WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian cultivated rice

  1. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Londo, Jason P.; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world’s most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice’s domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may rep...

  2. LTR retrotransposons reveal recent extensive inter-subspecies nonreciprocal recombination in Asian cultivated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Terminal Repeats retrotransposons (LTR elements are ubiquitous Eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. They are considered to be one of the major forces underlying plant genome evolution. Because of relatively high evolutionary speed, active transposition of LTR elements in the host genomes provides rich information on their short-term history. As more and more genomes, especially those of closely related organisms, have been sequenced, it is possible to perform global comparative study of their LTR retrotransposons to reveal events in the history. Results The present research is designed to investigate important evolutionary events in the origin of Asian cultivated rice through the comparison of LTR elements. We have developed LTR_INSERT, a new method for LTR elements discovery in two closely related genomes. Our method has a distinctive feature that it is capable of judging whether an insertion occurs prior or posterior to the divergence of genomes. LTR_INSERT identifies 993 full-length LTR elements, annotates 15916 copies related with them, and discovers at least 16 novel LTR families in the whole-genome comparative map of two cultivated rice subspecies. From the full-length LTR elements, we estimate that a significant proportion of the rice genome has experienced inter-subspecies nonreciprocal recombination (ISNR in as recent as 53,000 years. Large-scale samplings further support that more than 15% of the rice genome has been involved in such recombination. In addition, LTR elements confirm that the genome of O. sativa ssp. indica and that of japonica diverged about 600,000 years ago. Conclusion A new LTR retrotransposon identification method integrating both comparative genomics and ab initio algorithm is introduced and applied to Asian cultivated rice genomes. At whole-genome level, this work confirms that recent ISNR is an important factor that molds modern cultivated rice genome.

  3. Massive gene losses in Asian cultivated rice unveiled by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Takeshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. With increasing world demand for food crops, there is an urgent need to develop new cultivars that have enhanced performance with regard to yield, disease resistance, and so on. Wild rice is expected to provide useful genetic resources that could improve the present cultivated species. However, the quantity and quality of these unexplored resources remain unclear. Recent accumulation of the genomic information of both cultivated and wild rice species allows for their comparison at the molecular level. Here, we compared the genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica with sets of bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences (BESs from two wild rice species, O. rufipogon and O. nivara, and an African rice species, O. glaberrima. Results We found that about four to five percent of the BESs of the two wild rice species and about seven percent of the African rice could not be mapped to the japonica genome, suggesting that a substantial number of genes have been lost in the japonica rice lineage; however, their close relatives still possess their counterpart genes. We estimated that during evolution, O. sativa has lost at least one thousand genes that are still preserved in the genomes of the other species. In addition, our BLASTX searches against the non-redundant protein sequence database showed that disease resistance-related proteins were significantly overrepresented in the close relative-specific genomic portions. In total, 235 unmapped BESs of the three relatives matched 83 non-redundant proteins that contained a disease resistance protein domain, most of which corresponded to an NBS-LRR domain. Conclusion We found that the O. sativa lineage appears to have recently experienced massive gene losses following divergence from its wild ancestor. Our results imply that the domestication process accelerated large-scale genomic deletions in the lineage of Asian

  4. Loss of function at RAE2, a previously unidentified EPFL, is required for awnlessness in cultivated Asian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho-Uehara, Kanako; Wang, Diane R; Furuta, Tomoyuki; Minami, Anzu; Nagai, Keisuke; Gamuyao, Rico; Asano, Kenji; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Ayano, Madoka; Komeda, Norio; Doi, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kotaro; Toda, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Okuda, Satohiro; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Greenberg, Anthony; Wu, Jianzhong; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Mori, Hitoshi; McCouch, Susan R; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2016-08-01

    Domestication of crops based on artificial selection has contributed numerous beneficial traits for agriculture. Wild characteristics such as red pericarp and seed shattering were lost in both Asian (Oryza sativa) and African (Oryza glaberrima) cultivated rice species as a result of human selection on common genes. Awnedness, in contrast, is a trait that has been lost in both cultivated species due to selection on different sets of genes. In a previous report, we revealed that at least three loci regulate awn development in rice; however, the molecular mechanism underlying awnlessness remains unknown. Here we isolate and characterize a previously unidentified EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family member named REGULATOR OF AWN ELONGATION 2 (RAE2) and identify one of its requisite processing enzymes, SUBTILISIN-LIKE PROTEASE 1 (SLP1). The RAE2 precursor is specifically cleaved by SLP1 in the rice spikelet, where the mature RAE2 peptide subsequently induces awn elongation. Analysis of RAE2 sequence diversity identified a highly variable GC-rich region harboring multiple independent mutations underlying protein-length variation that disrupt the function of the RAE2 protein and condition the awnless phenotype in Asian rice. Cultivated African rice, on the other hand, retained the functional RAE2 allele despite its awnless phenotype. Our findings illuminate the molecular function of RAE2 in awn development and shed light on the independent domestication histories of Asian and African cultivated rice. PMID:27466405

  5. Comparison of Cheng's Index-and SSR Marker-based Classification of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-hong; XU Qun; YU Ping; YUAN Xiao-ping; YU Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2013-01-01

    A total of 100 cultivated rice accessions,with a clear isozyme-based classification,were analyzed based on Cheng's index and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker.The results showed that the isozyme-based classification was in high accordance with that based on Cheng's index and SSR markers.Mantel-test revealed that the Euclidean distance of Cheng's index was significantly correlated with Nei's unbiased genetic distance of SSR markers (r =0.466,P ≤ 0.01).According to the model-based group and cluster analysis,the Cheng's index-and SSR-based classification coincided with each other,with the goodness of fit of 82.1% and 84.7% in indica,97.4% and 95.1% in japonica,respectively,showing higher accordance than that within subspecies.Therefore,Cheng's index could be used to classify subspecies,while SSR marker could be more efficient to analyze the subgroups within subspecies.

  6. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  7. Patterns of sequence divergence and evolution of the S orthologous regions between Asian and African cultivated rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Romain; Garavito, Andrea; Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S(1)A, S(1) and S(1)B (called together the S(1) regions) interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S(1) locus (including a putative F-box gene) were proposed, but candidates for S(1)A and S(1)B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S(1) regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S(1)A, S(1) and the majority of the S(1)B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1) a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S(1), (2) the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S(1)A, (3) an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S(1)B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S(1) regions. Hence, the S(1) regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the

  8. Patterns of Sequence Divergence and Evolution of the S1 Orthologous Regions between Asian and African Cultivated Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S1A, S1 and S1B (called together the S1 regions) interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S1 locus (including a putative F-box gene) were proposed, but candidates for S1A and S1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S1A, S1 and the majority of the S1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1) a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S1, (2) the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S1A, (3) an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S1 regions. Hence, the S1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal inversion might participate to

  9. Patterns of sequence divergence and evolution of the S orthologous regions between Asian and African cultivated rice species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guyot

    Full Text Available A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S(1A, S(1 and S(1B (called together the S(1 regions interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S(1 locus (including a putative F-box gene were proposed, but candidates for S(1A and S(1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S(1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S(1A, S(1 and the majority of the S(1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1 a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S(1, (2 the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S(1A, (3 an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S(1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S(1 regions. Hence, the S(1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal

  10. Atmospheric methane observed from space over the Asian monsoon: implications for emission from Asian rice paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, S.; Yoshizaki, S.; Frankenberg, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    More than 40% of anthropogenic emissions of methane, the second most important greenhouse gas, is estimated to be from agricultural sources, including rice cultivation. Unfortunately, the strength of individual sources of methane remains uncertain, despite the importance of its effect in global warming. Here we focus on the Asian monsoon region to improve our understanding of methane emission from rice paddy fields. This region contains about 90% of the world’s rice fields. We analyze the temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric methane concentrations observed from space and compare it with ground-based measurements and bottom-up emission inventory data coupled with rice field maps. Recently, Frankenberg et al. [2008] derived an updated version of methane concentration from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY: SCIA hereafter) instrument onboard ENVISAT. This showed a clear signature of methane enhancement over the Asian monsoon. As SCIA retrievals include all involve column densities, we carefully examined potential biases and variability due to the gradient of methane concentration over source regions by comparing these data with ground-based measurements at 53 stations of the WDCGG network. After evaluating the bias and variability of methane concentration over the source regions, we examined selected areas where rice paddies were highly concentrated, and the methane emission inventories were estimated to be large. The sampled areas were North and South India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, South China, and the Sichuan Basin. All of these are known to be major rice cultivation areas. The time series of monthly mean SCIA retrievals were compared with the emission inventory data for rice cultivation archived in the GISS dataset and Yan et al. [2009], as well as with precipitation data (Huffman et al., 1997). The phase of seasonal variation of SCIA retrievals corresponded closely to those of emission

  11. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  12. Effect of Rice Cultivation in the South of China on Hunan Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ancient cultivated rice: important archaeological findings Rice, a crop cultivated by man with long history, is the staple food on which half of the world population lives. When and where did rice farming originate? Is rice in China an indigenous plant or the one introduced from abroad? Different opinions have been held for over one hundred years. People once thought that rice was firstly cultivated in India, afterwards introduced into China and Southeast Asia from South Asia.

  13. Analysis of Rice Production Instability in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mamma Sawaneh; Ismail Abd Latif; Amin Mahir Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study measures the extent of rice production instability and the sources of instability in selected rice producing countries of Southeast Asia. A time series data on rice harvested area, yield and production of five Southeast Asian countries was used to analyze the components of production changes (area, yield and interaction effects) from 1980 to 2010. The production data is categorized into two periods: (i) 1980/81 to 1994/95 and (ii) 1995/96 to 2009/10. The results show a significant ...

  14. Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, H.C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture is constr

  15. Rice Crop Monitoring by Earth Observation Data in the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Sobue, S.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Rakwatin, P.

    2012-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss global food security and they agreed on an "Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture". This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) initiative which utilizes remote sensing to improve projections of crop production and weather forecasting. Hence, satellite remote sensing is expected to contribute national, regional and global food security through the systematic and efficient collection of food security related information such as agro-meteorological condition, crop growth or yield estimation. Food security related information is utilized to take mitigation strategies or policies to manage food shortages or trading, and ensure food security. Especially in Asia, rice is the most important cereal crop because Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice productions and consumptions. There- fore, Asian countries are expected to contribute GLAM through the construction of rice crop monitoring system. We demonstrated the estimation of rice production, the crop phenology monitoring by Earth Observation (EO) data. The aim of this study is to establish a prototype system designed to provide paddy rice area and yield estimation. Generally, crop yield estimation is consist of two components, cultivated area and yield per area. The cultivated areas of paddy field are detected by the seasonal pattern of SAR data over paddy field. This means paddy field is filled with water just before planting rice, then covered by dense vegetation in growing season. The paddy filed map was derived from the seasonal Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data with a simple threshold method. Then, to estimate rice productivity, we applied a simple rice crop model. The input data to the model are physical and chemical properties of

  16. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  17. Sustainable hybrid rice cultivation in Italy. A review

    OpenAIRE

    TESIO, Franco; Tabacchi, Maurizio; Cerioli, Sergio; Follis, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the premier food crop in the world, being a major staple food for more than half of the world’s population. The potential for a further increase in grain yield will be limited in the future, and more food will need to be produced from the same available arable land. Italy has a long history of rice cultivation, but is now facing challenges to develop new strategies to maintain competitiveness of this sector in the global market. To prepare for the inevitable reductio...

  18. Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens, H.C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture is constrained by unreliable and low rainfall. In the past fifty years the population density has doubled in most parts. This has triggered several changes in farming systems. One important change is a redu...

  19. Deciphering Community Structure of Methanotrophs Dwelling in Rice Rhizospheres of an Indian Rice Field Using Cultivation and Cultivation-Independent Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranitha S; Rahalkar, Monali C; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Ranade, Dilip R; Pore, Soham; Arora, Preeti; Kapse, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Methanotrophs play a crucial role in filtering out methane from habitats, such as flooded rice fields. India has the largest area under rice cultivation in the world; however, to the best of our knowledge, methanotrophs have not been isolated and characterized from Indian rice fields. A cultivation strategy composing of a modified medium, longer incubation time, and serial dilutions in microtiter plates was used to cultivate methanotrophs from a rice rhizosphere sample from a flooded rice field in Western India. We compared the cultured members with the uncultured community as revealed by three culture-independent methods. A novel type Ia methanotroph (Sn10-6), at the rank of a genus, and a putative novel species of a type II methanotroph (Sn-Cys) were cultivated from the terminal positive dilution (10(-6)). From lower dilution (10(-4)), a strain of Methylomonas spp. was cultivated. All the three culture-independent analyses, i.e., pmoA clone library, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and metagenomics approach, revealed the dominance of type I methanotrophs. Only metagenomic analysis showed significant presence of type II methanotrophs, albeit in lower proportion (37 %). All the three isolates showed relevance to the methanotrophic community as depicted by uncultured methods; however, the cultivated members might not be the most dominant ones. In conclusion, a combined cultivation and cultivation-independent strategy yielded us a broader picture of the methanotrophic community from rice rhizospheres of a flooded rice field in India. PMID:26547567

  20. Genetic Diversity Based on Allozyme Alleles of Chinese Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; JIANG Yun-zhu; D S Brar; G S Khush

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity was analyzed with 6 632 core rice cultivars selected from 60 282 Chinese rice accessions on the basis of 12 allozyme loci, Pgil, Pgi2, Ampl, Amp2, Amp3, Amp4, Sdh1, Adh1, Est1, Est2, Est5 and Est9, by starch gel electrophoresis. Among the materials examined, 52 alleles at 12 polymorphic loci were identified, which occupied 96.3% of 54 alleles found in cultivated germplasm of O.sativa L. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 4.33. The gene diversity (He) each locus varied considerably from 0.017 for Amp4 to 0.583 for Est2 with an average gene diversity (Ht) 0.271, and Shannon-Wiener index from 0.055 to 0.946 with an average of 0.468. The degree of polymorphism (DP) was in a range from 0.9 to 46.9% with an average of 21.4%. It was found that the genetic diversity in japonica (Keng) subspecies was lower in terms of allele's number, Ht and S-W index, being 91.8, 66.2 and 75.7% of indica (Hsien) one, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between indica and japonica rice has been appeared in the loci Pgil, Amp2, Pgi2, and Est2, with higher average coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst) 0.635, 0.626, 0.322 and 0.282, respectively. Except less allele number per locus (3.33) for modern cultivars, being 76.9% of landraces, the Ht and S-W index showed in similar between the modern cultivars and the landraces detected. In terms of allozyme, the rice cultivars in the Southwest Plateau and Central China have richer genetic diversity. The present study reveals again that Chinese cultivated rice germplasm has rich genetic diversity, showed by the allozyme allele variation.

  1. POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY OF MODERN RICE TECHNOLOGY AND REASONS FOR LOW PRODUCTIVITY ON ASIAN RICE FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Herdt, Robert W.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a collaborative project involving over 28 agronomists and economists are reported. Over 800 agronomic experiments conducted in ten locations in six Asian countries comparing farmers' production with maximum yield levels of modern rice technology are analysed. Under wet season conditions, yields were raised by an average of 0.9 tonnes per hectare, but the cost of obtaining the increased yields exceeded their value in six out of ten locations. Under dry season conditions, yields were...

  2. Appraising Rice Production Efficiency in Taiwan under the Contract Cultivation System

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Ming-Che; Hwang, Tsorng-Chi

    1992-01-01

    The popularly accepted rice production system in Taiwan is contract cultivation. This paper investigates the production efficiency of rice farming under the contract cultivation system. Data obtained from the financial accounts of 60 rice-farming families are used and estimated in a translog cost function. The efficiency indicators are the elasticities of input demand combinations with respsect to own and cross-input prices and the average incremental cost. The results show that contract labo...

  3. Much Improved Water Use Efficiency of Rice under Non-Flooded Mulching Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage is increasingly limiting the luxury use of water in rice cultivation. In this study, non-flooded mulching cultivation of rice only consumed a fraction of the water that was needed for traditional flooded cultivation and largely maintained the grain yield. We also investigated the growth and development of rice plants and examined grain yield formation when rice was subjected to non-flooded mulching cultivation. One indica hybrid rice combination was grown in a field experiment and three cultivation methods, traditional flooding (TF), non-flooded straw mulching cultivation (SM) and non-flooded plastic mulching cultivation (PM), were conducted during the whole season. Grain yield showed that there was no significant difference between SM and TF rice, but the grain yield of SM cultivation was significantly higher than that of PM. The tiller numbers were inhibited in the early stage under non-flooded mulching cultivation, but the situation was reversed at the later period. Both SM and PM rice reduced dry matter accumulation of shoot, but increased root dry weight,enhanced the remobilization of assimilates from stems to grains and increased the harvest index. During the middle and later grain filling period, mulched plants showed a faster decrease in chlorophyll concentrations, photosynthetic rates of flag leaves and root activity than TF rice, indicating that non-flooded mulching cultivation enhanced plant senescence. In comparison, SM treatment produced higher grain yield and, more dry matter accumulation and panicle numbers than the PM treatment. The overall results suggest that high yield of non-flooded mulching cultivation of rice can be achieved with much improved irrigational water use efficiency.

  4. Changes in soil microbial properties and nematode assemblage over time during rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The properties of red soil may change over time when paddy fields are developed on what was previously dry land. The effect of rice cultivation duration on soil invertebrates is unknown. Five chronosequences of rice cultivation (1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years were selected to investigate the temporal changes of soil microbiological properties and nematode assemblages. The results showed that soil microbial properties (microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, basal respiration, nutrient availability (mineral N and P, nematode abundance and richness of nematode genera generally increased with the duration of rice cultivation. Notably, most soil measurements peaked after 50 years of cultivation (P<0.05 and decreased slightly after 100 years. As the period of rice cultivation increased, the proportion of nematode herbivores rose significantly (P < 0.05, while that of predators/omnivores slightly declined. Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR also increased with cultivation duration (P < 0.05, indicating that the bacterial energy channel was more dominant in old rice fields when compared to those cultivated for a shorter period. Other ecological indices of nematode assemblage such as maturity index and structure index, did not reveal consistent trends with an increased period of rice cultivation. In summary, a change in land use from dry land to paddy fields promotes soil microbial properties and nematode assemblages in the first few decades, which then become stable after 50 years of cultivation.

  5. Modelling the Geographical Origin of Rice Cultivation in Asia Using the Rice Archaeological Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    Full Text Available We have compiled an extensive database of archaeological evidence for rice across Asia, including 400 sites from mainland East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia. This dataset is used to compare several models for the geographical origins of rice cultivation and infer the most likely region(s for its origins and subsequent outward diffusion. The approach is based on regression modelling wherein goodness of fit is obtained from power law quantile regressions of the archaeologically inferred age versus a least-cost distance from the putative origin(s. The Fast Marching method is used to estimate the least-cost distances based on simple geographical features. The origin region that best fits the archaeobotanical data is also compared to other hypothetical geographical origins derived from the literature, including from genetics, archaeology and historical linguistics. The model that best fits all available archaeological evidence is a dual origin model with two centres for the cultivation and dispersal of rice focused on the Middle Yangtze and the Lower Yangtze valleys.

  6. Declining Labour Use in Agriculture : A Case of Rice Cultivation in Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Duvvuru, Narasimha Reddy; Motkuri, Venkatanarayana

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines the changing nature of labour use in rice cultivation in Andhra Pradesh. The study observed that there is a fast decline in labour use in respect of rice cultivation in Andhra Pradesh. All three forms of labour (family, casual and attached) have followed the same trend. But the share of casual labour in the total labour used in rice cultivation is increasing with a corresponding decline in the share of family labour. By gender, although both male and female labour u...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peat Soils Cultivated to Rice Field, Oil Palm and Vegetable

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenani Abu Bakar; Kazuyuki Inubushi; Dedi Nursyamsi Affandi; Abdullah; Syaifuddin; Luthfi Fatah; Abdul Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Presently, about 20% of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fields in Indonesia are on peat soil, in addition to that otherarea of peat soil has been conventionally used for rice field and vegetables. To elucidate the global warmingpotentials of peat soils cultivated to oil palm, vegetable or rice field, field experiment has been carried out in SouthKalimantan. Air samples were taken from rice field, oil palm and vegetable fields in weekly basis for six month periodand analyzed for concentratio...

  8. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. PMID:27219503

  9. Development of a rule-based algorithm for rice cultivation mapping using Landsat 8 time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydas, Christos G.; Toukiloglou, Pericles; Minakou, Chara; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of ERMES project (FP7 66983), an algorithm for mapping rice cultivation extents using mediumhigh resolution satellite data was developed. ERMES (An Earth obseRvation Model based RicE information Service) aims to develop a prototype of downstream service for rice yield modelling based on a combination of Earth Observation and in situ data. The algorithm was designed as a set of rules applied on a time series of Landsat 8 images, acquired throughout the rice cultivation season of 2014 from the plain of Thessaloniki, Greece. The rules rely on the use of spectral indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and the Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), extracted from the Landsat 8 dataset. The algorithm is subdivided into two phases: a) a hard classification phase, resulting in a binary map (rice/no-rice), where pixels are judged according to their performance in all the images of the time series, while index thresholds were defined after a trial and error approach; b) a soft classification phase, resulting in a fuzzy map, by assigning scores to the pixels which passed (as `rice') the first phase. Finally, a user-defined threshold of the fuzzy score will discriminate rice from no-rice pixels in the output map. The algorithm was tested in a subset of Thessaloniki plain against a set of selected field data. The results indicated an overall accuracy of the algorithm higher than 97%. The algorithm was also applied in a study are in Spain (Valencia) and a preliminary test indicated a similar performance, i.e. about 98%. Currently, the algorithm is being modified, so as to map rice extents early in the cultivation season (by the end of June), with a view to contribute more substantially to the rice yield prediction service of ERMES. Both algorithm modes (late and early) are planned to be tested in extra Mediterranean study areas, in Greece, Italy, and Spain.

