WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian energy security

  1. Synergies in the Asian energy system: Climate change, energy security, energy access and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Krey, Volker; McCollum, David; Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan

    2012-01-01

    We use the MESSAGE model to examine multiple dimensions of sustainable development for three Asian regions in a set of scenarios developed for the Asian Modelling Exercise. Using climate change mitigation as a starting point for the analysis, we focus on the interaction of climate and energy with technology choice, energy security, energy access, and air pollution, which often have higher policy priority than climate change. Stringent climate policies drive the future energy supply in Asia from being dominated by coal and oil to a more diversified system based mostly on natural gas, coal with CCS, nuclear and renewable energy. The increase in diversity helps to improve the energy security of individual countries and regions. Combining air pollution control policies and universal energy access policies with climate policy can further help to reduce both outdoor and indoor air pollution related health impacts. Investments into the energy system must double by 2030 to achieve stringent climate goals, but are largely offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution abatement. Strong focus on end-use efficiency also helps lowering overall total costs and allows for limiting or excluding supply side technologies from the mitigation portfolio. Costs of additional energy access policies and measures are a small fraction of total energy system costs. - Highlights: ► Half of added investments in energy offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution. ► Costs for achieving universal energy access much smaller than energy system costs. ► Combined emissions and access policies further reduce air pollution impacts on health. ► Strong focus on end-use efficiency allows for more flexibility on energy sources. ► Stringent climate policy can improve energy security of Asian regions.

  2. China's quest for energy and Northeast Asian security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    The Iraq conflict has China striving to secure reliable, long-term sources of foreign energy to reduce their dependence on Middle East oil fields. As the world's third largest oil consumer, China became a net importer of crude in 1993. The major energy players in China are negotiating contracts with overseas producers and financing new developments for crude oil and natural gas. For example, China signed a contract in June 2003 for the delivery of 30 metric tonnes of oil per year from Siberia. Military planning and politics play a major role in a country where oil giants are majority-owned by the state. Diversification of domestic energy supplies from crude to natural gas has slowly begun. Construction of a massive gas pipeline to supply Shanghai from the Tarim Basin began in July 2002. It is feared that this pipeline could become a target for terrorists. Agreements for building terminals along the southeast coast to receive shipments of liquid natural gas (LNG) and ethylene from foreign suppliers were recently signed. Keeping shipping lanes safe from Indonesia and Australia will require cooperation from China's neighbours. Oil and gas markets in China are being opened according to World Trade Organization requirements. Rising energy demand will increasingly be met through increased oil shipments from foreign sources, judged by the behaviour of major Chinese players in the industry. Both China and Japan are looking to Russia to provide them with oil. Proposals for the construction of a pipeline from Russia to East Asia are lamenting over the termination point of the pipeline. Bilateral ties would be greatly improved by a Sino-Russian deal. Security in Central Asia is changing. Every country in the region has indicated its willingness to attract investment from China, Russia and the United States. 2 figs

  3. Report on Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation 2001. Energy Security in Asian Region; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi 2001 hokokusho. Asia chiiki no energy anzen hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    The Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation (SPEC), which started in 1986 to discuss energy problems and international cooperation on energy in the Pacific region, met for 2001 in Tokyo on February 20 and 21, 2001, to discuss Energy Security in Asian Region. The conference comprised two keynote addresses, four sessions, and a panel discussion. Twenty-four countries and an international organization were represented by a total of 785 participants who actively exchanged views and opinions. With Director Tsutomu Toichi, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, acting as chairman, two keynote addresses were delivered. Minister of Oil Bijan Namdar Zanganeh of Iran reported on The Role of I. R. Iran in Meeting the Growing Oil and Gas Demand in the Asia-Pacific Region and Potential Cooperation with the Region's Consumers. Managing Director Phil Watts of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group reported on Security in Trust - Meeting Asian Energy Needs in the 21st Century. (NEDO)

  4. Introduction to the Asian Energy Security project: Project organization and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Savage, Timothy; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The spectacular recent economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region in general, and in many of the economies of Northeast Asia in particular, has spurred a vast expansion in the need for energy services, and an expansion in the demand for the fuels that help to supply these services. Future projections suggest that the growth of fossil fuel use in Northeast Asia, especially in China, will have major consequences for financial and fuel markets and pollution both regionally and globally. Before the project described in this paper was initiated, there was no ongoing forum for energy experts from all of the countries of the region to meet, informally and in an unofficial capacity, to discuss openly and in a targeted fashion the energy situations in their countries, and to work together to evaluate the energy efficiency costs and benefits of different ways of meeting regional demand. The Asian Energy Security (AES) project provides such a forum, and as such constitutes a unique resource in the engagement of the countries of Northeast Asia on the topic of energy security.

  5. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  6. Thinking big: Politics, progress, and security in the management of Asian and European energy megaprojects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Graaf, Thijs; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines four energy megaprojects, two in Europe and two in Asia. For each region, a large natural gas pipeline project and an international project involving solar power from the desert is studied. The natural gas projects are: the Nabucco project (in Europe) and the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline network (in Asia). The solar power from the desert projects are: Desertec (in Europe) and Gobitec (in Asia). The article probes explanations of megaproject failure along social, technical, economic, political, and psychological dimensions. We find that these projects, though they are very different in nature and pertain to different regions, all suffer from a similar set of problems: too many stakeholders and stakeholder fragmentation; cost overruns and the risk of accidents and attacks; massive externalization of costs to third party stakeholders; concentration of wealth and corruption; and inflated expectations and biased projections. We conclude by reflecting on lessons for not only the involved institutions and investors, but energy analysts and the public at large. - Highlights: • Four energy megaprojects are analyzed: Nabucco, TAGP, Gobitec and Desertec. • Despite their differences, all suffer from a similar set of problems. • They exhibit social, technical, economic, political, and psychological failures

  7. Asian Educational Discourse: Construction of Ontological Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalina, Natalya V.; Kovaleva, Alla V.; Voronin, Maksim S.; Anikin, Denis V.; Valyulina, Ekaterina V.

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the problem of ontology security through Asian educational discourse, which is structurally determined by the process of moral self-improvement. Considered are trends in improving the management of educational system by developing the culture of quality, which is considered as the next stage of the Asian education systems…

  8. Asian educational discourse: construction of ontological security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Khalina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of ontology security through Asian educational discourse, which is structurally determined by the process of moral self-improvement. Considered are trends in improving the management of educational system by developing the culture of quality, which is considered as the next stage of the Asian education systems development after the “quality of education” stage. We suggest an approach for assessing the vitality of educational process and its product based on monitoring trainees’ aptitudes system and school capabilities in developing and maintaining this system. In this study we refer to the concept of vitality and viability when describing the general theory of viability in connection with the core principles of Asian educational discourse. We outline main trends in the development of modern educational system in Asian university given the process of globalization and its impact on educational reforms in the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, the category of education quality in Asian system of higher education and narrative monitoring of Chinese students’ cognitive structures viability at Altai State University are introduced.

  9. Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Book cover Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian ... examines the interplay of national security, social and ethnic identity, and ... Burmese media, and distributed-denial-of-service attacks and other ...

  10. Energy audit and energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Agnieszka Kulessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In article, we present the issue of energy security. This article to answer the questions concerning the future of energy in Poland. These activities are directly related to energy security and the reduction of CO2 emissions. One element of this plan is the introduction in the EU energy certification of buildings. The energy certificates in Poland launched on 01.01.2009 and implements the objectives adopted by the European Union and contribute to energy security, increasing energy efficiency in construction and environmental protection.

  11. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  12. Perspectives on Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Holmgren, Aake J.; Joensson, Thomas; Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-05-01

    A common notion of 'Energy Security' is that it includes access to energy resources without risking the the survival of the state. 'Security of supply' is most often the concept emphasized in the political discourse on energy security and it includes both production as well as secure and safe delivery of energy to the end consumers. Another aspect of energy security is the need for reducing energy consumption by improving energy efficiency. In this report, eight chapters covering these and other perspectives on energy security are presented. Six of the chapters deal with the supply perspective. Included topics cover power politics and geopolitical perspectives regarding large infrastructure projects and the ambitions of the EU in this regard. Further, methods and approaches for conducting risk analyses of electricity supply systems as well as for improving the security of digital control systems are discussed. As climate change will affect the supply and distribution of energy, one chapter presents an overview of this topic. The consumption perspective is discussed against the backdrop of research about household consumption practices and the role of climate change for future consumption levels. Finally, the role of armed forces as a large energy users is touched upon, as well as how so-called 'future studies' have dealt with energy as a topic

  13. Energy security in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosyan, Emil

    2009-09-01

    Yemen, situated in the Arab world, has considerable energy resources. However, its history of repeated revolts, civil wars and terrorism and also the presence of the Wahabi movement and al Qaeda in the country constitute security issues for the energy industry and its infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact level on the security of the energy sector in Yemen and the effect that the threats to that sector could have on global energy security. Analyses of the political environment, the security threats and the measures taken to respond to these threats have been carried out. Results showed that Yemen's resources are depleting and that the government is having trouble containing the escalation of conflicts; this situation could lead to Yemen's political collapse which could have an important impact on global energy security.

  14. Securing energy equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare, E-mail: lars.grimsby@umb.no [Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: > Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. > A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. > Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  15. Securing energy equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare

    2011-01-01

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: → Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. → A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. → Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  16. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  17. Conceptualizing energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Energy security is one of the main targets of energy policy. However, the term has not been clearly defined, which makes it hard to measure and difficult to balance against other policy objectives. We review the multitude of definitions of energy security. They can be characterized according to the sources of risk, the scope of the impacts, and the severity filters in the form of the speed, size, sustention, spread, singularity and sureness of impacts. Using a stylized case study for three European countries, we illustrate how the selection of conceptual boundaries along these dimensions determines the outcome. This can be avoided by more clearly separating between security of supply and other policy objectives. This leads us to the definition of energy security as the continuity of energy supplies relative to demand. - Highlights: ► The widest energy security concept includes all risks that are caused by or have an impact on the energy supply chain. ► Authors narrow this down by choosing different risk sources, impact measures and subjective severity filters in their definitions. ► The selection of conceptual boundaries determines outcome of quantitative studies.

  18. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)

  19. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  20. Securing India's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuraman, V.

    2009-01-01

    India's development aspirations are challenged by energy security and climate change considerations. The integrated energy policy clearly deliberates the need to intensify all energy options with emphasis on maximizing indigenous coal production, harnessing hydropower, increasing adoption of renewables, intensifying hydrocarbon exploration and production and anchoring nuclear power development to meet the long-term requirements. The report also emphasizes the need to secure overseas hydrocarbon and coal assets. Subsequently the National Action Plan on climate change has underscored the need to wean away from fossil fuels, the ambitious National Solar Mission is a case in point. Ultimately securing India's energy future lies in clean coal, safe nuclear and innovative solar. Coal is the key energy option in the foreseeable future. Initiatives are needed to take lead role in clean coal technologies, in-situ coal gasification, tapping coal bed methane, coal to liquids and coal to gas technologies. There is need to intensify oil exploration by laying the road-map to open acreage to unlock the hydrocarbon potential. Pursue alternate routes based on shale, methane from marginal fields. Effectively to use oil diplomacy to secure and diversify sources of supply including trans-national pipelines and engage with friendly countries to augment strategic resources. Technologies to be accessed and developed with international co-operation and financial assistance. Public-Private Partnerships, in collaborative R and D projects need to be accelerated. Nuclear share of electricity generation capacity to be increased 6 to 7% of 63000 MW by 2031-32 and further to 25% (300000 MW) capacity by 2050 is to be realized by operationalizing the country's thorium programme. Nuclear renaissance has opened up opportunities for the Indian industry to meet not only India's requirements but also participate in the global nuclear commerce; India has the potential to emerge as a manufacturing hub

  1. Concept for Energy Security Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Einari; Hamburg, Arvi; Härm, Mihkel; Leppiman, Ando; Ots, Märt

    2016-01-01

    The following paper presents a discussion of short- and long-term energy security assessment methods and indicators. The aim of the current paper is to describe diversity of approaches to energy security, to structure energy security indicators used by different institutions and papers, and to discuss several indicators that also play important role in the design of energy policy of a state. Based on this analysis the paper presents a novel Energy Security Matrix that structures relevant energy security indicators from the aspects of Technical Resilience and Vulnerability, Economic Dependence and Political Affectability for electricity, heat and transport fuel sectors. Earlier publications by different authors have presented energy security assessment methodologies that use publicly available indicators from different databases. Current paper challenges viability of some of these indicators and introduces new indicators that would deliver stronger energy security policy assessments. Energy Security Matrix and its indicators are based on experiences that the authors have gathered as high-level energy policymakers in Estonia, where all different aspects of energy security can be observed. - Highlights: •Energy security should be analysed in technical, economic and political terms; •Energy Security Matrix provides a framework for energy security analyses; •Applicability of Matrix is limited due to the lack of statistical data and sensitivity of output.

  2. Securing abundance : The politics of energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Energy Security is a concept that is known in the literature for its ‘slippery’ nature and subsequent wide range of definitions. Instead of another attempt at grasping the essence of this concept, Securing Abundance reformulates the problem and moves away from a definitional problem to a theoretical

  3. South Asia energy security: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Singh, Bhupendra

    2013-01-01

    South Asia has witnessed a growing imbalance between energy demand and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence. Energy endowments differ among the South Asian countries. However, access to the significant energy resources in the neighboring countries is denied, which increases the cost of energy supply and reduces energy security of the individual countries and of the region as a whole. The countries in the region could benefit significantly only by strengthening the mechanism of energy trade through improved connectivity. Therefore, greater cooperation within South Asia could be one of the most effective ways to deal with this Regional Energy deficit and ensure Energy Security of the Region. - Highlights: • No South Asian country is going to be able to meet its energy needs domestically. • Fostering cross border energy trade and promotion of investments opportunities are key solutions. • India’s neighbors have huge potential in hydroelectricity. • Co-operation among nations to tap the energy resource can be a win–win situation for all. • However it faces certain challenges

  4. No energy security without climate security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, M.

    2006-06-01

    WWF urges the G8 nations to embark on a serious global 'Climate and Energy Security Plan' akin in dimension to the Marshall plan after the Second World War. The plan would aim at dramatically augmenting energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources within the next five years

  5. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  6. Ecosystem services for energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanas, Andrea; McCormick, Nadine

    2010-09-15

    The world is at an energy crossroads. The changes underway will have implications for ecosystems and livelihoods. Energy security is the reliable supply of affordable energy, of which there are two dimensions; reliability and resilience. Changes in ecosystem services linked to degradation and climate change have the potential to impact both on the reliabiity of energy systems and on their resiliance. Investing in ecosystems can help safeguard energy systems, and mitigate unforeseen risks to energy security. The energy and conservation community should come together to build reliable and resilliant energy systems in ways which recognise and value supporting ecosystems.

  7. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  8. Updating energy security and environmental policy: Energy security theories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, L

    2018-06-18

    The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges. The study examines the classic energy security concepts (neorealism, neoliberalism, constructivism and international political economy) and assesses if energy technology changes are taken into consideration. This is done through integrative literature review, comparative analysis, identification of 'international relations' and 'energy' research discourse with the use of big data, and case studies of Germany, China, and Russia. The paper offers suggestions for revision of energy security concepts through integration of future technology considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  10. Nuclear Power, Energy Economics and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Economic development requires reliable, affordable electricity that is provided in sufficient quantities to satisfy the minimum energy requirements at a local, regional or national level. As simple as this recipe for economic development appears, technological, infrastructural, financial and developmental considerations must be analysed and balanced to produce a national energy strategy. Complicating that task is the historic fact that energy at the desired price and in the desired quantities can be neither taken for granted nor guaranteed. Energy economics and energy security determine the options available to nations working to establish a sustainable energy strategy for the future.

  11. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  12. Energy security, energy modelling and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, Anil [Basque Centre for Climate Change (Spain); University of Bath (United Kingdom); Pemberton, Malcolm [University College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The paper develops a framework to analyze energy security in an expected utility framework, where there is a risk of disruption of imported energy. The analysis shows the importance of an energy tax as a tool in maximizing expected utility, and how the level of that tax varies according to the key parameters of the system: risk aversion, probability of disruption, demand elasticity and cost of disruption. (author)

  13. Energy security, energy modelling and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, Anil; Pemberton, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops a framework to analyze energy security in an expected utility framework, where there is a risk of disruption of imported energy. The analysis shows the importance of an energy tax as a tool in maximizing expected utility, and how the level of that tax varies according to the key parameters of the system: risk aversion, probability of disruption, demand elasticity and cost of disruption. (author)

  14. The economics of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.; Walls, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of research on energy security that has been conducted over the past 20 years are brought together and expanded. Chapter 2 lays out basic conceptual arguments regarding the economic externalities and the military premium, as well as the general problem of identifying a market failure. Chapter 3 provides a brief history of the oil price shocks of the 1970s and reviews the empirical evidence on the energy security externalities laid out in Chapter 2. Chapter 4 builds on the material in Chapter 3 to critique published estimates of the overall premium associated with oil imports or oil consumption. Chapter 5 examines how the oil market has changed in the twenty years since the first oil shock of the 1970s and assesses the effect of these changes on price behavior and market efficiency. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on two sectors in which the energy security debate is being carried out through concrete policy measures: the choice of electricity generation technology and the market for transportation fuels. In Chapter 8, we summarize our assessments of potential energy security externalities and examine their implications for a variety of policy measures at the national and subnational levels. 7 figs., 11 tabs., 200 refs

  15. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    O&M Operations and Maintenance PSO Power System Optimization PV Photovoltaic RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks RBAC Role...elements of the initial study and operational power system model (feeder size , protective devices, generation sources, controllable loads, transformers...EW-201340) Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A

  16. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  17. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  18. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  19. A broadened typology on energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    A broadened typology describing the interconnection between energy and security is developed in this paper, with the aim of improving understanding of the relationship between energy and security by applying different research and policy perspectives. One approach involves studying energy as an object exposed to security threats, using concepts such as security of supply or security of demand. Another approach involves studying the role of the energy system as the subject in generating or enhancing insecurity. The latter approach includes studying the conflict-generating potential inherent in the economic value of energy, the risk of accidents and antagonistic attacks to energy infrastructure and the security risks related to the negative environmental impact of the energy system. In order to make a comprehensive analysis of the security consequences of proposed energy policies or strategies, all these aspects should be taken into account to varying degrees. The typology proposed here could be a valuable tool for ensuring that all security aspects have been considered. - Highlights: • The paper presents a broadened typology of energy and security, useful for policy analysis. • The energy system can be an object for security threats and as a subject generating or contributing to insecurity. • Energy as an object for security threats includes the concepts of security of supply and security of demand. • The economic value of energy can contribute to insecurity. • Technological and environmental risks of specific energy systems also provide potential threats to human security

  20. Study on the concentration of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2002-01-01

    'Energy Security' concept has played the central role in Japan's energy policy. However, the definition of the concept is not clear. If energy security will remain a principal policy target, its concept should be clearly defined as a precondition. This dissertation analyzes historical changes in energy security concept and considers their relationship with the development of national security concept in international relations studies. Following an introduction in the first chapter, the second chapter reveals that energy security concept has changed in accord with energy situation and policymakers' concern of the times. As a result, several different definitions of the concept now coexist. The third chapter deals with the relationship between energy security concept and national security concepts in international relations. Three major definitions of energy security concepts correspond to definitions of security concepts by three schools in security theory - realism, liberalism, and globalism. In the fourth chapter, energy security is conceptualized and its policy measures are systematized by addressing the issues appeared in its historical changes and referring to security theory in international relations studies. The fifth chapter discusses the contribution by nuclear energy to Japan's energy security, applying a theoretical framework presented in previous chapters. Characteristics of nuclear energy which enhance energy security are identified, and policy measures for improving those characteristics are proposed. (author)

  1. Energy technology evaluation report: Energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, R.; Lamont, A.; Schock, R.

    1992-09-01

    Energy security was identified in the National Energy Strategy (NES) as a major issue for the Department of Energy (DOE). As part of a process designed by the DOE to identify technologies important to implementing the NES, an expert working group was convened to consider which technologies can best contribute to reducing the nation's economic vulnerability to future disruptions of world oil supplies, the working definition of energy security. Other working groups were established to deal with economic growth, environmental quality, and technical foundations. Energy Security working group members were chosen to represent as broad a spectrum of energy supply and end-use technologies as possible and were selected for their established reputations as experienced experts with an ability to be objective. The time available for this evaluation was very short. The group evaluated technologies using criteria taken from the NES which can be summarized for energy security as follows: diversifying sources of world oil supply so as to decrease the increasing monopoly status of the Persian Gulf region; reducing the importance of oil use in the US economy to diminish the impact of future disruptions in oil supply; and increasing the preparedness of the US to deal with oil supply disruptions by having alternatives available at a known price. The result of the first phase of the evaluation process was the identification of technology groups determined to be clearly important for reducing US vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. The important technologies were mostly within the high leverage areas of oil and gas supply and transportation demand but also included hydrogen utilization, biomass, diversion resistant nuclear power, and substitute industrial feedstocks.

  2. The Main Features of and Response to The Current Asian Security Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    I.The Main Features of the Current Asian Security Situation The strategic game between China and the United States becomes the most powerful driving force to change the Asian traditional security situation.The United States has tried its best to delay China’s rising pace or"to standardize"China’s rising path by using its huge military advantage and forward military deployment and strengthening its security network of alliance and friends,so as to maintain its dominant position in

  3. Energy security in ASEAN: A quantitative approach for sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongsopit, Sopitsuda; Kittner, Noah; Chang, Youngho; Aksornkij, Apinya; Wangjiraniran, Weerin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate energy security of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) under the 4-A’s framework. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) agreement launched in 2015 renewed a regional focus on energy security and sustainability. We employ an analytic framework to quantitatively assess progress in different categories including availability, acceptability, affordability, and applicability. Key metrics include the documentation of CO_2 emissions, energy access measures, and energy supply reserves from 2005–2010. We identify relevant energy indicators using high quality historical data from the IEA and World Bank. We find that ASEAN made little progress toward establishing energy security in the previous five-year planning period (2005–2010) as it regressed in most categories except applicability. Therefore, we suggest that increased development of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies would move ASEAN in a positive direction toward achieving energy security and sustainable energy policy goals. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security in ASEAN across four dimensions. • Energy security in ASEAN has mostly regressed from 2005–2010. • Future cooperative agreements will help ASEAN improve energy security.

  4. China's energy security and strategic choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellistrandi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the present day international political and economical situation, China's energy security covers five important aspects: energy supplies security, energy prices security, environment security with respect to energy consumption, energy transport security, R and D security in the domain of energy resources exploration, exploitation and utilisation. Considering the above-mentioned aspects, China's strategic choices should include five major goals: counting on its own energy resources and giving priority to energy saving, participating to the international competition and implementing a national strategic reserves system, readjusting the energy consumption structure and promoting environment protection by developing nuclear energy, harmonizing China's relations with some countries and avoiding political and military conflicts, increasing investment in energy R and D, in particular in clean coal, nuclear, automotive, renewable energy and energy saving technologies. (J.S.)

  5. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  6. Fossil energy and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folke, G.

    2001-01-01

    To fulfil the basic goal of delivering food for the tables of the citizens, modern Western agriculture is extremely dependent on supporting material flows, infrastructure, and fossil energy. According to several observers, fossil fuel production is about to peak, i.e., oil extraction is no longer capable of keeping pace with the increasing demand. This situation may trigger an unprecedented increase in fossil energy prices, which may make the current highly energy dependent food production-distribution system highly vulnerable. The paper starts with a survey of this vulnerability. Also, the supply of phosphorus, a key factor in agriculture, may be at stake under such circumstances. The paper analyses this situation and discusses settlement structures integrated with agriculture that might increase food security by reducing energy demands. In the proposed ideal societal structure, agriculture is integrated with settlements and most of the food needed by the population is produced locally, and the nutrients for food production are recycled from households and animals by means of biological processes demanding considerably less mechanical investment and fossil support energy than the conventional type of agriculture. The vulnerability of this structure would be considerably lower, than that of the current system. (author)

  7. Energy security and sustainability in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Williams, James H.; Savage, Timothy; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    'Energy Security' has typically, to those involved in making energy policy, meant mostly securing access to oil and other fossil fuels. With increasingly global, diverse energy markets, however, and increasingly transnational problems resulting from energy transformation and use, old energy security rationales are less salient, and other issues, including climate change and other environmental, economic, and international considerations are becoming increasingly important. As a consequence, a more comprehensive operating definition of 'Energy Security' is needed, along with a workable framework for analysis of which future energy paths or scenarios are likely to yield greater Energy Security in a broader, more comprehensive sense. Work done as a part of the Nautilus Institute's 'Pacific Asia Regional Energy Security' (PARES) project developed a broader definition of Energy Security, and described an analytical framework designed to help to compare the energy security characteristics - both positive and negative - of different quantitative energy paths as developed using software tools such as the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) system.

  8. Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The environmental benefits of renewable energy are well known. But the contribution that they can make to energy security is less widely recognised. This report aims to redress the balance, showing how in electricity generation, heat supply, and transport, renewables can enhance energy security and suggesting policies that can optimise this contribution.

  9. Secure Energy Supply 2009. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this invitation lecture professor Slugen (President of Slovak Nuclear Society and President of European Nuclear Society) invited the participants of the International Conference: Secure Energy Supply 2009.

  10. Energy security strategy and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toichi, Tsutomu; Shibata, Masaharu; Uchiyama, Yoji; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    This special edition of 'Energy security strategy and nuclear power' is abstracts of the 27 th Policy Recommendations 'The Establishment of an International Energy Security System' by the Japan Forum on International Relations, Inc on May 18 th , 2006. It consists of five papers: Energy security trend in the world and Japan strategy by Tsutomu Toichi, Establishment of energy strategy supporting Japan as the focus on energy security by Masaharu Shibata, World pays attention to Japan nuclear power policy and nuclear fuel cycle by Yoji Uchiyama, Part of nuclear power in the energy security - the basic approach and future problems by Tatsujiro Suzuki, and Drawing up the energy strategy focused on the national interests - a demand for the next government by Kazuo Yamazaki. (S.Y.)

  11. Nuclear energy technology transfer: the security barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The problems presented by security considerations to the transfer of nuclear energy technology are examined. In the case of fusion, the national security barrier associated with the laser and E-beam approaches is discussed; for fission, the international security requirements, due to the possibility of the theft or diversion of special nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facilities, are highlighted. The paper outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and terrorist threat, examples of security barriers, and the current approaches to transferring technology. (auth)

  12. Energy security: between markets and sovereign politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudau Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is a constant presence in the energy-related political discourse all over the world. States strive to secure steady inflows of needed energy supplies, as well as the price affordability of those supplies. However, what are deemed to be the best means to meet such goals depends on one’s theoretical vantage point. On the one hand, economically-minded theorists maintain that energy security is only a matter of market rules and interactions. Thus, they call upon energy markets to deliver both steady supplies and competitive prices. On the other hand, politically-minded scholars emphasize the political and hard-power nature of international energy trades, especially in a global context market by the emergence of state-centered, authoritarian regimes that use large national energy companies as foreign policy instruments. These two positions delineate competing approaches to how energy security risks ought to be managed. The former approaches energy security risks by means similar to portfolio management, requiring diversification of investments in order to insulate them from market shocks. The latter approaches energy security as a matter of foreign policy, by which states envisage interest coordination and favorable alignments within countervailing alliances against the agent of energy security risk. The present paper goes beyond the uncontentious point that these two dimensions are complementary. It argues that, depending on the international context, a more market-driven or a more-politically driven behavior may be adequate.

  13. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  14. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  15. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meierding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

  16. China's energy security: Perception and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Guy C.K.

    2011-01-01

    China, now the world's second-largest economy, is worried about energy security, which underpins the core objectives of Beijing and the political legitimacy of the Communist Party of China. The purpose of this study is to explore certain popular myths about China's energy security. The study consists of six parts. After the introduction, it formulates the obscure concept of 'energy security' and attempts to contextualize it with 'Chinese characteristics.' Then it explicitly points out that the largest driver of oil demand by China as the 'World's Factory' is transport instead of industry. Next, it explores the effectiveness of transnational pipelines as a measure of energy security and explains why they are less effective than many observers have previously assumed. Furthermore, it investigates the global expansion of Chinese national oil companies and questions their actual contribution to energy security. A few concluding remarks then follow. - Research highlights: → Oil is the form of energy that has produced most of China's energy insecurity. → Transport sector, rather than industry, is the largest driver of China's oil demand. → The contribution of oil pipelines to China's energy security is smaller than many assumed. → Acquisition of oil reserves abroad cannot necessarily guarantee China a supply of oil that is more reliable and less expensive. → Energy security is a means; it is not a goal.

  17. Some solutions to the Central Asian region's energy cooperation problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatulina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    It stands to reason that the resource-rich Central Asian Region (CAR), which is located at the crossroads between the Near and Middle East, South Asia, China, and Russia and is also in direct proximity to the countries experiencing "energy starvation," is of important geostrategic significance. It is a well-known fact that CAR has vast energy potential. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have large supplies of oil and gas resources, which enjoy demand on the world market. In particular,...

  18. Water-energy-food nexus in Large Asian River Basins

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli

    2016-01-01

    The water-energy-food nexus ("nexus") is promoted as an approach to look at the linkages between water, energy and food. The articles of Water's Special Issue "Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins" look at the applicability of the nexus approach in different regions and rivers basins in Asia. The articles provide practical examples of the various roles and importance of water-energy-food linkages, but also discuss the theoretical aspects related to the nexus. While it is eviden...

  19. Reconsidering relations between nuclear energy and security concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2004-01-01

    Relations between nuclear energy and security concepts can be clarified through investigation into the multivocal nature of security concepts. While military uses of nuclear energy significantly influence national security, peaceful uses of nuclear energy contribute energy security, which is an expanded concept of national security. Military and peaceful uses of nuclear energy have reciprocal actions, thus influencing national security and energy security, respectively. Nuclear security, which means security of nuclear systems themselves, recently attracts the attention of the international society. Nuclear security directly influences national security issues. On the other hand, along with nuclear safety, nuclear security becomes a prerequisite for energy security through peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In investigating into relations between nuclear energy and security concepts, the difficulty of translating the English word of 'nuclear security' into Japanese as well as other languages is found. (author)

  20. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  1. Long-term optimal energy mix planning towards high energy security and low GHG emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Sundar Raj; Khambadkone, Ashwin M.; Karimi, Iftekhar A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop long-term energy planning considering the future uncertain inputs. • We analyze the effect of uncertain inputs on the energy cost and energy security. • Conventional energy mix prone to cause high energy cost and energy security issues. • Stochastic and optimal energy mix show benefits over conventional energy planning. • Nuclear option consideration reduces the energy cost and carbon emissions. - Abstract: Conventional energy planning focused on energy cost, GHG emission and renewable contribution based on future energy demand, fuel price, etc. Uncertainty in the projected variables such as energy demand, volatile fuel price and evolution of renewable technologies will influence the cost of energy when projected over a period of 15–30 years. Inaccurate projected variables could affect energy security and lead to the risk of high energy cost, high emission and low energy security. The energy security is an ability of generation capacity to meet the future energy demand. In order to minimize the risks, a generic methodology is presented to determine an optimal energy mix for a period of around 15 years. The proposed optimal energy mix is a right combination of energy sources that minimize the risk caused due to future uncertainties related to the energy sources. The proposed methodology uses stochastic optimization to address future uncertainties over a planning horizon and minimize the variations in the desired performance criteria such as energy security and costs. The developed methodology is validated using a case study for a South East Asian region with diverse fuel sources consists of wind, solar, geothermal, coal, biomass and natural gas, etc. The derived optimal energy mix decision outperformed the conventional energy planning by remaining stable and feasible against 79% of future energy demand scenarios at the expense of 0–10% increase in the energy cost. Including the nuclear option in the energy mix resulted 26

  2. A study on energy security and nuclear energy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Energy security was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. Here, an energy security concept has been proposed, which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide-meaning energy security is divided broadly into two categories. One is short-term (∼10 y) energy crisis, which is narrow-meaning energy security. Short-term energy crisis is further divided into contingent crisis, such as energy supply chain (sealane) interruption due to conflict, accident, terrorism, etc., and structural crisis, such as price fluctuations, supply shortage, energy demand increase in Asia, technology development stagnation, etc. The other is long-term (∼100 y) energy crisis and global energy problems, such as fossil fuel exhaustion and global warming. (author)

  3. Energy security - how far possible in reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Pradip Kumar; Bera, R.; Chaki, Dibabasu

    2014-01-01

    In the context of depletion of fossil fuels and continuous increase of global warming, future energy security is under a big question. Generation of energy in conventional method and utilization of energy always produces huge amount of pollution. That is why alternative sources of energy i.e. renewable power is highly solicited. But different factors like man, market, politics, population etc. play very important role in this chain. The authors are advocating that energy security problem is a techno-economic socio-political problem. (author)

  4. Energy Security in a Time of Plenty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clawson, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Energy supply trends are good for Western security. Dependence on the volatile Persian Gulf may increase only slightly, as additional supplies come from stable pro-Western areas, such as Norway and Latin America...

  5. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  6. Energy security in China and in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    In the first part, this report addresses the issue of energy security in China. The authors first consider renewable energies by discussing the Chinese policy (incentive policies, delayed reforms, issue of a legal framework to promoter these energies), and by commenting the case of wind energy (a too strong emergence, promotion policies, wind energy industry, a disordered growth, quality vs quantity) and the case of solar energy (a recent but strong lift off, uncertainty about the international context and focus on the domestic market). The authors outline the necessity of a reform, the difficulties faced on the short term, and some suggested solutions. They more briefly address the cases of hydraulic energy and biomass. They address the case of fossil energies for which China is facing an increasing demand but also technical and institutional challenges which limit the development of this sector. Therefore, China uses foreign supplies: this a source of partnerships but also of conflicts. Opportunities for the French expertise are outlined. The specific case of coal is analysed: a pillar of energy security for China, a new industry, with necessary reforms, and opportunities for foreign companies. The second part of the report addresses the issue of energy security in India. The authors first comment the Indian energy mix. They outline that energy security is weakened by governance problems, and that imports are used to address domestic shortages

  7. Nuclear energy and the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2005-01-01

    Security of energy supply was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. In this paper, the author discusses the problem of energy supply security. Can security of supply be measured? What is the role of government and of nuclear energy? And what are measures for ensuring security of supply? (A.L.B.)

  8. Exogenous shocks and governing energy security

    OpenAIRE

    Diriöz, Ali Oğuz

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of International Relations, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 219-248). The research examines how governments maintain energy security when faced with exogenous shocks. The main focus of inquiry examines the relative influence of markets vs. geopolitics in the area of energy security using the comparative case studies of Turkey, France, and Netherl...

