rate of crab larvae.

  15. Mammographic compression in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. Methods We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35–80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Results Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pimage quality (p>0.05). Conclusions Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD. PMID:28419125

  16. Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

    2006-09-30

    Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the

  17. Positive abundance and negative distribution effects of a gastropod on an intertidal hermit crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T; Lively, Curtis M

    1986-05-01

    Field experiments were used to determine the effect of a common intertidal snail (Nerita funiculata) on the use of space for foraging by the hermit crab Clibanarius digueti. Removals of Nerita resulted in an increased density of foraging Clibanarius, while additions of the gastropod had the opposite effect. The observed negative effect of the gastropod on individual hermit crabs appears to be food-related. Field surveys, however, suggested that the hermit crab population is limited by shell number, rather than food. Because Nerita contributes to the shell resource, its effect on the hermit crab population is positive. Nerita, therefore, has a negative effect on the distribution of foraging hermit crabs, but a positive effect on their abundance. Such decouplings of distribution and abundance effects are rare.

  18. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Habitat, predation, growth, and coexistence: Could interactions between juvenile red and blue king crabs limit blue king crab productivity?

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is from a series of laboratory experiments examining the interactions between red and blue king crabs and habitat. We examined how density and predator...

  19. The Trophic Ecology of Porcelain Crabs Petrolisthes Spp. on Oyster Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.

    2016-02-01

    Porcelain crabs are found in dense populations in tropical and subtropical estuaries worldwide and are important components of oyster reef ecosystems. They are thought to primarily consume phytoplankton, but in recent laboratory studies porcelain crabs also readily consumed zooplankton which provided as much as 200 times more energy than a mixed microalgae diet. There is little known about the feeding behavior of porcelain crabs in their natural environment. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used in this work to identify porcelain crab prey and the crab's trophic level in Copano Bay, Texas. Muscle tissue from porcelain crabs taken from three sites in the bay were analyzed for their carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios during the summer and fall. Porcelain crab muscle tissue summer δ13C mean value was -16.4 ± 0.3‰, while the δ15N mean was 8.0 ± 0.1‰. During the fall, the δ13C mean value was -21.5 ± 0.3‰ and the δ15N nitrogen mean was 10.1 ± 0.8‰. There was no variation in porcelain crab isotopic composition within and among sites in the bay. However, there were seasonal differences within locations in Copano Bay. Summer carbon ratios were similar to those of benthic microalgae (-16‰), while fall values were comparable to phytoplankton (-22‰) measured in other locations, which may suggest a diet of primarily diatoms in the summer and phytoplankton in the fall. Nitrogen isotopic values of porcelain crabs will be compared to possible prey items in Copano Bay. These crabs may serve as a connection between producers and higher trophic levels.

  20. Identification of mud crab reovirus VP12 and its interaction with the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Dong; Su, Hong-Jun; Zou, Wei-Bin; Liu, Shan-Shan; Yan, Wen-Rui; Wang, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Li-Li; Chan, Siuming Francis; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo; Weng, Shao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a severe disease in cultured mud crab (Scylla paramamosain), which has caused huge economic losses in China. MCRV is a double-stranded RNA virus with 12 genomic segments. In this paper, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses revealed that the VP12 protein encoded by S12 gene is a structural protein of MCRV. Immune electron microscopy assay indicated that MCRV VP12 is a component of MCRV outer shell capsid. Yeast two hybrid cDNA library of mud crab was constructed and mud crab voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (mcVDAC) was obtained by MCRV VP12 screening. The full length of mcVDAC was 1180 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 849 bp encoding a 282 amino acid protein. The mcVDAC had a constitutive expression pattern in different tissues of mud crab. The interaction between MCRV VP12 and mcVDAC was determined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The results of this study have provided an insight on the mechanisms of MCRV infection and the interactions between the virus and mud crab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intermedial Representations in Asian Macbeth-s

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, I-Chun; Wang, I-Chun

    2011-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial representations in Asian Macbeth-s" I-Chun Wang discusses three Asian versions of Macbeths that exemplify the cultural meanings through the interaction of landscape, body...

  2. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  3. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10° to 20°N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East

  4. On Calibrations Using the Crab Nebula as a Standard Candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin; Guainazzi, Matteo; Jahoda, Keith; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; ODell, Stephen; Zavlin, Vyacheslav; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Elsner, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by a recent paper (Kirsch et al. 2005) on possible use of the Crab Nebula as a standard candle for calibrating X-ray response func tions, we examine possible consequences of intrinsic departures from a single (absorbed) power law upon such calibrations. We limited our analyses to three more modern X-ray instruments -- the ROSAT/PSPC, th e RXTE/PCA, and the XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn. The results are unexpected an d indicate a need to refine two of the three response functions studi ed. The implications for Chandra will be discussed.

  5. Slim elliptical cavity at 800 MHz for local crab crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Ficcadenti, L

    2011-01-01

    A slim highly eccentric elliptical Crab cavity with vertical deflection at 800 MHz, compatible to beam line distances everywhere in the LHC ring, was designed. It is a good fall-back solution in case of problems with new compact 400 MHz designs. Simulated RF characteristics of the deflecting mode, HOM spectra and damping, tuning and multipacting effects are presented. First the most simple HOM coupling system from a point of view of geometry, machining and cleaning was investigated. The rejection of the working mode of such coupler depend on very tight mechanical tollerances. To overcome this issue a notch filter was added to the design. Results of both cases will be presented.