  10. Phosphorus critical levels and availability in lowland soils cultivated with flooded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Isabela Orlando dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowland soils present a great potential for the flooded rice crop. This work aimed to estimate critical levels of P in waterlogged soils cultivated with rice using Mehlich 1 and anion exchange resin as soil-P extractors, compare the performance of these extractors as for the evaluation of the P availability, and study the soil-P fractions involved in the P nutrition of the rice crop. Studied soils consisted of four Histosols: Low Humic Gley (GP, Aluvial (A, Humic Gley (GH and Bog Soil (O which were previously cultivated with beans. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial scheme, using four soils, five P rates (75, 150, 300, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 and two liming treatments (with and without liming, with three replicates. After 60 days of flooding, soil samples were submitted to P extraction by Mehlich 1 and resin, and phosphorous fractionation. Two rice plants were cultivated in pots containing 3 dm³ of waterlogged soils. The labile P and the moderately labile P of the soils contributed for rice nutrition. The two tested extractors presented efficiency in the evaluation of P availability for the rice cultivated in lowland waterlogged soils.

  11. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR RICE BLAST DISEASE IN THE RICE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Petenko A. I.; Volkova S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a major disease affecting rice production grown in upland and wetland rice. Application of biotechnological approach to protect against the disease may be an alternative strategy to chemical control

  12. Diversity of Cultivable Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in Microsites of a Rice Paddy Field: Investigation by Cultivation Method and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH)

    OpenAIRE

    Dianou, Dayéri; Ueno, Chihoko; Ogiso, Takuya; Kimura, Makoto; Asakawa, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of cultivable methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the rice paddy field ecosystem was investigated by combined culture-dependent and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. Seven microsites of a Japanese rice paddy field were the focus of the study: floodwater, surface soil, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, root, basal stem of rice plant, and rice stumps of previous harvest. Based on pmoA gene analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), four type I, and nine ty...

  13. The discovery of an Est locus related to the origin, evolution and classification of Asian rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXiangkun; CAIHongwei; LIZhichao; CHENGKansheng; ZHANGYaozhong

    1992-01-01

    In the isozyme studies concerning the origin and evolution of Asian rice, Morishima(1990) pointed out that, so far, there have been about 20 isozyme loci related to the differentiation of indica and japonica. In 1990, we discovered another Est locus related to the origin, evolution and classification of Asian rive. Genetic studies revealed that there were 5 multiple alleles on this locus represented 4 isozyme bands,

  14. Detection of DNA fingerprints of cultivated rice by hybridization with a human minisatellite DNA probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human minisatellite DNA probe detects several restriction fragment length polymorphisms in cultivars of Asian and African rice. Certain fragments appear to be inherited in a Mendelian fashion and may represent unlinked loci. The hybridization patterns appear to be cultivar-specific and largely unchanged after the regeneration of plants from tissue culture. The results suggest that these regions of the rice genome may be used to generate cultivar-specific DNA fingerprints. The demonstration of similarity between a human minisatellite sequence and polymorphic regions in the rice genome suggests that such regions also occur in the genomes of many other plant species

  15. Role of Golden Apple Snail in Organic Rice Cultivation and Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Joshi; Martin, E. C.; Wada, T.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), is a major pest of rice and other aquatic crops in many Asian farms. Farmers’ first line of defense is to use non-specific chemicals for “instant” kill of GAS, without considering its effect on their health, the environment, and non-target organisms. However, some organic rice farmers in Japan, Korea, and the Philippines do not kill GAS but manage them as bio-weeders in rice fields. We evaluated organic farmers’ innovation at the P...

  16. StudyandApplicationof¨ThreeHighandOneEnsuring¨Cultivation Mode of Double Cropping Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunrui PENG; Jinshui XIE; Caifei QIU; Yinfei QIAN; Xianjiao GUAN; Xiaohua PAN

    2012-01-01

    A set of "three high and one ensuring" cultivation mode of double cropping rice, the core of which was high panicle bearing tiller rate, high seed setting rate, high grain plumpness and ensuring high quality, was explored through many years of research. In this study, the effect of "three high and one ensuring" cultivation mode of double cropping rice was compared and investigated by field experiment and multiple location demonstration. The field experiment indicated that "three high and one ensuring" cultivation mode promoted the vegetative growth during early stage, inhibited the formation of ineffective tillers, promoted the growth of effective tillers and the formation of panicles, improved the panicle bearing tiller rate, in- creased the total number of spikelets, enhanced the seed setting rate and grain plumpness, increased the grain yield by 12.22%-19.73% at highly significant level, and improved the rice quality. Furthermore, the field demonstration also verified the results of field experiment.

  17. Differential response of cultivated and weedy (red) rice to recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a principle resource for plant growth; as such, the ongoing increase in its concentration may differentially affect the growth of cultivated and wild types of the same species. Red rice in the U.S. is a weedy relative of cultivated rice that represents a major production con...

  18. From tidal wetland to paddy rice fields - Changes in soil microbial communities during 2000 years of rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Andrea; Kleineidam, Kristina; Frenzel, Peter; Ho, Adrian; Schloter, Michael

    2010-05-01

    In many areas of China tidal wetlands have been converted into agricultural land for lowland rice cultivation. However, the consequences and effects on soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities involved in nitrification and denitrification based on diversity and abundance pattern of the corresponding functional genes in a tidal wetland and two paddy soils cultivated for 50 years respectively 2000 years with rice. The abundances of all measured genes increased from the tidal wetland to the 2000 years paddy soil in reference to one gram of soil due to a significant increase of the microbial biomass. When relating the functional gene copies to the extracted microbial biomass highest copy numbers were observed in the paddy soil with 50 years of rice cultivation history with exception of the archaeal nitrification gene amoA. T-RFLP data of the archaeal amoA gene and the bacterial denitrification gene nosZ revealed significant differences in community composition in the three investigated soils. Overall, our results indicate clear changes in abundance and diversity pattern of microbial communities participating in nitrogen cycling during rice paddy evolution.

  19. Rice and foxtail millet cultivation reconstructed from weed seed assemblages in the Chengtoushan site, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Crop weeds have been successfully used for evaluation of farming practices in archaeological sites and reconstruction of the environmental condition. In rice agricultural sites in East Asia, however, a few studies of crop remains have been attempted. We evaluated the crop husbandry based on plant macrofossils including crop grains and weed seeds in the Chengtoushan site, Hunan Province, central China, which is one of the oldest rice agricultural site around the Yangtze River Basin. In the moat surrounding the site that is located on a loess plateau that juts out into the alluvial plain, we recognized three cultural layers during the Daxi Culture. Plant macrofossils in silty clay deposits in the moat consist of abundant rice and foxtail millet grains with many weed seeds. Radiocarbon age of these fossils shows that rice and foxtail millet cultivation dated back to 6400 cal. years B.P. The weed seed composition characterizes farmland and ruderal environments in the site surrounded by the moat. We assumed foxtail millet and rice cultivation practiced within the site on loess plateau, along with a paddy style rice cultivation in the alluvial lowland outside of the site. (author)

  20. Cultivation of irrigated-paddy rice with Azolla and Nila fish application

    OpenAIRE

    Kaimuddin; Ibrahim, Bachrul; Tangko, Lina

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to find out effect of Azolla and Nila fish in cultivation of irrigated- paddy rice to increase rice production, and to find out reduction of inorganic fertilizer usage due to integration of Azolla and Nila fish. An experiment was carried out in Maros, South Sulawesi from December 2005 to March 2006. It was arranged in a split plot design. Results showed that Azolla???Nila integration in rice field increased grain by 17.05% (30.245 kg plot-1) and decreased we...

  1. Phosphorus critical levels and availability in lowland soils cultivated with flooded rice

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Isabela Orlando dos Santos; Fernandes Luiz Arnaldo; Faquin Valdemar; Andrade Alex Teixeira de

    2002-01-01

    Lowland soils present a great potential for the flooded rice crop. This work aimed to estimate critical levels of P in waterlogged soils cultivated with rice using Mehlich 1 and anion exchange resin as soil-P extractors, compare the performance of these extractors as for the evaluation of the P availability, and study the soil-P fractions involved in the P nutrition of the rice crop. Studied soils consisted of four Histosols: Low Humic Gley (GP), Aluvial (A), Humic Gley (GH) and Bog Soil (O) ...

  2. Dynamics of decadal changes in the distribution of double-cropping rice cultivation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN JuQi; ZHOU GuangSheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative description of changes in the distribution of paddy rice cultivation in response to recent climate change provides a reference for rice cultivation patterns and formulation of countermeasures to cope with future climate change in China.This study analyzes the dynamics of decadal changes in distribution of double-cropping rice in China during 1961-2010 in relation to climate change based on the maximum entropy method.Decadal changes in the double-cropping rice cultivation area and climatic suitability in China were apparent.The total area of climatically suitable regions was highest in the 1960s,and subsequently showed an increasing trend at first and then a decreasing trend from the 1970s to 2000s.However,the low climatic suitability area decreased,which implied that the moderate and high climatic suitability areas increased.Among the latter,the high climatic suitability area showed the highest increase in extent to 4.4 times that of the 1990s and four times that of the 1960s.The areas of double-cropping rice cultivation most sensitive to climate change are mainly located in central Jiangsu,central Anhui,the eastern Sichuan Basin,southern Henan and central Guizhou.Transformation of areas between low and moderate climatic suitability was observed in northern Zhejiang,southern Anhui and Hubei,and northern Guangxi.Transformation of areas between moderate and high climatic suitability was observed in central Jiangxi and Leizhou Peninsula.The northern boundary of double-cropping rice cultivation in China shifted southwards and contracted eastwards in the 1970s,and extended northwards in the 1980s.However,the northern boundary did not shift northwards in response to climate warming in the 2000s.

  3. Recycling of phosphorus in a rice-Azolla cultivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate P fertilization affects the growth and properties of Azolla as a biofertilizer. Four Azolla species were labelled with 32P and the release and uptake of Azolla-P by rice was investigated. Although the Azolla species had differential P uptake abilities, the % recovery of Azolla-P by rice from the different Azolla species was similar. 48-65% of the split applied P was found in Azolla. Following decomposition, this Azolla-P was readily available to the rice crop. It may be concluded that the most important factor is to use Azolla strains with high P uptake capacity or ensure conditions that will enhance the uptake of applied P by Azolla before it is incorporated into the soil. The results also show that the availability of Azolla-P to rice is similar to that from superphosphate fertilizer. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs

  4. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  5. CULTIVATION OF P. FLORIDA SUPLEMENTED OF RICE BRAIN ON BEECH WOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin SİVRİKAYA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. reached to the second largest in amount after Agaricus bisporus (Lange sing. in the world. There recently has also been growing interest to cultivate them on wastes of forest and agricultural plants in Turkey. In the scope of study Pleurotus florida was produced on beech wood sawmill waste and rice brain. Beech wood sawmill waste (Fagus orientalis Lipsky were used as main substrate and supplemented with rice brain as co-substrate by 10 % W/W, 0 % W/W, 40 % W/W mixing ratios based on dry weights. To produce P. florida substrates were ground, air dried, moistured up to 70-80 % by tap water, supplemented, pasteurized with live steam and spawned. Highest yields (440 gr/kg of P. florida were obtained by supplementing wood waste and rice brain (% 80 + % 20. Furthermore, the best mycelia development were obtained by % 90 + % 10.

  6. Relative availability of crop residue-N in rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of plant residues for soil amendment will reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. The experiment to study the uptake of N from various plant residues by rice crop. Three kinds of plant residue of soybean labelled with 15-N. Four levels of urea (0, 15, 30, 40 kg N/ha) were applied to aluvial soil from Pusakanegara. The factorial experiment was conducted in fully randomize design, with plant residues as the main treatment, and rate of urea as substreatment. The results obtained from this experiment showed that plant dry weight, N content of grain, straw, and the whole plant of Atomita I rice treated with soybean strow seens to be higher than those treated with the straw of rice or corn. (author). 6 refs.; 7 tabs

  7. International rice trade and security stocks: Prospects for an expanded Asian international rice reserve:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Childs, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the recent experience with international rice reserves in Asia and re-examines the roles of national stocks and international trade in stabilizing domestic rice prices and availability in importing countries.

  8. Remote sensing-based Information for crop monitoring: contribution of SAR and Moderate resolution optical data on Asian rice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Holectz, Francesco; Manfron, Giacinto; Collivignarelli, Francesco; Nelson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Updated information on crop typology and status are strongly required to support suitable action to better manage agriculture production and reduce food insecurity. In this field, remote sensing has been demonstrated to be a suitable tool to monitor crop condition however rarely the tested system became really operative. The ones today available, such as the European Commission MARS, are mainly based on the analysis of NDVI time series and required ancillary external information like crop mask to interpret the seasonal signal. This condition is not always guarantied worldwide reducing the potentiality of the remote sensing monitoring. Moreover in tropical countries cloud contamination strongly reduce the possibility of using optical remote sensing data for crop monitoring. In this framework we focused our analysis on the rice production monitoring in Asian tropical area. Rice is in fact the staple food for half of the world population (FAO 2004), in Asia almost 90% of the world's rice is produced and consumed and Rice and poverty often coincide. In this contest the production of reliable rice production information is of extreme interest. We tried to address two important issue in terms of required geospatial information for crop monitoring: rice crop detection (rice map) and seasonal dynamics analysis (phenology). We use both SAR and Optical data in order to exploit the potential complementarity of this system. Multi-temporal ASAR Wide Swath data are in fact the best option to deal with cloud contamination. SAR can easily penetrate the clouds providing information on the surface target. Temporal analysis of archive ASAR data allowed to derived accurate map, at 100m spatial resolution, of permanent rice cultivated areas. On the other and high frequency revisiting optical data, in this case MODIS, have been used to extract seasonal information for the year under analysis. MOD09A1 Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m have been exploited to derive time series of

  9. Feeding on resistant rice leads to enhanced expression of defender against apoptotic cell death (OoDAD1) in the Asian rice gall midge

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Deepak K.; Atray, Isha; Bentur, JS; Nair, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Background The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a destructive insect pest of rice. Gall midge infestation in rice triggers either compatible or incompatible interactions leading to survival or mortality of the feeding maggots, respectively. In incompatible interactions, generation of plant allelochemicals/defense molecules and/or inability of the maggots to continue feeding on the host initiate(s) apoptosis within the maggots. Unraveling these molecular events, triggered within the ...

  10. Localization and speciation of mercury in brown rice with implications for pan-Asian public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Anderson, Christopher W N; Wang, Jianxu; Zhao, Lei

    2014-07-15

    Cultivation of paddy rice for human consumption is a dominant agricultural activity throughout Asia. High levels of mercury (Hg) in rice grain pose a potential threat to human health, although the extent of risk is dependent on the chemical speciation of Hg inside the grain. We have investigated the speciation and localization of Hg in three fractions of rice grain (hull, bran, and white rice) collected from a Hg-contaminated region in China. On a mass basis, the majority of inorganic mercury (IHg) in a rice grain is found in hull and bran. However, the majority of the more toxic species methyl mercury (MeHg) is found in edible white rice. Our data show that during grain processing, most of the IHg (∼78%) is eliminated, but the majority of the MeHg remains in the food product (∼80%). Synchrotron radiation microscopic X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) mapping shows strong localization of Hg at the surface of brown rice grains, corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. We infer that this Hg is predominantly IHg absorbed from the atmosphere. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data we propose that IHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine, and is associated with phytochelatins. Consequently, IHg is largely immobile and restricted to the outer layers of rice grain. MeHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine and is associated with proteins. However, this MeHg-cysteine association behaves like a mobile nutrient and is actively transported to the endosperm during seed ripening. Concentration of MeHg-cysteine in white rice has implications for public health. There is growing evidence for Hg contamination of rice throughout Asia due to point and diffuse sources of Hg pollution. The magnitude of the associated risk must be quantified through better understanding of the localization and speciation of mercury in rice. Our work makes an effort to contribute to this understanding. PMID:24925231

  11. Cultivation Techniques of Bacteria-Melon-Rice Cultivation Pattern%菌-瓜-稻耕作模式示范栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜舜杨

    2014-01-01

    In recent year, Bacteria-Melon-Rice Cultivation Pattern was promoted in Jianyang county, which achieved good economic benefits. In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Bacteria-Melon-Rice cultivation pattern.%近年建阳市进行菌—瓜—稻模式试验示范,取得很好的经济效益。介绍了菌—瓜—稻模式示范的栽培技术。

  12. Comparison on cellular mechanisms of iron and cadmium accumulation in rice: prospects for cultivating Fe-rich but Cd-free rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Chang, Jiadong; Chen, Ruijie; Li, Hubo; Lu, Hongfei; Tao, Longxing; Xiong, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for rice growth and humans consuming as their staple food but is often deficient because of insoluble Fe(III) in soil for rice growth and limited assimilation for human bodies, while cadmium (Cd) is non-essential and toxic for rice growth and humans if accumulating at high levels. Over-accumulated Cd can cause damage to human bodies. Selecting and breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice cultivars are ambitious, challenging and meaningful tasks for researchers. Although evidences show that the mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice are common to some extent as a result of similar entry routes within rice, an increasing number of researchers have discovered distinct mechanisms between Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice. This comprehensive review systematically elaborates and compares cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, respectively. Mechanisms for maintaining Fe homeostasis and Cd detoxicification are also elucidated. Then, effects of different fertilizer management on Fe/Cd accumulation in rice are discussed. Finally, this review enumerates various approaches for reducing grain Cd accumulation and enhancing Fe content in rice. In summary, understanding of discrepant cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd accumulation in rice provides guidance for cultivating Fe-fortified rice and has paved the way to develop rice that are tolerant to Cd stress, aiming at breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice. PMID:27502932

  13. Rice improvement through radiation-induced mutation for cultivation in South Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For past years, rice varieties cultivated in South Vietnam originated from domestic hybridisation or from IRRI. Rice mutation breeding has been initiated for recent years. To meet the requirement of rice production diversification in different agro-ecological areas and rice genetic resources, from 1993 Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam has carried out rice improvement by induced mutation of radiation. The mutagen was gamma rays of 60Co. The goal is to create inherited variations, which cannot be obtained from other breeding methods, specially important characters of rice varieties (high tolerance to acid sulfate soil, lodging resistance combined with early maturity), which were difficult to gain by hybridisation. With 60Co gamma rays, doses of 10-20 krad, dose rate of 280 krad/h, dry and germinated seeds of introduced and local rice varieties (IR 64, IR 9729, IR 50404, IR 59606, Jasmine 85, Nang Huong, Tam Xoan) were irradiated. The irradiated seeds were immediately sown within 24 and 94 hrs for wet seeds and dry seeds after treatment, respectively. Population of 10,000-15,000 plants were established and evaluated by IRRI evaluation standard from M2-M7 generations. 365 lines, varieties were selected with better behaviours than original varieties as lodging resistance, earliness, potential yield, leaf characters, tolerant ability to adverse conditions etc. Some good varieties (VND95-19, VND95-20) have been approved as leading national varieties and released for large-scale production in South Vietnam. (author)

  14. Rice improvement through radiation-induced mutation for cultivation in South Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Khac Thinh; Hung Phi Oanh; Nguyen Thi Cuc; Nguyen Ngoc Quynh [Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    For past years, rice varieties cultivated in South Vietnam originated from domestic hybridisation or from IRRI. Rice mutation breeding has been initiated for recent years. To meet the requirement of rice production diversification in different agro-ecological areas and rice genetic resources, from 1993 Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam has carried out rice improvement by induced mutation of radiation. The mutagen was gamma rays of {sup 60}Co. The goal is to create inherited variations, which cannot be obtained from other breeding methods, specially important characters of rice varieties (high tolerance to acid sulfate soil, lodging resistance combined with early maturity), which were difficult to gain by hybridisation. With {sup 60}Co gamma rays, doses of 10-20 krad, dose rate of 280 krad/h, dry and germinated seeds of introduced and local rice varieties (IR 64, IR 9729, IR 50404, IR 59606, Jasmine 85, Nang Huong, Tam Xoan) were irradiated. The irradiated seeds were immediately sown within 24 and 94 hrs for wet seeds and dry seeds after treatment, respectively. Population of 10,000-15,000 plants were established and evaluated by IRRI evaluation standard from M2-M7 generations. 365 lines, varieties were selected with better behaviours than original varieties as lodging resistance, earliness, potential yield, leaf characters, tolerant ability to adverse conditions etc. Some good varieties (VND95-19, VND95-20) have been approved as leading national varieties and released for large-scale production in South Vietnam. (author)

  15. A systems-wide comparison of red rice (Oryza longistaminata) tissues identifies rhizome specific genes and proteins that are targets for cultivated rice improvement

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ruifeng; Salvato, Fernanda; Park, Jeong-Jin; Kim, Min-Jeong; Nelson, William; Balbuena, Tiago S; Willer, Mark; Crow, John A; May, Greg D.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Thelen, Jay J.; Gang, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The rhizome, the original stem of land plants, enables species to invade new territory and is a critical component of perenniality, especially in grasses. Red rice (Oryza longistaminata) is a perennial wild rice species with many valuable traits that could be used to improve cultivated rice cultivars, including rhizomatousness, disease resistance and drought tolerance. Despite these features, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that contribute to rhizome growth, developm...