  9. Indicators of energy security in industrialised countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2010-01-01

    Energy security has become a popular catch phrase, both in the scientific arena as well as in the political discussion. Yet, in general the applied concepts of energy security are rather vague. This paper sheds some light on concepts and indicators of energy security. First, we conceptually discuss the issue of energy supply security and explain why it is not to handle by one science alone and what economics may contribute in order to structure the topic. After providing a brief survey of existing attempts to define or measure energy security we suggest an additional dimension along which indicators of energy security may be classified: ex-post and ex-ante indicators. Finally, we illustrate our concept on the basis of several simplified indicators. While ex-post indicators are mostly based on price developments, ex-ante indicators are to a greater extent aimed at illustrating potential problems. Our illustration suggests that it is worthwhile to take into account the market structure along with the political stability of exporting countries. (author)

  10. Evaluation of nuclear energy in the context of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo; Kanda, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the view expressed by the Japanese government on the role of nuclear energy for energy security through scrutiny of Japan's policy documents. The analysis revealed that the contribution by nuclear energy to Japan's energy security has been defined in two ways. Nuclear energy improves short-term energy security with its characteristics such as political stability in exporting countries of uranium, easiness of stockpiling of nuclear fuels, stability in power generation cost, and reproduction of plutonium and other fissile material for use by reprocessing of spent fuel. Nuclear energy also contributes to medium- and long-term energy security through its characteristics that fissile material can be reproduced (multiplied in the case of breeder reactor) from spent fuels. Further contribution can be expected by nuclear fusion. Japan's energy security can be strengthened not only by expanding the share of nuclear energy in total energy supply, but also by improving nuclear energy's characteristics which are related to energy security. Policy measures to be considered for such improvement will include (a) policy dialogue with exporting countries of uranium, (b) government assistance to development of uranium mines, (c) nuclear fuel stockpiling, (d) reprocessing and recycling of spent fuels, (e) development of fast breeder reactor, and (f) research of nuclear fusion. (author)

  11. Securing the energy industry : perspectives in security risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, G.L. [Anadarko Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation offered some perspectives in security risk management as it relates to the energy sector. Since the events of September 11, 2001 much attention has been given to terrorism and the business is reviewing protection strategies. The paper made reference to each of the following vulnerabilities in the energy sector: information technology, globalization, business restructuring, interdependencies, political/regulatory change, and physical/human factors. The vulnerability of information technology is that it can be subject to cyber and virus attacks. Dangers of globalization lie in privacy and information security, forced nationalization, organized crime, and anti-globalization efforts. It was noted that the Y2K phenomenon provided valuable lessons regarding interdependencies and the effects of power outages, water availability, transportation disruption, common utility corridor accidents, and compounding incidents. The paper also noted the conflict between the government's desire to have a resilient infrastructure that can withstand and recover from attacks versus a company's ability to afford this capability. The physical/human factors that need to be considered in risk management include crime, domestic terrorism, and disasters such as natural disasters, industrial disasters and crisis. The energy industry has geographically dispersed vulnerable systems. It has done a fair job of physical security and has good emergency management practices, but it was noted that the industry cannot protect against all threats. A strategy of vigilance and awareness is needed to deal with threats. Other strategies include contingency planning, physical security, employee communication, and emergency response plans. tabs., figs.

  12. Energy exchange increases supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2004-01-01

    Since October 5, 2004, Endex is an official futures market for energy. All the energy businesses and large-scale consumers in the Netherlands can trade electricity, and in the future also gas, anonymously [nl

  13. Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-30

    More than a dozen energy experts convened in Houston, Texas, on February 13, 2009, for the first in a series of four regionally-based energy summits being held by the Council on Competitiveness. The Southern Energy Summit was hosted by Marathon Oil Corporation, and participants explored the public policy, business and technological challenges to increasing the diversity and sustainability of U.S. energy supplies. There was strong consensus that no single form of energy can satisfy the projected doubling, if not tripling, of demand by the year 2050 while also meeting pressing environmental challenges, including climate change. Innovative technology such as carbon capture and storage, new mitigation techniques and alternative forms of energy must all be brought to bear. However, unlike breakthroughs in information technology, advancing broad-based energy innovation requires an enormous scale that must be factored into any equation that represents an energy solution. Further, the time frame for developing alternative forms of energy is much longer than many believe and is not understood by the general public, whose support for sustainability is critical. Some panelists estimated that it will take more than 50 years to achieve the vision of an energy system that is locally tailored and has tremendous diversity in generation. A long-term commitment to energy sustainability may also require some game-changing strategies that calm volatile energy markets and avoid political cycles. Taking a page from U.S. economic history, one panelist suggested the creation of an independent Federal Energy Reserve Board not unlike the Federal Reserve. The board would be independent and influence national decisions on energy supply, technology, infrastructure and the nation's carbon footprint to better calm the volatile energy market. Public-private efforts are critical. Energy sustainability will require partnerships with the federal government, such as the U.S. Department of Energy

  14. Evolution of gas markets and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2007-07-01

    Questions of energy security and international gas trade became indissolubly connected during the last years. Paradoxically during the evolution of natural gas markets concerns about security issues in gas trade are only growing at the same time as transaction costs. Market participants have developed several mechanisms of adaptation (vertical integration, mutual penetration of capital and long-term contracts) which should be regarded not as a market failure but as an essential part of energy security guarantees at the moment. Further gas market evolution will demand more unified institutional framework to decrease threats to energy security and transaction costs. But this framework should be a result of mutual compromise of all market participants. (auth)

  15. Development of Nuclear Energy Security Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Takehisa; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Okubo, Hiroo; Kikuchi, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    In establishing of the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan that have a vulnerability in own energy structure, an effectiveness of energy security should be taken into account as well as an economy based on the balance of supply and demand of nuclear fuels. NMCC develops the 'Nuclear Energy Security Code' which was able to evaluate the effectiveness of energy security. Evaluation method adopted in this code is 'Import Premium' which was proposed in 'World Oil', EMF Report 6. The viewpoints of evaluation are as follows: 1. How much uranium fuel quantity can be reduced by using plutonium fuel? 2. How much a sudden rise of fuel cost can be absorbed by establishing the plutonium cycle beforehand the energy crisis? (author)

  16. Measuring energy security. A conceptual note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2008-11-06

    Along with the oil price, concerns about the security of energy supply have soared once again in recent years.Yet, more than 30 years after the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, energy security still remains a diffuse concept. This paper conceives a statistical indicator that aims at characterizing the energy supply risk of nations that are heavily dependent on energy imports. Our indicator condenses the bulk of empirical information on the imports of fossil fuels originating from a multitude of export countries as well as data on the indigenous contribution to the domestic energy supply into a single parameter. Applying the proposed concept to empirical energy data on Germany and the U.S. (1980-2004), we find that there is a large gap in the energy supply risks between both countries, with Germany suffering much more from a tensed energy supply situation today than the U.S. (orig.)

  17. Second Strategic Energy Review. Securing our Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Europe has agreed a forward-looking political agenda to achieve its core energy objectives of sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. This agenda means substantial change in Europe's energy system over the next years, with public authorities, energy regulators, infrastructure operators, the energy industry and citizens all actively involved. It means choices and investments during a time of much change in global energy markets and international relations. The European Commission has therefore proposed a wide-ranging energy package which gives a new boost to energy security in Europe, i.e. putting forward a new strategy to build up energy solidarity among Member States and a new policy on energy networks to stimulate investment in more efficient, low-carbon energy networks; proposing a Energy Security and Solidarity Action Plan to secure sustainable energy supplies in the EU and looking at the challenges that Europe will face between 2020 and 2050; adopting a package of energy efficiency proposals aims to make energy savings in key areas, such as reinforcing energy efficiency legislation on buildings and energy-using products. All relevant and related documents with regard to the Second Strategic Energy Review can be found through this site

  18. Energy Development and Environmental NGOs: The Asian Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    1998-12-01

    This report compares and analyses the energy-sector activities of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Asia. The main focus is on energy development with an environmental orientation such as large hydroelectric power development, energy efficiency improvements, and new and renewable energy development. Specifically, it (1) analyses the motivations, aims, characteristics and means of operation of the NGOs in their involvement in projects related to energy and environment, (2) studies the process of NGOs involvement in decision-making and the extent to which processes are affected by the nature of operation and why, (3) reviews the relationships and means of interaction of NGOs with governmental agencies, international aid organizations and the private sector, (4) examines the influence of international NGOs on local and regional NGOs and the differences in their values and modes of operation, and finally (5) describes the implications of NGO contributions to the emergence of global civil society from an Asian perspective. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  20. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  1. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  2. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  3. Institutions in European and Asian energy markets: A methodological overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Pami

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a methodological framework to study institutions in European and Asian energy markets with a comparative case study on the EU and east Asia. A distinction is made between informal and three types of formal institutions; and their transaction cost reducing, order creating and ecological/climatic functions. The operation of energy markets is explained through the structure of institutions, their types and functions. It is found that order-creating institutions guarantee enough stability, (mutual) trust and solidarity among EU Member States to support the competitive markets institution and supranational formal institutions as the underpinnings of trade in the internal energy market, which nevertheless retains some corporatist features. In the east Asian markets the nature of order-creating institutions sovereignty, energy diplomacy and great power management prevents the emergence of supranational formal institutions and a shared idea of trade. The prevailing structure has a large number of sub-regional organisations with overlapping tasks and few powers. In both markets the functions of institutions signify more than their number; transaction cost reducing institutions are dependent on order-creating institutions, while both of these functions are better realised on the regional level than ecological/climatic functions; ultimately informal institutions are most influential. - Highlights: • Institutions include informal types and three formal types. • The functions of institutions relate to transaction costs, order and ecology. • Transaction cost reduction depends on order creating institutions. • Ecological functions are the most difficult to realise regionally. • Informal institutions are most influential in the EU and east Asian markets

  4. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  5. Liberalization of electricity markets and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Liberalization of electricity markets begun in England in 1990 and became the trends of the times. Its effects on the energy security and atomic power generation are discussed. On the effects on energy security, change of construction of fuel of power generation, decrease of fuel feed by high efficiency of power generation, decrease of fuel stock by pressure of cost-cutting, increase of import rate of electricity, increase of power consumption with decrease of power cost, flexibility of supply contract, diversification of service, international cooperation on energy security and mutual dependence relation by international investment are discussed. On the effects of liberalization on the electricity markets, characteristics of nuclear power generation, risk of investment, effects of introduction of competition on development of the existing and new nuclear power generation, relation between development of nuclear power generation and market failure and what the government should do for development of nuclear power generation are discussed. (S.Y.)

  6. China's energy security: The perspective of energy users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the energy security concerns faced by China from the point of view of energy users working in government, university, civil society and business sectors. The authors first derive a set of seven hypotheses related to Chinese energy security drawn from a review of the recent academic literature. We then explain each of these seven hypotheses, relating to (1) security of energy supply, (2) geopolitics, (3) climate change, (4) decentralization, (5) energy efficiency, (6) research and innovation of new energy technologies, and (7) self sufficiency and trade. Lastly, the article tests these hypotheses through a survey distributed in English and Mandarin completed by 312 Chinese participants. The conclusion presents insights for policymakers and energy scholars.

  7. Energy Security and Renewable Energy in Least Developed Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2006-01-01

    The Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries (UN, 2001) states: The levels of production and consumption of energy in the majority of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are inadequate and unstable. This clearly indicates a situation of energy insecurity. Starting from an encompassing definition of energy security (a country's ability to expand and optimise its energy resource portfolio and achieve a level of services that will sustain economic growth and poverty reduction), it becomes quickly clear that energy security in LDCs is a complex topic with numerous interlinkages to other sustainable development objectives. This paper attempts to give an overview of issues related to energy security in LDCs by focusing on the role renewable energy can play in that context.(author)

  8. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  9. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  10. Can low-carbon societies deliver on energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The impact of low-carbon policies on energy security depends on both the timing and intensity of these policies, and the definition of energy security: security of what?; security for whom?; and security from which threats? The priorities of the EU’s 2030 climate/energy package and energy security show little if any alignment. Global climate stabilization policies benefit the energy security of India, China, and the EU, but may have negative impacts on export revenues of the U.S. and other energy exporters.

  11. Nuclear power: energy security and supply assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2008-01-01

    Expectations are high for nuclear power. This paper first summarizes recent global and regional projections for the medium-term, including the 2007 updates of IAEA projections plus International Energy Agency and World Energy Technology Outlook projections to 2030 and 2050. One driving force for nuclear power is concern about energy supply security. Two potential obstacles are concerns about increased nuclear weapon proliferation risks, and concerns by some countries about potential politically motivated nuclear fuel supply interruptions. Concerning supply security, the paper reviews different definitions, strategies and costs. Supply security is not free; nor does nuclear power categorically increase energy supply security in all situations. Concerning proliferation and nuclear fuel cut-off risks, the IAEA and others are exploring possible 'assurance of supply' mechanisms with 2 motivations. First, the possibility of a political fuel supply interruption is a non-market disincentive discouraging investment in nuclear power. Fuel supply assurance mechanisms could reduce this disincentive. Second, the risk of interruption creates an incentive for a country to insure against that risk by developing a national enrichment capability. Assurance mechanisms could reduce this incentive, thereby reducing the possible spread of new national enrichment capabilities and any associated weapon proliferation risks. (orig.)

  12. The security of energy supplies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, Francois

    2002-01-01

    As an attempt occurred against a French oil tanker in the Persian Gulf (in 2002), and showed that security of oil supplies is not only related to oil shock or to political environment such as the Cold War, this article discusses issues of security for European energy supplies. It first addresses the situation and the evolution of energy needs and resources in the World and in Europe: predictions of evolution of consumption and production, major role of fossil fuels in the European consumption. It discusses the outage risks: the supply security can be analysed with respect to consumption per sector, per usage or per energy product, and Europe must face three major risks (no more hydrocarbon resources at a reasonable cost, economic risk due to market volatility, geopolitical risk). The next part discusses the perspective of a European strategy. It identifies several elements of choice for Europe in terms of energy demand management, of opening up to competition of electricity and gas markets. It discusses European ambitions in terms of supply security: need of a community framework, actual propositions of a directive for oil and gas

  13. Energy security in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, S.J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The traditional and current issues regarding the security of energy supplies is reviewed with particular emphasis on the oil sector and the implications of the terrorist attack on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001. In November 2001, the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) issued a press release about energy-related environmental problems and the need to factor in the danger of terrorist attacks on energy installations. The presentation examines the current levels of energy demand, expected areas of growth, and changing patterns of energy supply for the United States. The impact that growth in the industrial states of China will have in the global scheme of the petroleum industry is also discussed. Levels of political stability and security in many parts of the world are reviewed with particular reference to the Near and Middle East, Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is noted that liberalization and globalization are favouring the agglomeration of capital and labour into larger and larger multinational energy companies, which raises the concern about excessive market power. In its 2001 analysis of energy outlook, the International Energy Agency indicated that the reserves of oil, natural gas, coal and uranium are more than adequate to meet projected demand growth until at least 2020, by which time new technologies such as hydrogen-based fuel cells, clean coal burning and carbon sequestration will hold out the prospect of abundant, clean energy supplies. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Energy security in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The traditional and current issues regarding the security of energy supplies is reviewed with particular emphasis on the oil sector and the implications of the terrorist attack on New York and Washington on September 11, 2001. In November 2001, the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) issued a press release about energy-related environmental problems and the need to factor in the danger of terrorist attacks on energy installations. The presentation examines the current levels of energy demand, expected areas of growth, and changing patterns of energy supply for the United States. The impact that growth in the industrial states of China will have in the global scheme of the petroleum industry is also discussed. Levels of political stability and security in many parts of the world are reviewed with particular reference to the Near and Middle East, Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is noted that liberalization and globalization are favouring the agglomeration of capital and labour into larger and larger multinational energy companies, which raises the concern about excessive market power. In its 2001 analysis of energy outlook, the International Energy Agency indicated that the reserves of oil, natural gas, coal and uranium are more than adequate to meet projected demand growth until at least 2020, by which time new technologies such as hydrogen-based fuel cells, clean coal burning and carbon sequestration will hold out the prospect of abundant, clean energy supplies. 15 refs., 6 figs

  15. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  16. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davies, Lincoln [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues.

  17. An aggregated energy security performance indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martchamadol, Jutamanee; Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► AESPI shows a country’s (or province’s) energy security status. ► AESPI considers social, economic and environmental aspects using 25 indicators. ► AESPI shows the impact of the trend of energy policies/measures. ► AESPI could be a tool for monitoring and evaluating the impact of energy policies. -- Abstract: An “Aggregated Energy Security Performance Indicator (AESPI)” has been developed by considering 25 individual indicators representing social, economy and environmental dimensions. The principle used, data required and the methodology for the development of AESPI have been detailed. AESPI requires time series data for its development and its value ranges from 0 to 10. The characteristics of AESPI have been compared with the existing indicators in terms of methodology, data requirements, analysis possible and the applications. The advantages of AESPI is that it not only assists in knowing the past energy security status of a country, but also helps in assessing the future status considering the energy policies and plans of the country, thus enabling the monitoring of the impacts of the policies.

  18. Japan, new agenda for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrisstoffels, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    The author argues that the Japanese government will actively seek to strengthen security of supply. Japan has almost no domestic energy reserves. It is Asia's leading energy importer, but it faces increasing competition for resources from China and India. This has led to growing concern among Japanese policy makers. In the spring of 2007 a new Basic Energy Law was drafted that offers a strategic change of direction, away from a policy emphasis on free (energy) trade promotion and liberalisation of domestic energy markets. Japan will boost energy diplomacy towards energy producing countries and increase financial guarantees to Japanese oil and gas development companies. At the same time, Japan will raise efforts to lower its dependency on foreign oil and gas. To this end, it has set ambitious targets for further nuclear power development and the promotion of bio-trade. The author points at a multitude of complexities that may impede the success of these policies, Still, EU policy makers should be aware that Japan's energy policy has changed, driven by the conviction that markets alone cannot be relied upon to guarantee a secure supply of energy. [nl

  19. Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

  20. Mongolia's potential in international cooperation in the Asian energy space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Sereeter; Stennikov, Valery; Bat-Erdene, Bayar; Erdenebaatar, Altay

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the issues of interstate electric power interconnections to be created in the countries of Northeast Asia. The conditions are formulated, the problems are stated, and solutions for Mongolia's entry into the Asian energy space are proposed. The electricity consumption rates are growing, however, the Northeast Asia countries differ considerably in available energy resources to cope with this growth. Therefore, the need to build international electric power interconnections that take into account climatic features, seasonal peak load differences and other factors in order to rationally match power demand and supply is getting increasingly more obvious. Mongolia can take an active part in this process, as the country is rich in energy resources and interested in their development to meet their domestic needs and exchange with neighboring countries. The establishment of interstate power interconnections in the Northeast Asia countries represents a topical task whose solution will make it possible to meet the demand of this region for electricity on mutually beneficial terms. Mongolia has a good spatial position, energy resources and is interested in ensuring domestic energy balance. Therefore, the country can be an active participant in such an integration process.

  1. Securing a Home Energy Managing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2016-01-01

    Energy management in households gets increasingly more attention in the struggle to integrate more sustainable energy sources. Especially in the electrical system, smart grid towards a better utilisation of the energy production and distribution infrastructure. The Home Energy Management System...... (HEMS) is a critical infrastructure component in this endeavour. Its main goal is to enable energy services utilising smart devices in the households based on the interest of the residential consumers and external actors. With the role of being both an essential link in the communication infrastructure...... for balancing the electrical grid and a surveillance unit in private homes, security and privacy become essential to address. In this chapter, we identify and address potential threats Home Energy Management Platform (HEMP) developers should consider in the progress of designing architecture, selecting hardware...

  2. Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.

  3. Energy security from the Russian perspective. Think pipes not rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2008-07-01

    The presentation reviews the understanding of energy security, the Russian role in the energy source market and discusses how to increase the energy security. Environmental aspects such as climate change, CO2 reduction and the environmental costs of fossil fuel consumption with respect to the energy security are emphasized (tk)

  4. Rethinking EU energy security considering past trends and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2014-01-01

    EU energy policy objectives are directed at three highly interdependent areas: energy supply security, competitiveness and decarbonization to prevent climate change. In this paper, we focus on the issue of energy supply security. Security of energy supply for the immediate and medium-term future is

  5. Asia-Europe cooperation on energy security an overview of options and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.; Godement, F.; Yakushiji, T

    2005-07-01

    Asian and European economies are major players on the international energy markets. Because of broad similarities in the energy situation in both regions, and also because of some existing major differences, there is definitely scope for joint discussions and cooperation on energy issues between the countries of the two regions, despite possible competing interests. This document aims at examining the conditions for this possible cooperation, as well as the major incentives and obstacles. After a brief reminder on the notion of energy security, a first section provides a synthesis of the energy situation and outlook in the two regions. The next section focuses more specifically on energy security issues and policies, emphasizing the diversity of strategies followed in the two regions. The last section concludes by sketching possible avenues for cooperation on energy issues between countries of the two regions.

  6. Asia-Europe cooperation on energy security an overview of options and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, F.; Godement, F.; Yakushiji, T.

    2005-01-01

    Asian and European economies are major players on the international energy markets. Because of broad similarities in the energy situation in both regions, and also because of some existing major differences, there is definitely scope for joint discussions and cooperation on energy issues between the countries of the two regions, despite possible competing interests. This document aims at examining the conditions for this possible cooperation, as well as the major incentives and obstacles. After a brief reminder on the notion of energy security, a first section provides a synthesis of the energy situation and outlook in the two regions. The next section focuses more specifically on energy security issues and policies, emphasizing the diversity of strategies followed in the two regions. The last section concludes by sketching possible avenues for cooperation on energy issues between countries of the two regions

  7. IFRI's notebooks. Energy, development and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Jacquet, P.

    1999-01-01

    Today, the concept of energy security has been greatly modified by the worldwide trade, the markets deregulation, the technical progress and the nuclear contestation. This notebook is the synthesis of a colloquium jointly organized in December 16, 1997 by the IFRI and the Institute of Economy and Energy Policy (IEPE) with the sustain of the French delegation of strategic affairs of the defense ministry. It analyzes the evolution of energy markets at the year 2030 prospects and stresses on the role of Middle-East and on the stakes of the economical development and energy policy of China. Finally, it treats of the goals and modalities of the French and European energy policies. (J.S.)

  8. In Pursuit of the American Degree: Internationalization, National Security, and the Making of South Asian Foreign Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation examines how global neoliberal forces intersect with racialized state security practices to shape the transnational subjectivities of South Asian overseas students studying in the U.S. in the post-9/11 moment. These students' movement across national borders to pursue higher education in the United States positions them as ideal…

  9. PV in Japan - improving energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Currently, almost 80% of Japan's primary energy is imported and about 50% of this comes from politically unstable countries. The Japanese are now working hard to improve energy security in a clean and sustainable fashion. Since the wind patterns are not favourable for wind power, the emphasis is on photovoltaics (PVs), and many companies that once manufactured integrated circuits are now working on solar cells where their knowledge and experience of mass production, quality control, sales and marketing stand them in good stead. It is expected that the Japanese will be world leaders in the making and export of solar equipment, as well as one of the world's greatest users

  10. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  11. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  12. US oil policy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-05-01

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  13. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  14. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffaux, P.

    1994-01-01

    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  18. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  19. G-8 leaders tackle global energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2006-01-01

    Leaders of the Group of 8 countries backed the IAEA's work at their annual summit held 15-17 July 2006 in St. Petersburg, Russia. A concluding summary statement endorsed IAEA programmes and initiatives in areas of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards. The G8 nations adopted a St. Petersburg Plan of Action to increase transparency, predictability and stability of the global energy markets, improve the investment climate in the energy sector, promote energy efficiency and energy saving, diversify energy mix, ensure physical safety of critical energy infrastructure, reduce energy poverty and address climate change and sustainable development. In a statement on global energy security, the G8 said countries who have or are considering plans for nuclear energy believe it will contribute to global energy security while reducing air pollution and addressing climate change. The G8 said it acknowledged the efforts made in development by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). GIF and INPRO both bring together countries to develop next generation nuclear energy systems, including small reactors, very high temperature reactors and supercritical water-cooled reactors. The G8 reaffirmed its full commitment to all three pillars of the NPT and called on all States to comply with their NPT obligations, including IAEA safeguards as well as developing effective measures aimed at preventing trafficking in nuclear equipment, technology and materials. The G8 is seeking universal adherence to IAEA comprehensive safeguards agreements and is actively engaged in efforts to make comprehensive safeguards agreements together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard. The G8 noted that an expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy must be carried forward in a manner consistent with nuclear non-proliferation commitments and standards. It discussed concrete

  20. The concept of energy security: Beyond the four As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherp, Aleh; Jewell, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Energy security studies have expanded from their classic beginnings following the 1970s oil crises to encompass various energy sectors and increasingly diverse issues. This viewpoint contributes to the re-examination of the meaning of energy security that has accompanied this expansion. Our starting point is that energy security is an instance of security in general and thus any concept of it should address three questions: “Security for whom?”, “Security for which values?” and “Security from what threats?” We examine an influential approach – the ‘four As of energy security’ (availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability) and related literature of energy security – to show it does not address these questions. We subsequently summarize recent insights which propose a different concept of energy security as ‘low vulnerability of vital energy systems’. This approach opens the road for detailed exploration of vulnerabilities as a combination of exposure to risks and resilience and of the links between vital energy systems and critical social functions. The examination of energy security framed by this concept involves several scientific disciplines and provides a useful platform for scholarly analysis and policy learning. - Highlights: • Energy security should be conceptualized as an instance of security in general. • 4As of energy security and related approaches do not address security questions. • We define energy security as low vulnerability of vital energy systems (VES). • VES support critical social functions and can be drawn sectorally or geographically. • Vulnerability is a combination of exposure to risks and resilience capacities

  1. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-12-01

    As an introduction to the seminar of the 30 May 2002 on the US oil dependency and energy security, the author analyzes the different factors which characterize the american petroleum market situation today. A special interest is thus done to the price increase of 1999-2000 due to the legislation evolution, the gas market tensions, the impact and the power of the OPEC on the international markets, the 11 September 2001 attempts and their political and military consequences. The author also discusses about three papers written after the seminar. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy shortages in Europe? strategic meetings on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, M.

    2005-01-01

    On the RTE's initiative, the Economic and Social Council welcome the first 'Strategic Meetings on Energy Security' event on July 11, 2005. With its 'Energy Shortages in Europe?' subtitle, the convention was in line with the topical issue of oil price increases. Opening the convention, Hubert Bouchet, the vice-president of the Research and Technology Productive Activities section of the Economic and Social Council (CES) stated that with its 400 million citizens, Europe uses over 2 500 tWh of electricity a year, and that its demand for primary energy is growing, making it the largest importer of energy in the world and the top second user after the United States. The trend should continue at least until 2030. H Bouchet also stress that though the worlds is using increasing amounts of energy, over 1.5 billion people do not have access to modern energy sources. Therefore, there are huge needs. There were four round-tables introducing rich debates with the room. The first one was about the issue of the 'energy market: the end of overcapacity', and the second one, dedicated so secure supplies, was titled: 'An ill adapted regulatory framework and European context'. In the afternoon, exchanges covered 'Strategies to prepare the energy offer for new stakes' and 'Major strategies for France and Europe'. (author)

  3. The analysis of security cost for different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eunju; Kim, Wonjoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Global concerns for the security of energy have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Urgent policy response is thus essential. However, little attempt has been made at defining both energy security and energy metrics. In this study, we provide such metrics and apply them to four major energy sources in the Korean electricity market: coal, oil, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear. In our approach, we measure the cost of energy security in terms of supply disruption and price volatility, and we consider the degree of concentration in energy supply and demand using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). Due to its balanced fuel supply and demand, relatively stable price, and high abundance, we find nuclear energy to be the most competitive energy source in terms of energy security in the Korean electricity market. LNG, on the other hand, was found to have the highest cost in term of energy security due to its high concentration in supply and demand, and its high price volatility. In addition, in terms of cost, we find that economic security dominates supply security, and as such, it is the main factor in the total security cost. Within the confines of concern for global energy security, our study both broadens our understanding of energy security and enables a strategic approach in the portfolio management of energy consumption.

  4. Energy Profile and Perspectives on Northeast Asian Energy Co-operation of North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Energy policy of North Korea is basically based on the 'Principle of Self-reliance'. Throughout the active development of domestic energy sources, North Korea try to maximize the energy self-reliance as well as to minimize the outflow of currency for the import of energy. But, the 'Principle of Self-reliance' of energy sector brought about the excess dependency on coal and hydro, and eventually causes the contraction of oil and natural gas consumption. This kind of adverse reaction of the 'Principle of Self-reliance' is the major reason of overall weakness of national-wide economic system. It is not known actually what kinds of perspectives North Korea has on the Northeast Asian energy cooperation. But, it can be said that Northeast Asian energy cooperation can be the best chance for North Korea to solve current energy crisis and to transfer the economic system to capitalism for the recovery of national economy. 19 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Accelerator applications in energy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2015-01-01

    As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today's world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator ...

  6. Energy security and the IEA ExCo on combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, P. [Hutchinson Consultant (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Energy security is an issue for those nations which consume more energy than is available from indigenous sources. A failure to secure adequate energy supplies at an acceptable price prejudices both national and economic security. Energy security is therefore a significant policy issue. A discussion of energy security and the International Energy Agency ExCo on combustion was offered in this presentation. The purpose of the discussion was to determine if a task or set of tasks on combustion research related to energy security should be launched; the structure of such a task; topics of interest; who would wish to participate; who would lead the collaboration; and the next steps. The presentation discussed the proper understanding and analysis of energy security and the interactions between international politics; defence; economics and economic development; present and future technologies; national infrastructure; resource distribution; and environmental science and politics. The presentation also discussed whether there was a shortage of energy, world reserves of crude oil, coal, and hydrocarbons. Oil supply disruptions and nominal and real world oil prices were also discussed. Options for addressing energy security were presented, with particular reference to increasing the energy intensity of the economy; using a wide range of different fuels such as coal; developing indigenous supplies such as renewables; and developing a reliable long life energy source. It was concluded that imports of energy can be reduced when energy security improves. tabs., figs.

  7. Competing policy packages and the complexity of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Saunders, Harry

    2014-01-01

    To underscore both the diversity and severity of energy security tradeoffs, this study examines five different energy security policy packages—five distinct strategies aimed at reducing oil dependence, enhancing energy affordability, expanding access to modern energy services, responding to climate change, and minimizing the water intensity of energy production. It identifies both compelling synergies and conflicts between each of the five strategies. The central value of the study is that it turns on its head the widely accepted notion of a “portfolio approach” or “all of the above” strategy to energy policymaking. To make this case, the article begins by elucidating the complexity and multidimensionality of energy security as a concept. It then introduces our five energy security policy packages to illustrate how some energy security objectives complement each other whereas others counteract each other. It concludes by noting that energy security is not an absolute state, and that achieving it only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions, or policy goals and packages, more than others. - Highlights: • Energy security is a complex, multidimensional concept. • Policy packages aimed at achieving energy security often conflict with each other. • Energy security only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions more than others

  8. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodari A. Simonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article not only does substantially reinforce the arguments set forth by Professor Giuseppe Guarino, who argues about the negative consequences caused by the dictatorship of the Brussels's bureaucracy within the EU, but also inflicts another blow on the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Lisbon in terms of external policy and trade, since the both Treaties were designed to convert the EU in a real competitor of the United States in the then forming multipolar World. The Brussel's bureaucracy, having turned into a dutiful instrument of the US geopolitical strategy, hindered the movement of the EU in that direction, while its dictatorship in energy security aggravates the crisis situation of the EU, almost pushing the EU to the brink of collapse and disintegration. We have lately witnessed an evolving and growing phenomenon of the so called "Euroscepticism". The results of the Europarliament elections in late May, 2014, were a graphic demonstration of the symptoms of this alarming for the EU disease, when the anti-EU parties in the four out 22 EU countries won the elections (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Greece Those results, regardless of the panic headlines in mass media and statements like "shocking" or "earthquake" made by some politicians, were not able to significantly affect the nature of the European Parliament, though they can significantly complicate its work. This is so far the first "alarming bell" tolling for the EU.

  9. AY 2007-2008 Achieving U.S. Energy Security: Energy Industry Sector Report Seminar 8

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...; the ability to generate and exploit inexpensive energy underpins that strength. Therefore, the United States has a vital interest in ensuring the viability and stability of the global energy system and securing its energy security...

  10. Creating energy security indexes with decision matrices and quantitative criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry; Shupe, Darren

    2010-09-15

    Energy security is becoming an important policy issue in a growing number of jurisdictions because of volatile energy markets and production challenges faced by many producers. As a result, policymakers and politicians are looking for tools or methods that can create an energy security index with results that are justifiable, understandable, and reproducible. This paper describes a method which employs a decision matrix to produce an energy security index using quantitative criteria and metrics. The method allows a range of indexes to be produced, thereby offering further insight into the state of a jurisdiction's energy security.

  11. Rethinking energy security in Asia. A non-traditional view of human security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Anthony, Mely [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (SG). Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies; Chang, Youngho [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Division of Economics; Putra, Nur Azha (eds.) [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Energy Security Division

    2012-07-01

    Traditional notions of security are premised on the primacy of state security. In relation to energy security, traditional policy thinking has focused on ensuring supply without much emphasis on socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Non-traditional security (NTS) scholars argue that threats to human security have become increasingly prominent since the end of the Cold War, and that it is thus critical to adopt a holistic and multidisciplinary approach in addressing rising energy needs. This volume represents the perspectives of scholars from across Asia, looking at diverse aspects of energy security through a non-traditional security lens. The issues covered include environmental and socioeconomic impacts, the role of the market, the role of civil society, energy sustainability and policy trends in the ASEAN region.

  12. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  13. Nuclear power and national energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for energy in Ghana is expected to grow rapidly in the next couple of decades if the objectives of the Vision 2020 Programme are to become a reality. In particular, the demand for electric power is expected to increase 3 to 5 fold over 1997 levels by the year 2020.This calls for early planning. Adequate and dependable central station electric power supplies in the next couple of decades is therefore very critical to sustainable development and the achievement of the objective of the Vision 2020 Programme. Curtailment in electric power supplies cause disruption in economic activities and consequent economic losses. The recent cases in point are the 1983/84 and 1997/1998 power curtailments in Ghana due to low water levels in the Akosombo Reservoir. These led not only to substantial disruptions in economic activities but also to the erosion of invest confidence in the economy. It is, therefore, very essential that the country's central station electric power supply system should not continue to depend on hydro-electric power as in the past years but should be based on a mix of energy sources to provide an acceptable level of national energy security under all circumstances

  14. Energy and non-traditional security (NTS) in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Anthony, Mely [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (SG). Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies; Chang, Youngho [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Division of Economics; Putra, Nur Azha (eds.) [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Energy Security Division

    2012-07-01

    Traditional notions of security are premised on the primacy of state security. In relation to energy security, traditional policy thinking has focused on ensuring supply without much emphasis on socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Non-traditional security (NTS) scholars argue that threats to human security have become increasingly prominent since the end of the Cold War, and that it is thus critical to adopt a holistic and multidisciplinary approach in addressing rising energy needs. This volume represents the perspectives of scholars from across Asia, looking at diverse aspects of energy security through a non-traditional security lens. The issues covered include environmental and socioeconomic impacts, the role of the market, the role of civil society, energy sustainability and policy trends in the ASEAN region.

  15. Measuring the security of energy exports demand in OPEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, Jude Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of OPEC is the security of demand for the crude oil exports of its members. Achieving this objective is imperative with the projected decline in OECD countries' crude oil demand among other crude oil demand shocks. This paper focuses on determining the external crude oil demand security risks of OPEC member states. In assessing these risks, this study introduces two indexes. The first index, Risky Energy Exports Demand (REED), indicates the level of energy export demand security risks for OPEC members. It combines measures of export dependence, economic dependence, monopsony risk and transportation risk. The second index, Contribution to OPEC Risk Exposure (CORE), indicates the individual contribution of the OPEC members to OPEC's risk exposure. This study utilises the disaggregated index approach in measuring energy demand security risks for crude oil and natural gas and involves a country level analysis. With the disaggregated approach, the study shows that OPEC's energy export demand security risks differ across countries and energy types. - Highlights: • REED and CORE indexes are suitable measures for energy exports demand security risk. • The indexes show that energy demand security risk is different for each OPEC country. • The countries contribution to OPEC's energy demand security risk is also different. • The outcome is necessary for OPEC's common energy and climate change policies. • The outcome makes a case for oil demand security as a topical issue in the literature

  16. The Conceptualization of Energy Security: the International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzychenko Mykola V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews and analyzes existing interpretations of the term of «energy security», which are used by international organizations, individual countries, and foreign scientists. As result of a generalization of the numerous existing conceptual-methodical and substantive approaches to the definition of energy security, its main components and possible ways of its ensuring, it has been found that the concept of energy security includes many multifactor components that are interconnected by numerous functional linkages, including economic, political, social, and ecological aspects. The issues related to geology, geography, and time factor have impact on interpretation of energy security. But in general, energy security can be seen in a one-aspect dimension that is largely based on the security of energy supplies (availability of energy resources and in a multi-aspect dimension which, in addition to the security of energy supplies, also takes into consideration a number of other important interrelated aspects of energy security, particularly in the areas of accessibility of energy resources, energy efficiency, and environmental safety.