  6. Slim elliptical cavity at 800 MHz for local crab crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Ficcadenti, L

    2012-01-01

    A slim highly eccentric elliptical Crab cavity with vertical deflection at 800 MHz, compatible to beam line distances everywhere in the LHC ring, was designed. It is a good fall-back solution in case of problems with new compact 400 MHz designs. Simulated RF characteristics of the deflecting mode, HOM spectra and damping, tuning and multipacting effects are presented. First the simplest HOM coupling system was investigated. The rejection of the working mode was not sufficient and a notch filter was added. Results of both cases will be presented.

  7. Teaching Asian American Students: Classroom Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.

    This study examined the unique learning styles of Asian-American students, noting different Asian immigrants' backgrounds and relating Asian cultures to children's learning. Data came from a literature review; interviews with 19 families from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan who had a total of 33 children ages 6-21 years; and home and…

  8. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  9. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  10. South Asians in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  11. Testing the Sensory Drive Hypothesis: Geographic variation in echolocation frequencies of Geoffroy's horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae: Rhinolophus clivosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David S; Catto, Sarah; Mutumi, Gregory L; Finger, Nikita; Webala, Paul W

    2017-01-01

    Geographic variation in sensory traits is usually influenced by adaptive processes because these traits are involved in crucial life-history aspects including orientation, communication, lineage recognition and mate choice. Studying this variation can therefore provide insights into lineage diversification. According to the Sensory Drive Hypothesis, lineage diversification may be driven by adaptation of sensory systems to local environments. It predicts that acoustic signals vary in association with local climatic conditions so that atmospheric attenuation is minimized and transmission of the signals maximized. To test this prediction, we investigated the influence of climatic factors (specifically relative humidity and temperature) on geographic variation in the resting frequencies of the echolocation pulses of Geoffroy's horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus clivosus. If the evolution of phenotypic variation in this lineage tracks climate variation, human induced climate change may lead to decreases in detection volumes and a reduction in foraging efficiency. A complex non-linear interaction between relative humidity and temperature affects atmospheric attenuation of sound and principal components composed of these correlated variables were, therefore, used in a linear mixed effects model to assess their contribution to observed variation in resting frequencies. A principal component composed predominantly of mean annual temperature (factor loading of -0.8455) significantly explained a proportion of the variation in resting frequency across sites (P Hypothesis. The predicted future increase in temperature due to climate change is likely to decrease the detection volume in echolocating bats and adversely impact their foraging efficiency.

  12. Distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the diencephalon of the Japanese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, K; Ebara, S; Matsuura, T; Kawata, M

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons in the diencephalon of the hibernating Japanese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, was immunohistochemically investigated by the avidin-biotin complex method. Magnocellular OXT and VP neurons were localized mainly in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus. In addition to these main nuclei, both kinds of magnocellular neurons were also found in the periventricular nucleus, perifornical area and lateral hypothalamic area. Extensively distributed parvocellular neurons containing only VP were observed in the rostral and middle portions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The size of OXT and VP magnocellular neurons was almost equal in the paraventricular and ventromedial supraoptic nuclei, whereas VP neurons were significantly larger than OXT neurons in the dorsolateral supraoptic nucleus. The OXT and VP cells in the ventral supraoptic nucleus showed a distinctive elliptical shape. Both OXT and VP fibers were distributed in the lateral habenular nucleus, stria medullaris thalami, lateral preoptic area, stria terminalis, and medial and supracapsular part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Moreover, OXT fibers were found in the substantia nigra, and VP fibers were noted in the nucleus reunions and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus.

  13. Full-length genome sequences of two SARS-like coronaviruses in horseshoe bats and genetic variation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wuze; Li, Wendong; Yu, Meng; Hao, Pei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhao, Guoping; Zhong, Yang; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zhengli

    2006-11-01

    Bats were recently identified as natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronavirus (SL-CoV) or SARS coronavirus-like virus. These viruses, together with SARS coronaviruses (SARS-CoV) isolated from human and palm civet, form a distinctive cluster within the group 2 coronaviruses of the genus Coronavirus, tentatively named group 2b (G2b). In this study, complete genome sequences of two additional group 2b coronaviruses (G2b-CoVs) were determined from horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (G2b-CoV Rf1) and Rhinolophus macrotis (G2b-CoV Rm1). The bat G2b-CoV isolates have an identical genome organization and share an overall genome sequence identity of 88-92 % among themselves and between them and the human/civet isolates. The most variable regions are located in the genes encoding nsp3, ORF3a, spike protein and ORF8 when bat and human/civet G2b-CoV isolates are compared. Genetic analysis demonstrated that a diverse G2b-CoV population exists in the bat habitat and has evolved from a common ancestor of SARS-CoV.