  16. A NAA collaborative study in white rice performed in seven Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2000, collaborative studies for applying NAA have been performed through the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) sponsored by the Japanese Government. White rice is a main food for Asians and thus was selected as a common target sample for a collaborative study in 2008. Seven Asian countries including China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand, are greatly concerned about the composition of arsenic, heavy metals, and essential trace elements and took part in this study. Rice samples were purchased and prepared by following a protocol that had been proposed for this study. Samples were analyzed by their own NAA systems. In each country, more than 10 elements were examined and the results were compared. These data will be very useful in the monitoring of the levels of food contamination and to evaluate the nutritional status for people living in Asia. (author)

  17. Uptake of Arsenic in Rice Plant Varieties Cultivated with Arsenic Rich Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyal Bhattacharya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater of many areas of West Bengal, India is severely contaminated with arsenic. The paddy soil gets con¬taminated from the groundwater and thus there is a probability of bioaccumulation of arsenic in rice plants cultivated with arsenic contaminated groundwater and soil. This study aims at assessing the level of arsenic in irrigation water and soil and to investigate the seasonal bioaccumulation of arsenic in the various parts (straw, husk and grain of the rice plant of differ¬ent varieties in the arsenic affected two blocks (Chakdaha and Ranaghat-I of Nadia district, West Bengal. It was found that the arsenic uptake in rice during the pre-monsoon season is more than that of the post-monsoon season. The accumulation of arsenic found to vary with different rice varieties; the maximum accumulation was in White minikit (0.31±0.005 mg/kg and IR 50 (0.29±0.001 mg/kg rice varieties and minimum was found to be in the Jaya rice variety (0.14±0.002 mg/kg. In rice plant maximum arsenic accumulation occurred in the straw part (0.89±0.019-1.65±0.021 mg/kg compared to the ac¬cumulation in husk (0.31±0.011-0.85±0.016 mg/kg and grain (0.14±0.002-0.31±0.005 mg/kg parts. For any rice sample concentration of arsenic in the grain did not exceed the WHO recommended permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg/kg.

  18. Glycaemic and insulin responses, glycaemic index and insulinaemic index values of rice between three Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, V M H; Wu, T; Henry, C J; Lee, Y S

    2015-04-28

    Asians exhibit larger glycaemic response (GR) and insulin response (IR) than Caucasians, predisposing to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the GR and IR as well as the glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (II) of two rice varieties among three ethnic groups in Singapore. A total of seventy-five healthy males (twenty-five Chinese, twenty-five Malay and twenty-five Asian-Indians) were served the available equivalent carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods (Jasmine rice and Basmati rice) and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured at fasting ( -5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption. Using the trapezoidal rule, GR, IR, GI and II values were determined. The GR did not differ between ethnic groups for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice. The IR was consistently higher for Jasmine rice (P=0·002) and Basmati rice (P=0·002) among Asian-Indians, probably due to compensatory hyperinsulinaemia to maintain normoglycaemia. The GI and II of both rice varieties did not differ significantly between ethnicities. The overall mean GI for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were 91 (sd 21) and 59 (sd 15), respectively. The overall mean II for Jasmine rice was 76 (sd 26) and for Basmati rice was 57 (sd 24). We conclude that the GI values presented for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were applicable to all three ethnic groups in Singapore. Future studies should include deriving the II for greater clinical utility in the prevention and management of T2DM. PMID:25789978

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadish S. Bentur; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Padmavathy,; Revathy, Charagonda; Muthulakshmi, Mayandi; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic DNA of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) using a hybridization capture approach. A total of 90 non-redundant primer pairs, representing unique loci, were designed. These simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers represented di (72%), tri (15.3%), and complex repeats (12.7%). Three biotypes of gall midge (20 individuals for each biotype) were screened using these SSRs. The results revealed that 15 loci were hyper variable and ...

  20. Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadish S. Bentur; Suresh Nair; Archana Tomar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Deepak Kumar Sinha

    2012-01-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a major pest responsible for immense loss in rice productivity. Currently, very little knowledge exists with regard to this insect at the molecular level. The present study was initiated with the aim of developing molecular resources as well as identifying alterations at the transcriptome level in the gall midge maggots that are in a compatible (SH) or in an incompatible interaction (RH) with their rice host. Roche 454 pyrosequencing strategy was...

  1. Impact of Credit Disbursement, Area under Cultivation, Fertilizer Consumption and Water Availability on Rice Production in Pakistan (1988-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Anwar Hussain

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the impact of major agriculture inputs (credit disbursement, area under cultivation, fertilizer consumption and water availability) on total rice production in Pakistan using a time series ranging from 1988 to 2010. The study uses a log-linear Cobb-Douglas production function to estimate the impact and importance of these inputs. It finds that area under cultivation and water availability had a positive and statistically significant impact on rice production a...

  2. The Physical Location of Gm-2 and Gm-6 in O.officinalis with BAC-FISH Based on Comparative RFLP Map of Wild Rice and Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Rui; WEI Wen-hui; NING Shun-bin; JIN Wei-wei; HE Guang-cun; SONG Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    Rice BAC library is used widely in rice genome research due to its distinctive advantages over other library systems. In this study, two rice BAC clones closely linked to rice gall midge resistance, Gm-2 and Gm-6, were in situ hybridized to Oryza officinalis chromosomes. They were located on the long arm of chromosome 4 with FL 72.33% and 77.10% respectively and their FL was consistent with the selective marker of rice, RG214 and RZ569. The frequency of signal detection was 61.2% and 59.5% respectively.Our study was based on comparative RFLP map of wild rice, O. officinalis, and cultivated rice, O. sativa.

  3. Cultivation technique of direct seeding rice%水稻直播栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建泉

    2012-01-01

    总结水稻直播栽培技术,包括选用良种、种子处理、整地与播种、科学水肥管理、防治病虫草害。%This paper summarized the cultivation technique of direct seeding rice,including selecting improved varieties,seed treatment,soil preparation and planting,scientific fertilizer and water management,prevention and control of diseases and insect and pests.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Reductions From Rice Cultivation And The California Cap-and-Trade Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, R.; Salas, W.; Nichols, L.

    2014-12-01

    The California Air Resources Board is developing a compliance offset protocol for rice cultivation practices. This protocol contains three different activities that growers can take to reduce the generation of methane associated with rice cultivation - dry seeding, early drainage, and alternate wetting and drying of fields. All of these practices have been developed using the latest science and have been shown to reduce methane generation without impacting yield. Methane is the second largest anthropogenic source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for 9% of all U.S. GHG emissions from human activities. Methane is also important because it is more than 20 times more potent a GHG than carbon dioxide. The rice cultivation protocol is important because it will be the first crop-based protocol considered as a part of California's cap-and-trade program. This session will discuss the latest developments with the protocol from stakeholders involved in the creation of the protocol. We invite you to hear lessons learnt from this experience in order to apply similar approaches to other regions/countries and crops.

  5. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  6. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  7. Effect of Nitrogen Application from Selected Manures on Growth, Nitrogen Uptake and Biomass Production of Cultivated Forage Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmini Gusmini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of forage rice (Oryza sativa L. in paddy field is considered as a promising way to enhanced livestock feed supply. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented cattle and poultry manures in different levels of N application on the growth, N uptake and biomass production of forage rice. Rice cv. Tachisuzuka, Kusanohoshi and Hinohikari were grown and treated with five levels of N: 0,7,14,21, and 28 g N m-2.  The results showed that the effects of manures on plant significantly with all levels of N application. The findings indicated that in forage rice cultivation, Tachisuzuka prospects as whole crop silage (WCS because of its highest straw biomass production and suitable feed with WCS quality compared with Kusanohoshi and Hinohikari.  Application of 14 g N m-2 was considered effective for high production of Tachisuzuka forage rice and useful for the reduction of N loading of the environment.

  8. Energy input-output analysis of rice cultivation in the coastal region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudur Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of energy input-output in boro rice cultivation was undertaken for well recognized salinity classes (S1 -S5 and farm categories (landless, marginal, small, medium, and large in south-west coastal Bangladesh. A total of 125 target farmers were surveyed by using structured questionnaire during the boro season (January-May 2011. Survey data were converted into energy by using the respective energy co-efficient equivalents. The results revealed that the sequences of total energy input were S1 > S5 > S2 > S4 > S3 and medium > large > landless > small > marginal among salinity regimes and farm categories, respectively. The seedbed stage consumed the highest energy followed by growing stage, and harvesting and threshing. Inorganic fertilizers accounted for a major share (59.98% of energy input in rice field, while the lowest share was estimated for manpower (0.75%. Among fertilizers, nitrogen category was the most dominant source (54.94% of energy input following phosphate (3.82% and potassium (1.22%. The total output energy was in the sequences of S1 > S4 > S5 > S2 >S3 and landless > marginal > small > medium > large. Energy from main product (rice grains was higher than that of byproduct (straw. The study also found that total output energy decreases with increases in farm size. In case of energy efficiency (output-input ratio, S4 was found to be the most energy efficient (2.43 regime followed by S3, S1, S5 and S2, whereas marginal sized farmers were the most energy efficient (2.12 followed by landless, small, medium and large. This study shows that increased energy input in rice cultivation is not always necessary to get higher output energy in the salinity affected coastal Bangladesh. Therefore, it is necessary to practice environmentally sound management systems for sustainable rice production.

  9. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to

  10. Rice and noodle consumption is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Yasmin L M; Rebello, Salome A; Oi, Puay Leng; Zheng, Huili; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Van Dam, Rob M

    2014-03-28

    High consumption of refined grains, particularly white rice, has been reported to be associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the association between rice and noodle consumption and markers of glucose homeostasis, inflammation and dyslipidaemia in an Asian population. We carried out a population-based cross-sectional study in 2728 Singaporean Chinese men and women aged between 24 and 92 years. Rice and noodle intake was assessed using a validated FFQ and studied in relation to glycaemic (fasting glucose, glycated Hb, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA index for β-cell function (HOMA-β)), inflammatory (plasma adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP)) and lipid (fasting TAG and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)) markers. We used multiple linear regression analyses with adjustment for total energy intake and sociodemographic, anthropometric (BMI and waist:hip ratio) and lifestyle factors. Higher rice consumption was found to be associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (0·81 % higher values per portion increment; 95 % CI 0·09, 1·54) and HOMA-IR (4·62 %; 95 % CI 1·29, 8·07). Higher noodle consumption was also found to be significantly associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (1·67 %; 95 % CI 0·44, 2·92), HOMA-IR (6·17 %; 95 % CI 0·49, 12·16) and fasting TAG concentrations (9·17 %; 95 % CI 3·44, 15·22). No significant association was observed between rice and noodle consumption and adiponectin, CRP and HDL-C concentrations or HOMA-β in the fully adjusted model. These results suggest that high consumption of rice and noodles may contribute to hyperglycaemia through greater insulin resistance and that this relationship is independent of adiposity and systemic inflammation. PMID:24229726

  11. Effects of CaMSRB2-Expressing Transgenic Rice Cultivation on Soil Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Soo-In; Oh, Young-Ju; Kim, Byung-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Suk

    2016-07-28

    Although many studies on the effects of genetically modified (GM) crops on soil microorganisms have been carried out over the past decades, they have provided contradictory information, even for the same GM crop, owing to the diversity of the soil environments in which they were conducted. This inconsistency in results suggests that the effects of GM crops on soil microorganisms should be considered from many aspects. In this study, we investigated the effects of the GM drought-tolerant rice MSRB2-Bar-8, which expresses the CaMSRB2 gene, on soil microorganisms based on the culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. To this end, rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM (IM) rice were analyzed for soil chemistry, population densities of soil microorganisms, and microbial community structure (using pyrosequencing technology) at three growth stages (seedling, tillering, and maturity). There was no significant difference in the soil chemistry between GM and non-GM rice. The microbial densities of the GM soils were found to be within the range of those of the non-GM rice. In the pyrosequencing analyses, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominant at the seedling stage, while Chloroflexi showed dominance over Proteobacteria at the maturity stage in both the GM and non-GM soils. An UPGMA dendrogram showed that the soil microbial communities were clustered by growth stage. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that the effects of MSRB2-Bar-8 cultivation on soil microorganisms are not significant. PMID:27090184

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Charagonda Revathy; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Ch. Padmavathy; Mayandi Muthulakshmi; Deepak Kumar Sinha; Jagadish S. Bentur

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic DNA of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) using a hybridization capture approach. A total of 90 non-redundant primer pairs, representing unique loci, were designed. These simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers represented di (72%), tri (15.3%), and complex repeats (12.7%). Three biotypes of gall midge (20 individuals for each biotype) were screened using these SSRs. The results revealed that 15 loci were hyper variable and ...

  13. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH4) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH4 production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt-1), while observed CO2 production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH4 emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha-1) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha-1 application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH4 emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH4 production rates as well as total seasonal CH4 flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  14. Effect of planting methods and cyanobacterial inoculants on yield, water productivity and economics of rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit A. Shahane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two crop planting methods and of the application of cyanobacterial inoculants on plant growth, yield, water productivity and economics of rice cultivation was evaluated with the help of a split plot designed experiment during the rainy season of 2011 in New Delhi, India. Conventional transplanting and system of rice intensification (SRI were tested as two different planting methods and seven treatments that considered cyanobacterial inoculants and compost were applied with three repetitions each. Results revealed no significant differences in plant performance and crop yield between both planting methods. However, the application of biofilm based BGA bio-fertiliser + 2/3 N had an overall positive impact on both, plant performance (plant height, number of tillers and crop yield (number and weight of panicles as well as on grain and straw yield. Higher net return and a higher benefit-cost ratio were observed in rice fields under SRI planting method, whereas the application of BGA + PGPR + 2/3 N resulted in highest values. Total water productivity and irrigation water productivity was significantly higher under SRI practices (5.95 and 3.67 kg ha^(-1 mm^(-1 compared to practices of conventional transplanting (3.36 and 2.44, meaning that using SRI method, water saving of about 34 % could be achieved and significantly less water was required to produce one kg of rice. This study could show that a combination of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in conjunction with BGA and 2/3 dose of mineral N fertiliser can support crop growth performance, crop yields and reduces overall production cost, wherefore this practices should be used in the integrated nutrient management of rice fields in India.

  15. To What Extent Do Improved Practices Increase Productivity of Small-Scale Rice Cultivation in A Rain-fed Area? : Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Nakano; Yuki Tanaka; Keijiro Otsuka

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of training provided by a large-scale private farm on the performance of surrounding small-scale rice farmers in a rain-fed area in Tanzania. We found that the training effectively enhances the adoption of improved rice cultivation practices, paddy yield, and profit of rice cultivation by small-holder farmers. In fact, the trainees achieve paddy yield of 5 tons per hectare on average, which is remarkably high for rain-fed rice cultivation. Our results sugges...

  16. Managing Water and Soils to Achieve Adaptation and Reduce Methane Emissions and Arsenic Contamination in Asian Rice Production

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Wichelns

    2016-01-01

    Rice production is susceptible to damage from the changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, and in the frequency of major storm events that will accompany climate change. Deltaic areas, in which millions of farmers cultivate from one to three crops of rice per year, are susceptible also to the impacts of a rising sea level, submergence during major storm events, and saline intrusion into groundwater and surface water resources. In this paper, I review the current state of knowledge regard...

  17. Basic approaches for the handling of illnesses of the cultivation of the rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic concepts are exposed for the handling of illnesses in the cultivation of the rice, beginning with the illness definition in the plants, integrating the concept in a system plant-pathogen-environment that in turn would have the subsystem it plants, subsystem pathogen and subsystem environmental conditions. It discusses each one of these subsystems and their influence in the development of the infection. The illnesses of the rice are described taken place by the mushrooms Pyricularia oryzae and Rizoctonia solani and the resistance and receptivity to the pathogens on the part of genetic materials, as well as it influences of the environment and indications are given for their handling. The spotted of the grain of the rice like an illness is described caused by a complex of mushrooms, bacteria and nutritional and climatic factors that cause decrease in the yield and they reduce the quality of the grain and the seed. They are related the pathogens organisms causing the illness, the influence of the environment in their development and instructions are given for their handling

  18. Evolutionary dynamics and structure of the rice blast resistance locus Pi-ta in wild, cultivated, and US weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been used to control rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryza, in rice growing areas worldwide for decades. To understand the evolutionary process and natural selection of Pi-ta during rice domestication, we first examined sequences of the genomic region of Pi-ta in geograph...

  19. Public Expenditures, Private Incentives, and Farmer Adoption: The Economics of Hybrid Rice in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Spielman, David J.; Kolady, Deepthi; Cavalieri, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The rapid expansion of hybrid rice cultivation in China has contributed significantly to improving food security in the country since the 1980s. However, few other Asian countries have seen similar expansions in hybrid rice cultivation or the associated yield and output gains. This paper examines the technical challenges, market opportunities, and policy constraints related to hybrid rice in Asia, with specific emphasis on India and Bangladesh. The paper sets the discussion within a novel ana...

  20. The Early Rice Project: From Domestication to Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q. Fuller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Rice Project, at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, is clarifying the origins of Asian rice agriculture. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, we have found the tipping point when domesticated forms first outnumber wild types c.4600 BC. Investigations of assorted weed flora are also revealing how the cultivation of rice changed over time, with early cultivation in small, irregular, dug-out paddy fields in the Lower Yangtze from c.4000 BC, providing a means for the careful control of water conditions. We also work on early rice cultivation in Thailand and India. By better characterising how rice was cultivated across its entire range, we aim to model the ancient output of atmospheric methane from wet rice fields, as this was a potential contributor to the long story of human-caused global warming.

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Jagadish S; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Padmavathy; Revathy, Charagonda; Muthulakshmi, Mayandi; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic DNA of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) using a hybridization capture approach. A total of 90 non-redundant primer pairs, representing unique loci, were designed. These simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers represented di (72%), tri (15.3%), and complex repeats (12.7%). Three biotypes of gall midge (20 individuals for each biotype) were screened using these SSRs. The results revealed that 15 loci were hyper variable and showed polymorphism among different biotypes of this pest. The number of alleles ranged from two to 11 and expected heterozygosity was above 0.5. Inheritance studies with three markers (observed to be polymorphic between sexes) revealed sex linked inheritance of two SSRs (Oosat55 and Oosat59) and autosomal inheritance of one marker (Oosat43). These markers will prove to be a useful tool to devise strategies for integrated pest management and in the study of biotype evolution in this important rice pest. PMID:21340012

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charagonda Revathy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic DNA of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason using a hybridization capture approach. A total of 90 non-redundant primer pairs, representing unique loci, were designed. These simple sequence repeat (SSR markers represented di (72%, tri (15.3%, and complex repeats (12.7%. Three biotypes of gall midge (20 individuals for each biotype were screened using these SSRs. The results revealed that 15 loci were hyper variable and showed polymorphism among different biotypes of this pest. The number of alleles ranged from two to 11 and expected heterozygosity was above 0.5. Inheritance studies with three markers (observed to be polymorphic between sexes revealed sex linked inheritance of two SSRs (Oosat55 and Oosat59 and autosomal inheritance of one marker (Oosat43. These markers will prove to be a useful tool to devise strategies for integrated pest management and in the study of biotype evolution in this important rice pest.

  3. Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish S. Bentur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae is a major pest responsible for immense loss in rice productivity. Currently, very little knowledge exists with regard to this insect at the molecular level. The present study was initiated with the aim of developing molecular resources as well as identifying alterations at the transcriptome level in the gall midge maggots that are in a compatible (SH or in an incompatible interaction (RH with their rice host. Roche 454 pyrosequencing strategy was used to develop both transcriptomics and genomics resources that led to the identification of 79,028 and 85,395 EST sequences from gall midge biotype 4 (GMB4 maggots feeding on a susceptible and resistant rice variety, TN1 (SH and Suraksha (RH, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the maggots in SH and RH revealed over-representation of transcripts from proteolysis and protein phosphorylation in maggots from RH. In contrast, over-representation of transcripts for translation, regulation of transcription and transcripts involved in electron transport chain were observed in maggots from SH. This investigation, besides unveiling various mechanisms underlying insect-plant interactions, will also lead to a better understanding of strategies adopted by insects in general, and the Asian rice gall midge in particular, to overcome host defense.