  17. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  18. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  19. Energy security in a competitive world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The world is shrinking and becoming increasingly interconnected. Events in one part of the world quickly impact other parts of the world. Rising standards of living in developed countries, along with rapid communications and growing, mobile populations, go hand in hand with greater worldwide interconnectedness but at the same time are leading to a greater rate of resource depletion. Adequate and economical energy resources are one of the crucial factors in maintaining and increasing standards of living around the world, yet nonrenewable energy resources are being depleted. The international marketplace is also becoming more tightly interconnected and competitive. Increasing trade competition among nations may lead to greater economic efficiency and, on the whole, to improved living standards in successful countries, but competition also contributes to barriers against cooperation. International trade competition may be leading to a tendency for competing nations to become more parochial in technology research and development. The impact of growing populations and rising living standards on the world's environment is also increasing and becoming more pervasive. Solid waste disposal is an increasingly aggravating problem, and hazardous waste and toxic wastes are even more difficult to deal with. Acid rain, global climate change, ozone-layer depletion, stream and harbor pollution, and the resulting pollution of the oceans are all evidence of a highly interconnected world. It is easy to argue that solutions must be political, economic, and social. In large part this must be the case; but as technologists, we want to do all we can to give political, economic, and social forces the best opportunity to succeed. Technology will be part of the solution and not just part of the problem of securing adequate energy supplies with acceptable environmental impact. 2 refs

  20. Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiang-Bo; Ji, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    China's energy supply security has faced many challenges such as the drastic change of the international energy environment and the domestic energy situation and so on. This paper constructs a multi-dimensional indicator system for the main risks deriving from four aspects to evaluate the situation of China's energy supply security and analyze its evolution characteristics from 1994 to 2011. The results indicate that the situation of China's energy supply security generally presented a downtrend during 1994–2008, as a result of increasing international energy market monopoly and high volatility of international crude oil prices. After 2008, the overall level of China's energy supply security has improved to the level of 2003, which is attributed to the relatively stable international energy environment as well as the effective implementation of energy policies. - Highlights: • A multi-dimensional index system for energy supply security is constructed. • The dynamic influences of external and internal risks are analyzed. • China's energy supply security presents a downward trend during 1994–2008. • The level of China's energy supply security has improved since 2009

  1. Energy security issues at household level in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Energy security at the household level implies ensuring assured and regular supply of clean energy fuels at an affordable price for various household activities. Threat to physical availability of clean energy fuels for cooking and lighting is determined through various indicators such as dependence on traditional fuels and limited access to clean fuels. Energy insecurity translates into various adverse social impacts. Financial threat to energy security is indicated by expenses incurred on energy fuels and affordability of clean fuels. Households spend a major portion of their income on acquiring energy fuels; however, due to high price of clean fuels, they continue to depend on traditional and inefficient fuels. There is an urgent need to address factors that pose a threat to energy security at the household level. In this regard, measures taken by the government agencies and other institutions are also reviewed. The paper also suggests the regulatory and policy interventions required to address the energy security issues at the household level.

  2. Maritime energy and security: Synergistic maximization or necessary tradeoffs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Offshore energy is big business. The traditional source of maritime energy, offshore petroleum and gas, has been on the rise since a reliable method of extraction was discovered in the mid-20th century. Lately, it has been joined by offshore wind and tidal power as alternative “green” sources of maritime energy. Yet all of this has implications for maritime environmental regimes as well, as maritime energy extraction/generation can have a negative effect on the ocean environment. This paper considers two major questions surrounding maritime energy and environmental concerns. First, how and why do these two concerns, maritime energy and environmental protection, play against each other? Second, how can states both secure their energy and environmental securities in the maritime domain? Maximizing maritime energy output necessitates some environmental costs and vice versa, but these costs vary with the type of offshore energy technology used and with the extent to which states are willing to expend effort to protect both environmental and energy security. - Highlights: • Security is a complicated concept with several facets including energy and environmental issues. • Offshore energy contributes to energy supply but can have environmental and monitoring costs. • Understanding the contribution of offshore energy to security depends on which security facet is deemed most important.

  3. Nuclear energy in Romania - a road to energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Lucaciu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Program in Romania is a part of the national and European energy policy: sustainable development, security of energy supply and competitiveness; Romania has a proven experience in construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs, as well as the necessary support infrastructure: Unit 2 completion represents the major project of Nuclearelectrica during its first decade of existence; Innovative approach of Nuclearelectrica related is applied to Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 completion: Major project for the second decade of company life; Risks management and allocation – major tool for project management and financing closure; Support from the political class is crucial, considering that the completion of such projects are covering more than one elections cycle

  4. Energy and water tradeoffs in enhancing food security: A selective international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Maroulis, Jerry; Hafeez, Mohsin

    2009-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food in most Asian countries. However, with rapidly growing populations, sustained high productivity and yields through improving water productivity is critically important. Increasingly complex energy-agriculture relationships require an in-depth understanding of water and energy tradeoffs. This study contributes to energy and food policies by analysing the complex energy, water and economics dynamics across a selection of major rice growing countries. The results show that tradeoffs exist between yield and energy inputs with high yield attributed to higher levels of energy input. The selected developed countries show higher energy productivity, relative to all other energy inputs, compared to the selected developing counties, owing to enhanced mechanisation, on-farm technology and improved farm management. Among all countries, China has the highest water productivity due to water-saving irrigation practices. These practices offer opportunities for developed and developing countries to increase water productivity at the same time taking advantage of economic and energy benefits of reduced pumping. Sustained production from agriculture is vital to food security. Improved irrigation practices can offset environmental footprints in the short run but their large-scale implementation remains an issue. In the long run, investments are needed to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improved energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce energy dependency, enhanced natural resource sustainability and ensuring future food security.

  5. The Role of Secure Access to Sustainable Energy in Reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Secure Access to Sustainable Energy in Reducing Women's ... of poverty, such as low education levels, inadequate health care and limited ... women in relation to energy will help governments promote overall development goals ...

  6. Security challenges for energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Papini, Davide; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    With the recent introduction of Energy-Harvesting nodes, security is gaining more and more importance in sensor networks. By exploiting the ability of scavenging energy from the surrounding environment, the lifespan of a node has drastically increased. This is one of the reason why security needs...

  7. China's energy security: Perception and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Guy C.K., E-mail: guyleung@gmail.co [Hong Kong Energy Studies Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2011-03-15

    China, now the world's second-largest economy, is worried about energy security, which underpins the core objectives of Beijing and the political legitimacy of the Communist Party of China. The purpose of this study is to explore certain popular myths about China's energy security. The study consists of six parts. After the introduction, it formulates the obscure concept of 'energy security' and attempts to contextualize it with 'Chinese characteristics.' Then it explicitly points out that the largest driver of oil demand by China as the 'World's Factory' is transport instead of industry. Next, it explores the effectiveness of transnational pipelines as a measure of energy security and explains why they are less effective than many observers have previously assumed. Furthermore, it investigates the global expansion of Chinese national oil companies and questions their actual contribution to energy security. A few concluding remarks then follow. - Research highlights: {yields} Oil is the form of energy that has produced most of China's energy insecurity. {yields} Transport sector, rather than industry, is the largest driver of China's oil demand. {yields} The contribution of oil pipelines to China's energy security is smaller than many assumed. {yields} Acquisition of oil reserves abroad cannot necessarily guarantee China a supply of oil that is more reliable and less expensive. {yields} Energy security is a means; it is not a goal.

  8. An Approach to Building Capacity for Nuclear Security and Safeguards in Thailand and the Southeast Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Chanyotha, S.; Nilsuwankosit, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A master’s degree programme in nuclear security and safeguards has been developed and offered at Chulalongkorn University for the first time in 2013 in order to develop necessary human resources in the fields of nuclear security and safeguards who can continue to work, conduct research, or serve as educators in these fields in Thailand and the Southeast Asian region. The first group of 20 students joined the programme in 2013 and recently graduated. The programme was one-of-its-kind, as there have not been many similar specialized programmes in nuclear security and safeguards in the past. In this paper, challenges and lessons learned throughout the programme are reported. Experience from the pilot programme will be used to improve the next round of the programme which is expected to start in 2017. With this program, more nuclear knowledge can be shared and maintained among the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries to ensure the peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the region. (author

  9. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years. Content: Foreword; Executive Summary; 1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy - Concepts and Issues: - Energy supply security: An introduction, - Why security of energy supply remains a policy issue in OECD countries, - The external dimension: import dependence, resource exhaustion and carbon policy, - The internal dimension: economic, financial and technical considerations for energy supply security - Orientations for government policies to enhance the security of energy supply, - Conclusions; 2. Indicators and Models for Measuring Security of Energy Supply Risks: - Introduction, - Different approaches towards designing the Supply/Demand Index, - A detailed review of selected security of supply indicators, - Comprehensive models for assessing the security of energy supply, - The Supply/Demand Index, - Concluding observations; 3. Evolution of the Security of Energy Supply in OECD Countries: - Time-dependent quantification of the security of energy supply, - Changes in security of supply in selected OECD countries, - Electricity generation and the security of energy supply, - The contribution of nuclear energy and energy intensity to the security of energy supply, - The geographical distribution of SSDI values, - Conclusions; 4. Public

  10. East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic and Security Arrangements and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-18

    objections by the United States to a proposed East Asian Economic Caucus (EAEC) propounded primarily by Malaysia under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad...proposed in 1990 by former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia. At the time, the United States opposed such an exclusive East Asian grouping...proposed by Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in 1990, the U.S. strategy took two tracks. The first was to oppose its founding through

  11. The security energy encryption in wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadzali, M. N.; Ali, A.; Azizan, M. M.; Albreem, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a concept of security in wireless power transfer (WPT) by applying chaos theory. Chaos theory is applied as a security system in order to safeguard the transfer of energy from a transmitter to the intended receiver. The energy encryption of the wireless power transfer utilizes chaos theory to generate the possibility of a logistic map for the chaotic security key. The simulation for energy encryption wireless power transfer system was conducted by using MATLAB and Simulink. By employing chaos theory, the chaotic key ensures the transmission of energy from transmitter to its intended receiver.

  12. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  13. Japan’s energy security predicament post-Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    If energy security is defined as the availability of energy at all times in various forms, in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices, without unacceptable or irreversible impact on the economy and the environment, Japan is facing an energy security predicament. For a country that was already uneasy about energy security, the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami, which caused a nuclear catastrophe in TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, turned this unease into outright anxiety. With the temporary and/or permanent closure of many nuclear reactors Japan has had to replace lost power. Tokyo has had no choice but to secure additional fossil fuels, a strategy that has negatively affected Japan’s economy due to rising fuel costs. The increase in Japan’s fossil fuel consumption has also caused a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions, and affected Tokyo’s commitment to Kyoto targets. This paper analyzes the consequences of the 2011 nuclear disaster for Japan’s energy security. Recognizing that Japan’s future energy policy choices are constrained and path dependent, the paper outlines energy policy recommendations for Japan’s government. - Highlights: ► Analysis of Japan’s energy security situation post-Fukushima. ► Energy transition is path dependant and slow. ► Government is facing significant challenges in terms of future energy policy.

  14. Asian market plants for thermo-electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognazza, E.; Cozzi, G.

    1998-01-01

    This article synthesizes the analysis results carried out by IEFE (Bocconi University of Milan) on the evolution (1980-1997) and the present situation of industrial equipment orders for power generation in East and South Asia markets. At present these markets are the most important, on world scale, of the analyzed sector. Competitive positions changes have been analyzed, in every market and the whole Asian area, of the most important firms operating on international scale, as well as of the major local makers [it

  15. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on...

  16. Exploring public perceptions of energy security risks in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demski, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Along with climate change and affordability, concerns about energy security are key drivers behind proposals for major energy system change in the UK and numerous other countries. Unlike climate change we know very little about how the public thinks and feels about this aspect of sustainability and energy policy. Beyond engaging critically with conceptual and theoretical discussions, empirical data from two surveys (Cardiff postal survey, N=520; online UK survey, N=499) using a ten item energy security scale are presented and discussed. Here we show that aspects of energy security are certainly of concern to the UK public, with particularly high concern around dependence on fossil fuels/imports and relatively lower expressed concern for actual disruption of energy supply. However public concerns around energy security are only emerging, and likely to change depending on the context in which it is discussed (e.g. in comparison to climate change). In addition, findings from public interviews are used to further contextualise the survey findings, showing unfamiliarity among the UK public with regards to the term “energy security”. We discuss implications, and further work that would be useful for understanding public perceptions in more depth. - highlights: • Exploring public views on energy security using a 10 item scale. • Concerns over energy security is relatively high but susceptible to framing. • Patterns of concern for different energy security aspects examined. • The term energy security is unfamiliar, only an emerging concern among UK publics. • Further discussion on the meanings and implications of these perceptions

  17. Energy symposium 2007 - energy secured?... for what price. Summary of the congress contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With its topical title ''Energy secured?.. for what price'' the 2007 Energy Symposium has added yet another milestone to its success story. Energy is a fundamental aspect of our industrial society. It is of essential importance that the demand for low-cost energy is strategically secured. Energy prices are basic to calculations on products that have to be sold and exported. They are therefore also an essential factor in securing Europe as an industrial region

  18. Challenges and countermeasures of China’s energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wensheng; Bluth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    China is now a major consumer and importer of energy, and its choices and policies will increasingly affect the rest of the world. This paper analyses the key features of China’s energy policy as it faces the prospect of possible challenges to its energy security given the increasing reliance on fuel imports and the need to transform its energy to meet the requirements of a modern, fast-growing economy. The paper examines whether the current energy mix is appropriate and sustainable, and considers the China’s policymakers new emphasis on energy efficiency, conservation, renewable energy and the shift to natural gas the primary energy source. It examines the internal and external constraints on China’s energy policy and considers the strategic dilemmas arising from China’s increasing involvement in international energy markets. It concludes that both the domestic and international implications of China’s search for energy security will confront policymakers with hard choices that will affect not only energy policy, but also China’s geopolitical grand strategy. - Highlights: ► Conception of energy security and energy policy in China’s grand strategy are expatiated. ► Challenges China is facing are analyzed from 4 aspects. ► New strategic thoughts of China including 6 capability enhancements are raised. ► Major tasks of safeguarding energy security contain 3 measures of improvement.

  19. Energy security and climate change protection: Complementarity or tradeoff?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2008-01-01

    Energy security and climate change protection have risen to the forefront of energy policy - linked in time and a perception that both goals can be achieved through the same or similar policies. Although such complementarity can exist for individual technologies, policymakers face a tradeoff between these two policy objectives. The tradeoff arises when policymakers choose the mix of individual technologies with which to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security. Optimal policy is achieved when the cost of the additional use of each technology equals the value of the additional energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emission that it provides. Such an approach may draw more heavily on conventional technologies that provide benefits in only one dimension than on more costly technologies that both increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  20. Nuclear safety and energy supply security: conflict or goal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy generation and safety problems at the nuclear power plant have been analysed. Nuclear power plants are operated on the commercial basis in many countries today. Safety and security in energy generation and distribution is a complex problem. Energy supply reliability, security energy price and other issues should be co-ordinated and solved at the same time. Decentralisation and deregulation means new challenges for regulatory bodies and assurance of security. International co-operation in this field is very important. Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) consolidates efforts of regulatory bodies of European countries in order to harmonize approaches of nuclear safety. Nuclear Safety, and security of energy supply is the task and goal at the same time. (author)

  1. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  2. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  3. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU policy of decreasing its overall gas demand and

  4. Comparative Analysis of China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Poshtich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of the energy factor on formulating China’s political and economic strategy towards Central Asia. Therefore, the article provides the profound analysis of the PRC energy strategy in the region, namely its principles, goals, objectives and mechanisms. The article also examines the key areas of energy cooperation between China and the five Central Asian states, as well as the major joint energy projects. Moreover, the article takes a close look at the Silk Road Economic Belt as one of the largest and most ambitious Chinese economic projects, for it is directly relevant to the development of energy cooperation in the region. The author also analyses the prospects as well as possible problems of further energy cooperation between China and Central Asian states. 

  5. Security of supply and regulation of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the security of energy supplies has re-emerged as a central issue in the energy policy arena in the UK and elsewhere. This re-emergence takes place against a backdrop of increased liberalisation of the energy markets, so that security of supply needs to be revisited within this context. Security of supply is multifaceted, but is often discussed in terms of physical availability of energy sources and their commodity price risk. This paper discusses the relationship between security of supply and network regulation - that is, how the energy networks, and appropriate regulation of them, can contribute to security of supply in liberalised energy sectors. Energy networks are predominantly natural monopolies and as a result are generally subject to regulatory oversight. We discuss a range of issues and trends that pose challenges and opportunities to network regulation and which call for new and innovative measures. The paper identifies a number of areas where network regulation can play a significant role in increasing the security of supply of future energy systems. (author)

  6. The role of CSR in promoting companies’ energy-saving actions in two Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Shinozaki, Mami; Nogata, Daisuke; Fujita, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In Asian developing countries, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development. However, in countries that possess weak government regulations and market mechanisms, industries are expected to save energy voluntarily. Therefore, corporate social responsibility (CSR) can serve as an important incentive to encourage companies to take voluntary actions. In this paper, we analyze CSR recognition and energy-saving actions taken by companies located in two Asian cities. The results of a questionnaire survey revealed that a positive relation exists between CSR recognition and energy saving. In developing countries, CSR develops based on concerns expressed by local cultures and communities. This indicates that the positive relationships that exist between CSR and energy-saving actions reflect the social norms of these communities. The results suggest that policies that encourage companies to enhance their CSR activities in society can serve as effective incentives to encourage energy-saving actions. - Highlights: • In Asian cities, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development. • CSR can serve as an important incentive to take voluntary energy saving actions. • The survey revealed a positive relation between CSR and energy saving. • The policies enhancing their CSR activities in society can serve as effective incentives

  7. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  8. Conceptualizing and measuring energy security: A synthesized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Mukherjee, Ishani

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a synthesized, workable framework for analyzing national energy security policies and performance. Drawn from research interviews, survey results, a focused workshop, and an extensive literature review, this article proposes that energy security ought to be comprised of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. We then break these five dimensions down into 20 components related to security of supply and production, dependency, and diversification for availability; price stability, access and equity, decentralization, and low prices for affordability; innovation and research, safety and reliability, resilience, energy efficiency, and investment for technology development; land use, water, climate change, and air pollution for sustainability; and governance, trade, competition, and knowledge for sound regulation. Further still, our synthesis lists 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators that policymakers and scholars can use to analyze, measure, track, and compare national performance on energy security. The article concludes by offering implications for energy policy more broadly. -- Highlights: → Energy security should consist of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. → The dimensions of energy security can be broken down into 20 components. → These components can be distilled into 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators.

  9. Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and Agricultural Management ... management and facilitating access to resources by low-income farmers. ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  10. Security of supply in the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The incentive schemes in the liberalized energy markets do not ensure short-term security of supply. The paper analyzes the regulatory measures suitable to tackle the issue, and evaluates their effects on market power [it

  11. It's Time for a National Energy Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, George G

    2008-01-01

    .... can preserve that standing in the world. Colonel Greg Wright argues that what is needed to retain our military and economic superpower advantage is a new overarching United States National Energy Security Strategy...

  12. Conceptualising energy security and making explicit its polysemic nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Lynne [The John Curtin Institute of Public Policy, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Twenty-first century access to energy sources depends on a complex system of global markets, vast cross-border infrastructure networks, a small group of primary energy suppliers, and interdependencies with financial markets and technology. This is the context in which energy security has risen high on the policy agenda of governments around the world and the term 'energy security' has quietly slipped into the energy lexicon. The limited discourse about the nature of the term or its underlying assumptions has been totally eclipsed by an almost overwhelming focus on securing supplies of primary energy sources and geopolitics. An examination of explicit and inferred definitions finds that the concept of energy security is inherently slippery because it is polysemic in nature, capable of holding multiple dimensions and taking on different specificities depending on the country (or continent), timeframe or energy source to which it is applied. This 'slipperiness' poses analytical, prediction and policy difficulties but if explicitly recognised through definitional clarity, new levels of understanding will enrich the policy debate to deal with obstacles impacting on the constantly evolving nature of energy security. (author)

  13. Conceptualising energy security and making explicit its polysemic nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century access to energy sources depends on a complex system of global markets, vast cross-border infrastructure networks, a small group of primary energy suppliers, and interdependencies with financial markets and technology. This is the context in which energy security has risen high on the policy agenda of governments around the world and the term 'energy security' has quietly slipped into the energy lexicon. The limited discourse about the nature of the term or its underlying assumptions has been totally eclipsed by an almost overwhelming focus on securing supplies of primary energy sources and geopolitics. An examination of explicit and inferred definitions finds that the concept of energy security is inherently slippery because it is polysemic in nature, capable of holding multiple dimensions and taking on different specificities depending on the country (or continent), timeframe or energy source to which it is applied. This 'slipperiness' poses analytical, prediction and policy difficulties but if explicitly recognised through definitional clarity, new levels of understanding will enrich the policy debate to deal with obstacles impacting on the constantly evolving nature of energy security.

  14. CSIR ScienceScope: An Energy-secure South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available issues, especially as buildings use more than 25% of national energy consumption. "An Energy-secure South Africa" the theme of this ScienceScope, features a multidisciplinary projects of the R&D work done on alternative energy solutions, clean and cleaner...

  15. Exploring propositions about perceptions of energy security: An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor; Jain Bambawale, Malavika; Brown, Marilyn A.; Fátima Cardoso, Terezinha de; Nurbek, Sayasat; Suleimenova, Gulimzhan; Li Jinke; Xu Yang; Jain, Anil; Alhajji, A.F.; Zubiri, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how energy users from government, industry, civil society, and academia perceive of energy security challenges. It also analyzes how demographic characteristics influence such perceptions, and how geography, economic structure, modes of domestic energy production, and culture shape energy security priorities. Its primary source of data is a four-part survey distributed in seven languages (English, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, German, and Japanese) to 2167 respondents in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Kazakhstan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United States. These countries were selected because they represent a mix of urban and rural populations, developed and developing economies, import- and export-oriented energy trading flows, communist and capitalist societies, liberalized and state-owned energy markets, and small and large geographic sizes. The survey results are used to test four propositions about energy security related to the education, age, occupation, and gender of respondents, as well five propositions about national energy priorities and the interconnected attributes of security of supply, energy efficiency, energy research and development, energy trade, diversification and decentralization, affordability, environmental quality, climate change, and energy governance.

  16. The International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Security Education Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUNEGGER-GUELICH, A.; RUKHLO, V.; GREGORIC, M.; COLGAN, P.

    2011-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. In response to the concerns of States, an international nuclear security framework has emerged through the establishment of a number of legally binding and non-binding international instruments which obligates or commits States to carry out a number of actions to protect against nuclear terrorism. In this context, the need for human resource development programmes in nuclear security was underscored at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors' Meetings. In the pursuit of this need, the IAEA provides a comprehensive nuclear security training programme to States on a regular basis, and has developed a concept that seeks to effectively pass ownership of nuclear security knowledge and skills to States through the establishment of a Nuclear Security Support Centre. In addition, the IAEA has developed a technical guidance titled IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12 - Educational Programme in Nuclear Security that consists of a model of a Master of Science (M.Sc.) and assists educational institutions to provide nuclear security education. The article sets out IAEA efforts in the area of nuclear security training and education, including the assistance to States for establishing a Nuclear Security Support Centre. It underlines the objective and content of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12, discusses different concepts on how to establish nuclear security at universities and, emphasizes on the IAEA efforts to assist educational and research institutions, and other stake holders to enhance global nuclear security by developing, sharing and promoting excellence in nuclear security education. (author)

  17. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  18. Information security of remote-reading energy meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts within the field of IT security. The ITSEC security and the ITSEM methods given by the European Community are used as a base. The EC INFOSEC research programme has included the project 'PER DOMUM' which focuses on remote reading of energy meters. The project is a co-operation between TACS (U.K.), GPP (Germany), CESI (Italy) and ENEL (Italy). SP has during the spring and summer of 1994 participated in the concluding of the project. Threats, security functions and security mechanisms are given for remote reading of energy meters. All of the listed functions and mechanisms do not origin from the 'PER DOMUM' project, but are the experiences of SP. The security evaluation is explained in two ways. One description of the required by ITSEM is given. Another description is given of which deliverables are required to perform the evaluation

  19. Alternative long term strategies for sustainable development: Rapidly increasing electricity consumption in Asian countries and future role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.

    1997-01-01

    Many people in the world express the concern that global warming will become an increasingly serious problem. A rapid increase in population and demand for energy in the Asian region must be discussed in this context. Despite the forecast of an increase in demand for energy, the Asian region is short of oil and natural gas resources. In addition, only less energy can be supplied by renewable energy sources in the Asian region than in the other regions because of high population density. Nuclear energy is an important energy resource for fulfilling the future increasing energy demand in the Asian region and for contributing to the suppression of carbon dioxide emissions. In the Asian region alone, however, we cannot rely limitlessly on LWR which does not use plutonium. According to a scenario analysis, the total capacity of nuclear power plants in the Asian region would reach large scale and the cumulative amount of demand for natural uranium will increase to about 5 million tons in the Asian region alone. Just the nuclear power plants of this scale in Asia alone will rapidly consume the world's cheap natural uranium resources if we rely only on natural uranium. In the Asian region, few countries have embarked on nuclear power generation and the capacity of equipment is still small. Currently, however, many plans for nuclear power generation are being designed. Many Asian countries obviously consider nuclear power generation as a valid option. Many potential policies must be examined in the light of future uncertainty. In the future, both renewable energy and nuclear energy must be resorted to. When nuclear energy is utilized, the use of plutonium and FBR in the Asian region must be taken into account in order to attain continual growth and development. (author)

  20. Conceptual Framework of Energy Security Assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Seung Su

    2016-01-01

    Korea's electric power is an essential source of energy, supplying 21.4% of the energy required by the manufacturing industry, 43.4% of that required for commerce, and 59.5% of that required by the public sector in 2014. Korea relies heavily on imports of energy sources because of its lack of natural resources. Its land area is limited, making it difficult to utilize renewable energy. Moreover, it is difficult to trade electricity through grid connections with neighbouring countries. Considering the key role of electric power in Korea and the circumstances of its power generation industry, we must understand the contribution of each fuel used in power plants to energy sustainability. This study derives the conceptual framework to quantify energy security levels for nuclear power generation in Korea and employ them in evaluating the national energy security. And sample calculation of nuclear energy security indicators is performed. The implications drawn from the evaluation are as follows. Nuclear power demonstrates dominance in the dimensions of economy and technology as the related technologies have entered into the stage of maturity. Without constant technological innovation, however, sustainability of nuclear sources will not be guaranteed. Nuclear has in the middle in terms of SS, but their high volatility impels Korea to pursue the diversification of energy suppliers. The energy security indicators suggested in this study are anticipated to contribute to establishing an energy security policy based on a comprehensive understanding of the energy security status in Korea. In the future, it will be necessary to establish specific scenarios for a decrease of regional conflicts and a post-2020 climate change conventions and conduct realistic and dynamic analyses

  1. Conceptual Framework of Energy Security Assessment in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Seung Su [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea's electric power is an essential source of energy, supplying 21.4% of the energy required by the manufacturing industry, 43.4% of that required for commerce, and 59.5% of that required by the public sector in 2014. Korea relies heavily on imports of energy sources because of its lack of natural resources. Its land area is limited, making it difficult to utilize renewable energy. Moreover, it is difficult to trade electricity through grid connections with neighbouring countries. Considering the key role of electric power in Korea and the circumstances of its power generation industry, we must understand the contribution of each fuel used in power plants to energy sustainability. This study derives the conceptual framework to quantify energy security levels for nuclear power generation in Korea and employ them in evaluating the national energy security. And sample calculation of nuclear energy security indicators is performed. The implications drawn from the evaluation are as follows. Nuclear power demonstrates dominance in the dimensions of economy and technology as the related technologies have entered into the stage of maturity. Without constant technological innovation, however, sustainability of nuclear sources will not be guaranteed. Nuclear has in the middle in terms of SS, but their high volatility impels Korea to pursue the diversification of energy suppliers. The energy security indicators suggested in this study are anticipated to contribute to establishing an energy security policy based on a comprehensive understanding of the energy security status in Korea. In the future, it will be necessary to establish specific scenarios for a decrease of regional conflicts and a post-2020 climate change conventions and conduct realistic and dynamic analyses.

  2. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  3. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  4. Security plan for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapias Stahelin, Fernando

    1998-01-01

    The explosion of pipelines is so alone the tip of the iceberg of a violent situation that, for many, sinks the economic and social panorama of Colombia in an uncertainty difficult to clarify. Although it is certain that we have the elements to build a country with a floating economy and in development, it is also certain that our own war doesn't allow leaving but there. At the moment 3,2% of the Gross Domestic Product - GDP of the country is dedicated to the military expense, it calculates alarming if one keeps in mind that the average of Latin America is of 1.7% and the world average has lowered ostensibly in the last 10 years, passing from 5.1% to so single 2.7 investments. Of continuing this way, in the 2004 the projected inversion of the GDP of Colombia for military expense will overcome 5%. A conscientious analysis reveals the data of this situation that it affects all the contour of the national life. When we speak of violence in the country we should refer to all those factors and actors that destabilize the society and the legally established political institutions, creating it keels and fear in the whole population. In a same way, it becomes necessary to speak of the security and the national defense that should be guaranteed by the government instances. The security of a state of tranquility and well being; the defense, is an activity situation so that in the case that the security loses temper, it can return to the situation of initial security

  5. CHINA’S STRATEGY OF ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U.S.recently launched strategy of rebalancing to Asia worsens the atmosphere forChina’s energy security and increases the risks for energy transportation from Africa and theMiddle East. The diversification of energy sources is a reasonable strategic choice, so the importance of the Eurasian continent forChinaincreases. Central Asia does not play anymore a supporting role in the agenda ofChina’s energy security strategy. It is rather becoming a region of major strategic importance.

  6. Three blind men and elephant: The Case of energy indices to measure energy security and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Narula; B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    An 'Energy Index', which is aggregated from energy indicators is a rich source of information and is helpful in providing an assessment of a country's performance. This has, however, resulted in mushrooming of a plethora of indices, which claim to quantify the performance of a country in attaining the goal of energy security and energy sustainability. The paper attempts to compare three different indices, viz., 'Energy Sustainability Index', 'International Index of Energy Security Risk', 'Ene...

  7. Renewable energy technology applications in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The interest shown by Asia in renewable energy technologies is currently extremely high as the region is expected to account for up to 50 percent of the total world power generation equipment orders over the next ten years. Mature developed technologies for power production from renewable energy resources are now available in the form of micro and mini hydro plants, biomass pyrolysis and gasification units, wind aerogenerators and photovoltaic arrays. If Australia is to move towards a sustainable energy society, renewable energy resources must be utilized on a widespread scale as soon as possible. There are large niche markets for renewable energy resource based equipment in Australia, as well as immense market opportunities in the neighbouring fast growing economies in Asia. Key issues to be addressed in terms of implementing major renewable energy programs in the region on a large scale include identification and encouragement of reliable markets, and mass production of high quality reliable products. (author). 10 refs

  8. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  9. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  10. A generic framework for the description and analysis of energy security in an energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2012-01-01

    While many energy security indicators and models have been developed for specific jurisdictions or types of energy, few can be considered sufficiently generic to be applicable to any energy system. This paper presents a framework that attempts to meet this objective by combining the International Energy Agency's definition of energy security with structured systems analysis techniques to create three energy security indicators and a process-flow energy systems model. The framework is applicable to those energy systems which can be described in terms of processes converting or transporting flows of energy to meet the energy–demand flows from downstream processes. Each process affects the environment and is subject to jurisdictional policies. The framework can be employed to capture the evolution of energy security in an energy system by analyzing the results of indicator-specific metrics applied to the energy, demand, and environment flows associated with the system's constituent processes. Energy security policies are treated as flows to processes and classified into one of three actions affecting the process's energy demand or the process or its energy input, or both; the outcome is determined by monitoring changes to the indicators. The paper includes a detailed example of an application of the framework. - Highlights: ► The IEA's definition of energy security is parsed into three energy security indicators: availability, affordability, and acceptability. ► Data flow diagrams and other systems analysis tools can represent an energy system and its processes, flows, and chains. ► Indicator-specific metrics applied to a process's flow determine the state of energy security in an energy system, an energy chain, or process. ► Energy policy is considered as a flow and policy outcomes are obtained by measuring flows with indicator-specific metrics. ► The framework is applicable to most jurisdictions and energy types.

  11. To the Problem of Energy Security and Energy Objects Control Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsiridze, A.; Abzianidze, D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the method of studying energy security of energy objects is evaluation of character and range of main safety risk influence with the help of indicator analysis. In the work is also reviewed an example of applying modern management theory to the group of tasks, connected with the optimal management of energy objects, which is the basis of their secure functioning. (authors)

  12. Security of Energy Supply - Indicators for Measuring Vulnerability and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, C.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, secure and affordable energy supplies are an essential requirement for economies to work, much less develop and grow in the long term. The present study, Energy security of supply - indicators for measuring vulnerability and risk, develops a broad methodical assessment concept to raise awareness among policy makers and the public regarding the vulnerability of energy supplies to potential energy crises. It explores the different aspects of vulnerability, from the primary energy level to energy infrastructure (storage, networks, power plant parks) to the efficiency and cost of energy consumption for end users. The individual characteristics of the formal concept were quantitatively evaluated for several OECD regions (Germany, UK, Sweden, Poland, Italy, France and the US) using a comprehensive empirical database and reduced to a single indicator for assessing energy supply vulnerability. Part of the database comprises historical observations for the period between 1978 and 2007.(author).