  14. Risk factors for proximal sesamoid bone fractures associated with exercise history and horseshoe characteristics in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenill, Lucy A; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian A; Hill, Ashley E

    2007-07-01

    To assess individual and combined associations of high-speed exercise and horseshoe characteristics with risk of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fractures and proximal sesamoid bone midbody fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses. 269 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses. A case-control study design was used to compare 121 horses with a fracture of at least 1 of 4 forelimb proximal sesamoid bones (75 horses had a midbody fracture) and 148 horses without a forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fracture. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate potential risk factors for association with proximal sesamoid bone fracture. Compared with horses that died without proximal sesamoid bone fractures, horses that died with proximal sesamoid bone fractures were more likely to be sexually intact males, spend more time in active trainingand racing, complete more events, train and race longer since their last layup, have higher exercise intensities during the 12 months prior to death, and have greater cumulative distances for their career. Horses with proximal sesamoid bone midbody fractures were more likely to be sexually intact males, train and race longer since their last layup, and have higher exercise intensities during the 12 months prior to death. Limitingexercise intensity and the continuous time spent in activity duringa horse's career may decrease the frequency of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fractures in Thoroughbred horses.

  15. Intraguild predation by shore crabs affects mortality, behavior, growth, and densities of California horn snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda, J.; Hechinger, R.F.; Cooper, S. D.; Kuris, A. M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    The California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica, and the shore crabs, Pachygrapsus crassipesand Hemigrapsus oregonensis, compete for epibenthic microalgae, but the crabs also eat snails. Such intraguild predation is common in nature, despite models predicting instability. Using a series of manipulations and field surveys, we examined intraguild predation from several angles, including the effects of stage-dependent predation along with direct consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on intraguild prey. In the laboratory, we found that crabs fed on macroalgae, snail eggs, and snails, and the size of consumed snails increased with predator crab size. In field experiments, snails grew less in the presence of crabs partially because snails behaved differently and were buried in the sediment (nonconsumptive effects). Consistent with these results, crab and snail abundances were negatively correlated in three field surveys conducted at three different spatial scales in estuaries of California, Baja California, and Baja California Sur: (1) among 61 sites spanning multiple habitat types in three estuaries, (2) among the habitats of 13 estuaries, and (3) among 34 tidal creek sites in one estuary. These results indicate that shore crabs are intraguild predators on California horn snails that affect snail populations via predation and by influencing snail behavior and performance.

  16. Inactivation of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in soy sauce-marinated and frozen freshwater crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Im; Oh, Se-Ra; Dai, Fuhong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Ha, Sang-Do; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) are a source of human paragonimiasis. The viability of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in marinated crabs was investigated in an experimental setting. The PwMc collected from freshwater crayfish were inoculated into freshwater crabs, which were then frozen or marinated in soy sauce. All PwMc in the freshwater crabs were inactivated after freezing for 48 h at -20 °C and after freezing for 12 h at -40 °C. After marinating for 32 days, the survival rate of PwMc in 5% NaCl soy sauce was 50%, in 7.5% NaCl soy sauce it was 33.3%, and in 10.0% NaCl soy sauce it was 31.3%. When marinated for 64 days, all PwMc were inactivated in all experimental groups. These results revealed that freezing and soy sauce marination were detrimental to the survival of PwMc in freshwater crabs. Specifically, freezing crabs for more than 48 h or soaking them in soy sauce containing at least 5.0% NaCl for 64 days can inactivate PwMc. These results can inform the production of the traditional Korean soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs known as gejang.

  17. Summary of CARE-HHH Mini-Workshop on LHC Crab Cavity Validation, 21 August 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Garoby, R; Linnecar, T; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2008-01-01

    A global LHC crab-cavity collaboration is rapidly advancing the R&D of a complete crab cavity cryomodule and performing the associated beam dynamics simulations compatible with a prototype test in the phase 0/I upgrade with the aim of establishing a full crab crossing scheme for the phase II upgrade of the LHC. A one day CARE-HHH mini-workshop was held on August 21, 2008 at CERN to discuss crab crossing in the LHC phase 0/I & II upgrades and this reports summarizes the activities of the four sessions that took place during the workshop. The goals of this crab-cavity workshop were fourfold: (1) to discuss prospects of crab cavities in LHC upgrades (2) to review the status of the cryomodule development and beam dynamics, (3) to establish validity requirements for LHC crab cavities which need to be demonstrated prior to their installation into the LHC, and (4) to provide guidance & coordination for the global collaborators.

  18. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejkal, T W; Gerba, C P

    1981-01-01

    Uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. Virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. The highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. The concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. Changes in salinity did not substantially affect the rate of accumulation. An increase in temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C increased the rates of both uptake and removal. Poliovirus survived up to 6 days in crabs at a temperature of 15 degrees C and a salinity of 10 g/kg. When contaminated crabs were boiled, 99.9% of poliovirus 1, simian rotavirus SA11, and a natural isolate of echovirus 1 were inactivated within 8 min. These data demonstrate that viruses in crabs should not pose a serious health hazard if recommended cooking procedures are used. PMID:6261683

  19. DNA barcoding detected improper labelling and supersession of crab food served by restaurants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Narasimmalu, Rajendran; Annam, Pavan Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra P; Lakra, Wazir S