  4. Comparison of the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizing prokaryotes in rice rhizosphere under three different irrigation cultivation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaohong; Chen, Lei; Chen, Zhigang; Chu, Jinyu; Li, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    The abundance, diversity and community structure of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in rice rhizosphere soils under three different irrigation cultivated modes, named continuous irrigation mode (C), intermittent irrigation mode (I) and semi-arid mode (M), respectively, were investigated using amoA gene as a molecular biomarker. Clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated the highest number of archaeal amoA gene copy was detected in M cultivation mode, then in I and C, whereas, their order of amoA gene copy numbers were I > M > C for AOB, and those were obvious higher than in the bulk soil. The ratios of AOA/AOB were greater than 1 for all samples, suggested the predominance of AOA throughout the period of rice growth in the three different irrigation cultivation modes. Diversity index (SChao1 and Shannon H) have an obvious variation in three different irrigation cultivation modes. For AOA, SChao1 was highest in M and lowest in I mode, whereas, Shannon H was highest in M cultivation mode and lowest in C mode. For AOB, mode M exhibited the highest diversity index (SChao1 and Shannon H), while C showed the lowest highest diversity, suggested long-term water input (continuous mode) may decrease diversity of ammonia oxidizers, whereas mode M may be more appropriate for them. In addition, AOA sequences fall within Nitrososphaera, Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosotalea cluster with proportion of 89.38, 8.85 and 1.77 %, respectively. AOB gene sequences belonged to the Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira genera with proportion of 90.97 and 9.03 %, respectively. In addition, the abundances, diversity and community structure had an obvious temporal variation in three developmental stages of rice, further suggested rice growth obviously affected the ammonia oxidizing prokaryotes in their rhizosphere soil. PMID:27038955

  5. Satellite-based investigation of flood-affected rice cultivation areas in Chao Phraya River Delta, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, N. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chang, L. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of catastrophic floods in Thailand in 2011 caused significant damage to rice agriculture. This study investigated flood-affected rice cultivation areas in the Chao Phraya River Delta (CRD) rice bowl, Thailand using time-series moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The data were processed for 2008 (normal flood year) and 2011, comprising four main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct time-series MODIS vegetation indices (VIs), to filter noise from the time-series VIs by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and to mask out non-agricultural areas in respect to water-related cropping areas; (2) flood-affected area classification using the unsupervised linear mixture model (ULMM); (3) rice crop classification using the support vector machines (SVM); and (4) accuracy assessment of flood and rice crop mapping results. The comparisons between the flood mapping results and the ground reference data indicated an overall accuracy of 97.9% and Kappa coefficient of 0.62 achieved for 2008, and 95.7% and 0.77 for 2011, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by close agreement (R2 > 0.8) between comparisons of the two datasets at the provincial level. The crop mapping results compared with the ground reference data revealed that the overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients obtained for 2008 were 88.5% and 0.82, and for 2011 were 84.1% and 0.76, respectively. A strong correlation was also found between MODIS-derived rice area and rice area statistics at the provincial level (R2 > 0.7). Rice crop maps overlaid on the flood-affected area maps showed that approximately 16.8% of the rice cultivation area was affected by floods in 2011 compared to 4.9% in 2008. A majority of the flood-expanded area was observed for the double-cropped rice (10.5%), probably due to flood-induced effects to the autumn-summer and rainy season crops. Information achieved from this study could be useful for agricultural planners to mitigate possible impacts

  6. Impact Of Trade Liberalization And South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) On Textile And Rice Export on Pakistan’s Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz Muhammad Shaikh; Nanik Ram; Anwar Ali Shah G. Syed; Abdul Sattar Shah

    2015-01-01

    This research examine the impact of Trade liberalization and SAFTA on Textile and rice export on Pakistan’s Economy by using Computable general Equilibrium model. Data were collected from 50 textile mills and 50 Rice exporters buy using Structural questionnaire and data were collected from various secondary sources Export Promotion of Pakistan, TDP, Textile annual reports and Rice export reports. GTAP model was used for the analysis of the data. It was revealed that South Asian free trade agr...

  7. Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

  8. Managing Water and Soils to Achieve Adaptation and Reduce Methane Emissions and Arsenic Contamination in Asian Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wichelns

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is susceptible to damage from the changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, and in the frequency of major storm events that will accompany climate change. Deltaic areas, in which millions of farmers cultivate from one to three crops of rice per year, are susceptible also to the impacts of a rising sea level, submergence during major storm events, and saline intrusion into groundwater and surface water resources. In this paper, I review the current state of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of climate change on rice production and I describe adaptation measures that involve soil and water management. In many areas, farmers will need to modify crop choices, crop calendars, and soil and water management practices as they adapt to climate change. Adaptation measures at the local, regional, and international levels also will be helpful in moderating the potential impacts of climate change on aggregate rice production and on household food security in many countries. Some of the changes in soil and water management and other production practices that will be implemented in response to climate change also will reduce methane generation and release from rice fields. Some of the measures also will reduce the uptake of arsenic in rice plants, thus addressing an important public health issue in portions of South and Southeast Asia. Where feasible, replacing continuously flooded rice production with some form of aerobic rice production, will contribute to achieving adaptation objectives, while also reducing global warming potential and minimizing the risk of negative health impacts due to consumption of arsenic contaminated rice.

  9. On Farm Trial with Rice Fish Cultivation in Nakhon Si Thammarat Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Puan PENGSENG

    2013-01-01

    The rice-fish culture investigations were conducted at rice farms in Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Southern Thailand to compare the effect of the rice fish culture model on production performances of rice and fish, income, and net return. All investigations used male Oreochromis niloticus and a native rice variety, Leb Nok Pattani, in 6 plots (5,600 m2 each). Two treatments, sold rice and rice-fish culture were employed with each treatment replicated three times. Juvenile O. niloticus wit...

  10. Analysis of rhizosphere bacteria of rice cultivated in Andosol lowland and upland fields using molecular biological methods

    OpenAIRE

    DOI, Tetsuya; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Abe, Jun; Morita, Shigenori

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria in the rhizosphere influence plant growth and interact with plant roots. Microscopy and culture method have been used for studies of microorganisms of the rhizosphere, but these methods are insufficient for evaluation because most rhizosphere bacteria are viable but non-culturable (VBNC). Bacteria in the rhizosphere of rice cultivated in Andosol lowland and upland fields were analyzed in this study using PCR-DGGE and FISH, in combination with modified pretreatments. Results show that...

  11. Study on Difference in Cold Tolerance Between Weedy Rice and Cultivated Rice in Heilongjiang Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Detang; GUO Junxiang; LIU Hualong; WANG Jingguo

    2008-01-01

    A long-red awn weedy rice and rice cultivars named Ken99004(ZC1),Crossing-503(ZC2),Ken Sticky Riee(ZC3),Shashani(ZC4),Long-Grain Aromatic Rice(ZC5) were used to study typical wild traits of weedy rice and to identify the cold resistance of all genotypes.The results showed that the stem of long-red awn weedy rice was the weakest. No difference was found in the early stage of rice growth,e.g.the vegetable growth stage,between long-red awn weedy rice and other rice cultivars in the stem rigidity,but in the later stage,or reproductive growth stage,their leaves and stems were senescent rapidly because of the speedy supply of nutrients for panicle growth,meanwhile the rigidity of stem was reduced sharply just as withered weeds.The germination rate of longred awn weedy flee was the highest in cold condition,and in turn were ZC1,ZC2,ZC3,ZC4,ZC5,respectively.The performances of genotypes in cold tolerance were identical,those with a high ability of germination in low temperature also showed a strong cold tolerance in main traits in whole growth period,the order from strong to weak in the extent of cold tolerance were long-red awn weedy rice,ZC1,ZC2,ZC3,ZC4,ZC5,respectively.

  12. Ionome of rice seed response to rice cultivation patterns%水稻种植模式对水稻籽粒离子组的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙之敏; 袁婧; 赵峥; 岳玉波; 姚健; 曹林奎

    2016-01-01

    subcellular compartment, cell, tissue or organism is termed as ionome, which involves of all mineral elements of life, regardless of chemical forms these occur. Ionome is the inorganic chemical element fingerprint of plant that quantitatively and accurately reflects inorganic response of plants to environment stimuli. A field experiment was conducted to explore the differences and correlations of mineral elements in rice seeds cultivated in conventional cultivation ecosystem, green rice-frog ecosystem and organic rice-frog ecosystem under long-term management. The study also determined the transportability of available elements from soil to rice seeds to explore the correlation of elements between soil and rice seed. The concentrations of 21 mineral elements in the rice samples and soil were determined using high-throughput elemental analysis technology such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical method used to profile multi-elemental composition, and principle component analysis (PCA) to discriminate differences among treatments. Then ANOVA analysis was used to compare the differences among treatments for each element. The results showed the ranked order of the concentrations of 21 elements in rice seeds was:potassium (K)>phosphorus (P)>magnesium (Mg)>calcium (Ca)>manganese (Mn)>zinc (Zn)>ion (Fe)>copper (Cu)>rubidium (Rb)>sodium (Na)>barium (Ba)>molybdenum (Mo)>boron (B)>nickel (Ni)>strontium (Sr)>arsenic (As)>chromium (Cr)>cadmium (Cd)>selenium (Se)>cobalt (Co)>cesium (Cs). PCA analysis showed that ionome of rice seeds was significantly affected by different cultivation patterns. The fist component accounted for 32.7% of the total variation, which separated organic rice-frog ecosystem from organic rice-frog ecosystem. The second component accounted for 27.1%of the total variation, which discriminated conventional cultivation system from the other two ecosystems. Compared with conventional cultivation, the concentrations

  13. Enhancement of recombinant human serum albumin in transgenic rice cell culture system by cultivation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Li, Yu-Teng; Lu, Ching-Fan; Huang, Li-Fen

    2015-05-25

    Fusion of the sugar-starvation-induced αAmy3 promoter with its signal peptide has enabled secretion of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) into the culture medium. To simplify the production process and increase the rHSA yield in rice suspension cells, a one-step strategem without medium change was adopted. The yield of rHSA was increased sixfold by this one-step approach compared with the two-step recombinant protein process, in which a change of the culture medium to sugar-free medium is required. The one-step strategem was applied to check repeated cycle of rHSA production, and the production of rHSA was also higher in each cycle in the one-step, as opposed to the two-step, production process. The use of the one-step process resulted in fewer damaged cells during the cell sugar starvation phase for recombinant protein production. Furthermore, we scaled up the rHSA production in a 2-L airlift and a 2-L stirred tank bioreactor by the one-step approach, and concluded that rHSA can be enriched to 45 mg L(-1) in plant culture commonly used MS medium by the airlift-type bioreactor. Our results suggest that rHSA production can be enriched by this optimized cultivation strategem. PMID:25765580

  14. Organoleptic qualities and acceptability of fortified rice in two Southeast Asian countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanh Van, Tran; Burja, Kurt; Thuy Nga, Tran;

    2014-01-01

    acceptability of two types of fortified rice (cold and hot extruded) in Vietnam and Cambodia, triangle tests were conducted in Vietnam (53 women) and Cambodia (258 adults), testing fortified rice against conventional rice, with participants being asked to score the organoleptic qualities. In addition, Cambodian...... fortified rice is acceptable in two countries in Southeast Asia. However, specific information is needed to explain the organoleptic qualities of fortified rice as perceived by end-users....

  15. Study on the Practice and High-yielding Mechanism of Super-sparse-cultivation Associated with Maximum-tiller Seedling of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; TAO Shi-shun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new cultivation practice-super-sparse-cultivation associated with maximumtiller seedling (SSCMTS) of hybrid rice was proposed and its high-yielding mechanism was studied. The results showed that the practice of SSCMTS in hybrid rice could not only increase grain yield but also save seeds and labor. It was a new high-yielding way for the late transplanting seedlings and heavy panicle type hybrid rice cultivars to further utilize the high-yielding potential of hybrid rice cultivars. The increasing number of spikelets and ideal grain -filling were the direct factors for the high yield of SSCMTS in hybrid rice, and those high-yielding factors relied on high quality seedlings, sturdy individuals, high quality population and vigorous later growth.

  16. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  17. Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice Area in Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Bocchi; Antonino Malgioglio

    2010-01-01

    Azolla is a floating pteridophyte, which contains as endosymbiont the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae (Nostocaceae family). Widely cultivated in the Asian regions, Azolla is either incorporated into the soil before rice transplanting or grown as a dual crop along with rice. To examine the feasibility of its use in flooded rice fields sited in the Temperate European Areas, we carried out a series of experiments in PVC tanks during 2000–2002 in Po Valley (northern Italy) conditi...

  18. Effects of cultivation of Osr HSA transgenic rice on functional diversity of microbial communities in the soil rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing; Zhang; Xujing; Wang; Qiaoling; Tang; Ning; Li; Peilei; Liu; Yufeng; Dong; Weimin; Pang; Jiangtao; Yang; Zhixing; Wang

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread cultivation of transgenic crops, there is increasing concern about unintended effects of these crops on soil environmental quality. In this study, we used the Biolog method and ELISA to evaluate the possible effects of Osr HSA transgenic rice on soil microbial utilization of carbon substrates under field conditions. There were no significant differences in average well-color development(AWCD) values, Shannon–Wiener diversity index(H), Simpson dominance indices(D) and Shannon–Wiener evenness indices(E) of microbial communities in rhizosphere soils at eight samplings between Osr HSA transgenic rice and its non-transgenic counterpart. The main carbon sources utilized by soil microbes were carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids and polymers. The types,capacities and patterns of carbon source utilization by microbial communities in rhizosphere soils were similar throughout the detection period. We detected no Osr HSA protein in the roots of Osr HSA transgenic rice. We concluded that Osr HSA transgenic rice and the r HSA protein it produced did not alter the functional diversity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere.

  19. Evolutionary Genomics of Weedy Rice in the USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth M. Olsen; Ana L. Caicedo; Yulin Jia

    2007-01-01

    Red rice is an interfertile, weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that competes aggressively with the crop in the southern US, reducing yields and contaminating harvests. No wild Oryza species occur in North America and the weed has been proposed to have evolved through multiple mechanisms, including "de-domestication" of US crop cultivars, accidental introduction of Asian weeds, and hybridization between US crops and Asian wild/weedy Oryza strains. The phenotype of US red rice ranges from "crop mimics", which share some domestication traits with the crop, to strains closely resembling Asian wild Oryza species. Assessments of genetic diversity have indicated that many weed strains are closely related to Asian taxa (including indica and aus rice varieties, which have never been cultivated in the US, and the Asian crop progenitor O. rufipogon), whereas others show genetic similarity to the tropical japonlca varieties cultivated in the southern US. Herein, we review what is known about the evolutionary origins and genetic diversity of US red rice and describe an ongoing research project to further characterize the evolutionary genomics of this aggressive weed.

  20. Serine Proteases-Like Genes in the Asian Rice Gall Midge Show Differential Expression in Compatible and Incompatible Interactions with Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Nair

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason, is a serious pest of rice. Investigations into the gall midge-rice interaction will unveil the underlying molecular mechanisms which, in turn, can be used as a tool to assist in developing suitable integrated pest management strategies. The insect gut is known to be involved in various physiological and biological processes including digestion, detoxification and interaction with the host. We have cloned and identified two genes, OoprotI and OoprotII, homologous to serine proteases with the conserved His87, Asp136 and Ser241 residues. OoProtI shared 52.26% identity with mosquito-type trypsin from Hessian fly whereas OoProtII showed 52.49% identity to complement component activated C1s from the Hessian fly. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that both the genes were significantly upregulated in larvae feeding on resistant cultivar than in those feeding on susceptible cultivar. These results provide an opportunity to understand the gut physiology of the insect under compatible or incompatible interactions with the host. Phylogenetic analysis grouped these genes in the clade containing proteases of phytophagous insects away from hematophagous insects.

  1. The Early Rice Project: From Domestication to Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Dorian Q.; Alison Weisskopf

    2011-01-01

    The Early Rice Project, at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, is clarifying the origins of Asian rice agriculture. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, we have found the tipping point when domesticated forms first outnumber wild types c.4600 BC. Investigations of assorted weed flora are also revealing how the cultivation of rice changed over time, with early cultivation in small, irregular, dug-out paddy fields in the Lower Yangtze from c.4000 BC, providing a means for the careful control of ...

  2. A Genetic Model for the Female Sterility Barrier Between Asian and African Cultivated Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito, Andrea; Guyot, Romain; Lozano, Jaime; Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Panaud, Olivier; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    S1 is the most important locus acting as a reproductive barrier between Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. It is a complex locus, with factors that may affect male and female fertility separately. Recently, the component causing the allelic elimination of pollen was fine mapped. However, the position and nature of the component causing female sterility remains unknown. To fine map the factor of the S1 locus affecting female fertility, we developed a mapping approach based on the evaluation of the degree of female transmission ratio distortion (fTRD) of markers. Through implementing this methodology in four O. sativa × O. glaberrima crosses, the female component of the S1 locus was mapped into a 27.8-kb (O. sativa) and 50.3-kb (O. glaberrima) region included within the interval bearing the male component of the locus. Moreover, evidence of additional factors interacting with S1 was also found. In light of the available data, a model where incompatibilities in epistatic interactions between S1 and the additional factors are the cause of the female sterility barrier between O. sativa and O. glaberrima was developed to explain the female sterility and the TRD mediated by S1. According to our model, the recombination ratio and allelic combinations between these factors would determine the final allelic frequencies observed for a given cross. PMID:20457876

  3. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Caroline Borges; Basu, Supratim; Pereira, Andy; Tseng, Te-Ming; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Burgos, Nilda Roma

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1) classify the subspecies (ssp.) grouping (japonica or indica) of 21 accessions; 2) evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3) analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and cultivated

  4. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Borges Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1 classify the subspecies (ssp. grouping (japonica or indica of 21 accessions; 2 evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3 analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and

  5. REVIEW ON BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani KUHN

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srinivas; Ved Ratan; Atm Prakash Patel; G. Bindu Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a graminaceous crop. It is one of the important staple foods for Asian countries. Sheath blight disease is an important fungal disease of rice. Currently, this disease is distributed in almost all the rice growing states. The disease is alarming due to its intensive cultivation of modern high yielding varieties with high doses of nitrogenous fertilizers. Crop with a high plant density and close canopy associated favors disease build up from panicle initiation onwards...

  6. Voices from the marsh: Livelihood concerns of fishers and rice cultivators in the Alaotra wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jean Rakotoniaina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Alaotra is the largest lake on Madagascar and is a centre of rice and freshwater fish production. The lake and its wetland also provide important habitat for endemic wildlife. In 2003 the Alaotra wetland system was designated a Ramsar site and has subsequently been recognized as an official protected area by the Government of Madagascar. While community - based conservation initiatives have led to active involvement of some lakeside communities in the conservation of the aquatic system, wetland destruction continues. The extent to which individuals within these communities perceive the protection of the environment as their priority remains unclear. The current study collected socio - economic data from fishers and rice cultivators living in Anororo, a small town situated on the west coast of Lake Alaotra. Results suggest that livelihood security within these groups is limited. While they hope for better protection of the environment their primary concern is for external investment in their professions. These results highlight the need for solutions to be found to meet current livelihood priorities while efforts continue to conserve natural resources for the future. RÉSUMÉ: Le lac Alaotra est le plus grand lac de Madagascar et il est un centre de production rizicole et piscicole. Le lac qui a une superficie de 20,000 ha et les zones humides qui l’entourent constituent aussi un habitat important pour des espèces fauniques endémiques. Les initiatives de conservation communautaire impliquant des communautés riveraines dans les actions de protection du système aquatique n’empêchent pas la destruction des zones humides. L’extension des rizières dans les marais de la Nouvelle Aire Protégée (NAP que des gens de ces communautés pratiquent, montre que ceux - ci perçoivent mal l’importance de la protection de l’environnement, et qu’ils sont loin de pouvoir la considérer en tant que priorité. L’étude actuelle est bas

  7. Suppressive effect of magnesium oxide materials on cadmium accumulation in winter wheat grain cultivated in a cadmium-contaminated paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tetsuro, E-mail: tetsu-k@hino.meisei-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Okazaki, Masanori, E-mail: masaok24@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Motobayashi, Takashi, E-mail: takarice@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Field Science Center for Education and Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-7-1 Hommachi, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-0027 (Japan)

    2009-08-30

    The effectiveness of two kinds of magnesium oxide (MgO) materials, commercial MgO (2250 kg ha{sup -1}) and a material derived from MgO and magnesium silicate minerals named 'MgO-SH-A' (2250 and 4500 kg ha{sup -1}1), in suppression of uptake and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) into grain of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ayahikari) was examined in a Cd-contaminated alluvial paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational system. The MgO materials were mixed into the plough-layer soil only once prior to the preceding rice cultivation. Cadmium concentration in wheat grain produced from the non-amendment control exceeded the maximum limit of Cd in wheat grain adopted by FAO/WHO (0.2 mg kg{sup -1}). All of the treatments with the MgO materials significantly lowered plant available Cd fraction in the plough-layer soil. However, only the treatment with the commercial MgO at 2250 kg ha{sup -1} produced wheat grain whose Cd concentration was not only significantly lower than that from the control but also less than 0.2 mg kg{sup -1}. It is suggested that the significant suppressive effect of the commercial MgO on Cd accumulation in wheat grain would be mainly attributed to its high soil neutralizing capacity as compared to that of MgO-SH-A.