  13. Populous, Precarious – Protected? The Paradox of Social Security for South Asian Agricultural Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Social security is firmly rising on the international agenda. Discourses that depart from the assumption that societies can only afford a certain level of social expenditure give way to a recognition that social security is an important investment in development. New

  14. Issues affecting Northeast Asian minerals and energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheales, T.; Smith, V.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the broad issues likely to affect industry developments and trade in minerals and energy commodities in Northeast Asia in the 1990s are examined. Many of these issues will have a bearing on the development of mineral and energy resources of the Russian Far East region. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Event-related stresses in energy systems and their effects on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Ranjan, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Energy systems change over time as events, such as grid failures, new energy sources, and extreme weather conditions, occur, often affecting the system's energy security. Understanding events, their causes, and how they are handled, can help a jurisdiction and its energy stakeholders develop better, evidence-based energy policy. This paper employs a definition of stress in combination with systems analysis to specify methods for explaining the states through which an energy process, chain, or system passes in response to an event and how this response results in energy security improving, deteriorating, or being maintained. The definition uses three dimensions-availability, affordability, and acceptability-derived from the International Energy Agency's definition of energy security to show when and how a system's energy security will change. Examples are used to illustrate the application of the methods. - Highlights: • A generic set of methods and a common terminology to formalize the ongoing energy security discourse is proposed. • The methods define, measure and explain how energy security can change when events cause stresses in an energy system. • Events are classified in terms of three dimensions derived from the IEA's definition of energy security. • The application of the method is illustrated with detailed examples

  16. Department of Energy security program needs effective information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Although security is an important, nearly billion-dollar-a-year function in the Department of Energy (DOE), key information systems that hold important data about security weaknesses and incidents have limited analytical capabilities and contain unreliable information. The resultant difficulty in identifying patterns and trends reduces managers' ability to ensure the effectiveness of the security program. Resources are also wasted because DOE has deployed incompatible systems that are unable to electronically share or transfer data, often forcing employees to manually re-enter data that are already stored in computers elsewhere. Finally, continuing data problems with other important security information systems, such as those used to track security clearances and classified documents, indicate that information system deficiencies are extensive. A major reason for these problems is that DOE has not done a comprehensive, strategic assessment of its information and information technology needs of the security program. DOE's efforts are fragmented because it has not assigned to any organization the leadership responsibility to determine security information needs and to plan and manage security information resources Department-wide. This paper reports that a number of changes are needed to correct these problems and take advantage of information technology to help strengthen the security program

  17. Energy supply security and geopolitics: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlje, Aad; Linde, Coby van der

    2006-01-01

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets. Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and economic blocks, competing for resources and markets via political, economic and military power. It is shown that these storylines have a significant impact on the development of the energy market, on the way in which energy supply may be secured and on the effect and applicability of the several types of instruments available. The current EU is geared towards enlargement and a deepening of economic integration, based on the tenets of the post-1945 multilateral world system. The present world tends towards Regions and Empires and suggests that the EU may have to reorient its energy security policy. Energy policy must become an integral part of EU external trade and foreign relations and security policy. The EU should develop its own strategy, actively investing in dialogues with producer countries in the Persian Gulf and Africa and with Russia. Sustainable prosperity and governance in these regions will support EU energy security

  18. Linking consumer energy efficiency with security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, J.P.; Scharpf, E.W.; Carrington, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Most modern energy policies seek to achieve systematic ongoing incremental increases in consumer energy efficiency, since this contributes to improved security of supply, favourable environmental outcomes and increased economic efficiency. Yet realised levels of efficiency are typically well below the most cost-effective equilibrium due to variety of behavioural and organisational barriers, which are often linked to information constraints. In addition efficient users are normally unrewarded for collective benefits to system security and to the environment, thus reducing the incentives for energy consumers to invest in efficiency improvements. This paper examines the dichotomies and symmetries between supply- and demand-side solutions to energy security concerns and reviews opportunities to overcome barriers to improved consumer efficiency. A security market is identified as a mechanism to promote both demand- and supply-side investments that support electricity system security. Such a market would assist in setting the optimal quantity of reserves while achieving an efficient balance between supply- and demand-side initiatives. It would also help to smooth overall investment throughout the energy system by encouraging incremental approaches, such as distributed generation and demand-side alternatives where they provide competitive value. Although the discussion is applicable to energy systems in general, it focuses primarily on electricity in New Zealand

  19. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  20. Nuclear power. A cornerstone of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.R.; Harvey, M.

    1985-09-01

    Energy options for Canada are examined. Increasing difficulties with oil and gas supplies will induce a growth in electricity demand beyond that presently projected. Nuclear power is the only option that can supply as much energy as needed for as long as needed at predictable costs and with minimal environmental effects

  1. A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological

  2. Biomass for Energy and the Impacts on Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S

    2010-01-01

    In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between

  3. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyi, Lwin [Energy Resources Section, Environment and Natural Resources Management Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region`s vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  4. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Kyi

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  5. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahid, E J M; Peng, L Y; Siang, C Ch

    2013-01-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  6. A SES (sustainable energy security) index for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of the energy system of a country is a prerequisite for framing good energy polices. However, the existing indices which claim to measure energy security have limited applicability for developing countries. Energy sustainability is also increasingly gaining importance and countries are keen to measure it to tailor their energy policies. Therefore, the concept of SES (sustainable energy security) has been proposed as the goal for a developing country. This paper presents an analytical framework for the assessment of SES of an energy system and the methodology for constructing an SES index. A hierarchical structure has been proposed and the energy system has been divided into 'supply', 'conversion & distribution' and 'demand' sub-systems. Each subsystem is further divided into its components which are evaluated for four dimensions of SES, Availability, Affordability, Efficiency and (Environmental) Acceptability using quantitative metrics. Energy indices are constructed using 'scores' (objective values), and 'weights' (subjective values representing tradeoffs) which are then aggregated, bottom-up, to obtain an overall SES Index for a country. The proposed SES Index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible. Such a SES Index can be used to design policy interventions for transitioning to a sustainable and a secure energy future. - Highlights: • A SES (sustainable energy security) index is proposed for developing countries. • A hierarchical structure includes the entire energy system from supply to end use. • The performance of all energy sources, energy carriers and sectors is assessed. • Availability, affordability, efficiency and acceptability dimensions are evaluated. • The SES index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible.

  7. The city and the energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, F.; Volkov, E.; Gantes, P.; Peek, P.; Vallar, Ch.; Telegina, E.; Fache, D.; Dreiski, P.; Pouffary, St.; Plate, N.; Kopsov, A.Y.; Benque, J.P.; Allegre, M.; Gsell, K.; Sanchez, M.; Hadhri, M.; Rouyer, J.L.; Rogeaux, B.; Clauwaert, A.; Garin, P.; Mernier, A.; Ruban, L.; Alario, E.; Allegre, M.; Asiani, F.; Banon, G.; Barelli, P.; Benque, J.P.; Bertoglio, S.; Blot, Y.; Bogolyubov, S.; Bonnaure, A.; Cabana, Y.; Casanova, L.; Chegodaev, A.; Cisse, S.; Clauwaert, A.; Colombier, A.M.; Collard, P.; Coma, O.; Combe, M.; Corbiere-Medecin, A.; Courdy, J.C.; Coursimault, E.; D'Addio, J.C.; Dastarac, H.; Daugreilh, J.P.; Surville, H. de; Doz, M.; Dreiski, P.; Efimouchkine, S.; Fache, D.; Ferrari, B.; Forkasiewicz, J.; Gantes, P.; Garin, P.; Gouirand, P.; Gsell, K.; Guibbolini, P.; Guillot, V.; Hadhri, M.; Ionescu, S.; Kostyuk, V.; Lecach, J.; Lorieux, L.; Luca, L.; Mangeard, Ph.; Matchabelli, V.; Mernier, A.; Murgeanu, R.; Nastase, A.; Nigoul, C.; D'Oleon, M.; Ollivier, J.; Oulianovsky, Y.; Pages, D.; Pataki, Z.; Peek, P.; Perdigon, M.F.; Piacenza, M.; Plate, N.; Poirier, J.; Pouffary, St.; Prez, Ch.; Prufer, Y.; Rogeaux, B.; Roques, F.; Rouyer, J.L.; Ruban, L.; Sanchez, M.; Sayamov, Y.; Semenescu, O.; Skorov, G.; Telegina, E.; Theiler, Ch.; Thomas, D.; Valais, M.; Vallar, Ch.; Volkov, E.; Von Scholz, H.; Waechter, M.; Zaboussov, V.; Zakharova, N.; Zoubkov, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The answers to the world energy crisis should not be limited to the management of geopolitical factors (Iran, Nigeria, Venezuela etc.) and to the control of the offer (inciting OPEC countries to optimize their production). They involve also a change of the demand and of the consumers' behaviour. The comments caused by the recent rise of oil prices have shown that this idea, considered as marginal by policy-makers, has started to make its way. The analyses limited to macro-economical units (states, international organization), always forget that cities are the main places of energy consumption. Recent events, like the repetitive saturation of power grids at the origin of spectacular blackouts (Moscow, California, Switzerland, Italy), have led the local authorities to take into consideration part of the problem. They effectively have at their disposition some important leviers which allow them to act both on the offer and on the behaviours. It is evident that in domains like transports, urban renovation or waste treatment, the local authorities have to play a significant role by implementing policies that maximize the energy efficiency and minimize the costs at the same time. The debates which took place during this forum were based on the experiences and realizations presented by experts of several big cities, in particular of Moscow, Madrid and Nuremberg. Some remarkable examples were presented, in particular in the domain of energy auditing, mastery of energy consumptions and production of alternative resources. The usual topics were also approached: energy overview, main trends of the present day energy policy of Russia, new opportunities of new technologies, geo-energy evolutions, Russia-European Union dialogue. (J.S.)

  8. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (2016 Onward)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year...

  9. Renewable energy: the secure and sustainable option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country that heavily relies on imports of fossil fuels to meet its energy requirements. Pakistan is facing severe energy challenges -indigenous oil and gas reserves are running out, energy demand is rapidly increasing, gap between demand and supply is growing, concerns about secure supply of energy are increasing and fuel cost is rising at an unprecedented rate. For sustainable development, it is crucial to ensure supply of adequate, consistent and secure supply of energy. Renewable energy resources that are sustainable are abundantly available in Pakistan in various forms such as hydel power, solar energy, wind power and biomass. To address the growing energy challenges, it has become inevitable for the country to diversify its energy market through harnessing renewable energy resources. It has been found that hydel power is one of the most significant renewable energy sources that can help Pakistan address the present as well as future energy challenges. It has been identified that solar water heating is another ready to adopt renewable energy technology that alone has the potential to meet as much as 12-15% of the country's entire energy requirements. (author)

  10. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  11. Energy security and climate change : a Canadian primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonick, C.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the reality of climate change and peak oil, and emphasizes the need to make the transition from carbon energies to renewable energies. The book is a compilation of 18 leading authorities' work on energy use and its impact on the environment. Various solutions and sustainable alternatives to carbon energy are proposed. The book links fossil fuels, including oil sands, as a major cause of climate change. The book also addresses other topical issues, such as the nuclear revival, the U.S. energy act and electricity, carbon trading, and energy security in Canada. The authors emphasize the need to act in a proactive way to ensure a sustainable future. refs.

  12. Assessment of energy security in China based on ecological network analysis: A perspective from the security of crude oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy security usually considers both the stability of energy supply and security of energy use and it is receiving increasing attention globally. Considering the strategic importance and sensitivity to international change of the crude oil supply, we decided to examine China’s energy security. An original network model was established based on ecological network analysis to holistically evaluate the security of the crude oil supply in China. Using this model, we found that the security of the crude oil supply in China generally increased from 2001 to 2010. The contribution of different compartments in the network to the overall energy security resembled a pyramid structure, with supply sources at the bottom, the consumption sector at the top, and the refining and transfer sectors in the middle. North and South America made the largest contribution to the security of the crude oil supply in China. We provide suggestions to improve the security of the crude oil supply in China based on our results and further scenario analysis. The original network model provides a new perspective for energy security assessment, which can be used as a baseline to develop other models and policy. - Highlights: • Ecological network analysis (ENA) is introduced into energy security assessment. • A model of crude oil supply network in China is established based on ENA. • A pyramid structure of the contributions of different compartments to energy security was found. • Suggestions for forming a stable network are given to improve energy security

  13. China's energy security: Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy—oil, natural gas, and coal. In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China's 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. - Highlights: • Identified China's key energy security strategies during the 12th Five-Year Program (FYP) and previous FYPs. • Provided a unique insight into China's rising oil imports. • Reviewed China's overseas oil and gas investment as a key energy security measure. • Assessed China's strategic petroleum reserves program and the future growth. • Provided a comprehensive coverage of China's unconventional gas development, including both coal-bed methane and shale gas

  14. Energy demand and supply, energy policies, and energy security in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoseok; Shin, Eui-soon; Chung, Woo-jin

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has enjoyed rapid economic growth and development over the last 30 years. Rapid increases in energy use-especially petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, and especially in the industrial and transport sectors-have fueled the ROK's economic growth, but with limited fossil fuel resources of its own, the result has been that the ROK is almost entirely dependent on energy imports. The article that follows summarizes the recent trends in the ROK energy sector, including trends in energy demand and supply, and trends in economic, demographic, and other activities that underlie trends in energy use. The ROK has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system, mainly induced by industrial, supply security, and environmental concerns, and energy policies in the ROK have evolved over the years to address such challenges through measures such as privatization of energy-sector activities, emphases on enhancing energy security through development of energy efficiency, nuclear power, and renewable energy, and a related focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The assembly of a model for evaluating energy futures in the ROK (ROK2010 LEAP) is described, and results of several policy-based scenarios focused on different levels of nuclear energy utilization are described, and their impacts on of energy supply and demand in the ROK through the year 2030 are explored, along with their implications for national energy security and long-term policy plans. Nuclear power continues to hold a crucial position in the ROK's energy policy, but aggressive expansion of nuclear power alone, even if possible given post-Fukushima global concerns, will not be sufficient to attain the ROK's 'green economy' and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals. - Research highlights: →Rapid industrialization caused ROK energy use to increase over 10-fold during 1970-2000, with dramatic structural changes. → Growth in energy use after 2000 slowed to under 5%/yr, and

  15. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System (SAMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    electrical components of the clustered microgrid, using sophisticated analysis to provide a real time comparison of predicted operation to actual...in spring and fall months when electricity consumption is not affected by summer air-conditioning or winter heating loads. There are a variety of...30 Figure 14. Energy Consumption at Buildings 1-7, Naval Medical Center

  16. Environmental challenges for Asian-Pacific energy systems in the 1991s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, Adam; Ramani, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the main issues addressed and conclusions arrived at by the Regional Conference on Environmental Challenges for Asian and Pacific Energy Systems in the 1990s', jointly organized by the Asian and Pacific Development Centre and the World Wide Fund for Nature during 14-18 January 1991 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The first part of the paper focuses on the regional and global context of the conference. This is followed by a review of the key issues that are considered relevant to the shaping of a new energy policy for the region to ensure environmental sustainability. The concluding part provides some cautionary notes and suggestions for the immediate future. (author)

  17. Nuclear power for energy security - Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    India has been witnessing an impressive growth in GDP in the face of several challenges including the fact that India has a population of over 1.2 billion. In order to provide and maintain a comfortable standard of living to our large population, as well as to sustain the national economic growth, it is essential to have a matching growth in the availability of energy. One such indicator is per capita electricity consumption, and for India, it is about 700 kWh which is far below that of the OECD countries (∼8000 kWh). Furthermore, India's population is expected to rise to about 1.5 billion by 2050. A per capita use of about 5000 kWh energy in the form of electricity every year would be needed for achieving a state of reasonably high development. This will require an installed electricity generation capacity exceeding 1300 GWe, which is slightly more than six times the existing installed electricity generation capacity of 210 GWe in India. Despite the fact that at present India is the fifth largest electricity generating country, India has to increase total electricity generation to almost 10 times the present generation level (about 875 billion kWh). It is against this backdrop, that we cannot afford to ignore any source of energy production including the nuclear option, since no single source alone, or not even a combination of only a couple of sources, can ever meet the entire energy needs of our country in a reliable and sustainable manner. (author)

  18. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    equipment, and habitat destruction from general construction (DoE, “ Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds , Bats, and Their Habitats,” pgs 2-4). Another...utility-resource-efficiency>, accessed 16 December 2014. Department of Energy, Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds , Bats, and Their Habitats... Wind power is a mature technology, with wind turbines first being used for electricity in the late 19th century. The Air Force operates two wind

  19. Emerging Regional Energy Security Issues China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    moving toward European standards and taxation of least efficient vehicles www.csis.org | 7 China’s Energy Strategy - Clean Power Generation...Project Type of Contract Signature Date Estimated Value Contractor(s) Remarks Malaysian Amona (Main Contractor), Chinese COSL and CNOOC The first...infrastructure. List of Upstream Agreements Between Iran and China in Recent Years ** The original buyback contract w as signed betw een Malaysian Amona and

  20. Is the energy supply secure after 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1981-01-01

    At the centre of the remarks is the meeting of the demand for electricity in the Federal Republic of Germany, and furthermore nuclear energy for the base load and coal for the middle. In detail the author analyses the controversy which has already been around too long, and that is that of the continued extension of nuclear technology, and forcibly warning of the dangers which result from these delaying tactics. In this context, we are reminded of our dependence on imported oil and of the balance of payments' deficit resulting from the extremely sharply risen and still rising oil-prices. The strongly export-orientated German industry today not only produces with the highest wage unit-costs in the world, but also with energy which is too expensive, in particular compared to its competitors, for example France. Another just as important aspect is the endangering of promising technologies in which nuclear technology no doubt plays a big role. Highly qualified positions are in danger here. In conclusion the author appeals strongly to a energy policy of good sense in our country; it must be treated now so that no more valuable time is uselessly wasted. (orig./UA) [de

  1. China's energy security, the Malacca dilemma and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongxiang

    2011-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth has led to a huge increase in oil imports. This has raised great concern regarding its energy security because China depends on a single chokepoint, the Strait of Malacca, with nearly three-quarters of its oil imports flowing through the Strait. Given its strategic importance to China and China's little sway on the waterway, this viewpoint focuses mainly on China's concerns about and efforts at both demand and supply sides towards energy security, in particular regarding the Malacca dilemma, and puts potential Arctic oil and gas into that context.

  2. Current energy situation affecting national economy, security, and psyche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, H.; Culbreath, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear energy should be perceived by Americans as the energy option that can fill the gap left by petroleum shortages. Opposition to nuclear power symbolizes a drive to slow economic growth and return to a decentralized society, but it overlooks the implications that not going nuclear will have for the economy and national security. The General Accounting Office plotted the consequences for three scenarios and concluded that only nuclear power can provide enough domestic energy to meet projected electrical needs. The impact of higher energy prices that will follow energy-supply shortages will result in social change and in a decline in national security. The issues of import dependence, proliferation, economic competition, and morality are not valid reasons to forego nuclear development because the connections are not valid

  3. Freedom or security - the unsolvable dilemma of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1989-01-01

    The threat of a non-peaceful use of atomic energy is not a fixed quantity. The hazard may increase depending on the social situation and the insentity of social crises emerging. In view of the damage potential involved with atomic energy, the principle of 'dynamic protection of civil rights' requires security measures to be intensified according to growing threat. The restrictions of freedom connected with enhanced security measures are to be felt already today. The pressure for security of nuclear installations or material creates a dilemma: any security step-up will be done at the expense of freedom, and conserving freedom will mean reducing security. The pressure for security which is achieved by the instruments of balancing the objects of legal protection and following the principle of reasonablenesse, will eventually lead to a de facto decline of the civil rights by way of a clandestine and gradual change of legal terms and definitions. We even then would be living in a constitutional state. But what will freedom then mean? The civil rights would still be incorporated in our Basic Law, but protection in practical life will have been decreased. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Energy security and European Union. Proposals for the French presidency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    2008-04-01

    This report treats of energy security and of the two related topics which are the fight against climatic change and the economic growth. The first chapter analyses the energy risks that we will have to face. It makes a difference between the long-term risks (depletion of energy resources) and the short-term risks (supply disruption). Concerning the short-term risks, it is recalled that most of the supply incidents have an internal cause and that imports can have advantages and not only drawbacks. The second chapter approaches the delicate problem of European harmonization between the speech and the action when the energy security is in concern. A conclusion of this chapter is that the 'speaking with a single voice' goal can be reached only if improvements are made in the domain of solidarity between member states. The completion of the internal energy market is therefore a priority and the mission of regulators must include the security aspect. The third chapter treats of the particular case of the relation with the Russian supplier. It suggests to work for a lower energy dependence with respect to Russia, by developing the energy efficiency, the LNG industry, the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The fourth chapter deals with the relations with the Caspian sea surrounding countries in the perspective of gas exports towards Europe. Here again, the cooperation with Russia is of prime importance. It approaches also the problem of the gas negotiation with Turkey which requires a significant improvement of the consistency of European diplomacy in this area. The last chapter treats of the role of international organisations and of the dialogue in the domain of energy. It suggests some paths to develop the confidence between the different intervening parties. It stresses on the lack of transparency which disturbs the markets and weakens the security. (J.S.)

  5. Analysis and improvement of security of energy smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, Halim

    2014-01-01

    The Smart grid is the next generation power grid, which is a new self-healing, self-activating form of electricity network, and integrates power-flow control, increased quality of electricity, and energy reliability, energy efficiency and energy security using information and communication technologies. Communication networks play a critical role in smart grid, as the intelligence of smart grid is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Its two-way communication and electricity flow enable to monitor, predict and manage the energy usage. To upgrade an existing power grid into a smart grid, it requires an intelligent and secure communication infrastructure. Because of that, the main goal of this dissertation is to propose new architecture and implementation of algorithms for analysis and improvement of the security and reliability in smart grid. In power transmission segments of smart grid, wired communications are usually adopted to ensure robustness of the backbone power network. In contrast, for a power distribution grid, wireless communications provide many benefits such as low cost high speed links, easy setup of connections among different devices/appliances, and so on. Wireless communications are usually more vulnerable to security attacks than wired ones. Developing appropriate wireless communication architecture and its security measures is extremely important for a smart grid system. This research addresses physical layer security in a Wireless Smart Grid. Hence a defense Quorum- based algorithm is proposed to ensure physical security in wireless communication. The new security architecture for smart grid that supports privacy-preserving, data aggregation and access control is defined. This architecture consists of two parts. In the first part we propose to use an efficient and privacy-preserving aggregation scheme (EPPA), which aggregates real-time data of consumers by Local Gateway. During aggregation the privacy of consumers is

  6. Protecting and securing the energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, B. [Conoco Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) includes protection against physical and cyber attacks as well as potential interruptions and vulnerabilities such as natural disasters and human error. CIP makes it possible to deal with the consequences of infrastructure failures that can have regional, national and international impacts. The energy sector is challenged because there has been an irreversible move to automated control systems and electronic transactions. In addition, due to mergers and joint ventures, the line between traditional oil, natural gas companies and power companies is not perfectly clear. Energy industries can no longer be seen in isolation of each other because they depend on other critical infrastructures. Industry should lead CIP programs through risk management assessments, develop and implement global information technology standards, and enhance response and recovery planning. The National Petroleum Council (NPC) will continue to develop the capabilities of the newly formed Information Sharing and Assessment Centre (ISAC). The sector will also continue to develop common vulnerability assessment goals. It was noted that response and recovery plans must include the cyber dimension, because there has been an increasing number of scans and probes from the Internet since the events of September 11, 2001. It was noted that physical incidents can often turn into cyber incidents and vice versa.

  7. Promoting India's development: energy security and climate security are convergent goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, Gupta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shankar, Harihar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joshi, Sunjoy [INDIA

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates three aspects of the energy-climate challenges faced by India. First, we examine energy security in light of anticipated growth in power generation in response to the national goal of maintaining close to 10% growth in GDP. Second, we examine possible options for mitigation and adaptation to climate change for India that it can take to the coming Copenhagen meeting on climate change. Lastly, we introduce an open web based tool for analyzing and planning global energy systems called the Global Energy Observatory (GEO).

  8. Foreign Direct Investments in Central Asian Energy: A CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. BARRY

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan have adopted significant legislative changes since the fall of the former Soviet Union in an effort to attract foreign direct investment into their energy sectors. Of the three republics, Kazakhstan has been the most successful in attracting foreign interest, but all three republics face significant challenges in further development of oil and gas infrastructure. Even if these countries are completely successful in bringing in foreign investment, a question will remain: who wins and who loses in these countries. Using updated data, this paper will use a computable general equilibrium model to measure the effects of FDI into Central Asia. Results of the model suggest that the region would be better off overall from foreign investment in its natural gas sector, due mostly to improvements in overall production efficiency and its overall terms of trade. However, the gain in the natural gas sector would come at the expense of production and net exports of non-petroleum related industries.

  9. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, C.

    2005-01-01

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  10. Energy access and security strategies in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Franziska; Surroop, Dinesh; Singh, Anirudh; Leal, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are isolated and surrounded by ocean. The generation and use of energy resources are two very important aspects for the development of SIDS. Unfortunately, most of SIDS do not use their potential in respect of energy resources, and they as a result have to depend on the import of fossil fuels in order to meet their energy needs. This increases the overall vulnerability of SIDS as they have to depend on the rising or fluctuating fossil fuels prices. Some SIDS, especially in the geographically dispersed Pacific region, do not have proper access to energy whereas other SIDS struggle more with energy security issue. At the same time, SIDS are most vulnerable to the impacts and effects of climate change, as they are among the ones to be most severely affected in case of natural calamities and sea-level rise. Drawing on experiences from Fiji and Mauritius, this paper explains core elements related to energy access and security in SIDS, contextualizes and discusses barriers and list some of the strategies that may be used to ensure access to and a continuous supply of energy in SIDS. A situational analysis of two SIDS outlines their current energy situation and compares their energy policies to globally accepted criteria for SIDS policies as well as with each other. It is claimed that the diverging energy performances of Fiji and Mauritius cannot be explained by policies differences. The reasons for the varying energy performances may therefore lie in the administrative and institutional mechanisms used by the two countries in implementing their energy policies. Finally, to enable SIDS to reduce their overall vulnerability and become truly sustainable islands, it is recommended to undertake careful assessments of the particular local contexts under which island energy regimes operate. - Highlights: • Core elements related to energy access/security in SIDS, barriers and strategies. • Situational analysis of two SIDS: Fiji and

  11. Enhancing Tribal Energy Security and Clean Energy (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  12. IT security standards for the digitalization of the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laupichler, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent measuring systems are important components in the intelligent net and require security and privacy by design in this critical infrastructure. The smart meter gateway as secure communication platform makes the digital sector coupling possible and becomes the driver for innovations of the digitalization. The protection profiles and the technical rules of the BSI as essential part of the law for the digitalization of the energy transition guarantee a great amount of data protection and data security and provide a unique security standard in the future energy supply system. The data -protection concept of the intelligent measuring system regards a calibration-law conformal data processing and star-shaped data dispatch of the gateway. By this both a traceability and a transparency for the final user is guaranteed and the handling of the data in the sense of the data sovereignty is also technically enforced. For the evidences of compliance of the protection profiles and the technical rules correponding tests in approved test centers with final certification by the BSI are performed. The law for the digitalization of the energy transition makes the first important step to an innovative, digital infrastructure of the intelligent net. By the legal framework additionally a base is created, in order to perform a progressive development of the security targets of the BSI both for intelligent measuring systems as for further important system components of the intelligent energy net via a roadmap for the digitalization. In connection with the technical standards of the BSI the law creates the necessary legal certainty and realizes the aim pursued in the coalition treaty to regulate binding framework conditions for the secure and data-protection conformal application of intelligent measuring systems for diversified application cases in the intelligent net.

  13. A Review of Cyber-Physical Energy System Security Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) and electrification of services by implementing distributed energy resources (DER) has caused a paradigm shift in the operation of the power system. The controllability of the power system is predicted to be shifted from the generation side...... to the consumption side. This transition entails that the future power system evolves into a complex cyber-physical energy system (CPES) with strong interactions between the power, communication and neighboring energy systems. Current power system security assessment methods are based on centralized computation...

  14. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  15. Scientists credit `Atoms for Peace' for progress on energy, security

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Fifty years after President Eisenhower unveiled his plan for developing peaceful uses for nuclear fission, the scientific advances spawned by his Atoms for Peace program have made possible major advances in energy and national security, a panel of physicists said last week" (1 page).

  16. Energy supply security and geopolitics : A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A; van der Linde, C

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets, Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and

  17. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  18. A Strategy for American Power: Energy, Climate and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    For example, Greg Mankiw , Harvard economist and former chair of President Bush’s Council of Economic Advisors, has proposed phasing in a $1 per...International Energy Barrier By Amy Myers Jaffe 77 Chapter V: Overcoming the Economic Barriers to Climate Change and Energy Security By Jason Furman (lead...Hamilton Project. He previously served in the Clinton administration and at the Council of Economic Advisers, the National Economic Council, and the World

  19. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  20. Energy Security and the Role of Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinwoo

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power is expected to play a more important role to cope with rapidly changing energy market environment. Recently re-evaluation on nuclear energy is taking place in major countries like USA, Japan, and Sweden. It is of particular interest in Korea to make out optimal level of nuclear power from energy security perspectives. This paper is aiming to derive options for optimal fuel mix and sets up scenarios on major premises such back-end costs and fuel price of nuclear, and CO 2 emission cost. Six scenarios are analyzed for optimal fuel mix and additional cases are examined for the effect on CO 2 emission. The model outcomes suggest to construct 3∼13 units of 1,400 MW nuclear reactors by 2030 to meet ever-growing power demand. It is found that base-load facilities are taking about 70% of total installed capacity in any case. As a reasonable option, 9 units (12.6 GW) of nuclear is recommended to be built, taking 37.0% of total installed capacity in 2030. CO 2 emission turns out to be largely affected by nuclear proportion, which is sensitive to environmental cost. However, expansion of renewable energy or demand side management is found to have rather on CO 2 emission. Energy security aspects need to be considered in developing an optimal fuel mix of power generation. But In-depth studies are needed to obtain a practical range of optimal level of nuclear power from energy security point of view

  1. Prioritizing low-carbon energy sources to enhance China’s energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four dimensions and ten metrics are used for energy security assessment. • Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered for energy security. • AHP has been used to quantify qualitative metrics. • TOPSIS method has been used for prioritize the low-carbon energy sources. • Sensitivity analysis and integrated ranking have been carried out. - Abstract: This paper explores how low-carbon systems compare to each other in terms of their net effect on Chinese energy security, and how they ought to be ranked and strategized into an optimal and integrated resource plan. The paper utilizes Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to first determine the relative performances of hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, and nuclear power with respect to the energy security dimensions of availability, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability. Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered. It relies on AHP to calculate the relative weights of the qualitative metrics attached to these dimensions of energy security for each of our five low carbon energy sources. Then, energy security performance is determined by aggregating multiple, weighted metrics into a generic index based on the method of TOPSIS and then tweaked with a sensitivity analysis. Finally, an integrated method has been developed to rank the low-carbon energy systems from most to least important, with major implications for Chinese decision-makers and stakeholders. We conclude that hydroelectricity and wind power are the two low-carbon energy sources with the most potential to enhance China’s energy security. By contrast, nuclear and solar power have the least potential

  2. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  3. The uniqueness of the energy security, justice, and governance problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthau, Andreas; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that among all policy fields exhibiting externalities of a global scale, energy stands out on four dimensions: vertical complexity, horizontal complexity, higher entailed costs, and stronger path dependency. These structural attributes are at odds with contemporary key challenges of energy security, energy justice, and low carbon energy transition. With regard to the latter, energy governance challenges occur related to unclear levels of authority and weak resilience. This has implications for energy scholarship, specifically relating to the political economy of energy transitions, discussions about common pool resources, systems analysis, and other neighboring disciplines. - Highlights: ► Among all policy fields exhibiting global externalities, energy stands out. ► It is characterized by greater complexity, higher costs, and stronger path dependency. ► This is at odds with key challenges relating to security, justice, and transition. ► Problems are particularly related to unclear levels of authority and weak resilience. ► Energy scholarship needs to focus further on these issues.

  4. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.A

    2002-12-15

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  5. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, M.A.

    2002-12-01

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  6. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  7. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  8. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  9. Southeast Asian Perceptions of U.S. Security Policy in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    personnel to be stationed in Singapore. Alimin’s statement came the day following Malaysia’s Defense Minister Najib Tun Razak had also declared Kuala Lumpur’s...military concerns. Malaysian Defense Minister Datuk Sri Mohamed Najib Razak has said: "The question of security should not be viewed from a narrow...region."" In November 1991, Defense Minister Najib Razak offered the use of the Royal Malaysian Naval Base in Lumut as a maintenance and repair depot for

  10. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    with other subsystems like South East Asia may have different approaches to global governance, international constitutional order, or particular cases such as the measure of infringement of human rights when targeting individuals suspected of terrorist links. Yet international law remains the key part of the Asian and global security regime. The hypothesis of this study is that the "void of governance" regime in territorial and international waters provides lucrative environment for developing terrorism, piracy, environmental degradation, and other criminal activities that pose untraditional threats to the regional security. This "void of governance" regime can be caused by either, or both, de jure or de facto insufficient control over particular marine territories.

  11. European Energy Policy and Its Effects on Gas Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Victorita Stefana Anda

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of the energy policies of the European Union (EU) on its gas security in the period 2006 to 2016. While energy security is often given a broad meaning, this paper focuses on its external dimension: the EU?s relations with external gas suppliers. It is grounded on four pillars drawing from the compounded institutionalist and liberal theoretical frameworks: regulatory state, rational-choice, external governance, and regime effectiveness. The research question was investigated through a qualitative methodology with two main components: a legislative analysis and four case studies representing the main gas supply options--Russia, North African exporting countries, Norway, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). They highlighted that the EU framed the need for gas security mainly in the context of political risks associated with Russian gas supply, but it almost never took into account other equally important risks. Moreover, the research revealed two main issues. First, that the deeper and the more numerous EU?s energy policies were, the bigger was the magnitude of the effect. Specifically, competitiveness and infrastructure policies had the largest magnitude, while the sustainability and security of supply policies had the smallest effect. Second, EU energy policies only partially diminished the economic and political risks in relation to foreign gas suppliers. To conclude, to a certain extent the EU?s efforts made a positive contribution to the external dimension of the EU?s gas security, but the distinguishing trait remains that there is no consistency in terms of the magnitude of the effect and its nature.

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  13. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  14. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  15. Energy policy of the EU and the role of Turkey in Energy Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHTER AYKIN Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the nations define strategies and develop policies on national and international levels to eliminate risks against energy security. The aim of this paper is to define the energy policy of the European Union and identify the potential of Turkey in securing energy supply to the European Union. To achieve this end, after explaining the policy frame of the European Union and that of Turkey in energy related matters, the existing and planned energy routes expanding from the Russian Federation, Caspian Sea and the Middle East to the European Continent are mapped, and the role assigned to Turkey as an energy hub is exemplified with reference to its accession process. It is concluded that Turkey’s membership is to enrich the European Union and contribute to its energy supply security.

  16. Energy Assurance: Essential Energy Technologies for Climate Protection and Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Fulkerson, William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gaddis, Abigail [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Mason, Thom [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Zucker, Alexander [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    We present and apply a new method for analyzing the significance of advanced technology for achieving two important national energy goals: climate protection and energy security. Quantitative metrics for U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 and oil independence in 2030 are specified, and the impacts of 11 sets of energy technologies are analyzed using a model that employs the Kaya identity and incorporates the uncertainty of technological breakthroughs. The goals examined are a 50% to 80% reduction in CO2 emissions from energy use by 2050 and increased domestic hydrocarbon fuels supply and decreased demand that sum to 11 mmbd by 2030. The latter is intended to insure that the economic costs of oil dependence are not more than 1% of U.S. GDP with 95% probability by 2030. Perhaps the most important implication of the analysis is that meeting both energy goals requires a high probability of success (much greater than even odds) for all 11 technologies. Two technologies appear to be indispensable for accomplishment of both goals: carbon capture and storage, and advanced fossil liquid fuels. For reducing CO2 by more than 50% by 2050, biomass energy and electric drive (fuel cell or battery powered) vehicles also appear to be necessary. Every one of the 11 technologies has a powerful influence on the probability of achieving national energy goals. From the perspective of technology policy, conflict between the CO2 mitigation and energy security is negligible. These general results appear to be robust to a wide range of technology impact estimates; they are substantially unchanged by a Monte Carlo simulation that allows the impacts of technologies to vary by 20%.

  17. The relationship between energy intensity and income levels: Forecasting long term energy demand in Asian emerging countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, R.; Univ. della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes long-term trends in energy intensity for ten Asian emerging countries to test for a non-monotonic relationship between energy intensity and income in the author's sample. Energy demand functions are estimated during 1973--1990 using a quadratic function of log income. The long-run coefficient on squared income is found to be negative and significant, indicating a change in trend of energy intensity. The estimates are then used to evaluate a medium-term forecast of energy demand in the Asian countries, using both a log-linear and a quadratic model. It is found that in medium to high income countries the quadratic model performs better than the log-linear, with an average error of 9% against 43% in 1995. For the region as a whole, the quadratic model appears more adequate with a forecast error of 16% against 28% in 1995. These results are consistent with a process of dematerialization, which occurs as a result of a reduction of resource use per unit of GDP once an economy passes some threshold level of GDP per capita

  18. Security issues at the Department of Energy and records management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUSBAUM, ANNA W.