    2015-01-01

    Detection of improper labelling of raw and processed seafood is of global importance for reducing commercial fraud and enhancing food safety. Crabs are crustaceans with intricate morphological as well as genetic divergence among species and are popular as seafood in restaurants. Owing to the high number of crab species available, it can be difficult to identify those included in particular food dishes, thus increasing the chance of supersession. DNA barcoding is an advanced technology for detecting improper food labelling and has been used successfully to authenticate seafood. This study identified 11 edible crab species from India by classical taxonomy and developed molecular barcodes with the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. These barcodes were used as reference barcodes for detecting any improper labelling of 50 restaurant crab samples. Neighbour-joining tree analysis with COI barcodes showed distinct clusters of restaurant samples with respective reference species. The study demonstrated 100% improper labelling of restaurant samples to cover up acts of inferior crab supersession. DNA barcoding successfully identified 11 edible crabs in accordance with classical taxonomy and discerned improper crab food labelling in restaurants of India. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Lack of transmission of Hematodinium sp. in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus through cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caiwen; Wheeler, Kersten N; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2011-10-06

    Hematodinium spp. are parasitic dinoflagellates of marine crustaceans. Outbreaks of Hematodinium sp. have impacted commercial landings of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in the coastal bays of Virginia and Maryland (USA), with seasonal peaks in prevalence reaching 85%. The life cycle and transmission routes of the parasite in blue crabs are poorly understood. Cannibalism and waterborne transmission may be routes of transmission, although little conclusive evidence has been reported for these modes. We examined cannibalism as a route by a series of experiments wherein we repeatedly fed adult and juvenile crabs the tissues of crabs infected with Hematodinium. In each experiment, feeding was done 3 times over the course of 1 wk. Only 2 of 120 crabs were infected within 7 to 9 d after feeding, and these 2 were likely infected prior to the experimental exposures. Crabs inoculated with hemolymph from infected donors served as positive controls. They developed infections over 11 to 21 d, indicating that the Hematodinium sp. used in the cannibalism trials was infectious at the time of inoculation. Because amphipods also harbor Hematodinium-like infections, we fed tissues of infected crabs to the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. Hematodinium DNA was detected in amphipods shortly after feeding, but not in animals held for longer periods, nor was it observed in histological preparations. Amphipods did not obtain infections by scavenging infected crab tissues. Our results show that Hematodinium sp. is not effectively transmitted through ingestion of diseased tissues, indicating that cannibalism may not be a major route of transmission for Hematodinium sp. in blue crabs.

  1. Claw Strength of Lithodid King Crabs in Antarctic Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffel, B. V.; Smith, K.; Aronson, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    King crabs (Lithodidae) and other durophagous (shell-crushing) predators have been absent from shallow waters around Antarctica for as long as tens of millions of years. Now, however, deep-sea populations of lithodids off the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) may be expanding their bathymetric ranges. Their emergence on the Antarctic shelf could restructure the endemic seafloor communities, which are dominated by slow-moving, lightly structured invertebrates. On the other hand, calcification rates are low in polar waters, so the chelae of Antarctic lithodids are likely to be weakly constructed compared with crab chelae in temperate and tropical waters. We examined the strength of chelae in specimens of the lithodid Paralomis birsteini, collected from the continental slope off the WAP in 2015. We describe the strength of the chelae and their potential to generate force compared with the force required to crush their prey. We also compare the gape-width of the chelae with the size of potential prey items on the continental shelf off the WAP. Lithodids off the WAP are able to generate more than enough force to crush the tests or shells of the endemic invertebrates on the continental shelf off Antarctica. Our findings suggest the emergence of lithodids on the continental shelf off the WAP would have a drastic impact on resident populations of endemic vertebrates.

  2. Interspecific hybridization and mitochondrial introgression in invasive carcinus shore crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, John A

    2011-03-14

    Interspecific hybridization plays an important role in facilitating adaptive evolutionary change. More specifically, recent studies have demonstrated that hybridization may dramatically influence the establishment, spread, and impact of invasive populations. In Japan, previous genetic evidence for the presence of two non-native congeners, the European green crab Carcinus maenas and the Mediterranean green crab C. aestuarii, has raised questions regarding the possibility of hybridization between these sister species. Here I present analysis based on both nuclear microsatellites and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene which unambiguously argues for a hybrid origin of Japanese Carcinus. Despite the presence of mitochondrial lineages derived from both C. maenas and C. aestuarii, the Japanese population is panmictic at nuclear loci and has achieved cytonuclear equilibrium throughout the sampled range in Japan. Furthermore, analysis of admixture at nuclear loci indicates dramatic introgression of the C. maenas mitochondrial genome into a predominantly C. aestuarii nuclear background. These patterns, along with inferences drawn from the observational record, argue for a hybridization event pre-dating the arrival of Carcinus in Japan. The clarification of both invasion history and evolutionary history afforded by genetic analysis provides information that may be critically important to future studies aimed at assessing risks posed by invasive Carcinus populations to Japan and the surrounding region.