  8. Suppressive effect of magnesium oxide materials on cadmium accumulation in winter wheat grain cultivated in a cadmium-contaminated paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of two kinds of magnesium oxide (MgO) materials, commercial MgO (2250 kg ha-1) and a material derived from MgO and magnesium silicate minerals named 'MgO-SH-A' (2250 and 4500 kg ha-11), in suppression of uptake and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) into grain of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ayahikari) was examined in a Cd-contaminated alluvial paddy field under annual rice-wheat rotational system. The MgO materials were mixed into the plough-layer soil only once prior to the preceding rice cultivation. Cadmium concentration in wheat grain produced from the non-amendment control exceeded the maximum limit of Cd in wheat grain adopted by FAO/WHO (0.2 mg kg-1). All of the treatments with the MgO materials significantly lowered plant available Cd fraction in the plough-layer soil. However, only the treatment with the commercial MgO at 2250 kg ha-1 produced wheat grain whose Cd concentration was not only significantly lower than that from the control but also less than 0.2 mg kg-1. It is suggested that the significant suppressive effect of the commercial MgO on Cd accumulation in wheat grain would be mainly attributed to its high soil neutralizing capacity as compared to that of MgO-SH-A.

  9. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2016-07-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  10. Effect of Gamma Rays on Seed Germination, Seedling Height, Survival Percentage and Tiller Production in Some Rice Varieties Cultivated in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, S. S.; Johnson, S D.; Taylor, D R; Dixon, C.A.; Turay, M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen rice varieties cultivated in Sierra Leone were used to examine varietal differences in radiosensitivity to gamma radiation during the wet season of 2006 in the lowland ecology. Dry seeds of rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation ranging from 50 to 800 Gy to determine their responses to radiation and the effective radiation dose for mutation breeding. Percentage germination, percentage survival (field condition), seedling height and tiller production were the traits measured o...

  11. RICE (Oryza sativa L. CULTIVATION AND IT’S GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTIONIN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran TAŞLIGİL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the staple foods in the world. Rice in the husk is a cereal whose breeding depends on a special access because of the climate it needs can create a malaria epidemic. Turkey is one of the major countries in rice in the husk breeding. In Turkey, the accretion in the amount of the rice for each person especially after 1980, caused an accretion in the export of the notch. As a matter of fact, the production and the breeding of the notch changes every year acording to the economy, ecology and the marketing channels. However, according to the last istatistics it has been understood that the rice plantation areas in Marmara Region and Edirne showed distinction among the whole country.

  12. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.V.SINGH; K.K.SINGH; S.K.SHARMA

    2013-01-01

    The system of rice intensification (SRI) is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement,less pest attack,shorter crop duration,higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation.With this background,SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute,New Delhi,India during two wet seasons (2009-2011).In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design,two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT) and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44) were used under seven crop nutrition treatments,viz.T1,120 kg/hm2 N,26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2,20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM); T3,10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4,5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5,5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA); T6,5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla,and T7,N0P0K0 (control,no NPK application) to study the effect on seed quality,yield and water use.In SRI,soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2-3 cm) was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice,however,in CT,standing water was maintained in crop growing season.Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI.Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT.Integrated nutrient management (INM) resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties.Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill,panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone.Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer.The grain yield and its attributes of Pusa 44 were significantly

  13. Fine Mapping of Spr3,a Locus for Spreading Panicle from African Cultivated Rice(Oryza glaberrima Steud.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Jing Luo; Wei Hao; Jian Jin; Ji-Ping Gao; Hong-Xuan Lin

    2008-01-01

    A CSSL(chromosome segment substitution line),SG-64,carrying a segment of chromosome 4 from African cultivated rice(CG-14)in the genetic background of vat.Wuyujing-7(japonica),showed a spreading panicle,which was different significantly from that of Wuyujing-7 with an erect compact panicle.The gene controlling a spreading panicle is referred to as Spr3,and is mapped on chromosome 4.To uncover the genetic basis of Spr3,a large F2 population derived from cross between SG-64 and Wuyujing-7 was constructed for fine mapping of the Spr3 locus.The high-resolution linkage analysis revealed that the Spr3 locus was narrowed down to a 4.6-kb region.The delimited genomic DNA regions of Wuyujing-7 and CG.14 were sequenced and compared.Sequence mutations between Wuyujing-7 and CG-14 were evident and the candidate genes for the locus were predicted.Publicly available databases were searched for homologous cDNA sequences.However,any coding regions or other meaningful sequences for the Spr3 locus were not found within this delimited region.This result suggested that Spr3 is an unknown genetic factor in controlling the outspreading of the primary branches in rice inflorescence.In addition.NIL(Spr3)exhibited seed shattering.The formation of spreading panicle was accompanied by a few undesirable traits and the spreading panicle links with seed shattering suggest that the spreading panicle was likely Iost during the domestication and selection for high seed productivity of cultivated rice.

  14. Determinants Influencing Adoption of Geographical Indication Certification: The Case of Rice Cultivation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ngokkuen, Chuthaporn; Grote, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Geographical indications (GIs) have gained more interest since its protection has been ensured multilaterally under the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Thung Kula Rong-Hai Thai Hom Mali Rice (TKR) is the first officially registered GI Jasmine rice in Thailand. A GI certification is licensed to producers and other business operators of the GI production line through a membership application in a GI club. This paper ...

  15. Cultivating knowledge on seed systems and seed strategies: Case of the rice crop

    OpenAIRE

    Amadou Moustapha Bèye; Wopereis, Marco C.S.

    2014-01-01

    This review gives key information about seed systems with the objective of helping countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to design appropriate strategies based on their own local realities. It starts with an in-depth assessment of the rice seed sector and emphasizes the factors that can influence its development. These factors may be associated with the biological characteristics of the rice crop, the complexity of farming systems, the policy environment, and the markets. The historical backg...

  16. Arsenic translocation in rice cultivation and its implication for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Bastías

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic metalloid for plants and animals. Large amounts of As have been released in arable soils through anthropogenic activities, use of contaminated irrigation water, and mining among others. Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the most consumed cereals worldwide; it is an important route of exposure for As. The objective of this review was to explain possible mechanisms involved in As absorption that contaminate rice plant through the soil and water, and to mention studies that have been conducted to minimize the risk of human exposure. The root is able to absorb and accumulate large amounts of As, but only small amounts are translocated to the grain and tillers. Arsenic concentrations in rice tissues decrease from the root to the grain. Information about As translocation in rice is sparse and research is directed toward studying the molecular mechanism of absorption and accumulation in the grain because it has not yet been explained. Some rice varieties have been developed that are resistant to high soil As concentrations and are not able to translocate the metalloid toward the root. Many studies suggest that not all ingested inorganic As accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract is absorbed into the bloodstream and produces toxicity. It is therefore recommended that As bioavailability be evaluated in imported or domestic Chilean rice to more precisely estimate human health risk

  17. Effects of cultivation conditions on the diversity of microbes involved in the conversion of rice straw to fodder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-yan; GAO Li-juan; WANG Xiao-fen; WANG Wei-dong; CUI Zong-jun

    2007-01-01

    To confirm the optimum cultivation conditions for analyzing lactic acid bacterial communities and to provide the cultivation foundation for lactic acid bacterial communities that were used to convert straw into fodder, fermented rice straw was inoculated into 13 different broths. After 48 h of cultivation, pH values, volatile products, and microbial diversity were analyzed. Except for LAB broth, the pH values of the other broths could decrease to approximately 4.5. GC/MS analysis showed that lactic acid in Tomato MRS broth, MRS broth, LAB broth, and Tomato juice broth was higher than that in the other broths. DNA concentration analysis showed that the counts of microbes in Tomato MRS broth were 2.5 times higher than those in other broths and that tomato juice favored the reproduction of the microbes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the number of lactic acid bacterial species in HYA broth, Tomato juice broth, and Tomato MRS broth were higher than those in the other broths.

  18. Identification of a New Rice Blast Resistance Gene, Pid3, by Genomewide Comparison of Paired Nucleotide-Binding Site–Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes and Their Pseudogene Alleles Between the Two Sequenced Rice Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Junjun; Tao, Yong; Chen, Xuewei; Zou, Yan; Lei, Cailin; Wang, Jing; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xianfeng; Zhang, Meijun; Lu, Zhike; Xu, Jichen; Cheng, Zhukuan; Wan, Jianmin; Zhu, Lihuang

    2009-01-01

    Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases. The two major subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), indica and japonica, have shown obvious differences in rice blast resistance, but the genomic basis that underlies the difference is not clear. We performed a genomewide comparison of the major class of resistant gene family, the nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NBS–LRR) gene family, between 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica)...

  19. Genetic determinants of semi-dwarf characters induced in Oryza sativa for upland rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous semi-dwarf mutants have been obtained by applying gamma irradiation to tall upland varieties. They show better lodging resistance and retain their adaptation to upland cultivation conditions (MARIE, 1974). These mutants are also of interest as cross breeding parents. If the breeder knows the genes for semi-dwarfness, he can use different ones so as to avoid the risk of a narrow genetic base. Five induced mutants and one deviant from a sixth one, were used in this study. The semi-dwarf characters were analysed in two steps: Comparison of the stem morphology of the conventional varieties and of the induced mutants; Studying the behaviour of hybrid F1 and F2 segregations. Three types of genetic control for induced semi-dwarfness have been found on the basis of the six mutants used: A recessive single-gene determinant in IRAT 115; A recessive single-gene determinant different from the preceding one and common to IRAT 13, IRAT 177, IRAT 250 and IRAT 257; A semi-dominant single-gene determinant in IRAT 194. For his hybridization programme, the rice breeder therefore has at his disposal various upland semi-dwarf mutants, which are capable of transmitting this character in accordance with simple Mendelian rules. However, he has to test also their general cross breeding value. IRAT 13, from which most IRAT varieties released so far originated (including IRAT 104, IRAT 170 and IRAT 112), is undoubtedly a good parent. Mutants IRAT 177, IRAT 250 and IRAT 257, which have the same gene for semi-dwarfness, have been used more recently. They exhibit an excellent ability for combination with tall upland varieties, while being differentiated by a few features (better recombination for seed shedding or resistance to Pyricularia oryzae with IRAT 257 and for grain character with IRAT 177 or 250). The recombination observed in the crosses involving IRAT 115 and conventional upland varieties seems poor. Paradoxically, IRAT 115 has been found to become an excellent parent after

  20. Metabolomic quality control of commercial Asian ginseng, and cultivated and wild American ginseng using (1)H NMR and multi-step PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiying; Xu, Jin; Ghebrezadik, Helen; Hylands, Peter J

    2015-10-10

    Ginseng, mainly Asian ginseng and American ginseng, is the most widely consumed herbal product in the world . However, the existing quality control method is not adequate: adulteration is often seen in the market. In this study, 31 batches of ginseng from Chinese stores were analyzed using (1)H NMR metabolite profiles together with multi-step principal component analysis. The most abundant metabolites, sugars, were excluded from the NMR spectra after the first principal component analysis, in order to reveal differences contributed by less abundant metabolites. For the first time, robust, distinctive and representative differences of Asian ginseng from American ginseng were found and the key metabolites responsible were identified as sucrose, glucose, arginine, choline, and 2-oxoglutarate and malate. Differences between wild and cultivated ginseng were identified as ginsenosides. A substitute cultivated American ginseng was noticed. These results demonstrated that the combination of (1)H NMR and PCA is effective in quality control of ginseng. PMID:26037159

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality, and crop productivity from a mono-rice cultivation system as influenced by fallow season straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Hussain, Saddam; Wu, Lishu; Qin, Ziguo; Li, Xiaokun; Lu, Jianwei; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Straw management during fallow season may influence crop productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice field. A 3-year field experiment was carried out in central China to examine the influence of different fallow season straw management practices on rice yield, soil properties, and emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a mono-rice cultivation system. The treatments comprised an unfertilized control (CK), inorganic fertilization (NPK), rice straw burning in situ (NPK + RSB), rice straw mulching (NPK + RSM), and rice straw strip mulching with green manuring (NPK + RSM + GM). The maximum rice yield, soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and available potassium were observed in NPK + RSM + GM treatment. Compared with NPK, the NPK + RSM + GM recorded 9% higher grain yield averaged across 3 years. However, NPK + RSM and NPK + RSB were statistically similar with NPK regarding grain yield. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM recorded significantly higher CH4 emission during rice growing season as well as winter fallow; however, the response of N2O emissions was variable. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM were statistically similar for annual cumulative CH4 and N2O emissions. The NPK + RSM + GM recorded 103 and 72% higher straw-induced net economic benefits and soil organic carbon sequestration rate, and reduced net global warming potential by 27% as compared with NPK + RSM. Considering the benefits of soil fertility, higher crop productivity, and environmental safety, the NPK + RSM + GM could be the most feasible and sustainable option for mono-rice cultivation system in central China. PMID:26304808

  2. Mating Type Alleles,Female Fertility and Genetic Diversity of Magnaporthe grisea Populations Pathogenic to Rice from Some Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Joelle Milazzo; YUAN Xiao-ping; Henry Adreit; WANG Yan-li; Jean Loup Notteghem; Didier Tharreau

    2003-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-two isolates of Magnaporthe grisea isolated from rice in 5 Asian countries were characterized for their mating type by crossing them with 4 hermaphroditic isolates (KA3 and TH2: MAT1.1; Guy11 and TH-16: MAT1.2). Among them, 41% were MAT1.1 and 25% were MAT1.2.The remaining 34% did not produce perithecia with any of the 4 hermaphroditic testers. In Bangladesh, India,Nepal, Vietnam and in most provinces of China, both mating types were present. Only one mating type was found in 3 provinces and 1 city of China. Almost all the isolates had very low fertility, as they were in general female sterile and sometimes also male sterile. Hermaphroditic isolates were recovered from the 5 countries. In these countries, they represented between 13% and 75% of the isolates. In Zhejiang, Guizhou, Guangdong,Hunan, Yunnan and H-ubei provinces of China, hermaphroditic isolates represented between 6% and 67%.The genetic diversity of 143 isolates from these countries and provinces, where hermaphroditic isolates had been collected, was analyzed using SCAR markers. Genetic diversity was high and population structure did not resemble classical clonal structure described in most rice growing regions. The existence of sexual reproduction in the field, localization of a center of diversity in China, and migration between countries were discussed in this paper.

  3. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  4. From flooded to aerobic conditions in rice cultivation: consequences for zinc uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Zou, C.; Fan, X.; Zhang, F.S.; Hoffland, E.

    2006-01-01

    Scarcity of water causes a shift from flooded to aerobic conditions for rice production in zinc deficient areas in Northern China. This shift alters soil conditions that affect zinc availability to the crop. This paper concerns the effect of aerobic compared to flooded conditions on crop biomass pro

  5. Resequencing 50 accessions of cultivated and wild rice yields markers for identifying agronomically important genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Liu, Xin; Ge, Song; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Hu, Fengyi; Li, Xin; Dong, Yang; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Fang, Lin; Huang, Lei; Li, Jingxiang; He, Weiming; Zhang, Guojie; Zheng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Fumin; Li, Yingrui; Yu, Chang; Kristiansen, Karsten; Zhang, Xiuqing; Wang, Jian; Wright, Mark; McCouch, Susan; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    raw data coverage. We investigated genome-wide variation patterns in rice and obtained 6.5 million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding sites with missing data in any accession. Using these population SNP data, we identified thousands of genes with significantly lower...

  6. Practice of Factory Cultivation Technology for Mechanical Transplantation of Rice%水稻机插秧工厂化育秧技术实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠初; 姚林泉; 谢金元

    2015-01-01

    水稻工厂化育秧是水稻机插秧推广的关键配套技术。工厂化育秧从种子处理到生产管理实现全程机械化,使育秧达到了集约化、规格化、标准化,同时人工环境为培育机插秧所需求的壮秧创造了良好条件。工厂化育秧的技术要点是营养土准备、精量播种及肥水管理与病虫害防治,同时要特别注意控温、增光与通风等。%Factory cultivation of rice is a crucial supporting technology for the promotion of mechanical transplantation of rice.the process of factory cultivation of rice,from the processing of seeds to the achievement of the complete mechanization of production management,makes the cultivation become intensive,normalized and standardized,and the artificial environment creates sound conditions needed when cultivatingstrong seeding through mechanical transplantation. The important points of factory cultivation are the preparation of nutrient soil,proper and precise seeding and the management of nutrient water,control and prevention of diseases and pests,and attention shall be paid to the control on temperature,illumination and ventilation,etc.

  7. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  8. Voices from the marsh: Livelihood concerns of fishers and rice cultivators in the Alaotra wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Lala Jean Rakotoniaina; Rado Randriamihamina; Lala Hasina Rajaonarison; Jamieson A. Copsey

    2009-01-01

    Lake Alaotra is the largest lake on Madagascar and is a centre of rice and freshwater fish production. The lake and its wetland also provide important habitat for endemic wildlife. In 2003 the Alaotra wetland system was designated a Ramsar site and has subsequently been recognized as an official protected area by the Government of Madagascar. While community - based conservation initiatives have led to active involvement of some lakeside communities in the conservation of the aquatic system, ...

  9. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K Anitha; Torres, Rolando O; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-08-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity. PMID:27342311

  10. Identifying neutral allele Sb at pollen-sterility loci in cultivated rice with Oryza rufipogon origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LeiGang; LIU XiangDong; LIU Bo; ZHAO XingJuan; WANG Lan; LI JinQuan; LU YongGen

    2009-01-01

    Pollen sterility is commonly found in the intra-specific hybrids of indica and japonica rice, which is one of the main constrains for the utilization of heterosis between indica and japonica. Six loci controlling the pollen sterility of F1 between indica and japonica have been identified from previous studies. Neu-tral alleles at each locus are potential to overcome the F1 pollen sterility associated with the locus. Therefore, exploitation and utilization of neutral alleles are of significant importance. The present re-search was based on fine mapping of the F_1 pollen-sterility gene Sb and the abundant genetic diversity of Oryza rufipogon Griff. indigenous to Gaozhou, Guangdong Province (referred to as Gaozhou wild rice). Crosses were made using Taichung65 (with the genotype of S_b~jS_b~j and referred to as E_1) and its near-isogenic line of F_1 pollen sterility gene Sb(with the genotype of S_b~iS_b~i, E_2) as female parents, and 12 different accessions of Gaozhou wild rice as male parents. F_1 pollen fertility was examined to identify the materials having the neutral alleles at the F_1 pollen-sterility locus. Segregation of 4 molecular markers tightly linked with the Sb locus was analyzed in the F_2 populations derived from the F_1s car-rying the neutral gene. The pollen fertility related to the 3 genotypes of the molecular markers was also checked by statistical test to determine whether it was consistent with the hypothesis. The results showed that the pollen fertility of two F_1s from one accession of Gaozhou wild rice (GZW099) with E_1 and E_2 was (89.22±1.07)% and (85.65±1.05)%, respectively. Both of them were fertile and showed no significant difference by t-test. Segregation of the 3 genotypes of the 4 molecular markers followed the expected Mendelian ratio (1:2:1) in the F_2 populations. There was no significant difference for the av-eraged pollen fertility of the plants related to the 3 genotypes, suggesting that no interaction exists between the

  11. High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice after Cropping of Tobacco%建阳市烟后稻高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隆灿; 陈燕萍

    2013-01-01

    通过对建阳市烟后稻高产栽培方式的分析,介绍了建阳市烟后稻高产栽培模式的关键技术:选择适宜作烟后稻品种,培育壮苗,大田管理与病虫害防治等。%According to analysis of high-yielding cultivation techniques of rice after cropping of tobacco, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques after cropping of tobacco in this paper, which contained suitable rice varieties, breeding strong seedling, field management, and disease and insect control.

  12. Key Throwing-seedling Cultivation Techniques of Post-tobacco Super Rice%烟后超级稻抛秧栽培关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝清

    2012-01-01

    针对烟稻轮作和抛秧的特点,提出了烟后超级稻抛栽要因地制宜,选好稻种,合理安排播种期,采用塑料软盘培育壮秧,合理的抛栽密度,促控高产群体生长,病虫害综合防治等高产栽培技术。%According to the characteristics of tobacco-rice rotation and throwing-seedling, the paper put forward to some high-yielding cultivation techniques by throwing-seedling for post-tobacco super rice with adjusting measures to local conditions, such as selecting fine hybrid rice seed, arranging suitable sowing time, raising healthy and robust seedling based on plastic soft-plate with holes, reasonable planting density, accommodating high-yielding population growth, and the integration of pest control.

  13. Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, S.V.; Porter, S.D.; Demcheck, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of <0.5 ??g/L to selected aquatic macroinvertebrates. In streams draining basins with intensive rice cultivation in southwestern Louisiana, USA, concentrations of fipronil compounds were an order of magnitude larger than the LC50. The abundance (?? = -0.64; p = 0.015) and taxa richness (r2 = 0.515, p < 0.005) of macroinvertebrate communities declined significantly with increases in concentrations of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity. Macroinvertebrate community tolerance scores increased linearly (r2 = 0.442, p < 0.005) with increases in the percentage of rice cultivation in the basins, indicating increasingly degraded stream conditions. Similarly, macroinvertebrate community-tolerance scores increased rapidly as fipronil concentrations approached about 1 ??g/L. Pesticide toxicity index determinations indicated that aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to a gradient of fipronil compounds in water although stream size and habitat cannot be ruled out as contributing influences.