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the connection between security issues within the Department of Energy and records management, the author covers a bit of security history and talks about what she calls ''the Amazing Project''. Initiated in late May 1999, it was to be a tri-laboratory (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of Livermore, California, Los Alamos National Laboratory of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories of Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California) project. The team that formed was tasked to develop the best set of security solutions that still enabled weapon mission work to get done and the security solutions were to be the same set for everyone. The amazing project was called ''The Integrated Security Management Project'', or ''ISecM' for short. She'll describe why she thinks this project was so amazing and what it accomplished. There's a bit of sad news about the project, but then she'll move onto discuss what was learned at Sandia as a result of the project and what they're currently doing in records management

  19. The indicators of energy security of decentralized heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vitalyevna Bykova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the new additional indicators of energy security with the purpose to include decentralized heating sector is developed in the work. The structure of the housing stock of the country is analyzed, which includes different types of central heating boilers and CHP, individual gas or electric heating and stove heating.The analysis of the existing thermal supply (per unit area and per capita living for each sector is carried out. It is found that heat consumed in the residential sector with central heating from CHP and boilers is significantly higher of heat consumed in other sectors. The missing amount of heat energy, which can be produced in two ways, is calculated. Part of the deficit heat can be produced at existing sources that are not loaded enough to the nominal parameters at the moment. The second part can be obtained from small new sources (for inhabited localities that do not have a centralized heat supply infrastructure. New indicators complement the system of indicators to be used to analyze and monitoring the level of Moldova's energy security. They allowed including decentralized heat supply sector, which is not reflected in the official statistics. At the same, the calculation methodology has been improved and the overall integral indicator of the energy security level, which was even more crisis than previously thought.

  20. Analysis of Marine Corps renewable energy planning to meet installation energy security requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Chisom, Christopher M.; Templenton, Jack C., II

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze Marine Corps installation energy consumption and the pursuit of increased renewable energy generation goals across Marine Corps installations. The main objective of this report is to determine the cost of interruption and the net present value (NPV) of renewable energy generation needed to meet the Marine Corps energy security objectives. First, we determine installation-specific energy consump...

  1. Designing indicators of long-term energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van Arkel, W.G.; Boots, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, so far amazingly little research work has been undertaken to construct meaningful indicators of long-run energy supply security for a particular nation or region. Currently, in addressing energy supply security, policy makers tend to emphasise short-term supply disruptions. In contrast, this pre-study accords with the broader Sustainability Outlook in considering the long-term perspective. This report starts with taking stock, in a concise way, of the official EU energy outlook and issues related to the opportunities to administer changes in the energy mix at the level of major energy use categories. Then a brief survey of relevant literature is made on long-term strategies to ensure survival of systems - be it biological, social, etc. - in an environment largely characterised by high uncertainty and a lot of unchartered territory. We found the work of Andrew Stirling very inspiring in this context. Based on his work and considering the limitations of the present research activity, we retained the Shannon index as the best 'simple' indicator of diversity. In the core of the report, the Shannon index is elaborated into four indicators of long-term energy supply security. Stepwise, additional aspects of long-term energy supply security are introduced. These aspects are: Diversification of energy sources in energy supply; Diversification of imports with respect to imported energy sources; Long-term political stability in regions of origin; The resource base in regions of origin, including the home region/country itself. After small adjustments to allow for data availability, these indicators were applied to the reference year 2030 of four long-term scenarios with data of base year 1995 and projections for underlying variables provided by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). Preliminary interpretation of the results suggests the usefulness of the indicators presented in this report. A second activity undertaken in this report was

  2. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  3. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, V.; Markandya, A.; Vicini, G.

    2007-01-01

    This policy compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level. (author)

  4. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Gracceva, Francesco; Markandya, Anil; Vicini, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level

  5. Security of energy supply. Facts and possibilities for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, Juergen-Friedrich; Rath-Nagel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The energy infrastructure of a country has a decisive influence on the standard of living there, the competitiveness of its economy and its inner political stability. In the debate about the energy transition in Germany attention is primarily being focused on the future energy mix and how it might change, but in particular on the technical challenges involved as well as the costs of the transition as a whole. Given the growing instability that will arise in the electricity networks in the process of transition, as well as the problems that could occur with the supply of natural gas as a result of the Ukraine crisis, the issue of security of energy supply in Germany (as well as Europe) needs to be addressed anew: Is the energy supply at risk? What sources are available at home and abroad, and what leeway is there for changing the procurement mix?

  6. Energy Security: From Deal Killers to Game Changers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Charlie

    2010-03-01

    Five energy security ``deal killers" are identified: 1) Global warming and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion; 2) Intermittent energy sources (wind, solar) and the presence and stability of the grid; 3) Penetration of plant defenses to produce transportation fuels from biomass; 4) Mimicking nature: artificial photosynthesis for solar energy to fuels; and 5) Spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. Transformational basic research is required to successfully change the ground rules, to transform these ``deal killers" into ``game changers." T hey are: 1) Offsetting carbon capture and storage costs through enhanced oil recovery and methane generation from high temperature geothermal saline aquifers; 2) Electrical energy storage, through batteries and super-capacitors; 3) Genetic modification of plant cell walls, and catalytic methods for transforming plant sugars into fuels; 4) Separation of solar-induced electrons from holes, and catalysis to produce fuels; and 5) Closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic research can revolutionize our approach to carbon-free energy by enhancing nature to achieve energy security.

  7. Overseas Risks to China’s Energy Security and Potential Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the overseas risks to China’s energy security and provides suggestions for how to safeguard China’s energy security. The key to China’s energy security is supply security. This means obtaining enough and continued energy supply at affordable prices which can be divided into two factors: one is purchasing energy at reasonable prices; the other is having uninterrupted energy import. Accordingly, the major overseas challenges to China’s energy security are the surging international oil prices and the problem of safeguarding energy imports. There are both merits and shortcomings to the energy security concept of realism and that of neo-liberalism. Suggestions for how to secure China’s energy supply should be based on China’s conditions as well as a critique of the two theoretical perspectives and should include three aspects: energy diplomacy, military development and strategic oil reserves.

  8. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Das Ayan Kumar; Chaki Rituparna; Dey Kashi Nath

    2016-01-01

    The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to s...

  9. Evaluating energy security in the Asia-Pacific region: A novel methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes an 'energy security assessment instrument' based on a new and expanded conceptualisation of energy security. The instrument is a systematic interrogative tool for evaluating energy security of individual states or regions. It consists of eleven broad energy security dimensions associated with the current global energy system. These energy security dimensions take into account numerous quantitative and qualitative attributes of each country's energy security and policy, and include both traditional energy security concerns and many new factors, such as environmental, socio-cultural and technological. Another dimension, largely absent from previous analyses, is the existence of, and the issues addressed in, energy security policy in each country. This instrument serves as an assessment system with which to evaluate energy security in the Asia-Pacific region. The existing studies on energy security in the Asia-Pacific region suffer from serious limitations. No study to date examines regional energy security policies by adopting a more comprehensive energy security definition as a starting point. Most studies also focus on a single country or issue. Even if they examine energy security in major regional economies, they lack critical comparative analysis. The instrument is valuable as it may be utilised to draw a comprehensive map of regional energy security situation, which can also include comparative analysis of energy security characteristics across the Asia-Pacific region. Ultimately, it may be utilised to set up a framework for improved regional energy cooperation with the aim of providing regional leaders with a blueprint for improving regional energy security and policy.

  10. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO 2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO 2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO 2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  11. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  12. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ayan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to save energy. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme extends network lifetime even when the cluster based wireless sensor network is under attack.

  13. Assuring the energy security; Para garantizar la seguridad energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yergin, Daniel [Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Both the institutions and the policies adopted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo aren't able to satisfy both the energy consumers' and producers' necessities. It is necessary to extend the definition of energy security in order to stand up to the challenges of a globalized world. [Spanish] Las instituciones y politicas adoptadas despues del embargo petrolero arabe de 1973 ya no pueden satisfacer las necesidades de los consumidores y productores de energia. Se requiere expandir la definicion de seguridad energetica para hacer frente a los desafios de un mundo globalizado.

  14. Role of green energy towards India's energy security. Paper no. IGEC-1-054

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool, A.S.; Mitra, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    India's energy consumption is growing rapidly for last three decades. The per capita energy consumption is increasing at an average rate of 3.6% per annum for last two decades. Also, the population of India is increasing at a rate of 1.5 % per annum. This makes it clear that conventional fossil fuel based system will not be able to fulfill the demand of energy in future period. To achieve and maintain desired economic and industrial growth rates, reliable supply of required amount of energy at reasonable cost is a necessity. Encouraging use of non-conventional energy sources on a commercial basis can be a major step towards self sufficiency in energy sector. India has a very large potential for developing and utilizing green energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, etc. These sources can satisfy India's growing energy demand to a large extent. Fuel cells can serve as a major source of energy with their clean energy production, higher efficiencies, modularity and ability to give reliable supply of energy at constant rates. Thus, fuel cells serve for diversification and localization of energy sources, which is important for energy security. This paper reviews current energy status of India and presents fuel cell as a prospective candidate for achieving energy security. (author)

  15. China's Sovereign Wealth Fund Investments in overseas energy: The energy security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Jianping; Wang, Yongfeng; Clark, Woodrow W.

    2014-01-01

    Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are state-owned investment funds that invest in real and financial assets. Since the global financial crisis in 2008, SWFs' investments have resulted in national security concerns of host countries because SWFs continue to expand rapidly and have become increasingly active in real-time strategic transactions. Given this background, China, which has the biggest SWF in the world, is facing severe challenges of energy resources shortages while its plan is to accomplish social and economic development goals. Energy security is a key driving force of the energy investment policy of China's SWFs. This makes the SWF investments more complicated and more politically sensitive. The combination of sovereign rights and the strategic importance of energy also makes geopolitics more complicated and brings more uncertainty to SWF investments. This article explores the relationship between energy security and energy investments of China's SWFs. It is recognised that the energy investment of SWFs must follow a sustainable path to coordinate energy security, economic growth, return on investment and national security concerns. Government policymakers are urged to balance the financial and political returns on SWFs against potential negative effects. The conclusion presents insights for policymakers, energy scholars and SWF researchers. - Highlights: • Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are government-owned and may pursue geopolitical power. • SWF investment in energy is necessary for commercial and strategic interests. • China's SWFs are active in energy investment to support a “going global” strategy. • Sovereign rights are inevitable to integrate the strategic property of energy. • SWF investments in energy suffer negative impacts due to sovereign rights

  16. Present state of research and development of atomic energy in five Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The survey group for Asian atomic energy cooperation was dispatched by the Japanese government, and toured Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Bangladesh from September 7 to 19, 1980. The present state of atomic energy development and the energy situation in respective countries were surveyed through the exchange of opinion and the inspection of related facilities. The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology was concluded in June, 1972, and 12 countries have participated in it. It was impressive that respective countries have the peculiar energy policies corresponding to their objective conditions. They regard atomic energy as the important substitute energy for petroleum, but the fear about the safety of atomic energy and the movement against nuclear power generation have been growing considerably. The research and development on atomic energy are carried out very actively in respective countries, and the construction of large-scale research centers was commenced in Indonesia, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Research reactors have been operated in Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand since about 20 years ago, and the utilization of radioisotopes and radiation has been studied. The cooperation of Japan with these countries is far behind that of other advanced countries.

  17. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  18. AES based secure low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy for WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, K. R.; Sarma, N. V. S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a low cost solution in diversified application areas. The wireless sensor nodes are inexpensive tiny devices with limited storage, computational capability and power. They are being deployed in large scale in both military and civilian applications. Security of the data is one of the key concerns where large numbers of nodes are deployed. Here, an energy-efficient secure routing protocol, secure-LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) for WSNs based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is being proposed. This crypto system is a session based one and a new session key is assigned for each new session. The network (WSN) is divided into number of groups or clusters and a cluster head (CH) is selected among the member nodes of each cluster. The measured data from the nodes is aggregated by the respective CH's and then each CH relays this data to another CH towards the gateway node in the WSN which in turn sends the same to the Base station (BS). In order to maintain confidentiality of data while being transmitted, it is necessary to encrypt the data before sending at every hop, from a node to the CH and from the CH to another CH or to the gateway node.

  19. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim; Chaudry, Modassar; Wang Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  20. Dynamic model based on Bayesian method for energy security assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augutis, Juozas; Krikštolaitis, Ričardas; Pečiulytė, Sigita; Žutautaitė, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for dynamic indicator model construction and forecasting of indicators. • Application of dynamic indicator model for energy system development scenarios. • Expert judgement involvement using Bayesian method. - Abstract: The methodology for the dynamic indicator model construction and forecasting of indicators for the assessment of energy security level is presented in this article. An indicator is a special index, which provides numerical values to important factors for the investigated area. In real life, models of different processes take into account various factors that are time-dependent and dependent on each other. Thus, it is advisable to construct a dynamic model in order to describe these dependences. The energy security indicators are used as factors in the dynamic model. Usually, the values of indicators are obtained from statistical data. The developed dynamic model enables to forecast indicators’ variation taking into account changes in system configuration. The energy system development is usually based on a new object construction. Since the parameters of changes of the new system are not exactly known, information about their influences on indicators could not be involved in the model by deterministic methods. Thus, dynamic indicators’ model based on historical data is adjusted by probabilistic model with the influence of new factors on indicators using the Bayesian method

  1. Measuring energy security performance within China: Toward an inter-provincial prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Yu, Jing; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    China has been the world's largest energy consumer and producer for many years, yet while myriad studies have investigated Chinese performance on energy metrics compared to other countries, few to none have looked internally at Chinese provinces. This paper firstly develops a five-dimensional evaluation system centered on the energy security dimensions of availability and diversity, affordability and equality, technology and efficiency, environmental sustainability, and governance and innovation. It then correlates these dimensions to 20 distinct energy security metrics that are used to assess the energy security performance of 30 Chinese provinces, divided into eight regions. Our results reveal both trends in energy policy and practice as well as provincial status of comparative energy security for the year 2013. We find, for instance, that there is no province which performs well in all five of the energy security dimensions, and that all provinces confronted threats related to energy availability and diversity. We also demonstrate that in comparative terms, the Middle Reaches of Yellow River and the Northwest were the most energy-secure, while the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River and the Northeast were least energy-secure. - Highlights: • We assessed energy security for 30 Chinese provinces across five dimensions. • Fuzzy AHP, PROMETHEE and Sensitivity Analysis are used to investigate. • Western provinces perform better performance than eastern provinces in 2013. • Energy availability and diversity is the most severe threat facing China's energy security. • Developing renewable energy will help improve China's Provincial energy security significantly.

  2. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri, E-mail: guri.bang@cicero.uio.n [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  3. Energy security and climate change concerns. Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress - the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo. (author)

  4. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  5. Assessment of renewables for energy security and carbon mitigation in Southeast Asia: The case of Indonesia and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy sector of Southeast Asia (Indonesia and Thailand) is modeled. • LEAP energy model is used. • Least cost optimization method is used to estimate the future electric supply. • CO_2 mitigation and electricity production costs are also estimated. - Abstract: Due to fast rising energy demand, Southeast Asia has become a larger energy consumer and bigger player in global energy markets. Energy security and environmental emissions reduction have become higher priorities to ensure energy supply at affordable costs, for continued economic growth and development. To address these issues renewable energy plays a vital role in the long-term future for sustainable development. This paper estimates and analyzes the renewable energy potential in the energy mix in two Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia and Thailand. The LEAP energy model is used to develop different renewable energy policy scenarios from base year 2010 to 2050. The results of the simulation show that a large proportion of electricity must be produced by renewables by 2050 if full potential of renewables is to be exploited. In this case, 81% and 88% of CO_2 emissions are reduced in Indonesia and Thailand respectively. In implementing renewables at large scale in both these countries the cost of production increases substantially.

  6. North-East Asian Super Grid: Renewable energy mix and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Christian; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Komoto, Keiichi; Ehara, Tomoki; Song, Jinsoo; Enebish, Namjil

    2015-08-01

    Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and country-wide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW·h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30-40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources-based energy system is THE real policy option.

  7. Toward an energy security strategy for Canada : a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy security strategies for Canada were presented in this paper. Article 6.05 of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) prohibits Canada from reducing the proportion of energy exported to the United States or Mexico. Between 1982 and 2002, natural gas consumption in Canada rose by 96 per cent while exports increased by 396 per cent. Crude oil consumption increased by 29 per cent, while exports rose by 595 per cent. Government practices have tended towards extracting and exporting resources as quickly as possible with no consideration to resource availability for future generations. In addition, much of the value of Canadian resources has been given to private corporations. The environment has been damaged in order to enable faster extraction, and First Nations, employees, and communities have been placed at the mercy of corporations and international markets. Canada's unique cultural and societal arrangements have not been protected. Four principles to address these concerns were presented: (1) managing non-renewable resources as responsible stewards and conserving their economic availability for future generations; (2) ensuring that the benefits from fossil fuels are invested in other forms of capital that will ensure the future prosperity and energy security of Canada; (3) ensuring that the extraction and use of resources has minimal impacts on the planet and (4) a re-direction of the proceeds from resource exploitation towards education, social and health services, land claims and land use settlements, and the elimination of poverty among First Nations people. It was suggested that energy-related jobs and workers should be protected through the development of an industrial strategy which includes investment in renewable energy development and re-training programs for workers. Consistent depoliticized policies are needed to reduce the impact on low-income Canadians of free-market price swings and the unavoidable costs of environmental protection. It was

  8. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France); [Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Nabucco Project and Communicating about Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Negrescu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy Security was considered by many of the Eastern European countries a priority in their fight for breaking the ties with the former Soviet Union. The dependence of the Eastern European countries to the Russian gas and petroleum generated for most of the local governments a feeling of inferiority that they were willing to replace if the opportunity will be offered. One of the main alternative projects to the Russian gas is the Nabucco Project designed to enable the access to Caspian gas for all the European countries. Knowing that a decision on the realization of the pipeline should be made by the end of June 2013, our article will try to illustrate the importance of the Nabucco Project for the regional and European energy security by studying the history of the project, the competing projects and the recent political evolutions of the project. This will enable researchers, decision makers and policy makers in the energy sector to better evaluate the Nabucco project and better act into promoting it.

  10. Assessing energy supply security: Outage costs in private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron J.; Hähnel, Alexander; Erdmann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the topic of energy supply security by proposing a Monte Carlo-based and a survey based model to analyze the costs of power interruptions. Outage cost estimations are particularly important when deciding on investments to improve supply security (e.g. additional transmission lines) in order to compare costs to benefits. But also other policy decisions on measures that have direct or indirect consequences for the supply security (e.g. a phasing out of nuclear energy) need to be based on results from outage cost estimations. The main focus of this paper lies with residential consumers, but the model is applied to commercial, industrial and governmental consumers as well. There are limited studies that have approached the problem of evaluating outage cost. When comparing the results of these studies, they often display a high degree of diversification. As consumers have different needs and dependencies towards the supply of electricity because of varying circumstances and preferences, a great diversity in outage cost is a logical consequence. To take the high degree of uncertainties into account, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in this study for the case of private households in Germany. - Highlights: ► A macroeconomic model to assess outage cost is proposed. ► Possibilities for substitution are considered by analyzing individual preferences for the time-use. ► Uncertainties are taken into account by using a Monte Carlo simulation. ► This study reveals the distribution of outage costs to different electricity consumers. ► Implications for energy policy decisions are discussed.

  11. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: A Summary of Major Provisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sissine, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (P.L. 110-140, H.R. 6) is an omnibus energy policy law that consists mainly of provisions designed to increase energy efficiency and the availability of renewable energy...

  12. 75 FR 3948 - Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc., Biosys, Inc., Bolder Technologies Corp., Boyds Wheels, Inc... securities of Biometrics Security Technology, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  13. Viability of Hydrogen Pathways that Enhance Energy Security: A Comparison of China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Andreasen, Kristian Peter; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    When designed and built properly, hydrogen energy systems can enhance energy security through technological diversification and minimizing dependence on foreign imports of energy fuels. However, hydrogen can be produced from different feedstocks according to separate pathways, and these different...... pathways create particular consequences on a nation's overall energy security. The objective of this study is to investigate the superiorities and inferiorities of hydrogen pathways from the perspective of China and Denmark, and to determine which pathways best contribute to national energy security...

  14. New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-01

    Over the past five years, the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences has engaged thousands of scientists around the world to study the current status, limiting factors and specific fundamental scientific bottlenecks blocking the widespread implementation of alternate energy technologies. The reports from the foundational BESAC workshop, the ten 'Basic Research Needs' workshops and the panel on Grand Challenge science detail the necessary research steps (http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html). This report responds to a charge from the Director of the Office of Science to the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee to conduct a study with two primary goals: (1) to assimilate the scientific research directions that emerged from these workshop reports into a comprehensive set of science themes, and (2) to identify the new implementation strategies and tools required to accomplish the science. From these efforts it becomes clear that the magnitude of the challenge is so immense that existing approaches - even with improvements from advanced engineering and improved technology based on known concepts - will not be enough to secure our energy future. Instead, meeting the challenge will require fundamental understanding and scientific breakthroughs in new materials and chemical processes to make possible new energy technologies and performance levels far beyond what is now possible.

  15. Causal relationship between trade openness, economic growth and energy consumption: A panel data analysis of Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, Samia; Anwar, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between economic growth, trade openness and energy consumption using data of 15 Asian countries. The study covers the period of 1980–2011. We have applied panel cointegration and causality approaches to examine the long-run and causal relationship between variables. Empirical results confirm the presence of cointegration between variables. The impact of economic growth and trade openness on energy consumption is found to be positive. The panel Granger causality analysis reveals the bidirectional causality between economic growth and energy consumption, trade openness and energy consumption. - Highlights: • This study analyzes causality between energy, growth and trade in the Asian region. • Empirical results supported cointegrating relationship between variables. • Positive impact of growth and trade openness on energy usage is found in the long run. • Bidirectional Granger causality is observed between selected variables in the long run

  16. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  17. Power, Profits, and Politics: Energy Security and Cooperation in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyatets, Ekaterina

    This study explores varying outcomes of energy cooperation, defined as diplomatic relations, bilateral trade, and investment in oil and natural gas. Tests of theories pertinent to energy security - broadly speaking, realism, liberalism, and domestic politics---reveal that they alone can offer only a narrow and one-sided explanation, not embracing the complexity of energy issues. Nevertheless, using them as a starting point, this study outlined a structured framework that incorporates three variables---economic potential, geopolitical rivalry, and domestic interest groups---that are applied to the cases of U.S.-Russia, U.S.-Azerbaijan, and Russia-Germany energy ties. This study concludes that if the economic potential (defined by geographic proximity and resource availability) is very high, such as in the case of Russia-Germany, states can overcome geopolitical rivalries and historical enmities in favor of energy cooperation. However, if the economic potential is relatively low (because of geographic obstacles or easily available alternative suppliers, as in the cases of U.S.-Russia and U.S.-Azerbaijan), then geopolitics prevails---for example, to bypass Russia or to limit American access to contracts in Russia when U.S.-Russian relations are strained. In all the cases explored here, domestic interest groups have mixed influence: if they are united along energy issues, they usually successfully achieve their energy policy goals, although the impact of these groups often becomes intertwined with state interests. In other situations, when powerful interest groups are divided or focused on non-energy-related issues (such as ethnic priorities), their influence over energy deals is much lower.

  18. European energy security analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply.

  19. European energy security. Analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply. (orig.)

  20. Proposal on concept of security of energy supply with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Yamada, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply (SoS) was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. SoS concept has been proposed which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide meaning SoS consists of narrow meaning SoS of short-term energy crisis, which is the traditional concept, and long-term global energy problem, which has become important recently. Three models have been proposed here for evaluating SoS. A method to estimate energy security level in a quantitative manner by comparing with various measures has been also proposed, in which nuclear energy contribution onto SoS can be further measured. (author)

  1. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  2. Shaping China's energy security: The impact of domestic reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lixia; Chang, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a subsequent study of China's energy security situation which concludes that China's energy security has not improved over 30 years of economic reform. The objective of the study is to explore qualitatively why the energy security situation has not improved. To answer the ‘why’ question, the study opens up a new perspective by analyzing the relationship between energy security and energy policies from the macroeconomic reform perspective. This study discusses major reforms that took place over 30 years. It is found that China's macroeconomic reform has restricted the formation of China's energy policies and determined its energy security situation. In essence, China's energy policies are only a reaction to the macroeconomic measures. In other words, China's energy policies are not originally intended to improve energy security, but passive reactions to China's macroeconomic reform. This explains why China did not improve its energy security situation despite 30 years of reform. - Highlights: • This study identifies relationship between China's reform and energy policy. • This study identifies the key variable that has affected China's energy security. • Policy implication of the identification is drawn. • A new perspective to analyze energy security is provided

  3. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bohi, D.R. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R.; Bohi, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Effects of Nuclear Energy on Sustainable Development and Energy Security: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjoo Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a stepwise method of selecting appropriate indicators to measure effects of a specific nuclear energy option on sustainable development and energy security, and also to compare an energy option with another. Focusing on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, one of the highlighted Generation IV reactors, we measure and compare its effects with the standard pressurized water reactor-based nuclear power, and then with coal power. Collecting 36 indicators, five experts select seven key indicators to meet data availability, nuclear energy relevancy, comparability among energy options, and fit with Korean energy policy objectives. The results show that sodium-cooled fast reactors is a better alternative than existing nuclear power as well as coal electricity generation across social, economic and environmental dimensions. Our method makes comparison between energy alternatives easier, thereby clarifying consequences of different energy policy decisions.

  6. Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security : A New Framework For Energy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2017-01-01

    `This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as

  7. Report of the international forum on nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held 'International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security - Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia-' on 12 and 13 December 2012, co-hosted by the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. In the forum, keynote speakers from Japan, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S., France and Republic of Korea (ROK), respectively explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. In two panel discussions, entitled 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle back end' and 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for nuclear energy use in the Asian region and a multilateral cooperative framework', active discussions were made among panelists from Japan, IAEA, the U.S., France, ROK, Russia and Kazakhstan. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report except presentation materials. (author)

  8. Encapsulated nuclear heat source reactors for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Susplugas, A.; Hong, S.G.; Monti, L.; Sumini, M.; Okawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    A spectrum of Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactors have been conceptually designed over the last few years; they span a power range from 10 MWe to -200 MWe and consider a number of coolants and fuel types. Common features of all these designs include very long life cores - exceeding 20 effective full power years; nearly zero burnup reactivity swing; natural circulation; superb safety; autonomous load following capability; simplicity of operation and maintenance. ENHS reactors could be of particular interest for providing electricity, thermal energy and, possibly, desalinated water to communities that are not connected to a central electricity grid such as to many pacific islands and to remote communities in the mainland of different countries. ENHS reactors provide energy security by virtue of a couple of features: (1) Once an ENHS reactor is commissioned, the community has assured clean energy supply for at least 20 years without needing fuel supply. (2) The energy value of the fuel loaded (in the factory) in the ENHS module is preserved; what is needed for generating energy for additional 20+ years is to remove the fission products, add depleted uranium for makeup fuel, refabricate fuel rods and load into a new module. This fuel recycling is envisioned done by either the supplier country or by a regional or international fuel cycle centre. As the ENHS module is replaced at its entirety at the end of the core life - that is brought about by radiation damage, the ENHS plant life is likely to last for over 100 years. The above features also offer exceptional stability in the price of energy generated by the ENHS reactor. The reference ENHS design will be described followed by a brief description of the design options developed and a summary of their performance characteristics

  9. India's energy security: A sample of business, government, civil society, and university perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the concept of energy security perceived and understood by a sample of government, business, civil society, and university stakeholders in India. Based on a literature review, the authors hypothesize what energy experts suggest energy security is for India. The article then tests these hypotheses through the use of a survey completed by 172 Indian respondents. The article begins by describing its methodology before summarizing the results of the literature review to distill seven working hypotheses related to energy security in India. These hypotheses relate to (1) security of energy supply, (2) equitable access to energy services, (3) research and development of new energy technologies, (4) energy efficiency and conservation, (5) self-sufficiency and trade in energy fuels, (6) nuclear power, and (7) the energy-water nexus. It then tests these hypotheses with our survey instrument before concluding with implications for energy policy in India and beyond. - Research highlights: → We measured the concept of energy security for India through a survey that tested the importance of 16 dimensions. → For our sample of respondents from India, as hypothesized, security of fossil fuel supply, R and D in new technologies, centralized energy systems, and the availability of clean water emerged as important dimensions. → Equitable access to energy and low energy intensity did not emerge as important dimensions of energy security for our sample even though we hypothesized them to be so.

  10. India's energy security: A sample of business, government, civil society, and university perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain, E-mail: sppmjb@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This article explores the concept of energy security perceived and understood by a sample of government, business, civil society, and university stakeholders in India. Based on a literature review, the authors hypothesize what energy experts suggest energy security is for India. The article then tests these hypotheses through the use of a survey completed by 172 Indian respondents. The article begins by describing its methodology before summarizing the results of the literature review to distill seven working hypotheses related to energy security in India. These hypotheses relate to (1) security of energy supply, (2) equitable access to energy services, (3) research and development of new energy technologies, (4) energy efficiency and conservation, (5) self-sufficiency and trade in energy fuels, (6) nuclear power, and (7) the energy-water nexus. It then tests these hypotheses with our survey instrument before concluding with implications for energy policy in India and beyond. - Research highlights: {yields} We measured the concept of energy security for India through a survey that tested the importance of 16 dimensions. {yields} For our sample of respondents from India, as hypothesized, security of fossil fuel supply, R and D in new technologies, centralized energy systems, and the availability of clean water emerged as important dimensions. {yields} Equitable access to energy and low energy intensity did not emerge as important dimensions of energy security for our sample even though we hypothesized them to be so.

  11. A Pathway to Energy and Food Security with Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amelia Dias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous rise in commodity prices and the global production of biofuels, between 2007 and 2008, strengthened discussions, which persist currently, about the competition of land use between biofuel production and food production. The objective of this paper is to compare and evaluate the arguments from both sides. The methodology used was an analysis of the relevant and comprehensive reports and manuscripts on the topic, comparing them to the available data from international organizations and agencies. Biodiesel received special attention in this analysis. The conclusion is that hunger and poverty problems are due to structural and historical roots and they do not have a cause-effect relationship with biodiesel production. In fact, the production of biodiesel, under specific regulatory and production conditions, can be a driver of economic development improving energy security and promoting social inclusion in poor countries, which still have land available for agriculture. 

  12. Security of energy supply: Account of the security of supply in Denmark; Energiforsyningssikkerhed. Redegoerelse om forsyningssikkerheden i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-15

    A secure and stable energy supply is a prerequisite for a society like the Danish. Through many years of active energy policy we in Denmark have developed an efficient energy system with a very high security of supply. In coming decades it is necessary to implement a major transformation of our energy supplies to more renewable energy and phase out fossil fuels. The Government's vision is that we must have a Denmark that is independent of fossil fuels. With such a fundamental transformation of our energy supply and energy system it becomes a challenge to maintain the high security of supply, as we know it today. Conversely, it is not a long term solution to continue to allow society to be dependent on fossil fuels. And it is against this background, the Danish Minister for Climate and Energy submit this account on security of energy supplies in Denmark. The account shows that we in Denmark have a high security of supply. There is still access to sufficient energy resources, we have a well-functioning infrastructure, and we have good access to the exchange of energy within the EU and other countries. This places Denmark in a good situation. Today, Denmark has a significant import of especially petroleum and coal and export of petroleum and gas. The future declining production of oil and gas in the North Sea means an increasing need for imported fuels from fewer and fewer countries and regions, and at the same time there will be an increased international demand for the same fuels. This brings Denmark in the same situation as the other EU countries. Thus we have the basis for reducing consumption of fossil fuels and instead accommodate increasing amounts of renewable energy in our energy supply, but it requires a further development of the system to be possible to store energy and manage energy consumption. It will be necessary if the growing parts of our energy must come from fluctuating sources like wind and solar energy. Efficiency in energy supply has

  13. Enhancing China’s energy security: Determining influential factors and effective strategic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The most influential factors affecting China’s energy security are identified. • Fuzzy AHP is used to quantify the importance of influential factors. • Strategic measures for enhancing China’s energy security are prioritized. • Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures. - Abstract: This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies and improving energy efficiency is the most salient, positive, and necessary strategic measure

  14. Ensuring energy security in ASEAN countries: Current trends and major challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderov, Sergey; Vorobev, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the issues of formation of future challenges to energy security of the ASEAN countries in the period up to 2035. The article gives examples of strategic threats to the energy security of Russia. The opportunities to meet future demand for primary energy for individual countries of ASEAN and the whole region are discussed.

  15. P.L. 110-140, "Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007", 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-19

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), signed into law on December 19, 2007, set forth an agenda for improving U.S. energy security across the entire economy. While industrial energy efficiency is specifically called out in Title IV, Subtitle D, other EISA provisions also apply to AMO activities.

  16. Diversification and localization of energy systems for sustainable development and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianguo

    2005-01-01

    The dominance of a single-energy system inevitably leads to excessive burden on, and eventually weakening, a particular aspect of the environment, and can cause environmental fatigue and failure (permanent damage) or even catastrophe if dominated for too long; thus it inevitably poses the health and environmental risk. This is the case for our currently fossil-fuel-based energy systems. In fact, each energy system, including renewables and alternative fuels, has its own unique adverse impact on the environment, as dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. A truly sustainable development may be achieved with the diversification and localization of energy sources and systems if the adverse impact of each energy system is sufficiently small and well within the tolerance limit of the environment. Energy diversification and localization would also provide a security for the energy supply and distribution as well for the energy consumers - a specifically important issue in the wake of blackout (electric power failure) in the Northeastern states to the Midwest of the United States and part of Canada on August 14, 2003. The idea of diversified energy systems for the good of humanity and environment is similar to many analogies in other fields, such as bio-diversity is the best means to prevent the spread and damage of diseases and pests, and diversified investment is the best strategy to guarantee the overall best investment return. It is concluded that the diversification and localization of energy systems is the best future energy systems that would be environmentally compatible, and allow for sustainable development as well as energy security for both supply and distribution to the energy consumers

  17. Diversification and localization of energy systems for sustainable development and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianguo Li

    2005-01-01

    The dominance of a single-energy system inevitably leads to excessive burden on, and eventually weakening, a particular aspect of the environment, and can cause environmental fatigue and failure (permanent damage) or even catastrophe if dominated for too long; thus it inevitably poses the health and environmental risk. This is the case for our currently fossil-fuel-based energy systems. In fact, each energy system, including renewables and alternative fuels, has its own unique adverse impact on the environment, as dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. A truly sustainable development may be achieved with the diversification and localization of energy sources and systems if the adverse impact of each energy system is sufficiently small and well within the tolerance limit of the environment. Energy diversification and localization would also provide a security for the energy supply and distribution as well for the energy consumers - a specifically important issue in the wake of blackout (electric power failure) in the Northeastern states to the Midwest of the United States and part of Canada on August 14, 2003. The idea of diversified energy systems for the good of humanity and environment is similar to many analogies in other fields, such as bio-diversity is the best means to prevent the spread and damage of diseases and pests, and diversified investment is the best strategy to guarantee the overall best investment return. It is concluded that the diversification and localization of energy systems is the best future energy systems that would be environmentally compatible, and allow for sustainable development as well as energy security for both supply and distribution to the energy consumers. (Author)

  18. Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    installation of natural gas generation or cogeneration plants to increase their energy security from the typical three days using diesel supplies to weeks-to...better quantify the regional impact of natural gas for energy security. Modeling and simulation could identify those regions and DoD installations that...Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security N. Judson 15 May 2013 Prepared for the

  19. Assessment of Political Vulnerabilities on Security of Energy Supply in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česnakas Giedrius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that despite the evident link between political environment and security of energy supply, political elements are not sufficiently represented in contemporary scientific literature, namely in indexes that are designed for the assessment of security of energy supply. In an attempt to fill this gap, the article presents an innovative methodology for quantitative assessment of the political vulnerabilities on security of energy supply and applies it to the analysis of the Baltic States.