  3. Interspecific hybridization and mitochondrial introgression in invasive carcinus shore crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Darling

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization plays an important role in facilitating adaptive evolutionary change. More specifically, recent studies have demonstrated that hybridization may dramatically influence the establishment, spread, and impact of invasive populations. In Japan, previous genetic evidence for the presence of two non-native congeners, the European green crab Carcinus maenas and the Mediterranean green crab C. aestuarii, has raised questions regarding the possibility of hybridization between these sister species. Here I present analysis based on both nuclear microsatellites and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI gene which unambiguously argues for a hybrid origin of Japanese Carcinus. Despite the presence of mitochondrial lineages derived from both C. maenas and C. aestuarii, the Japanese population is panmictic at nuclear loci and has achieved cytonuclear equilibrium throughout the sampled range in Japan. Furthermore, analysis of admixture at nuclear loci indicates dramatic introgression of the C. maenas mitochondrial genome into a predominantly C. aestuarii nuclear background. These patterns, along with inferences drawn from the observational record, argue for a hybridization event pre-dating the arrival of Carcinus in Japan. The clarification of both invasion history and evolutionary history afforded by genetic analysis provides information that may be critically important to future studies aimed at assessing risks posed by invasive Carcinus populations to Japan and the surrounding region.

  4. Protistan diseases of commercially important crabs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morado, J F

    2011-01-01

    Protists are a diverse group of eukaryotes that possess a unicellular level of organization. As unicellular organisms, the differentiation of cells into tissues does not occur, although when cell differentiation does occur, it is limited to sexual reproduction, alternate vegetative morphologies or quiescent life history stages. Protistan parasites may possess simple or complex life histories that are important factors to consider when investigating protistan diseases of decapods. Unfortunately, the life histories of many protistan parasites of decapods are insufficiently described, resulting in the fact that modes of infection and transmission are often unidentified. This is surprising considering the economic importance of many marine decapods and the ability of protistan parasites to produce significant, but generally transient and area limited mortalities. However, the marine disease landscape is changing and will continue to change as climate change and ocean acidification will play important roles in disease occurrence and distribution. As a result, the following discussion attempts to summarize current knowledge on several crab diseases, their protistan etiological agents, the impact of disease on economically important crab populations and draw attention to areas of needed research. The discussion is not complete as only selected diseases are addressed, or perfect as the Microsporidia are included in the discussion (a traditional error continued in this summary) despite the recent, but controversial placement of the taxon with the fungi. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A transcriptome analysis of mitten crab testes (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of expressed genes involved in sexual precocity of the mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. To this end, we constructed a cDNA library from the rapid developmental stage of testis of E. sinensis and sequenced 3,388 randomly picked clones. After processing, 2,990 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered into 2,415 unigenes including 307 contigs and 2,108 singlets, which were then compared to the NCBI non-redundant (nr protein and nucleotide (nt database for annotation with Blastx and Blastn, respectively. After further analysis, 922 unigenes were obtained with concrete annotations and 30 unigenes were found to have functions possibly related to the process of reproduction in male crabs - six transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (especially Cyclin K and RecA homolog DMC1, two transcripts involved in nuclear protein transformation, two heat-shock protein genes, eleven transcription factor genes (a series of zinc-finger proteins, and nine cytoskeleton protein-related genes. Our results, besides providing valuable information related to crustacean reproduction, can also serve as a base for future studies of reproductive and developmental biology.

  6. Swift/BAT spectral analysis of the Crab after September 2010 gamma-ray flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.

    2010-09-01

    We report the Swift/BAT detailed analysis of the Crab data from September 2010 when a gamma-ray flare has been observed by AGILE (Atel#2855) and Fermi/LAT (Atel#2861). We found no significant variation in either the 15-150 keV flux and the photon index during this period. We collected the BAT survey data (Detector Plane Histograms) when the Crab was in the BAT field of view. We used the mask weighting technique to construct a spectrum of the Crab for each pointing.

  7. Amino Acid Composition of Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) from the North Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇÜKGÜLMEZ, Aygül; ÇELIK, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The amino acid composition in tissues (claw, breast meats and hepatopancreas) of the blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, RATHBUN, 1896), caught off the North Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Turkey) were investigated. The amounts of the amino acid contents of the claw, breast meat and hepatopancreas of the blue crab were found to be significantly different. Glutamic acid was major amino acid in all parts of the blue crab. The total essential amino acids ranged from 7.24 to 7.83 g/ 100 g fresh wt. The ...

  8. Detection of Paragonimus mexicanus (Trematoda) metacercariae in crabs from Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Arzola, Jaime; Segura-Salvador, Aristeo; Reyes-Velasco, Leobardo; Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; León-Avila, Gloria; Ibañez-Cervantes, Gabriela; Camacho, Alejandro D; Sánchez-Manzano, Rosa Ma; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2014-09-01

    Metacercariae of Paragonimus mexicanus were collected in crabs Tehuana guerreroensis (Rathbun, 1933) in the municipality of Putla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Metacercariae were found in 20.8% of the crabs collected, with an average of 1.9 metacercarie per crab. Stained metacercariae showed the specific characteristics of P. mexicanus by morphology and sequencing a fragment of the 28S ribosomal gene obtained by PCR. These findings reveal that T. guerreroensis is an intermediate host for P. mexicanus; this new report is relevant considering the potential risk of transmission in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Asian Creativity: A Response to Satoshi Kanazawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to Satoshi Kanazawa's thoughtful and entertaining comments about my article concerning the Asian future of evolutionary psychology. Contra Kanazawa's argument that Asian cultural traditions and/or character inhibit Asian scientific creativity, I review historical evidence of high Asian creativity, and psychometric evidence of high Asian intelligence (a cognitive trait and openness to experience (a personality trait — two key components of creativity. Contra Kanazawa's concern that political correctness is a bigger threat to American evolutionary psychology than religious fundamentalism, I review evidence from research funding patterns and student attitudes suggesting that fundamentalism is more harmful and pervasive. Finally, in response to Kanazawa's focus on tall buildings as indexes of national wealth and creativity, I find that 13 of the world's tallest 25 buildings are in China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan — of which 11 were built in the last decade. Asian creativity, secularism, and architectural prominence point to a bright future for Asian science.