  14. Cultivating knowledge on seed systems and seed strategies: Case of the rice crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Moustapha Bèye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives key information about seed systems with the objective of helping countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA to design appropriate strategies based on their own local realities. It starts with an in-depth assessment of the rice seed sector and emphasizes the factors that can influence its development. These factors may be associated with the biological characteristics of the rice crop, the complexity of farming systems, the policy environment, and the markets. The historical background of the seed sector in SSA is described in order to give a clear picture of the different attempts to find solutions in different countries and sub-regions. Five major strategic models and several alternative seed strategies are identified. However, local traditional seed systems will remain the primary source of seed supply for the majority of farmers for many years to come. These systems are based on farmer-saved seed and farmer-to-farmer seed exchanges, which are efficient tools in seed dissemination and food security. It is time to recognize local traditional systems and their contribution to the maintenance of seed quality and crop diversity and to develop tools for their better utilization. The community-based seed system (CBSS is proposed as such a tool. CBSS encourages technicians to recognize local traditional seed systems and to build integrated seed approaches that take into consideration local realities and the socio-cultural dimension of seed within African communities. This will likely require a transition period of 5 to 10 years to build the fundamentals of sustainable seed systems through the structuring of the seed sector and the creation of appropriate conditions to ensure food security, enriched biodiversity and sustainable production. With climate change, local traditional seed systems, as well as integrated seed approaches, will likely play a more important role to improve the performance of agricultural systems while ensuring farmer

  15. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON RICE QUALITY-RETAINING CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES OF HIGH-QUALITY RICE VARIETIES%优质稻保优栽培技术的研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹黎明; 袁勤; 倪林娟; 吴月兰

    2001-01-01

    综述了温、光等环境因子和肥、水、病、虫等栽培因子对优质水稻品质形成的影响。阐述了在栽培中如何通过合理安排播种期、运筹肥水、防治病虫害等措施保持优质稻的优质特性。%Several environmental factors such as temperature and light and cultural factors such as fertilizers and water management and pest control which influence the formation of rice quality were reviewed. The authors also relate in the paper the hows of rationally fixing sowing date, operating fertilizer and water management and practicing pest control in cultivation of high-quality rice varieties with the aim of producing quality rice retaining good qualitative traits.

  16. A study of rice cultivation aimed at reducing biocide with increased yield by the regulation of micrometeorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of paddy rice (Oryza sativa) cultivation with reflective mulching materials as a tool of low input and high-yielding culture was examined. The albedo increased and water temperature in the daytime decreased by mulching of white styrofoam board or reflective film over the interrow space. Leaf area indexes in the mulching plots decreased as compared to the control plot due to the decline in leaf weight ratio and the increase in specific leaf weight. By mulching, the dry matter production at early growth stage increased in a year 1999 under relatively low sunshine but it tended to decrease in another year 2000 under intense sunshine, high temperature and low humidity. Furthermore, dry matter production in the latter half of growth tended to increase in both years, and the percentage of ripened grains elevated as well as the number of ripened grains. In both years, the grain yield increased about 10% and the damage due to grass leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) reduced, by mulching

  17. Allele Types ofRcGene of Weedy Rice from Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiao-yan; QIANGSheng; SONGXiao-ling; CAIKun; SUNYi-na; SHIZhi-hua; DAIWei-min

    2014-01-01

    Weedy rice(Oryza sativaf.spontanea), the predominant type of which has a red pericarp, seriously inhibits growth and yield of direct-seeded rice in Jiangsu Province, China. In this study, we randomly selected 10 weedy rice accessions from 10 plots in Jiangsu, and then sequenced the full lengths of theirRcgenes (approximately 6.4 kb). In addition, we collected 166 different full-lengthRc genes in theOryzagenus from the literature and from GenBank. A collinearity sequence analysis showed that the 10 weedy riceaccessions from Jiangsu all had the same wild-type allele of theRcgene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms indicated thatthe nucleotide polymorphisms (π= 0.19) and theproportion of segregation sites(θw= 0.28) of theRcgenes in the 10 weedy rice accessions from Jiangsu were higher than those in 56 weedy rice accessions from USA (π= 0.09 andθw= 0.07). Haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed thattheRcgenes of weedy rice accessions from Jiangsu were not revertants of therc gene found in Asian cultivated rice(O. sativa) varietieswith white pericarp. In addition,Rcgene sequences of the rice varieties Lvdao from Lianyungang, Jiangsu and Tangdao from Anhui were more similar to those of cultivated rice than to the weedy rice from Jiangsu. These findings support the continued quarantine of weedy rice and clarify the evolutionary mechanism of the red pericarp found in the weedy rice of Jiangsu.

  18. Genotypic Differences in Growth and Physiological Responses to Transplanting and Direct Seeding Cultivation in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song; CAI Sheng-guan; CHEN Xin; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2009-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted to investigate the growth and physiological responses of six super hybrid rice combinations to two planting methods, transplanting (TP) and direct seeding (DS) during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. The 1000-grain weight and number of tillers per plant at the early growth stage, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and transpiration rate (Tr) were higher in DS plants than in TP ones, whereas the grain yield, number of panicles per square meter, seed setting rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance were lower in DS plants. However, little difference was detected in number of grains per panicle, stem (shoot) and leaf weight between the combinations in the two planting methods. The responses of plant growth and physiological traits to planting method differed greatly among the six combinations. In both planting methods, Chouyou 58 and Yongyou 6 had the highest and lowest panicle biomass and Pn, respectively. The higher yield of Chunyou 58 was associated with more numbers of panicles per square meter and grains per panicle in both planting methods. The results indicate that lower grain yield in DS relative to TP is attributed to more excessive tillers at the early stage, lower leaf biomass and photosynthetic rate at the late stage.

  19. Effects of Land Management Practices on Labile Organic Carbon Fractions in Rice Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jing'an; LI Yangbing; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti

    2009-01-01

    A research trial with four land management practices, I.e., traditional tillage-fallow (TTF), traditional till-age-wheat (TTW), conservation tillage-fallow (CTF) and conservation tillage-wheat (CTW), was sampled in the 15th year after its establishment to assess the effects of different management practices on labile organic carbon fractions (LOCFs), such as easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in a typical paddy soil, Chongqing, Southwest China. The results indi-cated that LOCFs were significantly influenced by the combination of no-tillage, ridge culture and crop rotation. And,different combination patterns showed different effectiveness on soil LOCFs. The effects of no-tillage, ridge culture and wheat cultivation on EOC, DOC, POC and MBC mainly happened at 0-10cm. At this depth, soil under CTW had higher EOC, DOC, POC and MBC contents, compared to TTF, TTW and CTF, respectively. Moreover, the contents of LOCFs for different practices generally decreased when the soil depth increased. Our findings suggest that the paddy soil in Southwest China could be managed to concentrate greater quantities of EOC, DOC, POC and MBC.

  20. Biodiversity of Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood Mason) from five countries examined by AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, S K; Chandel, G; Tan, Y; Zhang, Y; Huang, B; Nugaliyadde, L; Fernando, K; Bentur, J S; Inthavong, S; Constantino, S; Bennett, J

    2000-04-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to assess the biodiversity of one of the most important dipteran pests of cereals, the Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood Mason). Larvae and pupae were collected at 15 locations in five Asian countries and preserved in 95% ethanol for storage, shipment, and DNA extraction using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Although only approximately 1 microg of DNA was extracted from a single pupa or larva, the use of several AFLP primers in various combinations meant that this amount of DNA was sufficient to allow many DNA fingerprints to be made per individual. Fingerprints were sufficiently reproducible, especially during selective amplification, to allow the genetic diversity within a field population to be characterized. Extraction of DNA from a pool of 20 insects yielded AFLP fingerprints in which variation among individuals was sacrificed in favor of detecting differences among populations. For each location, pooled DNA was amplified with three primer pairs. A total of 261 distinct AFLP bands were identified for the 45 fingerprints. Cluster analysis, performed by the unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA), separated the populations into two distinct groups. Group I included two populations from Guangdong province of southern China and one each from Laos and Imphal in northeastern India, while group II was comprised of eleven populations from elsewhere in India (Assam, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala) and from Nepal and Sri Lanka. AFLP analysis provided insight into the origins of gall midge biotypes. In 1992, the prevailing biotype in Imphal changed from Indian biotype 3 to a new biotype 3M. Our data show that biotype 3M belongs to group I and did not arise by a recent mutation from biotype 3, which belongs to group II. By contrast, Indian biotypes 2 and 4 are likely to have diverged through recent mutation and selection, as are Chinese biotypes 1 and 4. The almost

  1. On-farm Conservation of Landraces of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) through Cultivation in the Kumaun Region of Indian Central Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Himalayan region is a known hot spot of crop diversity. Traditional varieties (usually called primitive cultivars or landraces), having withstood the rigors of time (including harsh climatic conditions as well as attacks of insects, pests and diseases), can still be found in crop fields in rural parts of Indian Central Himalaya (ICH). These landraces harbor many desired traits from which, for example, varieties that are tolerant/resistant to abiotic/biotic stresses could be developed. In addition to the above benefits,landraces provide a basis for food security and a more varied and interesting diet. Some landraces are also known to be of medicinal value. These, along with some lesser known hill crops, are often referred to by different names such as under exploited crops, crops for marginal lands, poor person crops, and neglected mountain crops. The Himalayan region continues to be a reservoir of a large number of landraces and cultivars whose economic and ecological potential is yet to be fully understood and/or exploited. Indians have had a history of rice cultivation since ancient times. Farmers, including tribals inhabiting the IHR, still cultivate a plethora of landraces of rice and thus directly contribute towardson-farm conservation of valuable germplasm and help in the preservation of crop diversity. The present paper looks at the on-farm conservation of rice germplasm, which is still practised in the Kumaun region of ICH.

  2. Review paper on the production trials of rice-cum fish culture - a transferable concept into Niger State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yaro, I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the production trials of rice-cum-fish culture. Rice and various fish species using rotation and concurrent methods of cultivation are used. The farming system is mostly practiced and researched in to in Southeast Asian countries. It addresses the problems of high external inputs, sustainable aquaculture, poverty and nutrition in the rural population, insect pests, use of insecticides, weeds control and under-utilization of agricultural lands. The production trials yields a...

  3. Effects of N loading rate on CH4 and N2O emissions during cultivation and fallow periods from forage rice fields fertilized with liquid cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riya, S; Zhou, S; Kobara, Y; Sagehashi, M; Terada, A; Hosomi, M

    2015-09-15

    The use of liquid cattle waste (LCW) as a fertilizer for forage rice is important for material recycling because it can promote biomass production, and reduce the use of chemical fertilizer. Meanwhile, increase in emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially CH4 and N2O would be concerned. We conducted a field study to determine the optimum loading rate of LCW as N to promote forage rice growth with lower GHG emissions. The LCW was applied to forage rice fields, N100, N250, N500, and N750, at four different N loading rates of 107, 258, 522, and 786 kg N ha(-1), respectively, including 50 kg N ha(-1) of basal chemical fertilizer. The above-ground biomass yields increased 14.6-18.5 t ha(-1) with increases in N loading rates. During the cultivation period, both the CH4 and N2O fluxes increased with increases in LCW loading rates. In the treatments of N100, N250, N500, and N750, the cumulative CH4 emissions during the entire period, including cultivation and fallow period were 29.6, 18.1, 54.4, and 67.5 kg C ha(-1), respectively, whereas those of N2O were -0.15, -0.02, 1.49, and 5.82 kg N ha(-1), respectively. Considering the greenhouse gas emissions and above-ground biomass, the yield-scaled CO2-equivalents (CO2-eqs) were 66.3, 35.9, 161, and 272 kg CO2 t(-1) for N100, N250, N500, and N750, respectively. These results suggest that N250 is the most appropriate LCW loading rate for promoting forage rice production with lower GHG emissions. PMID:26164270

  4. 天优华占在建阳市作烟后稻种植表现及栽培技术%Planting Performance and Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice Combination Tianyouhuazhan as Post-tobacco Rice at Jianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祠平

    2014-01-01

    天优华占是由中国水稻研究所、中国科学院与发育生物研究所和广东省农业科学院水稻研究所利用天丰A×华占选育而成的籼型三系交杂水稻新品种,于2008年通过国家农作物品种审定。介绍了2011-2012年天优华占在建阳市作烟后稻种植表现及栽培技术。%A new hybrid rice combination, Tianyouhuazhan, was developed from the cross of a CMS line Tianfeng A and a restorer line Huazhan by China National Rice Research Institute, Institute of Developmental Biology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Rice Institute of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It was released by nation in 2008. This paper introduced its planting performance and cultivation techniques planted as post-tobacco rice at Jianyang city in 2011-2012.

  5. Estimation of Efficiency, Sustainability and Constraints in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) vis-a-vis Traditional Methods of Paddy Cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, I.V.Y. Rama

    2011-01-01

    The study has assessed the economics and sustainability of SRI (system of rice intensification) and traditional methods of paddy cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh for the period 2008-09, based on the data of costs and returns of crop. Apart from budgeting techniques, benefit-cost ratio (BCR), yield gap analysis, sustainability index and response priority index have been employed in the study. It has shown that BCR is higher for SRI (1.76) than traditional (1.25) methods. Fur...

  6. Integrated resource management improves soil glucosidase, urease, and phosphatase activities and soil fertility during rice cultivation in Indo-Gangetic plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa L. without compromising yield is an emerging challenge. Field experiments were conducted at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of tillage, irrigation regimes, and integrated nutrient management practices on the soil enzymatic and microbial activities. The soil glucosidase (67.35% and urease (106.75% increased under conservation tillage compared with conventional tillage; largest increase was observed when a combination of 50% farm yard manure + 25% biofertilizer + 25% green manure (GM was used in place of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN or when 25% RDN was replaced with biofertilizer or GM as nutrients in combination with conservation tillage and optimum water supply (three-irrigations with a few exceptions. The present study has suggested that resource management practices significantly improved soil enzymatic and microbial activities under conservation tillage and optimal water supply which reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizers and make rice cultivation sustainable.

  7. Rice Cultivation Methods and Their Sustainability Aspects: Organic and Conventional Rice Production in Industrialized Tropical Monsoon Asia with a Dual Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Options to tackle the sustainability challenges faced in the production of rice, including global and local environmental perspectives, need to be discussed. Here, the global warming potential, water consumption and cumulative energy demand were analyzed using a life-cycle assessment to highlight the sustainability aspects of rice production in Taiwan, where a mixed organic and conventional rice production with a dual cropping system is practiced. The results show that the conventional farming method practiced in Houbi district contributes less to global warming and annual water consumption and consumes less energy than the organic method practiced in Luoshan village on a grain weight basis. It is also more lucrative for farmers because of the higher rice yield. Considering the yield ratio based on the data from two districts, the regional characteristics are more responsible for these differences. Giving up dual cropping to avail water to other sectors by fallowing during the second cropping season is preferable from the GHG emission and productivity perspectives. However, because water shortages usually occur in the first cropping season, it is more realistic to fallow during the first cropping season when domestic and other industrial users have the higher priority. The results presented here can serve as the foundation for exploring the possibilities of options, such as new biorefinery technologies and water allocation policies, in relation to influences on GHG emissions and the national self-sufficiency of rice.

  8. Rice seeding-raising techniques by factorized cultivation for machinery transplanting%水稻工厂化机插育秧技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠宗

    2015-01-01

    水稻工厂化机插育秧技术是利用机械化生产线精量播种,采用温室和大棚控制水、肥、土、温、湿、气等条件的一种规模化育秧方式。该文着重从水稻品种搭配、利用相关配套设备进行催芽、营养土的配制、流水线播种作业及秧苗管理等方面总结了水稻工厂化机插育秧技术。%Rice seeding-raising techniques by factorized cultivation for machinery transplanting is a scale seedling-raising method which using mechanized production line of precise sowing,and controlling water,fertilizer,soil,temperature,hu-midity,air and other conditions in greenhouse and plastic house,. This paper summarized the rice seeding-raising tech-niques,including rice variety collocation,using relevant corollary equipment for stimulating germination,nutritive soil prepa-ration,pipeline sowing operation and seedling management.

  9. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  10. Towards higher nitrogen efficiency in European rice cultivation. A case study for the Camargue, South of France.

    OpenAIRE

    Stutterheim, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses on an increase in the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen in irrigated, direct seeded rice. Three indicators for efficiency were used: agronomic efficiency, utilization efficiency and recovery. Experiments were conducted in the Camargue in the South of France, to quantify these indicators for standard non-coated prilled urea under conventional management of irrigated rice. The results were compared to those derived from data originating from other surveys within the Mediterra...

  11. Evaluation of Nitrogen and Potassium Uptake and Efficiency of Two Rice Varieties Cultivated on an Acid Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajarutulwardah M. Yusob

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot study was carried with the following objectives: (i To investigate N and K uptake of MR 220 and ARC 2 rice varieties grown on Bekenu series (Tipik Tualemkuts, and (ii To investigate N and K use efficiency of MR 220 and ARC 2 grown on Bekenu series. Treatments evaluated were: (i MR 220 and ARC 2 under fertilized condition (T1, and (ii MR 220 and ARC 2 under unfertilized condition (T0. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. Altogether 24 pots were used having a completely randomized design (CRD with 6 replications (for each treatment and each variety. Nitrogen and K were applied in the forms of urea (46 % N and muriate of potash (60 % K2O for the two varieties. For T1 of MR 220, N, K, and P were applied at the rates of 4.0 g N, 1.10 g K2O and 2.13 g P2O5 per pot, respectively in split. In the case of T1 of ARC 2, N, K, and P rates used were 1.30 g N, 0.8 g K2O, and 1.70 g P2O5 per pot, respectively in split. At 65 days (ARC 2 and 70 days (MR 220 after planting, plants were sampled and partitioned into roots and stem, and their dry weight, N, and K concentrations determined using standard procedures. Soil sampling was done before and after fertilization. Soil total N was determined using the Kjeldahl method while exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na were extracted by the double acid method and their concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The dry ashing method was used for the determination of K, Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in plant tissues while the Kjeldahl method was used to determine total N in plant tissues. The concentrations multiplied by the oven dried weight of roots and stem provided N, K, Ca, Mg and Na uptake in these plant parts. The N and K use efficiency was then calculated using the subtraction method. With the exception of Ca, urea and KCl application significantly increased soil N, K, Mg, and Na concentrations. Application of K

  12. Effects of Different Cultivation Modes on Yield and Nitrogen Absorption of Double Cropping Super Rice%不同栽培模式对双季超级稻产量及氮素吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪鑫; 黄大山; 熊多根; 程飞虎; 袁展汽; 曹开蔚; 黄雪花

    2012-01-01

    以超级早稻春光1号和超级晚稻淦鑫688为材料,采用抛秧方式,研究了不同栽培模式对其产量及氮素吸收的影响.结果表明,早晚稻的产量均以三高一保栽培模式和精确定量栽培模式>三控栽培模式>常规栽培模式.三高一保栽培模式的有效穗数、成穗率、结实率和千粒重均较高,而精确定量栽培模式的有效穗数最高,但成穗率较低.与常规栽培模式相比,精确定量模式、三高一保模式和三控栽培模式可提高双季超级稻的生物产量、氮素积累总量和氮素利用率.三高一保栽培模式明显降低了生产100 kg籽粒的需氮量.%Using super early rice variety Chunguang No. 1 and super late rice variety Ganxin 688 as experimental materials, the author studied the effects of different cultivation modes on the yield and nitrogen absorption of rice, which was transplanted by seedling - throwing mode. The results showed that the yield of both early rice and late rice cultivated by different modes had the following order : precise and quantitative cultivation mode ( PQCM) and three - high and one - guarantee cultivation mode ( THOGCM) > three -control cultivation mode ( TCCM ) > conventional cultivation mode ( CCM) . The number of effective spike, ear - bearing percentage, setting rate and 1000 - grain weight of rice in treatment THOGCM were higher. The effective spike number of rice in treatment PQCM was maximum, but its ear - bearing percentage was lower. In comparison with CCM, the PQCM, THOGCM and TCCM could enhance the biomass, total nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen utilization rate of double cropping super rice, and THOGCM obviously reduced the nitrogen requirement for 100 kg grain production.

  13. Mechanisms of production and emission of methane in rice fields. Impact of fertilization and cultivated species; Mechanismen der Produktion und Emission von Methan in Reisfeldern. Abhaengigkeit von Feldduengung und angebauter Varietaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    1993-12-31

    Methane emissions from rice fields are a significant source (approx. 20%) of atmospheric methane. Laboratory tests and field tests have shown that throughout the entire vegetation period, more than 80% of the total methane emissions from rice fields in Italy were released by the aerating tissue of the rice plant. The amount of methane emissions has been found to depend on the rice species cultivated, and on fertilization. Additional studies into the gas transport capability of the aerenchyma of the rice plants show a clear correlation between highest diffusion resistance of the aerenchyma of a given rice plant, and lowest methane emissions measured in the rice species. This is a result that opens up new possibilities of reducing methane emissions from rice fields. (orig.) [Deutsch] Methan-Emissionen aus Reisfeldern sind eine signifikante Quelle (ca. 20%) fuer atmosphaerisches Methan. In Labor- und Freilandexperimenten konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass waehrend der Vegetationsperiode ueber 80% der Gesamt-Methan-Emissionen aus italienischen Reisfeldern ueber das Aerenchymsystem der Reispflanze erfolgt. Die Hoehe der Methan-Emission war von der angebauten Reisvarietaet und der Feldduengung abhaengig. Ergaenzende Untersuchungen zur Gaswegigkeit des Aerenchymsystems der Reispflanze zeigten, dass die Reisvarietaet mit den groessten Diffusionswiderstaenden des Aerenchymsystems auch die niedrigsten Methan-Emissionsraten aufwies. Dieses Ergebnis eroeffnet neue Moeglichkeiten zur Reduktion der Methan-Emissionen aus Reisfeldern. (orig.)