  20. Nuclear Option for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolundzija, V.; Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Present energy policy is required to ensure a balance between security of supply, competitiveness and environmental requirements. Recent changes involved by deregulation and liberalization of electricity and natural gas markets even strengthen such a policy. However, dependency on external energy sources carries risks that have to be managed since a large proportion of both oil and gas reserves are found in politically unstable regions. Electrical energy is a fundamental prerequisite for a civilized life and an essential commodity, but it cannot be stored and this restricts the extent to which there can be a real free market for electricity. Therefore, relying on imports of electricity to a large extent may prove unsecure because this requires a true, completely open market in which the opportunities for cross-border trade are effective and balanced and transport connections are adequate. This is equally applied to the countries in the South-Eastern Europe, despite very good prospects for development of the regional electricity market there. In this regard, the use of nuclear energy has not any risk associated with external dependency because there are abundant quantities of uranium available world-wide from many diverse sources. The inherent mitigation of supply risk associated with the use of uranium should act as an incentive to the further use of nuclear energy. In addition, already very large stocks of fuel assemblies and fuel-making materials available, especially when these are measured in terms of power generating capacity per year at current production rates. It is, therefore, very important for any country to recognize such strategic aspect of nuclear energy when addressing the issue of security of power supply. Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due

  1. Access to primary energy sources - the basis of national energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Jan; Szlązak, Rafał A.

    2017-11-01

    National energy security is of fundamental importance for economic development of a country. To ensure such safety energy raw material, also called primary energy sources, are necessary. Currently in Poland primary energy sources include mainly fossil fuels, such as hard coal, brown coal, natural gas and crude oil. Other sources, e.g. renewable energy sources account for c. 15% in the energy mix. Primary energy sources are used to produce mainly electricity, which is considered as the cleanest form of energy. Poland does not have, unfortunately, sufficient energy sources and is forced to import some of them, mainly natural gas and crude oil. The article presents an insightful analysis of energy raw material reserves possessed by Poland and their structure taking account of the requirements applicable in the European Union, in particular, those related to environmental protection. The article also describes demand for electricity now and in the perspective of 2030. Primary energy sources necessary for its production have also been given. The article also includes the possibilities for the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, however, climatic conditions there are not are not particularly favourable to it. All the issues addressed in the article are summed up and ended with conclusions.

  2. The future of energy security in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-10-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Economies and security of nations depend on reliable and cost-effective access. As the world transitions from conventional oil and natural gas to nuclear, renewables, and unconventional sources we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions. Will there be enough cheap oil and gas for preserve the standard of living in the developed world and allow the industrializing world to develop? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs in the near future? Is global warming already happening as a result of our consumption of fossil fuels? If there is a resource crunch before new sources come on line, will there be conflict or global cooperation? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil and gas resources, geopolitics, and key science and technology issues that need to be addressed by the global community with cooperation and a sense of urgency.

  3. Strategic Culture and Energy Security Policy of South Korea: The Case of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun

    2012-01-01

    The U. S. - ROK Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement highlights the dilemma of contemporary international non-proliferation regime. Non-Proliferation Treaty has represented an awkward balance between the ideal of nuclear energy and the reality of nuclear weapons. It is neither complete nor effective. It is not complete because it does not cover all the issues with respect to nuclear energy, which have become increasingly complex. Nuclear security, for example, is not an issue that it addresses, and it is precisely why President Obama called for the unprecedented Nuclear Security Summit. It is not effective. It has failed in preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons states, India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea, who remain outside of the regime. An international regime is defined as 'a set of principles, norms, rules, and decision-procedures around which actors' expectations converge. The extents to which actors' expectations converge and forceful measures in the name of international community against any violation are justified will measure its effectiveness. NPT regime is sub-par on that. The world is in dire need of a comprehensive and integrated regime for nuclear energy regime, where proliferation, security, and safety concern are effectively addressed. South Korea, if it truly wants to become a key player in the field, has to be one of its architects. The ability to meet the challenge of revising Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement will show if it is a qualified architect

  4. Energy security impacts of a severe drought on the future Finnish energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Jaakko; Veijalainen, Noora; Syri, Sanna; Marttunen, Mika; Zakeri, Behnam

    2018-07-01

    Finland updated its Energy and Climate Strategy in late 2016 with the aim of increasing the share of renewable energy sources, increasing energy self-sufficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Concurrently, the issue of generation adequacy has grown more topical, especially since the record-high demand peak in Finland in January 2016. This paper analyses the Finnish energy system in years 2020 and 2030 by using the EnergyPLAN simulation tool to model whether different energy policy scenarios result in a plausible generation inadequacy. Moreover, as the Nordic energy system is so heavily dependent on hydropower production, we model and analyse the impacts of a severe drought on the Finnish energy system. We simulate hydropower availability according to the weather of the worst drought of the last century (in 1939-1942) with Finnish Environment Institute's Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System and we analyse the indirect impacts via reduced availability of electricity imports based on recent realised dry periods. Moreover, we analyse the environmental impacts of hydropower production during the drought and peak demand period and the impacts of climate change on generation adequacy in Finland. The results show that the scenarios of the new Energy and Climate Strategy result in an improved generation adequacy comparing to the current situation. However, a severe drought similar to that experienced in 1940s could cause a serious energy security threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear energy option for energy security and sustainable development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash

    2011-01-01

    India is facing great challenges in its economic development due to the impact on climate change. Energy is the important driver of economy. At present Indian energy sector is dominated by fossil fuel. Due to international pressure for green house gas reduction in atmosphere there is a need of clean energy supply for energy security and sustainable development. The nuclear energy is a sustainable solution in this context to overcome the environmental problem due to fossil fuel electricity generation. This paper examines the implications of penetration of nuclear energy in Indian power sector. Four scenarios, including base case scenario, have been developed using MARKAL energy modeling software for Indian power sector. The least-cost solution of energy mix has been measured. The result shows that more than 50% of the electricity market will be captured by nuclear energy in the year 2045. This ambitious goal can be expected to be achieved due to Indo-US nuclear deal. The advanced nuclear energy with conservation potential scenario shows that huge amounts of CO 2 can be reduced in the year 2045 with respect to the business as usual scenario.

  6. Smaller size of high metabolic rate organs explains lower resting energy expenditure in Asian-Indian Than Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L L T; Venkataraman, K; Gluckman, P; Chong, Y S; Chee, M-W L; Khoo, C M; Leow, M-Ks; Lee, Y S; Tai, E S; Khoo, E Y H

    2016-04-01

    In Singapore, the obesity prevalence is disproportionately higher in the Asian-Indians and Malays than the Chinese. Lower resting energy expenditure (REE) may be a contributory factor. We explored the association between ethnicity and REE in Chinese, Asian-Indian and Malay men living in Singapore and determined the influence of body composition, mass/volume of high metabolic rate organs, represented by brain volume and trunk fat-free mass (FFM), and physical activity on ethnic differences. Two hundred and forty-four men from Singapore (n=100 Chinese, 70 Asian-Indians and 74 Malays), aged 21-40 years and body mass index of 18.5-30.0 kg m(-2), were recruited in this cross-sectional study. REE was assessed by indirect calorimetry and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Brain volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Physical activity was assessed by the Singapore Prospective Study Program Physical Activity Questionnaire. REE was significantly lower in Asian-Indians compared with that in Chinese after adjusting for body weight. FFM (total, trunk and limb) and total fat mass were important predictors of REE across all ethnic groups. Brain volume was positively associated with REE only in Malays. Moderate and vigorous physical activity was positively associated with REE only in Asian-Indians and Malays. The difference in REE between Asian-Indians and Chinese was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for total FFM (59±20 kcal per day), fat mass (67±20 kcal per day) and brain volume (54±22 kcal per day). The association between REE and ethnicity was no longer statistically significant after total FFM was replaced by trunk FFM (which includes heart, liver, kidney and spleen) but not when it was replaced by limb FFM (skeletal muscle). We have demonstrated a lower REE in Asian-Indians compared with Chinese who may contribute to the higher rates of obesity in the former. This difference could be accounted for

  7. Energy policymaking in Denmark: Implications for global energy security and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is arguably the most energy secure and sustainable country in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The country has reduced its dependence on foreign sources of energy to zero and become self-sufficient in its own energy production and use, offering important lessons for other nations around the world. This study explores the core of Denmark's successful approach: a commitment to energy efficiency, prolonged taxes on energy fuels, electricity, and carbon dioxide, and incentives for combined heat and power (CHP) and wind turbines. Through these commitments, the study shows how Denmark transitioned from being almost 100 percent dependent on imported fuels such as oil and coal for their power plants in 1970 to becoming a net exporter of fuels and electricity today. The country leads the world in terms of exportation of wind energy technology, with a hold on roughly one-third of the world market for wind turbines. It was able to phase out the use of virtually all oil-fired power plants in less than five years and implemented a progressive moratorium on future coal-fired power plants in the 1990s. Their most recent strategy seeks to achieve 30 percent of total energy supply from renewable energy by 2025. - Highlights: • Denmark is arguably the most energy secure and sustainable country in the OECD. • This study explores the core of Denmark's successful approach. • Denmark phased out oil-fired power plants in less than five years. • It also implemented a progressive moratorium on coal-fired power plants

  8. Enhancing China’s Energy Security: Determining Influential Factors and Effective Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used...... to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies...

  9. Quantifying, Measuring, and Strategizing Energy Security: Determining the Most Meaningful Dimensions and Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    subjective concepts of energy security into more objective criteria, to investigate the cause-effect relationships among these different metrics, and to provide some recommendations for the stakeholders to draft efficacious measures for enhancing energy security. To accomplish this feat, the study utilizes...

  10. The Oil Security Metrics Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Prospective Oil Security Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    Energy technology R&D is a cornerstone of U.S. energy policy. Understanding the potential for energy technology R&D to solve the nation's energy problems is critical to formulating a successful R&D program. In light of this, the U.S. Congress requested the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake both retrospective and prospective assessments of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research programs (NRC, 2001; NRC, 2005). ("The Congress continued to express its interest in R&D benefits assessment by providing funds for the NRC to build on the retrospective methodology to develop a methodology for assessing prospective benefits." NRC, 2005, p. ES-2) In 2004, the NRC Committee on Prospective Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy R&D Programs published a report recommending a new framework and principles for prospective benefits assessment. The Committee explicitly deferred the issue of estimating security benefits to future work. Recognizing the need for a rigorous framework for assessing the energy security benefits of its R&D programs, the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) developed a framework and approach for defining energy security metrics for R&D programs to use in gauging the energy security benefits of their programs (Lee, 2005). This report describes methods for estimating the prospective oil security benefits of EERE's R&D programs that are consistent with the methodologies of the NRC (2005) Committee and that build on Lee's (2005) framework. Its objective is to define and implement a method that makes use of the NRC's typology of prospective benefits and methodological framework, satisfies the NRC's criteria for prospective benefits evaluation, and permits measurement of that portion of the prospective energy security benefits of EERE's R&D portfolio related to oil. While the Oil Security Metrics (OSM) methodology described

  11. Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Ma, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in resource allocation for energy constrained and security-critical embedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to be successfully executed under certain energy budget and be robust against serious security threatens. Different to former energy minimal scheduling...... energy slack ratio. The proposed algorithm is very efficient in both time and space dimensions, and achieves good solutions. Extensive simulations demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over other approaches....

  12. Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    protect, and secure the United States and its interests. • AOF is the United States, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, Bahamas, Puerto Rico , and the U.S. Virgin...Criteria (UFC) for Smart Microgrid Cyber design guides for Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Residual systems Operations and Maintenance Operator...Training Sustainment Commercial Transition Cooperation with NIST for microgrid security standards Working with industry associations and

  13. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  14. In the name of energy security: the struggle over the exportation of Israeli natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Nathan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to place the notion of energy security under critical scrutiny by unpacking how different actors manipulate the term through the mobilization of existential language as a prism for creating securitization discourse. Through an examination of an Israeli inter-ministerial committee charged with developing national policy regarding newly-discovered natural gas reserves off the coast of Israel, the study finds that the concept of energy security is open for manipulation and various interpretations. While some actors stress environmental acceptability and independency as pillars of energy security, others prioritized supply reliability and geopolitical benefits associated with gas exportation. Each definition of energy security was also found to be anchored in different ideologies, goals, policies and legitimizing factors. The coupling of energy with securitization rhetoric was ultimately determined as working against cooperative efforts, as committee conflicts intensified and suggested institutional measures became disproportional. - Highlights: • The concept of energy security is open for manipulation and various interpretations. • Each definition of energy security was anchored in different ideologies, goals, policies and legitimizing factors. • Numerous discursive means were used to portray energy as a security matter. • The coupling of energy with securitization rhetoric was working against cooperative efforts

  15. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Blind and Disabled Applicants (2016 Onward)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits for federal...

  16. Quarterly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Languages, Supplemental Security Income Initial Claims (Aged) (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides quarterly volumes of SSI Aged initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 with quarter 4 shown two ways—we base one on a...

  17. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  18. Interrelations between Energy Security Economics and Social Cohesion: Analysis of a Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Genys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.

  19. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...

  20. Reimagining Energy in the North: Developing Solutions for Improving Renewable Energy Security in Northern Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, I. F.; Poelzer, G.; Noble, B.; Beatty, B.; Belcher, K.; Chung, T.; Loring, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global energy sector is at a crossroads. Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, volatile fossil fuel prices, the emergence of sustainability markets, and advances in renewable energy technologies are setting the foundation for what could be one of the most significant societal transitions since the industrial revolution. There is a growing movement to "re-energize" Canada, through embracing pathways to facilitate a societal transition a low-carbon future. For example, circumpolar jurisdictions are poised for a transition to renewable energy. There are more than 250 remote, off-grid communities across Canada's North, of which approximately 170 are Indigenous, that rely largely on diesel-fueled generators. Diesel-fueled generation is generally reliable when properly maintained; however, supply is limited, infrastructure is at capacity or in need of major upgrading, and the volatile price of fuel can mean significant social, community and economic opportunity loss. Renewable energy projects offer one possible opportunity to address these challenges. But, given the challenges of human capacity, limited fiscal resources, and regulatory barriers, how can Northern communities participate in the global energy transition and not be left behind? To answer this question, the University of Saskatchewan, together with partners from the circumpolar North, are leading an initiative to develop a cross-sectoral and multi-national consortium of communities, utilities, industries, governments, and academics engaged in renewable energy in the North. This consortium will reimagine energy security in the North by co-creating and brokering the knowledge and understanding to design renewable energy systems that enhance social and economic value. Northern communities and utilities will learn directly from other northern communities and utilities across Canada and internationally about what can be achieved in renewable energy development and the solutions to current and future

  1. Department of Energy award DE-SC0004164 Climate and National Security: Securing Better Forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno Harnish

    2011-08-16

    The Climate and National Security: Securing Better Forecasts symposium was attended by senior policy makers and distinguished scientists. The juxtaposition of these communities was creative and fruitful. They acknowledged they were speaking past each other. Scientists were urged to tell policy makers about even improbable outcomes while articulating clearly the uncertainties around the outcomes. As one policy maker put it, we are accustomed to making these types of decisions. These points were captured clearly in an article that appeared on the New York Times website and can be found with other conference materials most easily on our website, www.scripps.ucsd.edu/cens/. The symposium, generously supported by the NOAA/JIMO, benefitted the public by promoting scientifically informed decision making and by the transmission of objective information regarding climate change and national security.

  2. Liberalisation and energy security in the European Union. Success and questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; Locatelli, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    The energy environment of the European Union as well as its own internal situation have undergone profound changes. The energy security of member states is therefore an important issue that should be examined. This security concerns gas and electricity markets, with infrastructures, long-term contracts, lack of investment and with the increasing use of natural gas to generate electricity. Energy market players have to manage security concerns in these two markets in order to supply socially and economically essential commodities. In this article, we examine two main topics. The first is related to the European Union's capacity to solve the problem of security of supply by finding internal solutions. The second concerns external security of supply. With the upstream structure of the gas market, a problem of investing in trans-national gas pipelines exists, besides relations with gas suppliers outside the EU. (authors)

  3. Improving energy decisions towards better scientific policy advice for a safe and secure future energy system

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Kaiser, M; Schreurs, Miranda; Weber, Christoph; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Managing a successful transition of the current energy supply system to less carbon emitting options, ensuring a safe and secure supply during the whole process and in the long term, is one of the largest challenges of our time. Various approaches and first implementations show that it is not only technological issue, but also a matter of societal acceptance and acceptability, considering basic ethic values of the society. The main foci of the book are, thus, to develop an understanding about the specific challenges of the scientific policy advice in the area, to explore typical current approaches for the analysis of future energy systems and to develop criteria for the quality assessment and guidelines for the improvement of such studies. The book provides assistance to the interpretation of existing studies and guidelines for setting up and carrying out new analyses as well as for communicating and applying the results. Thereby, it aims to support the involved actors such as the respective scientific expert...

  4. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-01-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  5. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede, E-mail: gwibawa@chem-eng.its.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  6. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia's reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  7. 'The Iranian connection': the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    Of the possible routes to connect Caucasian and Central Asian oil to market, the 'Iranian connection' is the most interesting. The economic attraction of the Iranian route is clear: large transport capacities exist in the various pieces of Iran's existing network, large refining centers are located near the Caspian and there ate unutilized export terminals [it

  8. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost' (geopolitika i jekonomika [Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiznin Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.

  9. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package. To build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, E.; Spencer, Th.

    2011-01-01

    As the EU's climate and energy goals defined in its Climate and Energy Package (CEP) are to protect the climate, to protect EU economic competitiveness, and to protect EU energy security, the authors first define these notions (time consistency, competitiveness, energy security) and stress the importance of strengthening the CEP, notably by fostering low carbon technology investment and low carbon products and services innovation. They discuss several policy recommendations for the development of a low carbon, competitive and energy secure EU. These recommendations are notably based on the strengthening of current instruments and on the implementation of new tools to reach the 20% energy efficiency target, on an increase stringency and predictability of the EU ETS, and on the use of direct public financial support to facilitate the transition towards a EU low carbon economy

  10. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given.

  11. Are predictive equations for estimating resting energy expenditure accurate in Asian Indian male weightlifters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accuracy of existing predictive equations to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE of professional weightlifters remains scarcely studied. Our study aimed at assessing the REE of male Asian Indian weightlifters with indirect calorimetry and to compare the measured REE (mREE with published equations. A new equation using potential anthropometric variables to predict REE was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: REE was measured on 30 male professional weightlifters aged between 17 and 28 years using indirect calorimetry and compared with the eight formulas predicted by Harris–Benedicts, Mifflin-St. Jeor, FAO/WHO/UNU, ICMR, Cunninghams, Owen, Katch-McArdle, and Nelson. Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out to study the agreement between the different methods, association with anthropometric variables, and to formulate a new prediction equation for this population. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between mREE and the anthropometric variables showed positive significance with suprailiac skinfold thickness, lean body mass (LBM, waist circumference, hip circumference, bone mineral mass, and body mass. All eight predictive equations underestimated the REE of the weightlifters when compared with the mREE. The highest mean difference was 636 kcal/day (Owen, 1986 and the lowest difference was 375 kcal/day (Cunninghams, 1980. Multiple linear regression done stepwise showed that LBM was the only significant determinant of REE in this group of sportspersons. A new equation using LBM as the independent variable for calculating REE was computed. REE for weightlifters = −164.065 + 0.039 (LBM (confidence interval −1122.984, 794.854]. This new equation reduced the mean difference with mREE by 2.36 + 369.15 kcal/day (standard error = 67.40. Conclusion: The significant finding of this study was that all the prediction equations

  12. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  13. New nuclear power in the UK: A strategy for energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim; Scott, Alister

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent to which the construction of new nuclear power plants in the UK can safeguard or enhance energy security. The paper starts with a discussion of energy security, and breaks it down into four main categories of threat. These include threats due to fossil fuel scarcity and external disruptions, problems due to a lack of investment in infrastructure, threats due to technology or infrastructure failure, and risks due to domestic activism or terrorism. The paper then discusses one of the most common strategies put forward to improve security-the promotion of diversity within energy systems. Following this, the paper assesses the potential for new nuclear investment to ameliorate security threats in each of the four categories introduced earlier in the paper. The paper concludes that whilst nuclear investment can help to mitigate some threats to UK energy security, the government's case for supporting this investment ignores some equally important security issues. As a result, the energy security case for nuclear power has not yet been made.

  14. New nuclear power in the UK. A strategy for energy security?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jim; Scott, Alister [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, The Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent to which the construction of new nuclear power plants in the UK can safeguard or enhance energy security. The paper starts with a discussion of energy security, and breaks it down into four main categories of threat. These include threats due to fossil fuel scarcity and external disruptions, problems due to a lack of investment in infrastructure, threats due to technology or infrastructure failure, and risks due to domestic activism or terrorism. The paper then discusses one of the most common strategies put forward to improve security - the promotion of diversity within energy systems. Following this, the paper assesses the potential for new nuclear investment to ameliorate security threats in each of the four categories introduced earlier in the paper. The paper concludes that whilst nuclear investment can help to mitigate some threats to UK energy security, the government's case for supporting this investment ignores some equally important security issues. As a result, the energy security case for nuclear power has not yet been made. (author)

  15. New nuclear power in the UK: A strategy for energy security?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jim, E-mail: w.j.watson@sussex.ac.u [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Scott, Alister [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent to which the construction of new nuclear power plants in the UK can safeguard or enhance energy security. The paper starts with a discussion of energy security, and breaks it down into four main categories of threat. These include threats due to fossil fuel scarcity and external disruptions, problems due to a lack of investment in infrastructure, threats due to technology or infrastructure failure, and risks due to domestic activism or terrorism. The paper then discusses one of the most common strategies put forward to improve security-the promotion of diversity within energy systems. Following this, the paper assesses the potential for new nuclear investment to ameliorate security threats in each of the four categories introduced earlier in the paper. The paper concludes that whilst nuclear investment can help to mitigate some threats to UK energy security, the government's case for supporting this investment ignores some equally important security issues. As a result, the energy security case for nuclear power has not yet been made.

  16. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: Views on Proposed Civil Penalties, Security Oversight, and External Safety Regulation Legislation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Gary

    2000-01-01

    This report provides the General Accounting Office's views on three bills designed to improve worker and nuclear facility safety and health as well as to enhance security for the Department of Energy (DOE...

  17. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  18. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  19. Global Energy Security and Its Geopolitical Impediments: The Case of the Caspian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the global geopolitics of energy security in the post-Cold War environment. Energy companies headquartered in western countries have long history of accessing energy resources beyond borders through invasion of the host by their home state, followed by domination and the

  20. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacher, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.lacher@swp-berlin.org [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik/German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin (Germany); Kumetat, Dennis, E-mail: d.kumetat@lse.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: >Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. >Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. >Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. >Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  1. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacher, Wolfram; Kumetat, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: →Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. →Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. →Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. →Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  2. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  3. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  4. The Arab Spring and South China Sea Tensions: Analyzing China's Drive to Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Henelito A.

    2015-01-01

    The Arab Spring has brought significant changes to the political landscape in many Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries since early 2011. It has also affected the geo strategic and economic interests of powerful emerging Asian states, especially China and other net-energy consuming countries. One immediate result of the Arab Spring is its highly disrupted impact (a ' Black Swan') on the production and supply of crude oil to the economies in Asia due to their high degree...

  5. Energy market and investment - political economy of supply security in the market of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leban, R.

    2005-01-01

    A market structure that appears to be adapted to achieving a supply security purpose in the sectors of oil power and gas, is an organisation where upstream energy markets include industrial players of adequate sizes involved downstream and where futures exchanges prevail at prices translating anticipations on 'basics' since spot markets are more of adjustment markets. Policy weighs hugely on those markets. The extra competition lately instilled in the electrical and gas markets in developed countries results in no decrease, as complicated exchange rules need to be thought up and the market power needs to be monitored. Political intervention is also carried out in the name of environmental policies, in a strong interaction with the operation of the said markets and therefore with a not insignificant risk of disruption. The oil market is a highly political one, since the key to exchanges, i.e. access to primary resources, is played between producing countries and huge oil and gas companies close to consuming countries. There is a strong temptation in the electrical sector, to add security policies in order to prevail over the market. Gas, which is oil upstream and electrical downstream, requires, in consuming countries, a delicate balance of policies to support operators as buyers and to control the same operators as players of the gas- gas competition. The prognosis on the market's ability to provide safe supply efficiently to citizens if security policies are implemented is rather good in areas where demand is moderately growing and networks are developed. It is however not as good in areas where there are high needs for production and transport investments, i.e. in countries that are developing now, and will be...in Europe soon. (author)

  6. Mutual Payments in Increase of the Level of Economic Security of Energy Generating Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzhytskyi Andrіy V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main approaches to the essence of the economic security of an enterprise notion, namely, approach of counter-action to threats, approach of successful market activity and approach of achievement of certain development goals; it identifies the role of economic security of energy generating enterprises in economic security of other subjects and the country in general; it offers definition of the economic security of an enterprise notion as a complex characteristic of the state of the enterprise that reflects the level of the enterprise possibility to ensure functioning and development; it marks out functional components of economic security, which are connected with mutual payments, namely, financial, personnel, technical and technological, political and legal, informational and interface ones; it presents connection of mutual payments with the level of financial component of economic security of enterprises, which envisages financial flow from or to the enterprise for changing the obligation status or its quantitative characteristics.

  7. Technology scale and supply chains in a secure, affordable and low carbon energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy systems need to decarbonise, provide security and remain affordable. • There is uncertainty over which technologies will best enable this to happen. • A strategy to deal with uncertainty is to assess a technologies ability to show resilience, flexibility and adaptability. • Scale is important and smaller scale technologies are like to display the above characteristics. • Smaller scale technologies are therefore more likely to enable a sustainable, secure, and affordable energy transition. - Abstract: This research explores the relationship between technology scale, energy security and decarbonisation within the UK energy system. There is considerable uncertainty about how best to deliver on these goals for energy policy, but a focus on supply chains and their resilience can provide useful insights into the problems uncertainty causes. Technology scale is central to this, and through an analysis of the supply chains of nuclear power and solar photovoltaics, it is suggested that smaller scale technologies are more likely to support and enable a secure, low carbon energy transition. This is because their supply chains are less complex, show more flexibility and adaptability, and can quickly respond to changes within an energy system, and as such they are more resilient than large scale technologies. These characteristics are likely to become increasingly important in a rapidly changing energy system, and prioritising those technologies that demonstrate resilience, flexibility and adaptability will better enable a transition that is rapid, sustainable, secure and affordable

  8. The Analysis of the Chosen Internal Condition and Prospects of Romania’s Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutka Michał

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the age of high pace of technological, economic and social development, stable and uninterrupted energy supply is one of the key components determining the economic sovereignty of the state, its position in international relations, and the quality of human life. Every economy around the world is heavily dependent on its energy sector. Consequently, ensuring energy security is currently one of the most important determinant of every country’s national security and the purpose of its security policy. In this article we focus on Romania’s energy security internal condition and prospects. Our main goal is to present actual state and prospects of Romanian energy sector. In order to achieve that goal, we decided to use various methods, such as descriptive analysis, document analysis and comparative analysis. The article has two parts. The first part consists of a description of energy sources and infrastructure used by Romanian economy. The second part is an analysis of possible chances and threats for both energy sector and energy security level.

  9. Secure Broadcast in Energy-Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazos, Loukas; Poovendran, Radha

    2002-01-01

    .... The authors show that existing efficient key distribution techniques for wired networks that rely on logical hierarchies are extremely energy inefficient for energy-constrained wireless ad-hoc networks...

  10. China's energy security and its challenges towards 2035

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Ole; Delman, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Within the last twenty years, China has become dependent on import of coal, oil and natural gas. Especially oil is now an economic and a security concern by the Chinese regime and key international stakeholders. Until 2035, China will account for one fourth of the global net growth in global gas...... of oil is secured so far. Even if China attempts to address its insufficient supply of oil by increased investments in overseas oil fields, there is still a large gap. Furthermore, the oil import will largely come from politically unstable countries and regions, and the bulk of the supplies must...... consumption and more than half of the net growth in oil consumption. The future demand cannot be covered by China׳s own conventional and unconventional sources. Pipelines from neighboring countries can cover more than half of the needed import of natural gas by 2030, but only 10 percent of the import demand...

  11. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  12. POWERING AIRPOWER: IS THE AIR FORCES ENERGY SECURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    overhead transmission and distribution conductors are exposed. Microgrids offer a control method for utility systems that allow operators to control ... microgrids offer an additional level of control that installations would not otherwise have. For instance, an incident affecting one part of the grid...could cause undue strain on another part that is experiencing a higher power demand. With secure microgrid controls , technicians have the ability to de

  13. Adaptive Security in ODMAC for Multihop Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Dragoni, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs) represent an interesting new paradigm where individual nodes forming a network are powered by energy sources scavenged from the surrounding environment. This technique provides numerous advantages, but also new design challenges. Securing...... the communications under energy constraints represents one of these key challenges. The amount of energy available is theoretically infinite in the long run but highly variable over short periods of time, and managing it is a crucial aspect. In this paper we present an adaptive approach for security in multihop EH...

  14. Achieving a secure energy future: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, David; Herdendorf, M.; Eisenfeld, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy, economics, and the environment are interdependent. Land, water, atmospheric, and biological resources are being degraded by current high energy consumption. U.S. energy consumption is the highest in the world and the U.S. Department of Energy reports that the United States has only about 10 years of known and potentially discoverable oil reserves. The U.S. should reduce its energy consumption by one half to help restore the quality of the environment while improving the American standard of living by strengthening the economy and increasing the number of jobs. Because of the interdependence of energy, economics, and the environment, energy efficiency and transition to renewable energy sources are critical. An estimated 40% of current energy consumption could be produced employing solar energy technologies, but would require about 20% of total U.S. land area. Therefore, the development of solar energy technologies to substitute for fossil energy is projected to compete for land required for agriculture and forestry as well as have other environmental impacts

  15. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENERGY SECURITY IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a sustainable, secure and competitive energy supply has long been recognized within the Community, and has been addressed on numerous occasions, notably in the Green Papers elaborated by the Commission in 2000 and 2006. Recent supply crises and rapidly escalating fuel prices have focused the minds of leaders across the European Union, as well as those of businesses and individual energy consumers. Energy policy transcends a range of different policy areas, including competition, transport, environment and energy itself. Decisions relating to energy policy in Europe are primarily within the remit of individual Member State governments, with the European Commission’s powers limited to two specific areas (creation of the European single market and matters relating to nuclear safety and security under the EURATOM Treaty. The extent of the transfer of powers towards Europe is clearly a critical decision point and in practice a sensitive balance is likely to be required between those matters for which the Commission should have responsibility and those where Member State governments retain sole authority. European officials are putting into evidence their belief that Europe’s energy predicament is acute and mention energy security as a priority issue for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Policy commitments say that energy strategy must move beyond the internal sphere and become systematically a part of EU external relations. The Commission’s 2006 Energy Green Paper promised “a better integration of energy objectives into broader relations with third countries”.

  16. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.

    2009-01-01

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  17. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S. [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  18. Germany and energy security in the 2000s: Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S., E-mail: duffield@gsu.ed [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future.

  19. Public views on multiple dimensions of security: nuclear weapons, terrorism, energy, and the environment: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  20. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  1. A comparative assessment of the role of energy in Qatar's East Asian foreign relations: case studies on China, Japan and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Rebekah

    2017-01-01

    Energy is an important factor in international relations and recently the global energy paradigm has been seen to be shifting towards the East. In light of such change, a comparative assessment of the role of energy in Qatar’ East Asian foreign relations will be conducted by taking China, Japan and South Korea as case studies. The research aimed to assess each of the bilateral relationship in terms of their origin and development in the energy sector generating an interpretation of their grow...

  2. Energy Security and Economics of Indian Biofuel Strategy in a Global Context

    OpenAIRE

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur; Baka, Jenn

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for climate change mitigation and greater energy security for many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks - global warming pollution and negative economic impacts of oil price hikes. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk ...

  3. Security aspects of "Geoenergeia" and the significance of energy resources management in international politics

    OpenAIRE

    VIDAKIS, Ioannis; BALTOS, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    This paper builds on the tools of geopolitics and geo-economics for analyzing energy resource networks and energy security. To prioritize the role that energy resources play in the interpretation of and decision making in international politics, it proposes the introduction of the Greek language-inspired term "geoenergeia" and a derivative methodology. Unprecedented fluctuations in fuel prices during recent decades and intensifying turmoil in the energy market are all indisputable phenomena t...

  4. Secure Communications in CIoT Networks with a Wireless Energy Harvesting Untrusted Relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hequn; Gao, Zhenzhen; Liao, Xuewen; Leung, Victor C M

    2017-09-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a bright prospect that a variety of common appliances can connect to one another, as well as with the rest of the Internet, to vastly improve our lives. Unique communication and security challenges have been brought out by the limited hardware, low-complexity, and severe energy constraints of IoT devices. In addition, a severe spectrum scarcity problem has also been stimulated by the use of a large number of IoT devices. In this paper, cognitive IoT (CIoT) is considered where an IoT network works as the secondary system using underlay spectrum sharing. A wireless energy harvesting (EH) node is used as a relay to improve the coverage of an IoT device. However, the relay could be a potential eavesdropper to intercept the IoT device's messages. This paper considers the problem of secure communication between the IoT device (e.g., sensor) and a destination (e.g., controller) via the wireless EH untrusted relay. Since the destination can be equipped with adequate energy supply, secure schemes based on destination-aided jamming are proposed based on power splitting (PS) and time splitting (TS) policies, called intuitive secure schemes based on PS (Int-PS), precoded secure scheme based on PS (Pre-PS), intuitive secure scheme based on TS (Int-TS) and precoded secure scheme based on TS (Pre-TS), respectively. The secure performances of the proposed schemes are evaluated through the metric of probability of successfully secure transmission ( P S S T ), which represents the probability that the interference constraint of the primary user is satisfied and the secrecy rate is positive. P S S T is analyzed for the proposed secure schemes, and the closed form expressions of P S S T for Pre-PS and Pre-TS are derived and validated through simulation results. Numerical results show that the precoded secure schemes have better P S S T than the intuitive secure schemes under similar power consumption. When the secure schemes based on PS and TS

  5. P.L. 96-294, "Energy Security Act" (1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Declares it to be the purpose of this title to reduce dependence on foreign energy resources by producing synthetic fuel. Part A: Development of Synthetic Fuel Under the Defense Production Act of 1950 - Defense Production Act Amendments of 1980 - Amends the Defense Production Act of 1950 to include within the policy objectives of such Act Government preparedness to contend with foreign actions which could reduce or terminate the availability of material, including energy, which is crucial to national defense. States that greater independence in domestic energy supplies is necessary to national defense preparedness. Designates "energy" as a "strategic and critical material." States that such designation shall not give the President any authority: (1) for the mandatory allocation or pricing of any fuel or feedstock; or (2) to engage in the production of energy in any manner whatsoever, except for synthetic fuel production.

  6. The eu-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns-Graus, Wina H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the eu, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  7. The EU-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Crijns-Graus, W.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the EU, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  8. P.L. 110-140, "Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007" (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-13

    An act to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security, to increase the production of clean renewable fuels, to protect consumers, to increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles, to promote research on and deploy greenhouse gas capture and storage options, and to improve the energy performance of the Federal Government, and for other purposes.