  10. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pineda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount’s elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4–10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355–385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m2, and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects.

  11. Extracellular digestion during hyposaline exposure in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Daniel L; van Breukelen, Frank; McGaw, Iain J

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular digestive processes were examined in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister and the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, during hyposaline exposure. Both species are found in estuaries as adults, but vary in their ability to balance the cardiovascular and respiratory demands of concurrent osmoregulation and digestion. The weak osmoregulator, C. magister, is unable to balance the demands of osmoregulation and digestion. Concordant with observed decreases in oxygen consumption and mechanical digestion, proteolytic digestion within the foregut and hepatopancreas was delayed, resulting in a relative reduction of circulating amino acids post-feeding in low salinity. In contrast, the efficient osmoregulator, C. sapidus, balances the demands of osmoregulation and digestion, and mechanical digestion continues unabated in low salinity. Protease activity in the gut fluid and hepatopancreas showed either no change or a reduction over time. The transport of amino acids into the cells post-feeding is opposed by an efflux of amino acids at the cellular level, and resulted in a build up of amino acids in the hemolymph. Despite differences in the extracellular responses to low salinity exposure following feeding, both species were able to maintain high digestive efficiencies. © 2013.

  12. A Lethal Virus of the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus May Be Present Throughout its Trans-hemispheric Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, E. J.; Flowers, E. M.; Vinagre, A.; Brown, S.; Almeida, A.

    2016-02-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, are key epibenthic predators and support valuable fisheries throughout North and South America. On both continents, they are also used to produce soft shell crabs, a value added product. On the Atlantic coast of the USA, mortality of blue crabs in soft shell production is often 25% or greater. A majority of those crabs have been found to be infected with a reovirus lethal to blue crabs. The CsRV1 virus infects multiple ectodermal and mesodermal tissues and was first described as RLV (reo-like virus) in the late 1970s. However its potential for affecting large numbers of crabs was not fully recognized until 2010 when molecular methods were developed to study its prevalence in aquaculture and the wild. Using a sensitive Rt-qPCR assay for the virus, a multi-year survey of crabs from the mid-Atlantic USA coast and Chesapeake Bay revealed that approximately 20% of adult and juvenile crabs were positive for CsRV1 genomic RNA. If blue crabs in the wild die from CsRV1 infections as rapidly as captive infected crabs, it suggests that significant numbers of wild blue crabs die from CsRV1 infections. Crab fishery managers in the Chesapeake Bay recently recognized that there is a need to better understand the role of diseases in natural mortality. The CsRV1 virus is found in C. sapidus throughout the USA range, and has been discovered in diseased Brazilian C. sapidus from Rio Grande do Sul. Genetic analysis of the virus shows that strains of CsRV1 found in Brazil are distinct from the strains identified in the USA. This pan-hemispheric range suggests that the virus has long been a component of blue crab ecology. Much more study is needed to understand the history and impacts of CsRV1 throughout the USA, Brazil, and the vast coastline in between.

  13. Tolerance, bioenergetics, and biochemical composition of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus rathbun, exposed to the water-soluble fraction of South Louisiana crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Blue crabs were highly tolerant to petroleum hydrocarbons. Rates of energy intake decreased with increasing hydrocarbon concentration. Although energy expenditure rates of crabs exposed to 2504 ppb were not significantly higher than that of control crabs, they were significantly higher than those of crabs exposed to 820 and 1476 ppb. Molting was delayed in crabs exposed to 1476 and 2504 ppb. Crab growth was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. The correlation between scope for growth and tissue growth was highly significant, indicating a bioenergetic basis for the decreased growth in crabs exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. RNA content of crabs exposed to crude oil was significantly reduced on all sampling dates. Protein content of crabs exposed to crude oil was lower than that of control crabs on days 14 and 21. DNA content was not significantly different from that of control crabs. RNA:DNA and protein:DNA ratio were significantly reduced in crabs exposed to crude oil. The significant correlations suggest the possibility of their use as indicators of physiological condition. Significant differences in lipid content and concentration were observed. Analysis of five lipid classes indicate that structural lipids were less affected than lipids used for energy storage among crabs exposed to crude oil. The observed changes growth pattern and biochemical composition suggest that the pattern of energy utilization was altered. Among crabs exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons, growth in size took place despite little increase in tissue content. Available energy was used for growth with little being stored in lipid reserves.

  14. Assessing the Importance of Horseshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus) Eggs in the Diets of Migrating Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) and Sanderlings (Calidris alba) During Refueling Stops on Selected Florida Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The projects main goals are to look at the diet content, habitat use, and body condition of migratory red knots and sanderlings and to examine these factors...