  14. Allelic Diversification at the C (OsC1) Locus of Wild and Cultivated Rice: Nucleotide Changes Associated With Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Kumi; Onishi, Kazumitsu; Mikami, Ichiho; Thidar, Khin; Sano, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Divergent phenotypes are often detected in domesticated plants despite the existence of invariant phenotypes in their wild forms. One such example in rice is the occurrence of varying degrees of apiculus coloration due to anthocyanin pigmentation, which was previously reported to be caused by a series of alleles at the C locus. The present study reveals, on the basis of comparison of its maps, that the C gene appears to be the rice homolog (OsC1) of maize C1, which belongs to the group of R2R...

  15. Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of 50. The abundance (ρ = -0.64; p = 0.015) and taxa richness (r2 = 0.515, p 2 = 0.442, p < 0.005) with increases in the percentage of rice cultivation in the basins, indicating increasingly degraded stream conditions. Similarly, macroinvertebrate community-tolerance scores increased rapidly as fipronil concentrations approached about 1 μg/L. Pesticide toxicity index determinations indicated that aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to a gradient of fipronil compounds in water although stream size and habitat cannot be ruled out as contributing influences. - Aquatic macroinvertebrate commmunities in southwestern Louisiana streams respond to a gradient of fipronil compounds in water

  16. Efficient Cultivation Techniques of Red Scented Rice and Strawberry%南方红香稻-草莓高效栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃慧玲

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation mode of south red scented rice and strawberry was introduced,which including sowing date arrangement,sowing date variety selection,moisture and fertilization management,prevention and control of diseases and pests,and timely harvest,as a reference to guide the planting structure adjustment,which had the vital significance for promoting farmers’fruit grain plumpness’.%介绍南方红香稻要草莓粮经高效栽培模式,包括播期安排、良种选择、水肥运筹、病虫防控与适时收获等,对指导种植业结构调整,带动农民“粮果双增”具有重要的意义。

  17. Comparison of pooled standard deviation and standardized-t bootstrap methods for estimating uncertainty about average methane emission from rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Namgoo; Jung, Min-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Yung-Seop

    2015-06-01

    The general sample standard deviation and the Monte-Carlo methods as an estimate of confidence interval is frequently being used for estimates of uncertainties with regard to greenhouse gas emission, based on the critical assumption that a given data set follows a normal (Gaussian) or statistically known probability distribution. However, uncertainty estimated using those methods are severely limited in practical applications where it is challenging to assume the probability distribution of a data set or where the real data distribution form appears to deviate significantly from statistically known probability distribution models. In order to solve these issues encountered especially in reasonable estimation of uncertainty about the average of greenhouse gas emission, we present two statistical methods, the pooled standard deviation method (PSDM) and the standardized-t bootstrap method (STBM) based upon statistical theories. We also report interesting results of the uncertainties about the average of a data set of methane (CH4) emission from rice cultivation under the four different irrigation conditions in Korea, measured by gas sampling and subsequent gas analysis. Results from the applications of the PSDM and the STBM to these rice cultivation methane emission data sets clearly demonstrate that the uncertainties estimated by the PSDM were significantly smaller than those by the STBM. We found that the PSDM needs to be adopted in many cases where a data probability distribution form appears to follow an assumed normal distribution with both spatial and temporal variations taken into account. However, the STBM is a more appropriate method widely applicable to practical situations where it is realistically impossible with the given data set to reasonably assume or determine a probability distribution model with a data set showing evidence of fairly asymmetric distribution but severely deviating from known probability distribution models.

  18. Towards higher nitrogen efficiency in European rice cultivation. A case study for the Camargue, South of France.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses on an increase in the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen in irrigated, direct seeded rice. Three indicators for efficiency were used: agronomic efficiency, utilization efficiency and recovery. Experiments were conducted in the Camargue in the South of France, to quantify these indi

  19. Method development for the determination of iron in milligram amounts of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) from cultivation experiments using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcia M.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Damin, Isabel C. Ferreira [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), 88040-900, Florianopolis SC (Brazil); Mandaji, Marcos; Fett, Janette P. [Departamento de Botanica e Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre RS (Brazil)

    2003-09-01

    The amount of sample that is available for analysis in laboratory plant cultivation experiments is usually very limited. Highly sensitive analytical techniques are therefore required, even for elements that are present in the plants at mg g{sup -1} concentrations, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was chosen in this work because of its micro-sampling capability, and its relatively simple operation. Four micro-methods were investigated for the determination of iron in roots and leaves of rice plants: (i) a micro-digestion with nitric and hydrochloric acids, (ii) a slurry procedure using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) tissue solubilizer, (iii) a slurry prepared in 1.4 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid, and treated in an ultrasonic bath, and (iv) the direct analysis of solid samples. The micro-digestion was suffering from high blank values and contamination problems, so that it could not be recommended for routine purposes. The TMAH method exhibited poor precision and occasional low recoveries, particularly for real samples. Direct solid sampling analysis gave results similar to those obtained with the slurry technique with ultrasonic agitation for the determination of iron in certified reference materials with iron content up to about 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}, but was too sensitive for the investigated rice plants, which had an iron content up to several mg g{sup -1}. The slurry technique with ultrasonic treatment of the samples, suspended in dilute nitric acid, was finally adopted as the method of choice. The method was then applied for the determination of iron in the leaves and in different compartments of the roots of two rice cultivars, one sensitive to iron toxicity, an important nutritional disorder, and the other one resistant to iron toxicity. The results suggest that the higher resistance to iron toxicity of the second cultivar is due to a smaller uptake of iron from the soil, resulting in lower iron levels in all compartments of the

  20. Between Archaeology and Text: The Origins of Rice Consumption and Cultivation in the Middle East and the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshkumar Muthukumaran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic Rice 'Oryza sativa' L. (Poaceae is a domesticated grain crop native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, which presently ranks among the most important grains in a global diet. 'Oryza sativa' is comprised of two distinct phylogenetic subspecies, namely 'japonica' and 'indica', for which genetic evidence indicates at least two centres of domestication: the Lower Yangtze valley for the broad thick-grained japonica (c. 4000 BC and the Gangetic basin for the thin elongated indica variety (c. 2500 BC (Fuller et al 2010; idem 2011; Nesbitt et al 2010: 325–7. Modern genetics of landraces from northeast India may indicate a third distinct origin for the so-called 'aus' rice varieties (Londo et al 2006: 9581–2. The genetic history of this taxon is further complicated by post-domestication hybridisation between domesticates and their wild ancestors as well as the presence of rarer forms like the aromatic rice varieties ('basmati' in South Asia and 'sadri' from Iran which may be of independent origin (Nesbitt et al 2010: 324–5. In South Asia domesticated rice is attested at various archaeological sites in the Ganges basin from the mid-3rd millennium BC onwards. It subsequently appears at mature and late Harappan levels in north-western India (c. 2000 BC before arriving at the edge of the eastern Iranian plateau at Pirak on the north Kachi plain in the early 2nd millennium BC (Costantini 1981; Fuller 2006: 36; Sato 2005. The presence of rice at Pirak heralds its gradual westward movement along the Iranian plateau via overland and perhaps even coastal routes into western Iran and Mesopotamia.

  1. The use of 32P Method to Evaluate the Growth of Lowland Rice Cultivated in a System of Rice Intensification (SRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Citraresmini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment has been conducted to evaluate the growth of the Dyah Suci, a lowland rice variety, in an SRI (System of Rice Intensification planting system. The phosphorus-32 (32P isotope technique was used to evaluate the growth of plants in relation with their phosphorus uptake. The uptake was assumed to vary in the same direction as the growth of the plant. The 32P uptake is assumed to vary in the opposite direction to the plant’s total phosphorus uptake. Here the 32P uptake is expressed in count per minutes (cpm which is then transformed to disintegration per minute (dpm. The results show that, in terms of promoting the plant’s uptake of phosphorus, the SRI planting system is superior to the conventional planting system, and it is manifested in the higher dry weight of straw and grain. From this experiment it is concluded that the 32P method can be used satisfactorily as a tool for explaining the relation between P-uptake and plant growth

  2. Assessing impacts of alternative fertilizer management practices on both nitrogen loading and greenhouse gas emissions in rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Yue, Yubo; Sha, Zhimin; Li, Changsheng; Deng, Jia; Zhang, Hanlin; Gao, Maofang; Cao, Linkui

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice fields contaminate water bodies and atmospheric environment. A 2-year (2012-2013) field experiment was conducted at a typical paddy rice field in a rural suburb of Shanghai, China. N losses and GHG emissions from the paddy field with alternative fertilizer management practices were simultaneously measured. Four treatments were tested in the experiment: applications of only chemical synthetic fertilizer urea (CT), only organic manure (OT), a combination of the two types of fertilizers (MT) and a control (CK). Results from the field study indicated that CT produced the highest seasonal N loading rate (18.79 kg N/ha) and N2O emissions (1.81 kg N2O/ha) but with the lowest seasonal CH4 emissions (69.09 kg CH4/ha). With organic manure applied, MT and OT respectively reduced N loading by 21.86% and 30.41%, reduced N2O emissions by 28.34% and 69.41%, but increased CH4 emissions by 137% and 310% in comparison with CT. However, the net impact of CH4 and N2O emissions on global warming was enhanced when organic manure was applied. In addition, CT and MT produced the optimal rice yield during the experimental period, while OT treatment led to a yield reduction by 9.29% compared with CT. In conclusion, the impacts of alternative fertilizer management practices on ecosystem services ought to be assessed specifically due to the great variations across rice yields, N loss and GHG emissions.

  3. Manejo de água e de fertilizante potássico na cultura de arroz irrigado Water and potassium fertilization management for irrigated rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Baêta dos Santos

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da água de irrigação e as doses e épocas de aplicação de fertilizantes tornam-se aspectos de extrema importância no êxito do aproveitamento das várzeas para o cultivo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. irrigado ou este seguido de outras espécies. Com o objetivo de comparar distintas formas de manejo de água e de fertilizante potássico no comportamento do arroz irrigado, foram conduzidos experimentos por três anos consecutivos, em um Inceptissolo. Foram estudados os efeitos de manejo de água (MA1 - inundação contínua e MA2 - inundação intermitente seguida de contínua e o modo de aplicação de fertilizante potássico (K1 - na semeadura; K2 - parcelada e K3 - meia dose parcelada. O manejo de água apresentou efeito mais expressivo sobre o comportamento do arroz que o do fertilizante potássico. A inundação contínua durante todo o ciclo da cultura proporcionou maiores rendimentos de grãos, expressando maiores valores dos parâmetros produtivos, e melhorou a qualidade industrial dos grãos. Com esta irrigação, o parcelamento da adubação potássica aumentou o aproveitamento do fertilizante. Os manejos do fertilizante potássico afetaram diferentemente o comportamento da cultura do arroz nas distintas formas de manejo de água.Irrigation water levels and timing of potassium fertilization is extremely important for the use of lowlands for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivation in crop rotation. A field experiment was conduced for three consecutive years in Inceptisol to study the effects of water management (WM1 - continuous flooding and WM2 - intermittent flooding followed continuous flooding and mode of potassium fertilizer application (K1 - at sowing; K2 - fractional application and K3 - fractional application of half levels on grain yield and yield components of irrigated rice. Water management presented expressive effect on rice performance as compared to potassium fertilization. Continuous flooding during whole

  4. Characteristic and high-yielding cultivative technique of semilate hybrid rice cultivar Ganyoumingzhan%赣优明占特征特性及其高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新珠

    2012-01-01

    该文介绍了赣优明占在武夷山市试种表现及栽培技术,其中栽培技术包括适时播种移栽、合理密植、水肥管理和病虫害防治。%Field performance and cultivation techniques of semilate hybrid rice cultivar Ganyoumingzhan in Wuyishan city were introduced in this paper.The cultivation techniques including timely sowing and transplanting,planting in rational density,fertilizer and water management,insect and disase control.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF TRANSPLANTED SCENTED RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) UNDER SRI BASED CULTIVATION PRACTICES; A SUSTAINABLE METHOD FOR CROP PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    DAMINI THAWAIT; Patel, Amit K.; SAMAPTIKA KAR; MANISH KUMAR SHARMA; MAYUR R. MESHRAM

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the performance of transplanted scented rice under different planting geometries and seedling densities. The treatment (T2 ) i.e. planting of 2-3 seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm x 25 cm recorded significantly highest i.e. Plant height (129.64cm), number of tillers (15.70 tillers hill-1), dry matter accumulation (102.65 g hill-1) and yield attributing characters along with highest gr...

  6. GENE FLOW BETWEEN RED RICE AND CULTIVATED RICE ESTIMATED BY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS FLUXO GÊNICO ENTRE ARROZ VERMELHO E ARROZ CULTIVADO ESTIMADO POR MEIO DE MARCADORES MICROSSATÉLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco , Moura Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The study aimed to evaluate the capacity of SSR markers to detect the gene flow between the red rice (RR and the cultivated rice (CR. SSR is currently used in plant genomic analysis due to the high information content, to be co-dominant, and based on the PCR reaction. The field experiment was organized in ten concentric circles, 5 m to 50 m apart from a central red rice plant, assumed as the pollen donor. One hundred twenty rice CR plants, cv. BR-Irga 409, were planted in the intersections of the concentric circles and the twelve radii. From 51 SSR markers, four were selected due to their capacity to detect the polymorphism between RR and CR, aiming to identify RR alleles in seeds produced by BR-Irga 409 plants. The maximum distance found for gene flow between RR and CR plants was 10 m from the RR plant. In theory, at 0.1% cross pollination rate, this distance can generate 4,710 hybrids between RR and CR. In the next generation, about 3,532 plants would produce exclusively rice grains with red color. The SSR markers were able to identify the gene flow between RR and CR; therefore, they can be useful to increase the precision of cross pollination rate estimates in rice, mainly if used with other methodologies (e.g., herbicide tolerant plants.

    KEY WORDS: Cross pollination; microsatellite markers; Oryza sativa.

    Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de marcadores SSR em detectar a ocorrência de fluxo gênico entre o arroz vermelho (AV e o arroz cultivado (AC. Marcadores SSR são utilizados em análise genômica de plantas devido ao alto conteúdo informativo, serem co-dominantes e baseados na reação de PCR. O ensaio de campo foi realizado em dez círculos concêntricos de 5 m a 50 m de distância, a partir de uma planta AV central, que foi a fonte

  7. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  8. Field Performance and High-yield Cultivation Technique of Hybrid Rice New Combination Yongyou9%杂交稻新组合“甬优9号”种植表现及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林品贵

    2011-01-01

    2009年福鼎市引进甬优9号籼粳交晚稻新品种,连续两年试种表现高产、稳产,稻米品质优;但中感稻瘟病、白叶枯病,易感基腐病、稻曲病、稻飞虱,熟期耐寒性较粳稻弱,较感青枯病。栽培上应注意种子消毒,培育壮秧,大田插足基本苗,加强肥水管理,以及病虫害防治,确保丰产稳产。%Yongyou9,a new later rice cultivar of indica-japoniea hybridization,was introduced to Fuding City in 2009.The results of a two-year trial experiment showed that the rice performed high and stable in yield and good grain quality.However,it was moderately susceptible to rice blast and bacterial blight disease,and susceptible to basal rot,rice false smut and rice planthopper.At maturity stage,it showed weaker in cold tolerance and more susceptible to bacterial wilt than japonica rice.In order to ensure high and stable yield,the cultivation technique of Yongyou9 should pay attention on seed sterilization,fostering strong seedling,transplanting enough basic seedling,strengthening fertilizer and water management and timely insect disease control.

  9. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Hemicellulose Characteristics Based on Cell Wall Composition in a Wild and Cultivated Rice Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Ju Zhang; Xue-Qin Song; Bai-Sheng Yu; Bao-Cai Zhang; Chuan-Qing Sun; J. Paul Knox; Yi-Hua Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall hemicellulosic polysaccharides are structurally complex and diverse.Knowledge about the synthesisof cell wall hemicelluloses and their biological roles is limited.Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a helpful tool for the dissection of complex phenotypes for gene identification.In this study,we exploited the natural variation in cell wall monosaccharide levels between a common wild rice,Yuanj,and an elite indica cultivar,Teqing,and performed QTL mapping with their introgression lines (ILs).Chemical analyses conducted on the culms of Yuanj and Teqing showed that the major alterations are found in glucose and xylose levels,which are correlated with specific hemicellulosic polymers.Glycosidic linkage examination revealed that,in Yuanj,an increase in glucose content results from a higher level of mixed linkage β-glucan (MLG),whereas a reduction in xylose content reflects a low level of xylan backbone and a varied arabinoxylan (AX) structure.Seventeen QTLs for monosaccharides have been identified through composition analysis of the culm residues of 95 core ILs.Four major QTLs affecting xylose and glucose levels are responsible for 19 and 21% of the phenotypic variance,respectively.This study provides a unique resource for the genetic dissection of rice cell wall formation and remodeling in the vegetative organs.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (pcultivation when compared to a control treatment. Subsequent measurements will be necessary to further quantify and assess the mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices

  11. PERFORMANCE OF TRANSPLANTED SCENTED RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. UNDER SRI BASED CULTIVATION PRACTICES; A SUSTAINABLE METHOD FOR CROP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMINI THAWAIT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the performance of transplanted scented rice under different planting geometries and seedling densities. The treatment (T2 i.e. planting of 2-3 seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm x 25 cm recorded significantly highest i.e. Plant height (129.64cm, number of tillers (15.70 tillers hill-1, dry matter accumulation (102.65 g hill-1 and yield attributing characters along with highest grain yield i.e. 38.20 q/ha and straw yield ( 77.91 q/ha. Therefore its adoption protects the ecosystem as well as increasing production also.

  12. The ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism in East Asian populations and expansion of rice domestication in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Hua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of agriculture about 10,000 years ago marks a dramatic change in human evolutionary history. The diet shift in agriculture societies might have a great impact on the genetic makeup of Neolithic human populations. The regionally restricted enrichment of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase sequence polymorphism (ADH1BArg47His in southern China and the adjacent areas suggests Darwinian positive selection on this genetic locus during Neolithic time though the driving force is yet to be disclosed. Results We studied a total of 38 populations (2,275 individuals including Han Chinese, Tibetan and other ethnic populations across China. The geographic distribution of the ADH1B*47His allele in these populations indicates a clear east-to-west cline, and it is dominant in south-eastern populations but rare in Tibetan populations. The molecular dating suggests that the emergence of the ADH1B*47His allele occurred about 10,000~7,000 years ago. Conclusion We present genetic evidence of selection on the ADH1BArg47His polymorphism caused by the emergence and expansion of rice domestication in East Asia. The geographic distribution of the ADH1B*47His allele in East Asia is consistent with the unearthed culture relic sites of rice domestication in China. The estimated origin time of ADH1B*47His allele in those populations coincides with the time of origin and expansion of Neolithic agriculture in southern China.

  13. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  14. Survey of Recent Innovations in Aromatic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides situations of aromatic rice demand, and international standards. The history and recent developments of traditional and evolved aromatic rice varieties, namely Basmati rice and Jasmine rice, are reviewed. The emerging aromatic rice innovations from developed countries such as the U.S. and other Asian countries generate a threat to these traditional aromatic rice producers such as India, Pakistan, and Thailand. Under WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights...

  15. Asia Rice Crop Estimation and Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) for GEOGLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Sobue, S.