  9. International measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency). List of errata; 1998 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seigohyo. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The list of errata was prepared for the data book of the international measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency). Corrected pages of the data book 1 (1990) are as follows: 187-190, 223-226, 259-262, 295- 298, 369-370, 387-388 and 405-406 on Malaysian data. Corrected pages of the data book 2 (1985) are as follows: 102-105 on Chinese data, 154 on common data, and 187-190, 223-226, 259-262, 295-298, 369-370, 387-388 and 405-406 on Malaysian data. (NEDO)

  10. Car dieselization: A solution to China's energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yanjun; Shen, Wei; Yang, Shuhong; Han, Weijian; Chai, Qinhu

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there is a renewed interest in car dieselization in China to address the challenge of oil security. We developed an econometric model to estimate the vehicle fuels and crude oil demands. The results indicate that if the average travel distance of cars is maintained at the level of 2010–16,000 km/yr, and if the distillation products mix of the refineries remains unchanged, China's crude oil demand in 2020 will reach 1060 million tonnes (Mt), which also results in an excess supply of 107 Mt of diesel. A new balance of diesel supply and demand can be reached and crude oil demand can be significantly reduced to 840 Mt by improving the production ratio between diesel and gasoline on the supply side and promoting passenger vehicle dieselization on the demand side. The crude oil demand will be reduced to 810 Mt in 2020, if the vehicle travel distance gradually drops to 12,000 km/yr. If so, dieselization will provide a rather limited added value—only 6% further oil saving by 2020. Dieselization is not a silver bullet but it depends on a series of key factors: growth rate of gross domestic products (GDP), vehicle sales, and vehicle annual travel distance. -- Highlights: •Econometric approach is employed to forecast fuel and oil demand. •Dieselization is a potential policy option to improve China's oil security. •In favorable conditions, dieselization will cut more than 200 Mt oil import in 2020. •In some cases; however, dieselization may have limited effect on oil saving

  11. The Department of Energy's safeguards and security technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.; Pocratsky, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has had a program that develops technologies to protect sensitive nuclear weapons facilities for more than thirty years. The mission of the program is overwhelmingly diverse, as it must be to protect an array of assets such as nuclear weapons, special nuclear material in various forms, components of nuclear weapons, and classified nuclear weapons design information. Considering that the nuclear weapons complex consists of dozens of facilities that are scattered all over the US, the technology development mission is very challenging. Complicating matters further is the ever uncertain future of the DOE. Some examples of dramatic Departmental mission changes that directly impact their security technology development program are given. A few development efforts are highlighted as examples of efforts currently being sponsored. They are: automated sensor testing devices to help reduce the requirement for personnel to enter vaults containing highly radioactive nuclear materials; a vehicle inspection portal to screen vehicles for hidden passengers, nuclear material, explosives, and other contraband; non-lead and short-range ammunition as an environmentally safe alternative to lead ammunition; a complex-wide visitor access control system to allow all DOE employees to travel to all sites with a commonly recognized credential; automated nuclear material monitoring technologies to provide assurance that material in storage has not been tampered with; laser radar as a potential solution to early warning deficiencies throughout the Department; performance testing standards for many security products to include an automated and consistent standard for assessing the quality of video; low temperature pyrotechnic smoke as a possible adversary delay mechanism; modular vaults to provide temporary protection for nuclear material during D and D activities, and a protection approach for restricted passage areas such as the volume above a tiled ceiling or within a crawl space

  12. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, W.

    2008-01-01

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO 2 -free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  13. Secure Distributed Detection under Energy Constraint in IoT-Oriented Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guomei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in the CAE scheme, it remains an open problem of how to optimize the key thresholds for the estimated channel gain, which are used to determine the sensor’s reporting action. Moreover, the CAE scheme does not jointly consider the accuracy of local detection results in determining whether to stay dormant for a sensor. To solve these problems, we first analyze the error probability and derive the optimal thresholds in the CAE scheme under a specified energy constraint. These results build a convenient mathematic framework for our further innovative design. Under this framework, we propose a hybrid secure distributed detection scheme. Our proposal can satisfy the energy constraint by keeping some sensors inactive according to the local detection confidence level, which is characterized by likelihood ratio. In the meanwhile, the security is guaranteed through randomly flipping the local decisions forwarded to the fusion center based on the channel amplitude. We further optimize the key parameters of our hybrid scheme, including two local decision thresholds and one channel comparison threshold. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that our hybrid scheme outperforms the CAE under stringent energy constraints, especially in the high signal-to-noise ratio scenario, while the security is still assured.

  14. Secure Distributed Detection under Energy Constraint in IoT-Oriented Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guomei; Sun, Hao

    2016-12-16

    We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE) is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in the CAE scheme, it remains an open problem of how to optimize the key thresholds for the estimated channel gain, which are used to determine the sensor's reporting action. Moreover, the CAE scheme does not jointly consider the accuracy of local detection results in determining whether to stay dormant for a sensor. To solve these problems, we first analyze the error probability and derive the optimal thresholds in the CAE scheme under a specified energy constraint. These results build a convenient mathematic framework for our further innovative design. Under this framework, we propose a hybrid secure distributed detection scheme. Our proposal can satisfy the energy constraint by keeping some sensors inactive according to the local detection confidence level, which is characterized by likelihood ratio. In the meanwhile, the security is guaranteed through randomly flipping the local decisions forwarded to the fusion center based on the channel amplitude. We further optimize the key parameters of our hybrid scheme, including two local decision thresholds and one channel comparison threshold. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that our hybrid scheme outperforms the CAE under stringent energy constraints, especially in the high signal-to-noise ratio scenario, while the security is still assured.

  15. An energy security management model using quality function deployment and system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Juneseuk; Shin, Wan-Seon; Lee, Changyong

    2013-01-01

    An energy security management model using quality function deployment (QFD) and system dynamics (SD) is suggested for application in public policymaking in developing economies. Through QFD, experts are guided toward identifying key energy security components, including indicators and policies, and in making these components consistent, focused, and customized for a particular country. Using these components as inputs, we construct an intermediate complex system dynamics model with a minimal number of crucial interactions. Key policies are simulated and evaluated in terms of the improvement of key indicators. Even with little data, our approach provides a coherent, useful, and customized energy security management model to help policymakers more effectively manage national energy security. To demonstrate its advantages, the model is applied to the Korean gas sector as an example. - Highlights: ► We suggest an energy security management model for developing economies. ► We identify a consistent set of key components, indicators and policies by using QFD. ► A coherent and practical system dynamics model based on QFD's output is constructed. ► The model is applied to the Korean gas sector as an example

  16. THE ENERGY COMPONENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY: UKRAINE IN THE MIRROR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is important for any state. It is important for the state’s environment and economy. Ukraine is an energy dependent state, as well as an import-energy dependent one. The paper is devoted to the statistical analyses of Ukrainian energy sector from the position of its world representation. The purpose of this research is on the base of statistical analysis of current internal and external trends in the energy sector of Ukraine to consider possible mechanisms to stimulate and accelerate environmental-friendly energy security of Ukraine. Main objectives: to trace the dynamics of world and Ukrainian main energy indicators in the synergy with the state energy security index; to cluster launched efficiency-targeted energy projects in Ukraine in geoindustry aspect. Analyses of dynamics of energetic vs environmental performance of Ukraine in 2000–2014 world ranks shows that being in low segment of world rankings on aspects of energy and environmental security, Ukraine shows positive tendencies to the improvement, however with slow steps. In order to identify the most promising and most attractive sector of the economy in Ukraine to investors we held grouping of current launching energy-efficient projects in the aspect of industries and sectors where energy-efficient technologies operate. The rank analyses depicted that the most popular among economic sectors for energyefficiency investments are enterprises of agriculture and consumer goods industry, and the most attractive regions of Ukraine for implementation of investments in energy efficient technologies are Ivano-Frankivsk, Luhansk and Kherson oblasts.

  17. American security perspectives: public views on energy, environment, nuclear weapons and terrorism: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from matching national surveys of the US general public on US energy and environmental security administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2008. Key areas of investigation include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alter-native sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include evolving perspectives on global climate change and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options. We also report findings from an Internet survey of the general public conducted in mid-2008 that investigates assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism.

  18. Evaluating energy security of resource-poor economies: A modified principle component analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingzhu; Shi, Xunpeng; Yao, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes to aggregately measure energy security performance with the principal component analysis. In its application of the methodology to four resource-poor yet economically advanced island economies in East Asia—Singapore, South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, this study establishes a novel framework to conceptualize energy security. The framework incorporates three dimensions: vulnerability, efficiency, and sustainability, three indicators being allocated to each dimension. The study finds that all the three dimensions are critical for the resource-poor economies but have different weights in each of them. An urgent task for these four economies is to implement energy efficiency and conservation measures. Liberalization of electricity sector can be a helpful tool to reduce energy consumption and increase efficiency. All of them have been committed to promoting renewable energy development, which shall be further expanded in these economies. - Highlights: • Proposes to assess energy security within a three-level framework using PCA. • Applies the method to four resource-poor island economies in East Asia. • Establishes a novel framework to conceptualize energy security. • Dimensions within the framework are vulnerability, efficiency, and sustainability. • Three dimensions are all important but have different weights in different economies.

  19. On the recent warming in the subcloud layer entropy and vertically integrated moist static energy over South Asian Monsoon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, R.; Gupta, A.; Matsumoto, J.; Takahashi, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    In order to explain monsoon circulation, surface temperature gradients described as most traditional concept. However, it cannot explain certain important aspects of monsoon circulation. Later, convective quasi-equilibrium framework and vertically integrated atmospheric energy budget has become recognized theories to explain the monsoon circulation. In this article, same theories were analyzed and observed for the duration 1979-2010 over south Asian summer monsoon region. With the help of NCEP-R2, NOAA 20th Century, and Era-Interim reanalysis an important feature was noticed pertained to subcloud layer entropy and vertical moist static energy. In the last 32 years, subcloud layer entropy and vertically integrated moist static energy has shown significant seasonal warming all over the region with peak over the poleward flank of the cross-equatorial cell. The important reason related to the warming was found to be increase in surface enthalpy fluxes. Instead, other dynamical contributions pertained to the warming was also observed. Increase in positive anomalies of vertical advection of moist static energy over northern Bay of Bengal, Central India, Peninsular India, Eastern Arabian Sea, and Equatorial Indian Ocean was found to be an important dynamic factor contributing for warming of vertically integrated moist static energy. Along with it vertical moist stability has also supported the argument. Similar interpretations were perceived in the AMIP simulation of CCSM4 model. Further modeling experiments on this warming will be helpful to know the exact mechanism behind it.

  20. Examining the patterns of innovation in low carbon energy science and technology: Publications and patents of Asian emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Chan-Yuan; Fatimah Mohamad, Zeeda; Keng, Zi-Xiang; Ariff Azizan, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on selected Asian emerging economies. The study employs publications and patents as proxies for science and technology, and its analysis is divided into three main parts: production trends, catching-up trends and patterns of convergence. The findings resulted in four salient points to be considered by policy makers: (1) ASEAN-4 lagged significantly behind the more advanced economies (Korea, Taiwan and China) even though their performance was identical in the early 1990s. China has forged ahead in terms of scientific publications and patents production, but lags behind in patents quality; (2) compared to the world average, the region as a whole has high potential to forge ahead in low carbon energy scientific production. (3) Advanced economies in Asia kicked off their low carbon energy science and technology development more from technological rather than scientific production, with no straightforward co-evolution between the two competencies. This demonstrates the need for a strong science-based technological foundation and a high level of dynamism for low carbon energy technology development; and (4) the economies demonstrated contrasting development trends in their focus between the supply and demand sides of energy technology development. The performance of the advanced economies is higher in ‘demand-side’ low carbon energy innovations

  1. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  2. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  3. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  4. Nuclear power in Northern Russia: A case study on future energy security in the Murmansk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, Miia; Korppoo, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The economy of the Murmansk region in Russia is based on energy intensive industry, mainly metallurgies, and consequently, the region is highly dependant on the ageing Kola nuclear power plant. This interdependence together with other weaknesses in the regional energy system creates threats to the energy supply security of the region. This paper analyses the internal and external threats influencing the region and presents potential solutions. Scenarios further illustrate possible future paths these potential solutions could deliver by the year 2025

  5. Energy Security Strategies: An Analysis of Tanzania and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    outsourcing of monitoring and enforcement of the accountability mechanism to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and the International ...strategy, and international relationships. Analysis of the case studies indicates that the combination of political elite cohesion, economic reforms that...favor the domestic energy market, and structuring the influence of international actors in policy development enables the development of the domestic

  6. Environmental support, energy security and economic growth in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparatos, Alexandros; Gadda, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the resource consumption of Japanese society since 1979 and its subsequent effects on the economic output of the nation and the environment. In order to quantify resource appropriation and trends in production and consumption, the concept of emergy synthesis is employed. Our results show a significant increase in the total amount of emergy consumed by 66.9% between 1979 and 2003 which comes hand in hand with an increase in the level of environmental stress by 93.7% (quantified as the environmental loading ratio). On the other hand the emergy required to produce 1 USD of economic output has been gradually decreasing which denotes an increase in the efficiency of the conversion of natural capital into economic output. What is most interesting though is the growing dependence of the Japanese economy on imported emergy, increasingly from developing nations, that severely affects the potential for unhindered economic growth. This can prove to be a big barrier that could affect the resource security of the Japanese economy and render it susceptible to risks associated with access to natural resources which in turn can jeopardise its long-term economic sustainability.

  7. Evaluation of security of supplies for the Danish energy system up to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.; Daub, J.; Dietrich, O.W.; Laut, P.

    1979-03-01

    Security of energy supplies is one of the criteria which ought to enter into the future extension possibilities for the Danish energy system. But security of supply is a difficult concept to quantify involving as it does both technical and political aspects. The report attempts to encircle the problems relating to security of supply, partly by describing and evaluating the supply structure and the amount of the resource which could be thought of as entering into the future Danish pattern of energy supply, and partly by analyzing the consequences for the Danish consumer of a break in the supply of a specific fuel. It is noted that a supply breakdown in the electric system is not treated in the report except insofar as the fuel entering into the electric system is covered in the study. (author)

  8. Future regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia: Energy security costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Hayes, Peter; Kang, Jungmin; Katsuta, Tadahiro

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in East Asia has rapidly increased regional energy, and especially, electricity needs. Many of the countries of East Asia have sought or are seeking to diversify their energy sources and bolster their energy supply and/or environmental security by developing nuclear power. Rapid development of nuclear power in East Asia brings with it concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation associated with uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel management. This article summarizes the development and analysis of four different scenarios of nuclear fuel cycle management in East Asia, including a scenario where each major nuclear power user develops uranium enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel individually, scenarios featuring cooperation in the full fuel cycle, and a scenario where reprocessing is avoided in favor of dry cask storage of spent fuel. The material inputs and outputs and costs of key fuel cycle elements under each scenario are summarized. - Highlights: → We evaluate four scenarios of regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia and the Pacific. → The scenarios cover fuel supply, enrichment, transport, reprocessing, and waste management. → We evaluate nuclear material flows, energy use, costs, and qualitative energy security impacts. → Regional cooperation on nuclear fuel cycle issues can help to enhance energy security. → A regional scenario in which reprocessing is rapidly phased out shows security and cost advantages.

  9. Relevance of Clean Coal Technology for India’s Energy Security: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Tiwari, Vineet; Vishwanathan, Saritha

    2017-07-01

    Climate change mitigation regimes are expected to impose constraints on the future use of fossil fuels in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2015, 41% of total final energy consumption and 64% of power generation in India came from coal. Although almost a sixth of the total coal based thermal power generation is now super critical pulverized coal technology, the average CO2 emissions from the Indian power sector are 0.82 kg-CO2/kWh, mainly driven by coal. India has large domestic coal reserves which give it adequate energy security. There is a need to find options that allow the continued use of coal while considering the need for GHG mitigation. This paper explores options of linking GHG emission mitigation and energy security from 2000 to 2050 using the AIM/Enduse model under Business-as-Usual scenario. Our simulation analysis suggests that advanced clean coal technologies options could provide promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions by improving energy efficiencies. This paper concludes that integrating climate change security and energy security for India is possible with a large scale deployment of advanced coal combustion technologies in Indian energy systems along with other measures.

  10. Energy Security Analysis: The case of constrained oil supply for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, James; Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Bazilian, Morgan; Gallachóir, Brian Ó

    2014-01-01

    Ireland imports 88% of its energy requirements. Oil makes up 59% of total final energy consumption (TFC). Import dependency, low fuel diversity and volatile prices leave Ireland vulnerable in terms of energy security. This work models energy security scenarios for Ireland using long term macroeconomic forecasts to 2050, with oil production and price scenarios from the International Monetary Fund, within the Irish TIMES energy systems model. The analysis focuses on developing a least cost optimum energy system for Ireland under scenarios of constrained oil supply (0.8% annual import growth, and –2% annual import decline) and subsequent sustained long term price shocks to oil and gas imports. The results point to gas becoming the dominant fuel source for Ireland, at 54% total final energy consumption in 2020, supplanting oil from reference projections of 57% to 10.8% TFC. In 2012, the cost of net oil imports stood at €3.6 billion (2.26% GDP). The modelled high oil and gas price scenarios show an additional annual cost in comparison to a reference of between €2.9bn and €7.5bn by 2020 (1.9–4.9% of GDP) to choose to develop a least cost energy system. Investment and ramifications for energy security are discussed. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security within a techno-economic model of Ireland to 2050. • We impose scenarios constraints of volume and price derived from IMF forecasting. • Continued high oil prices lead to natural gas supplanting oil at 54% TFC by 2020. • Declining oil production induces additional energy system costs of 7.9% GDP by 2020. • High oil and gas prices are likely to strain existing Irish gas import infrastructure

  11. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Hers, Sebastiaan; Van der Zwaan, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO 2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 C with respect to the pre-industrial level. (author)

  12. Assessing national nutrition security: The UK reliance on imports to meet population energy and nutrient recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Clark, Heather; Whybrow, Stephen; de Ruiter, Henri; McNeill, Geraldine

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition security describes the adequacy of the food supply to meet not only energy but also macronutrient and micronutrient requirements for the population. The aim of this study was to develop a method to assess trends in national nutrition security and the contribution of imports to nutrition security, using the UK as a case study. Food supply data from FAO food balance sheets and national food composition tables were used to estimate the nutrient content of domestically produced food, imported food and exported food. Nutrition security was defined as the total nutrient supply (domestic production, minus exports, plus imports) to meet population-level nutrient requirements. The results showed that the UK was nutrition secure over the period 1961-2011 for energy, macronutrients and key micronutrients, with the exception of total carbohydrates and fibre, which may be due to the loss of fibre incurred by processing cereals into refined products. The supply of protein exceeded population requirements and could be met with domestic production alone. Even excluding all meat there was sufficient protein for population requirements. The supply of total fat, saturated fat and sugar considerably exceeded the current dietary recommendation. As regards nutrition security in 2010, the UK was reliant on imported foods to meet energy, fibre, total carbohydrate, iron, zinc and vitamin A requirements. This analysis demonstrates the importance of including nutrients other than energy to determine the adequacy of the food supply. The methodology also provides an alternative perspective on food security and self-sufficiency by assessing the dependency on imports to meet population level nutritional requirements.

  13. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 2: Turkey and the Caspian

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    production is reaching a plateau, and widespread concerns about climate change are leading to the retirement of coal-fired power plants and an increase...RUSSIA AUSTRIA ITALY HUNGARY SLOVAKIA ROMANIA SERBIA BULGARIA TURKEY UKRAINE Black Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea GREECE MOLDOVA BOSNIA MONTENEGRO ...Novorossiysk line), as well as energy infrastructure targets. Most recently, militants launched an unsuccessful assault on a hydroelectric power plant

  14. The Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Over the past three years, the Administration has continued to develop and expand America’s high-speed and intercity passenger rail system. In May...2011, DOT announced $2 billion in high-speed rail, bringing our unprecedented investment to $10.1 billion to date. In FY 2011, intercity rail...thousands of jobs, improve and expand travel options, cut energy use and help make our communities more livable. Improving Transportation Choices

  15. Nuclear and Solar Energy: Implications for Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    sequestration, conservation, and telecommuting to several energy production changes to include both solar and nuclear options.FF80FF Stephen Pacala...nations from developing a weapons program when motivated to do so. India provides a useful historic example. India’s weapons program began with a...civilian power programs, for sufficiently motivated governments.FF162FF However, those who make such arguments

  16. Achieving energy security through integrated Canadian-American markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, A. [Fraser Inst., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rastin, T.; O' Keefe, G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The oil and gas sector in the United States and Canada has become increasingly integrated over the last 2 decades, and competitive market forces have displaced attempts at government intervention in both countries. Regulatory measures in both countries are often geared to optimize free-market exchanges. As a result, trade in oil, gas, and electricity is flourishing between Canada and the United States. This paper argued that the relationship between the United States and Canada is under increasing pressure to change. In Canada, energy nationalism and the rising importance of Alberta's oil sands deposits may cause other regions to look at political methods to redistribute wealth or redirect trade flows. The extraction methods used by the oil sands industry as well as Arctic, offshore oil and coalbed methane (CBM) industries are more detrimental to the environment than traditional methods of energy source development, and may attract critics who will call for freezes on production and excessive government intervention. Data on energy production, consumption and trade in North America was provided as well as a history of the evolution of market and regulatory conditions. Challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas sector were outlined. It was recommended that governments in both countries emphasize their commitment to market-based solutions and attempt to remove uncertainties arising from environmental restrictions and First Nations claims. 104 refs.

  17. Achieving energy security through integrated Canadian-American markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, A.; Rastin, T.; O'Keefe, G.

    2006-01-01

    The oil and gas sector in the United States and Canada has become increasingly integrated over the last 2 decades, and competitive market forces have displaced attempts at government intervention in both countries. Regulatory measures in both countries are often geared to optimize free-market exchanges. As a result, trade in oil, gas, and electricity is flourishing between Canada and the United States. This paper argued that the relationship between the United States and Canada is under increasing pressure to change. In Canada, energy nationalism and the rising importance of Alberta's oil sands deposits may cause other regions to look at political methods to redistribute wealth or redirect trade flows. The extraction methods used by the oil sands industry as well as Arctic, offshore oil and coalbed methane (CBM) industries are more detrimental to the environment than traditional methods of energy source development, and may attract critics who will call for freezes on production and excessive government intervention. Data on energy production, consumption and trade in North America was provided as well as a history of the evolution of market and regulatory conditions. Challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas sector were outlined. It was recommended that governments in both countries emphasize their commitment to market-based solutions and attempt to remove uncertainties arising from environmental restrictions and First Nations claims. 104 refs

  18. Biomass cogeneration: industry response for energy security and environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacareza-Pacudan, L.; Lacrosse, L.; Pennington, M.; Dale Gonzales, A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass occurs in abundance in the highly agricultural-based countries of South-East Asia. If these are processed in the wood and agro-processing industries, large volumes of residues are generated. The residue are potential sources of energy which the industries can tap through the use of cogeneration systems, in order to meet their own thermal and electrical requirements. This will reduce the industry's dependence on power from the grid and thus increase their own self-sufficiency in terms of energy. Biomass cogeneration brings the environmental, as well as economic benefits to the industries. It makes use of clean and energy-efficient technologies and utilises biomass as fuels which cause less environment al pollution and the greenhouse effect, as against the use of fossil fuels. A particular mill that embarks on biomass cogeneration is also able to realise, among others, income from the export of excess electricity to the grid. Biomass residue if not used for other purposes have negative values as they need to be disposed of. They can, however, be profit-generating as well. (Author)

  19. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon

  20. Petro-rentierism, petroleum pipeline vandalism and energy security in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Chukwuma Okoli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the nexus between petro-rentierism, petroleum pipeline vandalism and energy security in Nigeria. By means of qualitative discourse, predicated on secondary data and systematized by the structural theory of the state, the paper posits that the incidence of petroleum pipeline vandalism in Nigeria is symptomatic of petro-rentier pathology whose impact has negated the prospect of sustainable energy security. The paper submits that petroleum pipeline vandalism is structural, both in essence and in effect; hence, any meaningful effort to mitigate the problem must recognize and address the gamut of socio-structural and material conditions that underpin and predispose it.

  1. Sectoral energy demand studies: Application of the end-use approach to Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Events since August 1990 have shown that the world is still dependent on oil despite efforts to decrease that dependency since the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Thirteen countries participated in the REDP (UNDP-funded Regional Energy Development Programme) energy planning activities called ''Sectoral energy demand studies'' in which country teams benefited from training in energy data analysis, sectoral accounting of energy demand, and forecasting with the use of MEDEE-S model. This publication documents the training materials on sectoral energy demand series. It includes eight chapters which were indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Middle-aged overweight South Asian men exhibit a different metabolic adaptation to short-term energy restriction compared with Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.E.; Guigas, B.; Schinkel, L.D. van; Zon, G.C. van der; Streefland, T.C.; Klinken, J.B. van; Jonker, J.T.; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Pijl, H.; Meinders, A.E.; Jazet, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asians have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than Europeans. The underlying cause of this excess risk is still poorly understood but might be related to differences in the regulation of energy/nutrient-sensing pathways in metabolic tissues and subsequent changes in

  3. The Dynamics of Good Governance in Promoting Energy Security: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakib B. Amin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, energy and its sustainability have emerged as one of the most important economic issues worldwide. It is widely believed that no country has managed to embrace development without ensuring a sustainable energy supply that could be accessed by a large portion of the population. Thus, this concept of energy sufficiency is of greater importance for the underdeveloped countries those, historically, had not been able to match their local energy demand. Apart from the inefficiencies and resource constraints associated with the energy sector, lack of good governance within an economy is believed to be a critical issue in aggravating energy crisis in those countries. However, following strategic impotence, political unwillingness and inefficient governance of the energy sector, the underdeveloped countries have failed to mitigate the energy deficits which in turn have hampered the development prospects in those countries. This paper highlights the potential roles good governance can play to promote energy security considering the case of Bangladesh, a developing country that is leaving no stones unturned in becoming a middle-income country by 2021. Besides, the role of good governance in complementing fuel diversification as a tool for ensuring energy security has also been put forward. Thus, the government of Bangladesh should reinstate good governance within the economy creating a favourable environment for investment in the energy sector which would enhance competition and mitigate inefficiencies in energy generation, transmission, and distribution.

  4. Final report of the Conference on Forging North American Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This paper discussed the main themes of the Forging American Energy Security Forum. The factors that may contribute to a potential energy crisis were identified as being the major blackout affecting the American Northeast and Ontario, political tensions in the Middle East, the volatility of oil and natural gas prices, fear of terrorist attacks on energy infrastructures and attempts to reform the Mexican energy sector. The conference addressed issues such as the reliability and physical integrity of the North American power supply grids, supply of energy at a stable and competitive price, growth of energy autonomy through increasing North American power supply and energy efficiency and the development of interconnections between power grids in the three countries. Diversification of energy supply sources was discussed, with particular reference to the increased use of renewable energies. Improvements in efficiency were suggested for how different levels of government interact on issues concerning energy development. It was recommended that the energy sector could serve as a springboard to implement a North American investment fund, and that Mexico should take advantage of its energy resources to attract foreign investors in order to finance an increase in Mexican energy production. It was suggested that a trilateral strategy aiming for energy security would accelerate national objectives. The fact that Mexico imports energy from the United States even though it already has the energy resources was also examined. Lack of capital in Mexico was seen as an impediment to development. It was concluded that relaxing regulations would facilitate in the management of the energy sector. The challenges of using clean energy sources were highlighted, as well the difficulties associated with establishing an integrated market for tradable renewable energy certificates. refs., figs

  5. Final report of the Conference on Forging North American Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This paper discussed the main themes of the Forging American Energy Security Forum. The factors that may contribute to a potential energy crisis were identified as being the major blackout affecting the American Northeast and Ontario, political tensions in the Middle East, the volatility of oil and natural gas prices, fear of terrorist attacks on energy infrastructures and attempts to reform the Mexican energy sector. The conference addressed issues such as the reliability and physical integrity of the North American power supply grids, supply of energy at a stable and competitive price, growth of energy autonomy through increasing North American power supply and energy efficiency and the development of interconnections between power grids in the three countries. Diversification of energy supply sources was discussed, with particular reference to the increased use of renewable energies. Improvements in efficiency were suggested for how different levels of government interact on issues concerning energy development. It was recommended that the energy sector could serve as a springboard to implement a North American investment fund, and that Mexico should take advantage of its energy resources to attract foreign investors in order to finance an increase in Mexican energy production. It was suggested that a trilateral strategy aiming for energy security would accelerate national objectives. The fact that Mexico imports energy from the United States even though it already has the energy resources was also examined. Lack of capital in Mexico was seen as an impediment to development. It was concluded that relaxing regulations would facilitate in the management of the energy sector. The challenges of using clean energy sources were highlighted, as well the difficulties associated with establishing an integrated market for tradable renewable energy certificates. refs., figs.

  6. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coq, Chloe [SITE, Stockholm School of Economics, P.O. Box 6501, Stockholm 11383 (Sweden); Paltseva, Elena [Department of Economics, Copenhagen University, Oester Farimagsgade 5, Building 26, 1353 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  7. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  8. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  9. MIMO Beamforming for Secure and Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Hoang D.; Duong, Trung Q.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Considering a multiple-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel with an eavesdropper, this letter develops a beamformer design to optimize the energy efficiency in terms of secrecy bits per Joule under secrecy quality-of-service constraints. This is a very difficult design problem with no available exact solution techniques. A path-following procedure, which iteratively improves its feasible points by using a simple quadratic program of moderate dimension, is proposed. Under any fixed computational tolerance the procedure terminates after finitely many iterations, yielding at least a locally optimal solution. Simulation results show the superior performance of the obtained algorithm over other existing methods.

  10. Dialogue on Climate, Water, Energy and Human Security in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    resettling in another country, in search of the  preservation  of livelihoods.  Itinerate herders of  livestock in search of  pasture ‐lands or water are a...development  potential  in  terms  of  water  for  energy  production, primary services,  industry and domestic use and the  preservation  of ecosystem

  11. Obstacles in energy security: An analysis of congressional and presidential framing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Below, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of policymaking, the U.S. has only recently made significant strides in becoming a more energy secure nation. With a focus on the executive and legislative branches, this paper investigates two possible political obstacles to achieve this policy goal. The first question it asks is whether or not the two branches have been defining energy security in the same way. As the concept itself has no universal definition, it is possible that the branches have been focusing on different aspects of the term. Results from a content analysis of presidential speeches and congressional hearings suggest that no such division has occurred. The subsequent question asks whether or not the two branches, in tandem, are providing the foundation for sound policy. Results suggest that Congress and presidents have defined and discussed energy security in a generally balanced, comprehensive and internally non-conflictual way. What policy emerges from these discussions should be the subject of future research. -- Highlights: •A content-analysis of congressional hearings and presidential speeches was conducted. •Executive and legislative branches have been generally unified in how they frame the issue of energy security. •Both have avoided overreliance on sensationalized frames. •Both do not focus enough attention on energy efficiency and intensity

  12. Discursive Overlap and Conflictive Fragmentation of Risk and Security in the Geopolitics of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Rubio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As it touches all aspects of human activity and society in general, energy has become an object of discourse. Two main discourses have formed on the use of energy: risk discourse and security discourse. While environmental changes and oil depletion continue, a new application for the term security has appeared: energy security. This concept can be interpreted within the terms of risk discourse, which is oriented towards rational consensus and decision making, or as an exercise of power, sovereignty and hegemony. The boundaries between interpretations are often unclear. Thus, in an institutional framework that has fragmented principles, norms and rules, opposing discourses will overlap. Political agents and institutions deploy strategies based on these discourses. With this overlapping of discourses, the performative powers of different institutions clash, thus creating conflictive fragmentation in a governance architecture. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the use of, replication of, and ambiguities surrounding the concept of energy security, so as to understand how and why these discourses overlap and the profound consequences that this overlap may have for present and future energy use, environmental negotiations, and political climate.

  13. The Great Game redux: Energy security and the emergence of tripolarity in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Ibrahim Ozgur

    Securing energy resources has become a key aspect of foreign policy-making since the 1970s. States have used military and economic foreign policy tools to secure the supply of energy to their domestic markets. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, political and economic competition for penetration into energy-rich regions spread through Eurasia. Inspired from the nineteenth century term to describe Russian-British rivalry in the region, the current rivalry among great powers and their allies is called the "New Great Game". This project analyzes three political conflicts that are shaped by such rivalry that can threaten global energy security. Empirical results from the expected utility model (Bueno de Mesquita 1985) suggest the rivalry among the Western (i.e. EU, US) and Eastern (i.e. Russia, China) powers about the Iranian nuclear program, Nagorno-Karabakh and South Ossetia conflicts is likely to continue and shows some Cold War characteristics. I have also found out the expected outcomes of these conflicts and foreign policy tools and obvious and unseen strategic moves available to actors. The major conclusion of the study is that the EU and US should pursue a coordinated foreign policy and balance the Russian and Chinese influence in the region to secure access to energy resources. Most effective foreign policy tools to achieve such aim appear to be the use of economic relations as leverage against Russia and China and support economic and democratic developments of the newly established republics in Eurasia.

  14. Sustainability and energy security : the squeeze on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, G.; Howatson, A.; Parmenter, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the impact of environmental policy on natural gas demand and describes alternative energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass and clean coal that can increase energy supplies. This briefing also establishes the short-, medium-, and long-term consequences of current natural gas realities. It also outlines the driving forces in Canada and the United States behind the demand for natural gas. The impact of policy formation and the phase-out of coal in Ontario are addressed along with natural gas supply prospects and the prospects and obstacles for riskier incremental supplies such as liquefied natural gas, natural gas from coal, and frontier natural gas. It was concluded that strong demand and tight supply are the factors that have driven up natural gas prices. Continued high natural gas prices in the short term will likely motivate conservation strategies at the personal household level as well as in the business and industrial sectors. Although wind power is seen as a clean, competitively prices alternative to natural gas-fired electricity generation, its contribution is not expected to change the supply and demand equilibrium. Initiatives such as the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline, the Alaskan Pipeline and drilling in the Atlantic may help balance natural gas supply and demand in the mid-term. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  15. An Energy-Efficient Virtualization-Based Secure Platform for Protecting Sensitive User Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Soo Lim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the exchange cycles of various computers, smartphones, tablets, and others have become shorter, because new high-performance devices continue to roll out rapidly. However, existing legacy devices are not old-fashioned or obsolete to use. From the perspective of sustainable information technology (IT, energy-efficient virtualization can apply a way to increase reusability for special customized devices and enhance the security of existing legacy devices. It means that the virtualization can customize a specially designed purpose using the guest domain from obsolete devices. Thus, this could be a computing scheme that keeps energy supplies and demands in balance for future sustainable IT. Moreover, energy-efficient virtualization can be the long-term and self-sustainable solution such as cloud computing, big data and so forth. By separating the domain of the host device based on virtualization, the guest OS on the segmented domain can be used as a Trusted Execution Environment to perform security features. In this paper, we introduce a secure platform to protect sensitive user data by domain isolation utilizing virtualization. The sensitive user data on our secure platform can protect against the infringement of personal information by malicious attacks. This study is an effective solution in terms of sustainability by recycling them for special purposes or enhancing the security of existing devices.

  16. Nuclear energy and the Green Paper of the European Commission 'An European strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    At present the energy is for European Union officials an issue of top priority. In the beginning of 2006 the natural gas crisis between Russia and Ukraine remembered menacingly to the Europeans that energy supply of the continent depends decisively on importation from other geographic areas and that these importation raise risks of a great variety. In addition to the power problems, disastrous effects on the economy, human life and eco-systems appeared to have the climate changes produced by fossil fuel burning. Consequently, a common energetic policy of Europe should be targeted at three main objectives: sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Six directions of action were identified: 1. EU must finalize the construction of internal European gas and electricity market; 2. EU should ensure that its energy market guaranties the security of supply under a solidary policy of the member states; 3. It is necessary that a large debate to have place about different sources of energy including the problems of costs and impact on climatic change, security and supply competitiveness and sustainability; 4. EU should approach the climatic change issues in agreement with the objectives established at Lisbon conference aiming at placing EU in the forefront of technological and scientific progress; 5. A strategic plan concerning the energy technology; 6. A common foreign policy in the field of energy. It is worthy to stress that the present Green Paper of EU has a manifestly different position concerning the nuclear energy with respect to the prior Green Paper of November 2000. While, in 2000 the EU Commission viewed the nuclear energy as being 'in limbo', in the 2006 version the Commission declared the nuclear energy as the most important source of power in Europe without CO 2 emissions. It is stated that all the energy options should be kept open while the Europe states have the right to establish their own energy mix, which they consider optimal, and in which

  17. Development courses and the choice of energy-environment policy instruments for fast-developing Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    In the first part, a contextual grid is built which aims at presenting the main impacts of development in developing countries. Some development trends, like energy consumption growth, environmental courses, economic growth and demographic development are analyzed. Then, a global modeling analysis of Kuznets' environmental curves and of development prospect is presented. The second part presents different types of policy instruments for environment protection, and the theoretical challenges and experience feedback of their implementation in OECD countries, in particular in the energy sector. It treats also of the energy-environment policy practices and of their environmental impacts on the economy, of the role of institutional factors in the environmental management in the fast developing Asian countries. The environmental management priorities in an integrated approach in these countries are presented and compared with environmental management experiences in the OECD countries. In the third part, the case study of the power industry sector in Vietnam aims at making an inventory of the emissions in a rapidly developing sector with important atmospheric emissions and at making a critical status of the evaluation instruments of environmental policies by comparing approaches based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' models. Finally, a model and a set of scenarios allowing to evaluate the economical and environmental consequences of the setting up of a sectoral policy in a transition economy context are presented. (J.S.)