  15. Identification of a crab gill FXYD2 protein and regulation of crab microsomal Na,K-ATPase activity by mammalian FXYD2 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elias C C; Masui, Douglas C; Furriel, Rosa P; McNamara, John C; Barrabin, Hector; Scofano, Helena M; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Leone, Francisco A; Fontes, Carlos Frederico L

    2012-11-01

    This investigation discloses the recognition of an FXYD2 protein in a microsomal Na,K-ATPase preparation from the posterior gills of the blue crab, Callinectes danae, by a mammalian (rabbit) FXYD2 peptide specific antibody (γC(33)) and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry techniques. This is the first demonstration of an invertebrate FXYD2 protein. The addition of exogenous pig FXYD2 peptide to the crab gill microsomal fraction stimulated Na,K-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous pig FXYD2 also considerably increased enzyme affinity for K(+), ATP and NH(4)(+). K(0.5) for Na(+) was unaffected. Exogenous pig FXYD2 increased the V(max) for stimulation of gill Na,K-ATPase activity by Na(+), K(+) and ATP, by 30% to 40%. The crab gill FXYD2 is phosphorylated by PKA, suggesting a regulatory function similar to that known for the mammalian enzyme. The PKA-phosphorylated pig FXYD2 peptide stimulated the crab gill Na,K-ATPase activity by 80%, about 2-fold greater than did the non-phosphorylated peptide. Stimulation by the PKC-phosphorylated pig FXYD2 peptide was minimal. These findings confirm the presence of an FXYD2 peptide in the crab gill Na,K-ATPase and demonstrate that this peptide plays an important role in regulating enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloning and expression of PDK4, FOXO1A and DYRK1A from the hibernating greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinping; Sun, Min; Liang, Bing; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Shuyi; Wu, Donghai

    2007-02-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) cDNA was cloned from the brain of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). The deduced amino acid sequence shares strong homology with these PDK4 of other mammals. Moreover, we partially cloned homologues of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated protein kinase 1A (DYRK1A), and forkhead box protein O1A (FOXO1A) from greater horseshoe bat. Among five different tissues tested, PDK4 mRNA was highly expressed in the heart, white adipose tissue and muscle, but weakly expressed in the brain and liver, while DYRK1A and FOXO1A were expressed in all five tissues. Moreover, the transcript levels of PDK4, DYRK1A, and FOXO1A were measured in the heart, white adipose tissue and muscle of hibernating and arousal greater horseshoe bats by Northern blot and real time PCR. The results showed that transcript level of PDK4 was significantly higher in white adipose tissue. Expression level of DYRK1A was significantly higher in hibernating state in white adipose tissue, and expression level of FOXO1A was significantly higher in muscle in aroused state. These results suggest that up-regulation of the transcript levels of PDK4 during hibernation were not regulated via DYRK1A and FOXO1A in white adipose tissue and muscle, and the possible presence of another isoenzyme of PDK which is responsible for the tissue-specific regulation of Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity in the bat heart during hibernation.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  18. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice ver...

  19. Feeding and decoration preferences of the epialtidae crab Acanthonyx scutiforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Vasconcelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the feeding preferences of marine herbivores are very important for our better understanding of the biology and the ecological role of these organisms. Members of the family Epialtidae are usually herbivores that mask themselves with pieces of seaweed and other materials to avoid predation. In order to better understand the mechanisms of food and decorating choices of the decorator crab Acanthonyx scutiformis, two multiple-choice feeding assays were performed using fresh seaweeds and artificial food containing crude extracts of the four seaweeds Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Dictyota menstrualis, offered simultaneously to this crab species. In both assays the seaweed most consumed was O. obtusiloba, followed by P. brasiliense and Sargassum sp., while D. menstrualis was the least consumed. It is suggested that A. scutiformis is a generalist feeder, but with some preference for the perennial red seaweed O. obtusiloba and the chemically-defended seaweed P. brasiliense. Decorating behavior observations revealed the preferences of A. scutiformis by P. brasiliense. This decorating behavior can be interpreted as a mechanism to avoid generalist predators, since feeding and decorating preference were not associated and the crab used only small pieces of chemically defended algae.Estudos sobre preferência alimentar de herbívoros marinhos são muito importantes para o melhor entendimento da importância biológica e ecológica destes organismos. Caranguejos majídeos são usualmente herbívoros que se camuflam com pedaços de macroalgas e outros materiais para evitar a predação. Para entender melhor os mecanismos de escolha de alimento e decoração do caranguejo decorador Acanthonyx scutiformis, foram realizados dois ensaios de múltipla escolha usando macroalgas frescas e alimentos artificiais contendo extratos brutos das macroalgas Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp. e Dictyota

  20. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  1. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  2. Understanding to Hierarchical Microstructures of Crab (Chinese hairy) Shell as a Natural Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanqiang, Zhou [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); Xiangxiang, Gong [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Jie, Han [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China)

    2016-03-07

    This work was done to better understand the microstructures, composition and mechanical properties of Chinese hairy crab shell. For fully revealing its hierarchical microstructure, the crab shell was observed with electron microscope under different magnifications from different facets. XRD, EDS, FTIR and TGA techniques have been used to characterize the untreated and chemically-treated crab shells, which provided enough information to determine the species and relative content of components in this biomaterial. Combined the microstructures with constituents analysis, the structural principles of crab shell was detailedly realized from different structural levels beyond former reports. To explore the relationship between structure and function, the mechanical properties of shell have been measured through performing tensile tests. The contributions of organics and minerals in shell to the mechanical properties were also discussed by measuring the tensile strength of de-calcification samples treated with HCl solution.

  3. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Cummiskey: Red king crab sonic tagging and dive database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is data from a long-term monitoring project which utilized sonic tags to follow aggregations of red king crab in Womens Bay near Kodiak Alaska. The database...

  4. Narrative report : January thru April, 1960. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Gut-Associated Microbial Symbionts of the Marsh Fiddler Crab, Uca Pugnax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunman, Lara K

    2004-01-01

    .... The overarching goal of this thesis was to characterize the ecology and genetic diversity of resident gut microbes to advance our understanding of their interactions with their host, the marsh fiddler crab, Uca pugnax...

  6. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. NWHL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lead poisoning was demonstrated to occur in Canada geese using Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge during the 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program. Necropsies...

  8. Narrative report : September thru December, 1960. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by...

  9. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : January thru April, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : May thru August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : May through August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by...

  12. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Swiney: Red king crab fecundity and embryo and larval quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stock assessment of Alaskan red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), can be improved by incorporating reproductive output, which requires an...

  13. Accumulation of contaminants from urban rainfall runoff in blue crabs: A pilot study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of using caged blue crabs Callinectes sapidus to monitor accumulation of contaminants in urban...

  14. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Foy: Effects of ocean acidification on larval Tanner crab: Kodiak Island, Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To study the effects of ocean acidification we examined the effects of ocean acidification on the larval stages of the economically important southern Tanner crab,...

  15. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  16. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : May through August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Narrative report : September thru December, 1961. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by...

  18. Narrative report : January through April, 1962. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Narrative report : September thru December, 1958. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by...

  20. Narrative report : May 1, thru August 31, 1960. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Narrative report : May through August, 1963. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Narrative report : May 1 thru August 31, 1962. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Narrative report : January thru April, 1961. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Narrative report : May thru August, 1961. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from red king crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In December of 2009, a total of 135 adult male red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) were tagged with depth and temperature recording archival tags and released...

  6. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from snow crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seasonal migration of commercial-size (=102 mm carapace width [CW]), morphometrically mature (MM) snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) from the eastern Bering Sea was...

  7. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Hermit Crabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Land-crabs in the genus Coenobita play an influential role in shaping the species composition and structure of the terrestrial community in the tropical Central...

  8. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014-Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Crab Orchard Wildlife Refuge for the CY 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID software and...

  9. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.

  10. Opsonic function of sialic acid specific lectin in freshwater crab Paratelphusa jacquemontii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Maghil; Thayappan, Karthigayani; Ramasamy, Sivakumar Mullivanam; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-01-01

    The sialic acid specific humoral lectin, Pjlec of the freshwater crab Paratelphusa jacquemontii was investigated for its opsonin function with rabbit erythrocyte as target cell for phagocytosis by the crab’s hemocyte...

  11. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Munk: Life history studies of Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi, near Kodiak, Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1994 through 2012 Tanner crab were identified as premolt, held through a molt, and then measured to determine growth per molt.

  12. Narrative report : January through April, 1963. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calender year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calender year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calender year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Copulatory behavior of the coconut or robber crab Birgus latro (L. ) (Decapoda anomura, paguridea, coenobitidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfman, G.S.

    1977-09-01

    In the report, mating in Birgus is described and compared with discriptions of the copulatory behavior of other hermit crabs. Apparently in Birgus, mating is a relatively rare and short event with the time spent in pre-copulatory activities being reduced. There has also been an apparent reduction in the number of behavioral pattern used during courtship. Some of the differences in copulation of the coconut crab may be attributed to an overall adaptation of the species to terrestrial life. For example, the hard exoskeleton of the female could serve in part to reduce desiccation. A reduction in the frequency and duration of copulation could be related to the extremely aggressive intraspecific behavior of Birgus, the crab's high potential for inflicting serious injuries, and the maintenance of an individual distance of approximately one meter. These behavioral traits are in marked contrast to the generalized gregariousness of most hermit crabs, including other members of the family Coenobitidae.

  17. CRAB3: Establishing a new generation of services for distributed analysis at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In CRAB3 all work is centrally injected and managed in a global queue. A pool of agents, which can be geographically distributed, consumes work from the central services, servicing the user tasks. The new gener...

  18. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report : January thru April, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Water Management Plan : Fiscal Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this...

  20. Using ssh as portal - The CMS CRAB over glideinWMS experience

    CERN Document Server

    Belforte, Stefano; Letts, James; Fanzago, Federica; Saiz Santos, Maria Dolores; Martin, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    The User Analysis of the CMS experiment is performed in distributed way usingboth Grid and dedicated resources. In order to insulate the users from the details of computing fabric, CMS relies on the CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) package as an abstraction layer. CMS has recently switched from a client-server version of CRAB to a purely client-based solution, with ssh being used to interface with HTCondor-based glideinWMS batch system. This switch has resulted in significant improvement of user satisfaction, as well as in significant simplification of the CRAB code base and of the operation support. This paper presents the architecture of the ssh-based CRAB package, the rationale behind it, as well as the operational experience running both the client-server and the ssh-based versions in parallel forseveral months.