  18. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, C.

    2005-03-01

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Outline of energy (electricity) supply and demand outlook in Asian APEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujime, Kazuya

    1995-01-01

    Oil: Japan's oil demand is projected to be on a gradual decline in the future due to implementation of policy measures aimed at achieving that objective, while consumption of oil in three areas - China, NIES and six ASEAN countries -- is projected to increase to reach a level nearly three times as large as Japan's demand by 2010. Supply of oil in the region is projected to level off, making it necessary for the region to increase its reliance on other areas for additional volumes of oil supply. Coal: Demand for coal is projected to grow against a background of expansion of coal-fired power generation. Coal demand in China, in particular, is projected to grow to such an extent that China may become a net coal importer, thus having a great impact on coal supply and demand in Asian countries. Natural gas: Demand for natural gas is projected to grow in the region, centering on NIES and ASEAN countries. Although production in ASEAN countries is expected to increase, the region is anticipated to increase its reliance on other areas for natural gas supply from medium - and long term perspectives. Oil products: Demand for oil products is projected to grow due to stepped-up industrialization and motorization in China, NIES and ASEAN countries. From medium - and long-term perspectives, considerable volumes of additional oil product supply will become necessary, unless large-scale refineries are newly built or expanded within the region centering on China. (author)

  20. The Iranian connection: the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    The prospect of exporting Caspian Sea crude oil production via a transit route through Iran is discussed. There are many political and economic barriers that are preventing the establishment of a transit route to bring the landlocked hydrocarbon resources of Azerbaijan and Central Asia to world oil markets. A route via Iran is most appealing because of the existing system of pipelines and export facilities already in place there, plus its close geographic location to Central Asia. Close to 2 MMb/d of production from the Caspian region could be accommodated at under $1.50/barrel transit costs. However, the opposition from the United States and Israel to any Iranian connection for the Caspian Sea production is well documented. The Russians, too, are opposed to any export option for Caucasian or Central Asian crude production that would bypass Russia because it would reduce its economic leverage over the new republics. It is widely believed that export through Iran would be more beneficial to the individual state governments by providing them with greater net well head revenues, as well as in reinforcing their independence at the expense of the central government in Moscow

  1. A survey of energy policy priorities in the United States: Energy supply security, economics, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Dawn K.; Hines, Valerie A.; Jordan, Matthew W.; Stoltz, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Security, environment, and economic concerns are commonly identified as three major objectives of energy policy. State and federal governments have set aggressive targets for carbon emissions reductions and for alternative fuel use and increased vehicle efficiency to reduce petroleum consumption. Moreover, jobs creation and GDP growth are often cited as key drivers for energy policies. Previous studies on energy policy decision-making have examined the process for developing and evaluating options using multi-criteria decision analysis tools. In addition, energy opinion polls have either elicited preferences between two goals or whether the public supports a specific policy action. In this article, we report results from a survey of 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy across the goals of energy supply security, environment and climate, and economics and job creation. The majority favor policymaking that is balanced across all three. Security and economic concerns increase with age for male respondents, whereas environment is the highest priority for females regardless of age. Unlike previous surveys that target the general public and focus on a particular objective or technology, these results provide an example of eliciting a portfolio allocation across multiple energy policy goals from targeted constituents. - Highlights: • We surveyed 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy. • The paper addresses direct elicitation of energy policy goal portfolio allocation for a large set of energy stakeholders. • The majority of respondents favor policymaking balanced across multiple goals. • We observed differences in priorities based on age and gender. • Respondents expressed a tension in allocating across goals that are interrelated

  2. A partnership approach to local energy management between European and Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Peter; Pardo, Manuel; Conway, Stewart; Lack, Don; Ferreira, Vasco; Castanheira, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, several local areas have a number of years of experience with implementing local energy and greenhouse gas management policies, addressing national and international climate change targets. For example, in the city of Leicester in the UK, local strategies and measures have been implemented over several years to improve the energy efficiency of the Council's own operations and to manage city-wide energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, Leicester has participated in a European Commission funded project, which explores the potential for European local authorities and agencies to use their experience to work with a local area in a developing country where energy demand has been increasing rapidly, addressing climate change and sustainable development issues. The project has aimed to provide support at the local level with developing a framework to minimise energy-related contributions to climate change and air pollution, while giving quality of life benefits. It has used a partnership approach between Leicester, Vila Nova de Gaia municipality in Portugal, and a city in the Gujarat, India. The local level's role in each country in local energy management has been investigated. This has included a baseline assessment of local energy use, renewable energy and climate change issues in each partner city. The most locally relevant energy technologies have been selected and their implementation discussed in the local workshops involving a range of organisations and individuals, with actions being identified to improve the local management of energy, such as raising awareness and ensuring easy access to information

  3. Smart Grid Communications Security Project, U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Frank [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    There were four groups that worked on this project in different areas related to Smart Girds and Security. They included faculty and students from electric computer and energy engineering, law, business and sociology. The results of the work are summarized in a verity of reports, papers and thesis. A major report to the Governor of Colorado’s energy office with contributions from all the groups working on this project is given bellow. Smart Grid Deployment in Colorado: Challenges and Opportunities, Report to Colorado Governor’s Energy Office and Colorado Smart Grid Task Force(2010) (Kevin Doran, Frank Barnes, and Puneet Pasrich, eds.) This report includes information on the state of the grid cyber security, privacy, energy storage and grid stability, workforce development, consumer behavior with respect to the smart grid and safety issues.

  4. NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Zeleneva

    2013-01-01

    NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT By 2050, we can expect dramatic changes in the global energy balance. At the beginning of 21st century, the configuration of the global energy market has begun to change due to a wide variety of both political and economic reasons. The formation of a European common gas market in the world of fierce competition among world exporters for short-term and long-term contracts, the growth of energy consumption in China, J...

  5. Diversification of oil import sources and energy security. A key strategy or an elusive objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the diversification of sources of imported oil and energy security of oil-importing countries. It examines the importance of diversification policy for oil importers, explains why oil importers implement oil diversification policy, and contextualizes the oil import diversification strategy in the overall energy security policy of oil importers. The paper analyzes the factors and the contexts that affect the level of importance assigned to oil import diversification policy in oil-importing countries, and the limitations that may affect the successful implication of oil import diversification policy. The examples are drawn from the world's top three oil importers, the United States, Japan, and China. The policymakers in these and other oil-importing countries place much importance on energy security. The diversification of oil import sources is used as one of the strategies to enhance energy security in oil-importing countries. This paper is important for policymakers in oil-importing countries as it provides them with a qualitative conceptual framework with which to evaluate the need to diversify their countries' sources of imported oil, and with which to identify the likely limitations to the successful implementation of oil import diversification policy. (author)

  6. Security of supply during the energy transition : The role of capacity mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhagwat, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    The push for clean energy has caused a rapid growth of renewables in the electricity supply mix of the EU. Although one would assume that the impact of these technologies is entirely positive, recent research and experience indicate that there is reason for concern namely regarding the security of

  7. Affordable and Secure Nuclear Energy Development: DOE Investments and Laboratory R&D Challenges - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The need for sustainable and secure nuclear energy is summarized. Driven by economics and public-private partnerships, the technology is evolving. Cost control and regulatory simplification are needed for a nuclear renaissance. Small modular reactors--simple, scalable, and inherently safe--may be the future.

  8. Declaration of the G8 of Saint Petersburg, the 16 July 2006 on the world energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents in a first part the energy problems which the G8 is confronted with, the response of the international community and the declaration on the principles of the world energy security. The second part is devoted to the action plan of Saint Petersburg, actions in the following domains: reinforcement of the world energy markets transparency and stability, improvement of the investments climate in the energy sector, reinforcement of the energy efficiency and the energy conservation, diversification of the energies resources, security of the vital energy infrastructures, decrease of the energy dearth, fight against the climatic change and help to the sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  9. Asian success stories in promoting energy efficiency in industry and building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming [International Inst. for Energy Conservation (IIEC), Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    This article describes the program of the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC), which has offices in Washington, Bangkok, Santiago, and London, in addition to staff in a number of other countries. The mission of this private organization is to promote the efficient use of energy as a tool for sustainable development by supporting the development of policies, technologies, and practices. Its focus is on energy efficiency, transportation systems, and renewable energy sources. Examples of specific program activities in Thailand, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are discussed.

  10. THE FACTOR OF ENERGY-INFORMATION SECURITY IN THE FRAMEWORK OF GLOBAL CIVILIZATION-RELATED CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Viktorovich SUHORUKHIH

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the grounds having involved global social and cultural changes, and emphasized the precedence taken by an energy-information component to the geopolitical dynamics of the civilization continuum. The study emphasized the relevance of new facets in social and cultural insight urged to respond to challenges of direct mental hazards emerging over the world, and requirement of energy-information security the civilization has sought for, assumed to be the framework for considerin...

  11. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  12. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  13. Proceedings of AsiaPES 2007 : Asian power and energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongsakul, W. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand)] (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This energy and power systems conference provided a forum for international researchers and power industry members to discuss recent technological innovations related to power systems. New technologies and modelling strategies for power systems were identified along with issues related to artificial intelligence and design optimization. The role of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy in interconnected power systems were also reviewed. The conference was divided into 8 sessions entitled: (1) control, protection, power flow and design, (2) planning and operation, (3) alternative energy, (4) stability, reliability, forecasting and load shedding, (5) phasor measurement and power quality, (6) distribution, analysis, technology and policy (7) energy efficiency, storage and pricing, and (8) a special session on the application of phasor measurement units to monitor wide area power system dynamics. The conference featured 88 presentations, of which 63 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. SECOND1. Security concept for DER (Distributed Energy Resources). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Secure communication is becoming increasingly more relevant in a power system where there is a high impact of distributed energy resources (DER). The purpose of this project has been to analyse and develop a proof of concept implementation for a security concept that can be used in a power system with a high degree of decentralized production and with many actors (BRP, DSO, TSO, utilities, retailers) in an unbundled market. One way to maintain flexibility in the communication system for the power grid is to assign access roles to specific operations and not just to a network or server. Security then becomes a matter of verification, namely that an applicant holds a role with privileges to perform the action applied for. The SECOND1 project has investigated various forms of role based access control (RBAC) as well as the underlying security mechanism identification and verification of the actor identity. The project analysed the needs for communication between energy operators and match these needs with a design for secure role based access control. (LN)

  15. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards...... energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more...

  16. Targeted Modification of Neutron Energy Spectra for National Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, James Edward

    At its core, research represents an attempt to break from the "this is the way we have always done it" paradigm. This idea is evidenced from the start in this research effort by the problem formulation to develop a new way to generate synthetic debris that mimics the samples that would be collected for forensics purposes following a nuclear weapon attack on the U.S. or its allies. The philosophy is also demonstrated by the design methodology used to solve the synthetic debris problem, using methods not commonly applied to nuclear engineering problems. Through this research, the bounds of what is deemed possible in neutron spectral shaping are moved ever so slightly. A capability for the production of synthetic debris and fission products was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Synthetic debris has historically been made in a limited fashion using sample doping techniques since the cessation of nuclear weapons testing, but a more robust alternative approach using neutron spectral shaping was proposed and developed by the University of California-Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using NIF as a starting source spectrum, the energy tuning assembly (ETA) developed in this work can irradiate samples with a combined thermonuclear and prompt fission neutron spectrum (TN+PFNS). When used with fissile foils, this irradiation will produce a synthetic fission product distribution that is realistic across all mass chains. To design the ETA, traditional parametric point design approaches were discarded in favor of formal optimization techniques. Finding a lack of suitable algorithms in the literature, a metaheuristic-based optimization algorithm, Gnowee, was developed for rapid convergence to nearly globally optimum solutions for complex, constrained engineering problems with mixed-integer and combinatorial design vectors and high-cost, noisy, discontinuous, black box objective function evaluations. Comparisons between Gnowee and

  17. Energy and Security: future-oriented studies for the Swedish Armed Forces; Energi och saekerhet: framtidsinriktade omvaerldsanalyser foer Foersvarsmakten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestensson, Malin; Jonsson, Daniel K.; Magnusson, Roger; Dreborg, Karl Henrik

    2009-01-15

    The report provides a basis for the Armed Forces long-term planning, and how changes in the global energy supply may mean new challenges and threats, as well as the advantages and disadvantages that can be associated with different future energy solutions for Armed Forces own activities, primarily relating to fuel and power during operation. One conclusion is that the potential conflict between energy security and climate-security can lead to far-reaching security implications and that continued global fossil dependency contributes to increased safety of political and military focus on a number of potential conflicts. A new such area may be the Arctic, as in the wake of climate change will become available for exploitation. Large scale global renewable energy can bring greater geographical spread - and reduced pressure on existing 'hot-spots'. Nuclear power is unlikely to be influential in the overall global energy security, but security problems associated with the production of nuclear materials can spread and be strengthened. Furthermore, the energy problems of connected to gaps between rich and poor, which may lead to social friction and conflict. The trend toward increased nationalisation and politicization of the energy is in contrast to free trade and market liberalism and may lead to further militarization of energy resources. Bilateral energy contracts may result in division within the EU and create a hindrance to joint positions and actions, such as in international efforts. As for Armed Forces own future energy solutions, the knowledge of alternative fuels (eg alcohols, diesel variants, gaseous fuels) and energy converters (eg hybrid vehicles, fuel cells) is reviewed. The following alternative principle solutions fuel and power are discussed: 1. Power from small-scale electricity generation via solar cells and small wind farms and power stations with liquid fuel as a supplement. Transport with plug-in hybrid vehicles, i.e. liquid propellants in

  18. The trials and tribulations of the Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, Debajit; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Cooper, Christopher; Zoppo, David; Eidsness, Jay; Crafton, Meredith; Johnson, Katie; Clarke, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) launched the Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) in 2004 but discontinued it during the 12th Five Year Plan, starting in 2012, after a series of unexpected challenges. Planners structured the program so that a village energy committee (VEC) ran a decentralized village program involving biomass gasifiers, straight vegetable oil (SVO) systems, biogas plants, and improved cookstoves. This suite of technologies was intended to produce electricity and thermal energy to meet the “total energy requirements” of rural communities. At the end of January 2011, a total of 79 VESP projects were sanctioned in 9 states and 65 of these projects were fully commissioned, yet more than half were not operational. The MNRE envisaged that the VESP would provide energy services to eradicate poverty, improve health, reduce drudgery, enhance education, raise agricultural productivity, create employment, generate income, and reduce migration. However, VESP projects have had limited success, and the trials and tribulations of the VESP offers important lessons for policymakers launching rural energy programs in India and other developing economies. - Highlights: ► The Village Energy Security Programme attempted to achieve village energization in rural India. ► The VESP was intended combat poverty, improve health, reduce drudgery, and accomplish other social goals. ► VESP provides important lessons for policymakers launching rural energy programs

  19. Design of parallel dual-energy X-ray beam and its performance for security radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Myoung, Sung Min; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    A new concept of dual-energy X-ray beam generation and acquisition of dual-energy security radiography is proposed. Erbium (Er) and rhodium (Rh) with a copper filter were positioned in front of X-ray tube to generate low- and high-energy X-ray spectra. Low- and high-energy X-rays were guided to separately enter into two parallel detectors. Monte Carlo code of MCNPX was used to derive an optimum thickness of each filter for improved dual X-ray image quality. It was desired to provide separation ability between organic and inorganic matters for the condition of 140 kVp/0.8 mA as used in the security application. Acquired dual-energy X-ray beams were evaluated by the dual-energy Z-map yielding enhanced performance compared with a commercial dual-energy detector. A collimator for the parallel dual-energy X-ray beam was designed to minimize X-ray beam interference between low- and high-energy parallel beams for 500 mm source-to-detector distance.

  20. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  1. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  2. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  3. Security, independence, and sustainability: Imprecise language and the manipulation of energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on the energy policymaking process in US, focusing on the manipulation of discourse by different political–economic interests seeking to sway popular opinion. Using the 2012 US Presidential Elections as a backdrop, the analysis highlights the cooption of the concepts “security,” “independence,” and “sustainability” in energy debates by different and often opposing interest groups. The article’s first section traces the malleability of energy terminology to the vagueness of the term “energy” itself and notes how qualifying words like security, independence, and sustainability have been selectively exploited to introduce further ambiguity to an already fungible concept. The second section notes that while energy is a critical and complex factor of macroeconomic production, its main public visibility comes via a few partially representative numbers, like gasoline prices. This mismatch of broad social importance and piecemeal public understanding enables organized interests to leverage vague terminology in support of particular policy ideas. The third section examines three policymaking tools (1) taxation, (2) regulation, and (3) technology promotion and compares these administrative instruments. Ultimately, the article concludes that loosely defined terminology inhibits energy policy discussion and stifles meaningful public debate over and action on energy issues. - Highlights: ► This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on US energy policymaking. ► Energy security, energy independence, and sustainability are vaguely defined terms. ► Coordinated interests manipulate debate and exploit public ignorance. ► Taxes, regulation, and innovation incentives are used to apply policy prescriptions. ► Vague terminology stifles meaningful public debate over energy policy.

  4. The green paper 'towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.; Tillerson, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Green Paper, 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply' was adopted by the European Commission on the 20. of November, 2000 (COM(2000)769 final). At this occasion, the Commission launched a public debate on this strategic document. On the 21. of June 2001, a Public Hearing on Security of energy supply in Europe, on the basis of the Green Paper, was organised by the Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy of the European Parliament. Bernard Laponche was among the six experts participating to the Hearing and presented the following paper, prepared with Kenya Tillerson. This presentation is organised in three chapters: I - Comments on the Green Paper; II - Energy efficiency potentials; III - Conclusions and Recommendations. Chapter I shows that under the heading of the security of supply, the Green paper elaborates and proposes a global energy strategy taking into account environmental and internal market issues and constraints. This leads to recommendations for a common energy policy for Europe based, as first priority, on a demand policy, i.e. energy efficiency on the demand side. If the necessity of such a policy is clearly stated, the Green paper remains weak on the quantitative objectives, due to the lack of contrasted energy forecast scenarios, as well as on the means of a vigorous energy efficiency policy at European Level. The issue of energy efficiency potentials at European Union level is examined in Chapter II, in the light of the poor information which can be extracted from the energy scenarios presented by the European Commission in various publications. A comparison of energy consumption indicators in France and the European Union leads to a rough estimate of a potential for energy demand efficiency by 2020 of the order of 280 Mtoe on final energy consumption, for the European Union. Chapter III underlines the merits of the Green Paper which are a clear-sighted analysis and a well defined main recommendation

  5. An assessment of the effectiveness of fuel cycle technologies for the national energy security enhancement in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Jun, Eunju; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Won Joon

    2009-01-01

    Energy security, in the 21st century, draws significant attention in most countries worldwide, because the national security and sustainable development depend largely on energy security. The anticipated fossil energy depletion and the instability of their supply drive many countries to consider nuclear energy as their alternative energy source for the enhancement of their national energy security. In this study, indicators measuring the level of energy security in the electric power sector are developed and applied for the assessment of the effectiveness of four electric power system schemes which deploy different nuclear fuel cycle technologies, with consideration for the diversification of the energy markets and the vulnerability to economic disruption. Results show that the contribution of the closed fuel cycle scheme is larger than the once-through fuel cycle scheme in the perspective of energy security. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle with the spent fuel recycling enhances the national energy security to the maximum extent compared to all other fuel cycle schemes. Since a completely closed fuel cycle is hardly affected by the uranium price changes, this scheme is found to be the most favorable scheme, ensuring the stable profit of utilities and stabilizing the electricity tariff. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle scheme provides the best enhancement of national energy security with respect to energy supply, under reasonable price conditions. The indicators developed in this study can be utilized as a useful instrument for the measurement of the level of the energy security, especially by the countries importing energy resources for the generation of electric power.

  6. Analytical Methods for Energy Diversity and Security. Portfolio Optimization in the Energy Sector: A Tribute to the work of Dr. Shimon Awerbuch. Chapter 7. The role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Beurskens, L.W.M.

    2008-11-01

    This volume aims at professionals in academia, industry and government interested in the rapidly evolving area at the nexus between energy and climate change policy. The cutting-edge international contributions allow for a wide coverage of the topic. Energy Diversity and Security focuses on the consideration of financial risk in the energy sector. It describes how tools borrowed from financial economic theory, in particular mean-variance portfolio theory, can provide insights on the costs and benefits of diversity, and thus inform investment decision making in conditions of uncertainty. It gives the reader an in-depth understanding of how to manage risk at a time when the world's focus is on this area. The book provides insights from leading authorities in the area of energy security. It gives readers abundant, rigorous analysis and guidance at a critical time in facing the twin challenges of energy security and climate change. The book also highlights the role of clean energy technology in moving towards future diverse and intelligent electricity systems. In this chapter attention is paid to the role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security

  7. Analytical Methods for Energy Diversity and Security. Portfolio Optimization in the Energy Sector: A Tribute to the work of Dr. Shimon Awerbuch. Chapter 7. The role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Beurskens, L.W.M.

    2008-11-15

    This volume aims at professionals in academia, industry and government interested in the rapidly evolving area at the nexus between energy and climate change policy. The cutting-edge international contributions allow for a wide coverage of the topic. Energy Diversity and Security focuses on the consideration of financial risk in the energy sector. It describes how tools borrowed from financial economic theory, in particular mean-variance portfolio theory, can provide insights on the costs and benefits of diversity, and thus inform investment decision making in conditions of uncertainty. It gives the reader an in-depth understanding of how to manage risk at a time when the world's focus is on this area. The book provides insights from leading authorities in the area of energy security. It gives readers abundant, rigorous analysis and guidance at a critical time in facing the twin challenges of energy security and climate change. The book also highlights the role of clean energy technology in moving towards future diverse and intelligent electricity systems. In this chapter attention is paid to the role of wind generation in enhancing Scotland's energy diversity and security.

  8. Proceedings of the 4. IASTED Asian conference on power and energy systems : AsiaPES 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, K.M. [Technological Univ. of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)] (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    Recent technological innovations related to power systems were presented at this international energy and power systems conference. New technologies and modelling strategies for power systems were identified along with issues related to artificial intelligence and design optimization. The role of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy in interconnected power systems were also reviewed. The conference was divided into 9 sessions entitled: (1) distribution systems, (2) electromagnetic fields, (3) power quality, (4) power system operations, (5) power system planning, (6) power system protection, (7) power system stability, (8) renewable energy, and (9); thermal systems. All 68 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. LESSONS LEARNED FROM CYBER SECURITY ASSESSMENTS OF SCADA AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Fink

    2006-10-01

    The results from ten cyber security vulnerability assessments of process control, SCADA and energy management systems, or components of those systems were reviewed to identify common problem areas. The common vulnerabilities ranged from conventional IT security issues to specific weaknesses in control system protocols. In each vulnerability category, relative measures were assigned to the severity of the vulnerability and ease with which an attacker could exploit the vulnerability. Suggested mitigations are identified in each category. Recommended mitigations having the highest impact on reducing vulnerability are listed for asset owners and system vendors.

  10. Scenario and multiple criteria decision analysis for energy and environmental security of military and industrial installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvetski, Christopher W; Lambert, James H; Linkov, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Military and industrial facilities need secure and reliable power generation. Grid outages can result in cascading infrastructure failures as well as security breaches and should be avoided. Adding redundancy and increasing reliability can require additional environmental, financial, logistical, and other considerations and resources. Uncertain scenarios consisting of emergent environmental conditions, regulatory changes, growth of regional energy demands, and other concerns result in further complications. Decisions on selecting energy alternatives are made on an ad hoc basis. The present work integrates scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify combinations of impactful emergent conditions and to perform a preliminary benefits analysis of energy and environmental security investments for industrial and military installations. Application of a traditional MCDA approach would require significant stakeholder elicitations under multiple uncertain scenarios. The approach proposed in this study develops and iteratively adjusts a scoring function for investment alternatives to find the scenarios with the most significant impacts on installation security. A robust prioritization of investment alternatives can be achieved by integrating stakeholder preferences and focusing modeling and decision-analytical tools on a few key emergent conditions and scenarios. The approach is described and demonstrated for a campus of several dozen interconnected industrial buildings within a major installation. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  11. International cooperation and security in the field of nuclear energy in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, D.A.; Avagyan, A.A.; Stepanyan, V.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the report presented/discussed are the ecological-humanitarian disasters and the related policy of the international organizations, especially IAEA, NATO and others on ensuring security of vital activity of people in the sphere of energy and particularly nuclear energy. Possessing the only nuclear power station in Trans Caucasus and the store of toxic wastes of reactive fuel the Government of Armenia and the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Armenia always take into consideration the many-sided aspects of prevention, warning about accident in energy buildings including nuclear accidents and modern response in case of occurring the latter ensuring security for ANPP personnel and the inhabitants of the settlements of the possible contingency zone. In their daily activity the workers of the Emergency Situations of the Republic of Armenia, especially those of the Armenian Rescue Service base on the experience and logistic support of international community some aspects of which are presented below

  12. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security; Recueil des interventions. Securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  13. Water, agriculture, energy: a growing interweaving. Towards an extended water security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author first notices that the definition of water security according to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is a rather restrictive one. Thus, the search for a global security takes all forms of insufficiencies and (military or not) instabilities into account, and is then related to strategic stakes of State stability such as agriculture production, water or energy. He discusses the determining factors and vulnerabilities of a renewed water security and its implications. He highlights how internal political and social constraints are sources of local and regional tensions. In this respect, agriculture is at the heart of use conflicts (difficult and necessary reform of the sector, rivalries between rural and urban users), and water stress directly affects daily domestic uses. The author then outlines the necessary integration stakes related to water, food and energy by discussing the use of water in energy production, the use of energy to produce drinkable water, the relationship between agriculture and energy, and, of course between agriculture and water as agriculture is the main water consumer

  14. The development of renewable energies and supply security: A trade-off analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röpke, Luise

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the green transformation on the German electricity sector with respect to the energy-political triangle. It focuses on how the development of renewable energies will affect security of electricity supply. In a cost–benefit analysis, the value of supply security is compared with its costs of provision. More specifically, the benefits of maintaining the present quality of electricity supply are the avoided social damages from electricity outages and are compared with the respective investment costs in the low- and medium-voltage distribution grid. It is shown that the transformation process towards a green and decentralized production structure will be costly for society, even though the costs can be reduced by different measures. - Highlights: • The effects of the transformation on the German electricity sector are analyzed. • The paper focuses on the trade-off between green energies and supply security. • The benefits of maintaining supply quality are compared with the investment costs. • The costs of maintaining supply quality by far exceed the induced welfare gains. • A strong focus on renewable energies endangers different energy-political goals

  15. Coal and energy security for India: Role of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Shukla, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Coal is the abundant domestic energy resource in India and is projected to remain so in future under a business-as-usual scenario. Using domestic coal mitigates national energy security risks. However coal use exacerbates global climate change. Under a strict climate change regime, coal use is projected to decline in future. However this would increase imports of energy sources like natural gas (NG) and nuclear and consequent energy security risks for India. The paper shows that carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) can mitigate CO 2 emissions from coal-based large point source (LPS) clusters and therefore would play a key role in mitigating both energy security risks for India and global climate change risks. This paper estimates future CO 2 emission projections from LPS in India, identifies the potential CO 2 storage types at aggregate level and matches the two into the future using Asia-Pacific Integrated Model (AIM/Local model) with a Geographical Information System (GIS) interface. The paper argues that clustering LPS that are close to potential storage sites could provide reasonable economic opportunities for CCS in future if storage sites of different types are further explored and found to have adequate capacity. The paper also indicates possible LPS locations to utilize CCS opportunities economically in future, especially since India is projected to add over 220,000 MW of thermal power generation capacity by 2030.

  16. Green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Green Paper ''Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply in Europe'', published in 2002, gives a clear priority to energy efficiency and renewable. Although it is not a legislative document, it is accepted by the main actors as a reference for all energy related actions. Energie-Cites welcomes the Green Paper. This document gives a clear review of the energy context in Europe and raises fundamental questions, in particular, the place given to energy demand management, presented as the priority policy to ensure security of supply and compliance with the European Union international commitments. However, they precise three important points. It is indispensable that potential energy savings be quantified so as to emphasize the importance of a resource that has always been underestimated. By the same token, the ''demand management'' option presented in the Green Paper would gain in credibility if several alternative scenarios were proposed, the impact and the conditions for the success of such a policy being then more clearly apparent. A policy with a stronger focus on demand management and renewable energy requires one to redirect attention towards a different set of players. (A.L.B.)

  17. Conceptual proposals for measuring the impact of international regimes on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes two concepts to assess the effect of international regimes on energy security. Existing indicators focus mainly on state-level factors, excluding international influences. International relation scholars on the other hand see a clear connection between international regimes and stable energy relations. International regimes stabilise energy relations by providing frameworks for negotiations, defining, controlling and sanctioning compliance and allowing the actors to engage in package deals. The researcher needs to include these factors in a complete assessment of political energy security risks. As first step, the paper uses the effectiveness of control mechanisms as basis for such consideration. It refers specifically to international arbitration as the most important control mechanism in international energy relations. The simplest measurement option is the share of a county's energy imports covered by a certain regime. The paper applies the Oslo-Potsdam-Solution to account for outcome effectiveness. It applies a variant of the International Regimes Data Base protocol to account for effective regime structures. In a last section, the paper proposes some possible paths for future research. - Highlights: • International regimes mitigate political risks for energy supply and must be considered. • The paper proposes two concepts to measure energy regime effectiveness. • The OPS-variant measures output, the IRDB-variant measures structure effectiveness. • The paper offers a preliminary feasibility test for the concepts. • Finally, it suggests further roads for research

  18. Natural gas to improve energy security in Small Island Developing States: A techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Raghoo

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of studies on natural gas-based energy production in Small Island Developing States (SIDS even though technological improvements today are likely to make the application of natural gas more and more feasible. The development of natural gas in some of the regions of the Pacific, Africa, Indian Ocean and Caribbean attracts nearby countries and the coming up of the compressed natural gas (CNG technology which can serve regional markets are two motivations for SIDS to develop natural gas-based energy provision. A third factor concerns long-term energy security. Due to continued reliance on fossil fuels and slow uptake of renewable energy, there is a need to diversify SIDS’ energy mix for a sustainable electricity industry. Comparing the opportunities and constraints of liquefied natural gas (LNG and compressed natural gas (CNG in a SIDS-specific context, this paper discusses how to improve the integration of natural gas in prevailing energy regimes in SIDS as an alternative fuel to oil and complementary to renewable energy sources. To illustrate feasibility in practice, a techno-economic analysis is carried out using the island of Mauritius as an example. Keywords: Energy security, Natural gas, Small Island Developing States

  19. East Asia’s energy needs: The impact on security and guidelines for regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pareja Alcaraz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a spectacular (and not easily sustainable increase in the global demand for energy. This trend has a particular significance in East Asia owing to its heavy industrialisation, which is promoting intense regional growth, on top of the already delicate balance of security in the region and the traditional refusal by the region’s states to delegate power and management to supranational bodies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of East Asia’s energy needs on security and on the instruments of order and governance that have been developed in the region up until the present time. Thus, the article is divided into two parts; the first analyses East Asia’s energy programme and its most significant features: 1 a high dependence on oil imports from other regions, especially the Middle East; 2 a persistence of high dependency on pollutant fossil fuels; and 3 a high degree of energy insecurity. Meanwhile, the second part assesses the impact of energy on regional relations in different areas of security and guidelines for regional government: 1 the securitisation of energy and of the environment; 2 the reactivation of certain maritime conflicts; 3 the transformation of certain threats, and conventional and non-conventional challenges to regional security; 4 the rise of non-state actors (mainly environmental businesses and NGOs in East Asia’s international relations; 5 the maintaining of bilateralism and the promotion of multilateral initiatives; and 6 the emergence of new extra-regional geopolitical links and balances.

  20. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...

  1. Effects of cross-border power trade between Laos and Thailand: Energy security and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of hydropower development in Laos and power trade between Laos and Thailand on economy wide, energy resource mix, power generation capacity mix, energy system cost, environment, as well as, energy security. A MARKAL-based model for an integrated energy system of Laos and Thailand was developed to assess the effects of energy resource development and trade to meet the national energy demands of the two countries. Two national MARKAL-based energy system models of Laos and Thailand were formulated for the study. The results show that 80% exploitation of water resource in Laos would induce power trade between the countries. The integrated energy system cost is found to decrease marginally but it would mitigate the CO 2 emission by 2% when compared with the base case. Thailand is expected to gain benefit from the increased level of power imported from Laos in terms of the lower energy system cost, better environmental quality and, greater diversification of energy sources. As compared to the base case, Laos would become the net energy exporter, earn significant export revenue, and improve the increase in revenue of energy export per increase in total energy system cost from the maximum exploitation of hydropower resource.

  2. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  3. The strategies to develop renewable energy application in the frame to secure energy need and electricity demand in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharta, Herliyani; Hoetman, A. R.; Sayigh, A. m.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describe the evaluation of conventional energy usage and electricity condition in Indonesia. Also there is discussion on 14 facts that will affect the security in providing the electricity and other house hold energy demand. Those covers a picture of the growth of energy demand, oil subsidy, limited and remaining natural resources, crude petroleum export and import projection, forecast of un-risk natural gas production, gas and coal for electric generation, declining of coal deposit. An effort and considerations to increase the use of renewable energy (RE) are also described. It covers a power plant selection to mach the RE resources to partly fulfill the electricity development planning, its electricity price and also the use of RE resources to fulfill the energy need in household.(Author)

  4. The Asian petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwa, Christopher.

    1996-03-01

    The Asian Petrochemical Industry brings you up to date with the latest developments in this dynamic region and covers all the key issues, giving detailed analysis and comment on: the general economic outlook; demand and production trends for basic petrochemicals and specialities in individual countries; political stability and how with affects growth and investment opportunities; security of supply; the import of petrochemicals and the aim of the region to become a net exporter by 2000; capacity increases - the relative merits of new plant construction versus expanding existing plants; the financing of petrochemical projects; the use of appropriate projects; the use of appropriate technology and patent provision in the Gatt treaty; increasing environmental concerns and the 'responsible care' initiative. The Asian Petrochemical Industry presents an overview of each Asian player in the petrochemical and associated industries, comparing and contrasting the countries within the region. (Author)

  5. The Kyoto protocol - a victim of supply security? or: if Maslow were in energy politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Christoph W. E-mail: christoph.frei@weforum.org

    2004-07-01

    History suggests that energy policy priorities can be stratified, similar to the way Maslow structured his famous pyramid of human needs. The essay below claims that access to energy, supply security, energy costs, environmental issues and social acceptance are not subject to trade-off, but to a hierarchy that underlies the importance of satisfying lower-order needs before addressing the higher-order needs. The essay demonstrates the hierarchy with an 'energy policy needs pyramid' based on historical evidence. The pyramid is used to analyze the viability of current items of the energy policy agenda. Conclusions indicate that the Kyoto protocol might be a victim of supply insecurity, that OPEC is good for the environment and that environmentalists should make the fight against en