    2013-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community because of rapid population and economic growth, and climate change. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss food security and food price volatility, and they agreed on an 'Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture'. This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The aim of GEOGLAM is to reinforce the international community's ability to produce and disseminate relevant, timely, and accurate forecasts of agricultural production on regional, national, and global scales by utilizing remote sensing technology. GEOGLAM focused on four major grain crops, wheat, maize, soybeans and rice. In particular, Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumption, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asian region. Hence, Asian space and agricultural agencies with an interest in the development of rice crop monitoring technology launched an Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) component for the GEOGLAM initiative. In Asian region, rice is mainly cultivated in rainy season, and a large amount of cloud limits rice crop monitoring with optical sensors. But, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is all-weather sensor and can observe land surface even if the area is covered by cloud. Therefore, SAR technology would be powerful tool to monitor rice crop in Asian region. Asia-RiCE team required mainly SAR observation data including ALOS-2, RISAT-1, Sentinel-1 and RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed for Asia-RiCE GEOGLAM Phase 1 implementation (2013-2015) to the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) in the GEOGLAM-CEOS Global Agricultural Monitoring Co-community Meeting held in June 2013. And also, rice crop has complicated cropping systems such as rein-fed or irrigated cultivation, single, double or sometimes triple cropping. In addition, each agricultural field is smaller than that of

  16. Relationships of wild and domesticated rices (Oryza AA genome species) based upon whole chloroplast genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambugu, Peterson W; Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Waters, Daniel L; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the most important crop in the world, acting as the staple food for over half of the world's population. The evolutionary relationships of cultivated rice and its wild relatives have remained contentious and inconclusive. Here we report on the use of whole chloroplast sequences to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships in the AA genome Oryza species, representing the primary gene pool of rice. This is the first study that has produced a well resolved and strongly supported phylogeny of the AA genome species. The pan tropical distribution of these rice relatives was found to be explained by long distance dispersal within the last million years. The analysis resulted in a clustering pattern that showed strong geographical differentiation. The species were defined in two primary clades with a South American/African clade with two species, O glumaepatula and O longistaminata, distinguished from all other species. The largest clade was comprised of an Australian clade including newly identified taxa and the African and Asian clades. This refined knowledge of the relationships between cultivated rice and the related wild species provides a strong foundation for more targeted use of wild genetic resources in rice improvement and efforts to ensure their conservation. PMID:26355750

  17. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  18. Rice-growing Climate Ecology and High-yield Cultivation Techniques of the Basin Surrounding Wuyi Mountain%武夷山盆地稻作气候生态与高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少宏; 赵雅静; 吴华琴; 温桂芳; 周萌

    2011-01-01

    The climate of the basin surrounding Wuyi mountain scenic area is the subtropical climate. Period of safety growth of rice is 235d and the accumulated temperature is 5368 ~C , so it can be double crops in a year. The quantity of heat for planting high-yield late-maturing hybrid rice varieties showed more than single crop but less than two crops. Timely early sowing can modulate the flower filling period of single cropping rice and the first crop of ratoon rice to match high value period of light and temperature in July and August, make the second crop to avoid chilling damage of early autumn. This is a key countermeasure for increasing rice production and income. Corresponding high-yielding cultivation techniques of rice include the selection of good cultivar, rational fertilization and water management, the promotion of mechanized production, and prevention and control of diseases, insect and weed.%武夷山风景区周边盆地属中亚热带气候,水稻安全生长季235d,积温5368℃,可一年两熟,种植晚熟高产杂交稻品种的热量一季有余,两季不足。适时早播,调节单季稻和再生稻头季开花结实期与七八月份光温高值期重合,再生季避过早秋冷害,是稻作增产增收的关键举措。高产配套技术有选用良种、合理施肥管水、推行机械化生产和防控病虫草害。

  19. Efficient indica and japonica rice identification based on the InDel molecular method: Its implication in rice breeding and evolutionary research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong Lu; Xingxing Cai; Xin Jin

    2009-01-01

    An efficient molecular method for the accurate and efficient identification of indica and japonica rice was created based on the poly-morphisms of insertion/deletion (InDel) DNA fragments obtained from the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) to the entire genomic sequences of indica (93-11) and japonica rice (Nipponbare). The 45 InDel loci were validated experimentally by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in 44 typical indica and japonica rice varieties, including 93-11 and Nipponbare. A neutrality test of the data matrix generated from electrophoretic banding patterns of various InDel loci indicated that 34 InDel loci were strongly associated with the differentiation of indica and japonica rice. More extensive analyses involving cultivated rice varieties from 11 Asian countries, and 12 wild Oryza species with various origins confirmed that indica and japonica characteristics could accurately be determined via calculating the average frequency of indica- or japonica-specific alleles on different InDel loci across the rice genome. This method was named as the "InDel molecular index" that combines molecular and statistical methods in determining the indica and japonica characteristics of rice varieties. Compared with the traditional methods based essentially on morphology, the InDel molecular index provides a very accurate, rapid, simple, and efficient method for identifying indica and japonica rice. In addition, the InDel index can be used to determine indica or japonica characteristics of wild Oryza species, which largely extends the utility of this method. The InDel molecular index provides a new tool for the effective selection of appropriate indica or japonica rice germplasm in rice breeding. It also offers a novel model for the study of the origin, evolution, and genetic differentiation of indica and japonica rice adapted to various environmental changes.

  20. 荷兰豆—优质稻—甘薯高产栽培技术%Pea Pods-Quality Rice-Sweet Potato High Yield Cultivation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王来清; 赖德才

    2012-01-01

    Pea pods-qality rce-sweet potato high yield cultivation techniques summed up through the"Whole City Money-Grain Harvest Competition"practice that launched by Sanming municipal government,was an efficient planting pattern suitable for extension in Qingliu county.High yield cultivation techniques for pea pods,high quality rice,sweet potato were briefly introduced in this paper.%荷兰豆—优质稻—甘薯高产栽培技术是三明市政府组织的全市粮钱丰收竞赛活动实践中总结出来的适应清流县推广的高效种植模式,文章就荷兰豆、优质稻、甘薯的高产栽培技术作简要介绍。

  1. Viabilidade do cultivo do feijão-arroz no outono-inverno em regiões de inverno ameno Viability of rice bean cultivation in fall-winter season in regions of mild winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Faria Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três ensaios em município de Minas Gerais, com inverno ameno, para estudar a viabilidade do cultivo do feijão-arroz no outono-inverno. Os ensaios foram instalados em Leopoldina, nestas datas: 3 de maio de 1996, 18 de abril de 1997 e 11 de maio de 1998. Foram usados 12 genótipos de feijão-arroz; uma cultivar de feijão-comum foi usada para comparação. Foi empregado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições. As plantas foram irrigadas por aspersão, e o controle de pragas com inseticida foi feito quando necessário. Os ciclos de vida do feijão-arroz variaram de 99 a 111 dias (da emergência à colheita, enquanto os do feijão-comum variaram em torno de 90 dias. Não foi observada doença na folhagem do feijão-arroz. As produtividades médias variaram de 1164 (11 de maio a 2261 kg ha-1 (18 de abril. O feijão-arroz foi tão produtivo quanto o feijão-comum. Conclui-se que é viável o cultivo do feijão-arroz [Vigna umbellata (Thunb. Ohwi & Ohashi] no outono-inverno em regiões de inverno ameno.Three trials were carried out in a municipality of the state of Minas Gerais of mild winter to study the viability of rice bean cultivation in fall-winter season. Trials were installed in Leopoldina on the following dates: May 3, 1996; April 18, 1997; and May 11, 1998. Twelve genotypes of rice bean were used; one cultivar of common bean was also included for comparison. A randomized complete-block design with 4 replications was used. Plants were sprinkler irrigated and insecticide was applied when necessary. Rice bean life cycles varied from 99 to 111 days (from emergence to harvest, while common bean life cycles varied around 90 days. No foliar disease was observed on rice bean plants. Yields ranged from 1164 (May 11 to 2261 kg ha-1 (April 18. Rice bean yielded as much as common bean. One concluded that the cultivation of rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb. Ohwi & Ohashi] in fall-winter in regions of mild winter is

  2. 不同水直播方式水稻植株抗倒特性研究%Lodging Resistance of Rice under the Different Pattern of Water Direct-seeding Cultivation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许轲; 唐磊; 郭保卫; 张洪程; 霍中洋; 戴其根; 魏海燕

    2014-01-01

    为研究不同水直播方式水稻植株倒伏的差异,在稻麦两熟制下,以2个常规粳稻(常农粳7号、超级稻南粳44)和2个杂交粳稻品种(甬优2638、甬优7号)为试材,设置水直播点播和条播2种方式,于齐穗后30 d,研究了不同直播方式高产水稻植株地上部分各节间抗倒伏能力的差异,并对倒伏指数、抗折力与茎秆主要物理性状进行相关分析。结果表明,条播方式水稻倒伏比例较大,水稻植株基部第2,3节间抗折力和弯曲力矩,点播方式显著高于条播方式;条播方式倒伏指数显著较高。点播方式水稻株高、重心高度高于条播方式,但相对重心高度低于条播方式。点播方式水稻基部第1,2节间长度显著小于条播方式,基部3个节间的茎秆内径长均显著高于条播方式,除基部第1节间外,基部第2,3节间外径长和茎壁厚度点播方式显著高于条播方式。点播方式基部第1,2节间单位节间干质量显著高于条播方式。上述茎秆性状在不同类型品种间有较大差异。直播水稻茎秆的抗折力和倒伏指数与水稻茎秆基部节间长、茎壁厚、节间充实度等性状密切相关。点播方式水稻具有基部节间短而粗、茎壁较厚,且充实度好的特点,是其抗倒伏能力强的直接原因。%In recent years, cultivation area of direct-seeding rice in Jiangsu Province and nearby regions has been expanding rapidly,the stronger lodging resistance of culm is the key aspect to high yield and excellent-quali-ties,but the specific research on the influencing factors of lodging resistance is little in direct-seeding rice. At thirty days after heading,a field experiment was conducted with four varieties,conventional rice Changnongjing 7,super rice Nanjing 44,hybrid rice Yongyou 2638 and Yongyou 7,to investigate the differences of rice-stem lodging resist-ance between two direct-seeding cultivation methods,named hole seeding and seeding in drill

  3. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  4. Radioisotopes and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  5. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. PMID:27045620

  6. Development of labor saving operation technique by making large scale paddy field and direct seeding cultivation of rice in Tohoku district [Japan], 2: Development of technique for automatic precision laser-levelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Preparation for large large paddy fields and utilization of direct rice seeding cultivation are expected to be the key technologies for the low cost and labor saving large farm rice cultivation. To achieve this, the technique of land leveling for field operations have to be developed. A precise land leveling operation by a wheel tractor with laser-beam emitter and recover in a wet paddy field are developed. 2) The automatic measurement system of a rice paddy field surface level by a tractor that we developed was highly practical. After measured data ate stored in a memory of hand-held computer the standard deviation of a field height value is shown on the display. Also, measured data are exported to the personal computer and by RC232C, the contour map of the paddy field is draw quickly, which is useful for the land leveling work. 3) Considering the relation between rice seed germination and water depth in the field, the preciseness of the field leveling for direct rice seeding is required to be under 1.5cm of standard deviation (s.d.). To realize this preciseness, a prototype leveling aparatus consisting a laser emitter, a laser receiver and dry land leveler pulled by a tracter, was developed and was tested the performance. The results of land leveling test at a field of 1 ha indicated that the elevation difference of the field of 16cm was improved to that of 92% of +- 2.5cm (1.58cm s.d.) after leveling work. The working efficiency was 0.57hour/10a. For a precise leveling work, the of the soil water content should be under the plastic limitation, under which less amount of soil adoheres to the blade of the leveler. The performance tests of the laser assisted leveling apparatus for a paddy harrowing work revealed that for an accurate operation only a blade should be controlled by a hydraulic cylinder according to a laser beam. Since large amount of soil can not be handled by the apparatus, the leveling for a paddy harrowing work is recommended for a fine leveling

  7. Origin of Weedy Rice as Revealed by Hybridizations among Cultivated Rice and its Wild Relatives%栽培稻及其近缘野生种间杂交揭示杂草稻的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红云; 陈丽娟; 熊海波; 朱骞; 石瑜敏; 王威豪; 刘百龙; 徐家星; 文建成; 李东宣

    2012-01-01

    通过水稻种间、亚种间和品种间的杂交,在套袋隔离和自然授粉两种条件下,对其杂交亲本主要农艺性状类型及杂交后代群体中杂草稻发生频率、类型及主要特征以及杂草稻的发生趋势进行调查分析,直接验证和重演杂草稻起源的主要路径.杂草稻的主要特征为:颖壳褐色或金色,种皮红色,散穗、易落粒,中长芒或无芒.结果表明,如果以近缘野生种为亲本,在其F2群体中比较容易发生类似杂草稻的单株;杂交组合中杂草稻出现频率的大小依次为:杂草稻或野生稻/粳稻(44.16%)>杂草稻或野生稻/籼稻(27.84%)>籼稻/粳稻(3.30%)>籼稻/籼稻(1.41%)>梗稻/粳稻(0).这一结果显示杂交亲本间遗传差异越大,在后代中出现杂草稻类型植株的频率就越高.套袋条件下,后代中杂草稻出现的频率为10.70%,而不套袋情况下为4.90%.%The objectives of this study are to explore the occurrence and development of weedy rice by investigating the frequency of weedy rice, which occurred in the progenies of crosses amount wild rice species, typical weedy rice,rice subspecies and cultivars. The results of this study indicated that wild and weedy rice showed brown or golden color of glum with or without awns and red pericarp, spreading type of panicles and shattering easily. A-nalysis for qualitative characteristics in F2 population suggested that the hybrid combinations with one of its parental line, which genetically nearer to its ancestry lines, would be prone to produce more weedy rice like plants. The frequencies of occurrence of weedy rice like plants in F2 population varied depending on the genetic similarities between the two parents. The more different between two parental lines are the more frequent weedy rice like plants produced. The sequence is as: weedy rice or wild rice/Japonica (44. 16%) > weedy rice or wild rice/Indica (27.84%) >Indica/Japonica (3. 30%) > Indica/Indica( 1. 41

  8. Detection of Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Using a Field Test Kit: A Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralatei, Edi; Lacan, Severine; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2015-11-17

    Rice is a staple food eaten by more than 50% of the world's population and is a daily dietary constituent in most South East Asian countries where 70% of the rice export comes from and where there is a high level of arsenic contamination in groundwater used for irrigation. Research shows that rice can take up and store inorganic arsenic during cultivation, and rice is considered to be one of the major routes of exposure to inorganic arsenic, a class I carcinogen for humans. Here, we report the use of a screening method based on the Gutzeit methodology to detect inorganic arsenic (iAs) in rice within 1 h. After optimization, 30 rice commodities from the United Kingdom market were tested with the field method and were compared to the reference method (high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, HPLC-ICP-MS). In all but three rice samples, iAs compound can be determined. The results show no bias for iAs using the field method. Results obtained show quantification limits of about 50 μg kg(-1), a good reproducibility for a field method of ±12%, and only a few false positives and negatives (<10%) could only be recorded at the 2015 European Commission (EC) guideline for baby rice of 100 μg kg(-1), while none were recorded at the maximum level suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and implemented by the EC for polished and white rice of 200 μg kg(-1). The method is reliable, fast, and inexpensive; hence, it is suggested to be used as a screening method in the field for preselection of rice which violates legislative guidelines. PMID:26506262

  9. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implicat

  10. Study on Different Centers of Origin of Asian Cultivated Rice%亚洲栽培稻分散起源的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕红; 才宏伟; 王象坤

    2003-01-01

    分析中国、东南亚和南亚的96份普野的12个等位酶位点,及885份地方品种的10个酶位点的遗传多样性.结果表明,中国与南亚普野和栽培稻在Est-2、Est-10、Mal-1、Cat-1四个位点发生了地理分化.中国普野以Acp-12、Acp-20、Amp-22、Est-20、Cat-12、Mal-11基因型为主,是偏粳型.南亚普野以Acp-12、Acp-20、Amp-22、Est-21/Est-20、Cat-11、Mal-12基因型为主,是偏籼型.中国和南亚是两个独立的稻作起源中心.

  11. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  12. SRI Cultivation in Andhra Pradesh : Achievements, Problems and Implications for GHGs and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Duvvuru, Narasimha Reddy; Motkuri, Venkatanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Strategies and solutions to meet the challenges of GHGs call for new methods and technologies. Potential options for the rice industry sector to contribute to the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change by increasing rice production in a physically sustainable manner are attracting growing research interest. One such area of interest is the new method of rice cultivation: the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). SRI is an innovative approach to rice cultivation but not a technology ...

  13. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  14. The chemical cross talk between rice and barnyardgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    The chemical cross talk between rice and barnyardgrass which is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation was investigated. Allelopathic activity of rice was increased by the presence of barnyardgrass seedlings or barnyardgrass root exudates. Rice allelochemical, momilactone B, concentration in rice seedlings and momilactone B secretion level from rice were also increased by the presence of barnyardgrass seedlings or barnyardgrass root exudates. As momilactone B possesses strong growt...

  15. Commercialization of transgenic rice in China: potential environmental biosafety issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Rong Lu; Qiang Fu; Zhicheng Shen

    2008-01-01

    The development and commercialization of transgenic rice with novel traits in China may offer more opportunities for promoting rice productivity. Owing to the significance of rice as a major food crop in China, the enhancement of rice production is important for national food security. If left unaddressed, the potential biosafety concerns over the extensive release and commercial cultivation of transgenic rice may hamper the development and application of this technology in rice improvement. ...

  16. 粳型巨胚稻西巨胚1号品种特性与栽培技术研究%Study on Variety Characteristics and Cultivation Techniques of Giant Embryo NO. 1 Japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣萍; 戴红燕; 蔡光泽

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究西巨胚1号品种特性及在攀西高原稻区高产栽培技术.[方法]通过对西巨胚1号、合系22-2、昌米011在生育期、农艺性状、分蘖力、穗部性状和品质性状等方面进行对比分析,从播期、播量、栽插密度、水肥管理、病虫害防治等方面总结西巨胚1号在攀西高原稻区栽培技术要点.[结果]西巨胚1号在攀西高原稻区种植中表现出胚大、米质较优、抗病、抗倒、适应性强等特点.适宜在攀西高原地区3月下旬播种,用种量为60~75 kg/hm,基本苗120万~150万株/hm,早施分蘖肥,重施基肥,补施穗粒肥,科学灌水,注意病、虫、草、鸟害防治.[结论]该研究为进一步改进西巨胚1号栽培技术提供理论和生产实践参考.%[ Objective ] The paper was to study the variety characteristics of Giant Embryo No. 1 Japonica Rice and its high yield cultivation techniques in Panxi plateau rice region. [ Method ] Giant Embryo No. 1, Hexi 22-2 and Changmi 011 were compared and analyzed from the aspects of growth stage,agronomic traits,tillering ability,panicle and quality traits,and the cultivation techniques of Giant Embryo No. 1 in Panxi plateau rice region were summarized in the aspects of sowing time, sowing rate, planting density, water and fertilizer management and pest and disease control. [ Result ] Giant Embryo No. 1 showed the characteristics of big embryos, excellent grain quality, disease resistance, lodging resistance and strong adaptability in the cultivation in Panxi plateau rice region,which was suitable for sowing in late March in the region. The seed rate was 60 -75 kg/hm2 ,basic seedlings were 1 200 000 - 1 500 000/hm2 with early application of tillering fertilizer and heavy application of base fertilizer,grain fertidizer should also be supplemented with scientific irrigation,and diseases,insects,grass,bird damage should be paid attention. [ Conclusion ] The study provided the reference for theoretical and

  17. 谷优769在建阳作烟后稻种植表现及高产栽培技术%Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques for Hybrid Rice Combination Guyou 769 as Post-tobacco Rice at Jianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁巧莲

    2015-01-01

    A late new hybrid rice combination Guyou 769 was developed by Nanping Institute of Agricultural Sciences. It was tested and demonstrated as post-tobacco rice in three years at Experimental Farm of Nanping Agriculture School, showing moderate growth duration, uniform population, high yield, good plant colour at maturity, and strong resistant blast. The planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques for Guyou 769 as post-tobacco rice at Jianyang were summarized.%谷优769是由福建省南平市农科所选育的杂交晚稻新品种,在南平市农校试验农场作烟后稻,经3a的试验和示范种植,表现生育期适中,群体整齐,丰产性好,熟期转色好,稻瘟病抗性强等特性。总结了谷优769在建阳作烟后稻种植表现及高产栽培技术。

  18. 水果玉米-优质稻-西兰花一年三熟高优栽培技术%Annual Triple Cropping High Quality Cultivation Techniques for Fruit Corn-Quality Hybrid Rice-Broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶敬用; 曾春华; 林锦星; 吴文革

    2015-01-01

    In order to make the best of climate resource advantage, Pinghe county has explored planting pattern in field structure in 2010-2014, confirming that annual triple cropping planting pattern of Fruit corn-quality hybrid rice-broccoli is suitable for development and extension in Pinghe county and has good economic benefit. The annual triple cropping key high quality cultivation techniques of Fruit corn-quality hybrid rice-broccoli at Northwest Town of Pinghe county were introduced.%为充分利用气候资源优势,2010—2014年平和县探索大田结构种植模式,确定水果玉米—优质稻—西兰花一年三熟种植模式适合在平和县发展推广,效益佳。介绍了水果玉米—优质稻—西兰花一年三熟在平和县西北部乡镇高优栽培技术要点。

  19. 中国杂交水稻在巴西的试种表现及高产栽培技术%Experimentation of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Brazil and Its High-yielding Cultivation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法谋; 黄大辉; 方远祥

    2012-01-01

    2011年9月至次年2月,隆平高科选择6个中国杂交水稻组合在巴西戈亚斯州北部Araguaia流域进行了品比试验,结果6个组合单产为8.07~9.15 t/hm2,比当地对照品种Puita增产36.1% ~54.3%.结合当地水稻生产实际,从品种选择、发运、整地、种子处理、播种、田间肥水管理、综合防治病虫草鸟害等方面介绍了中国杂交水稻在巴西的高产栽培技术.%During September, 2011 and February, 2012, Yuan Longping High-Tech Agriculture Co. Ltd. Introduced 6 Chinese hybrid rice varieties into Brazil to conduct a yield trial in Araguaia, Goias with Puita, a local improved rice variety, as the control. The results showed that the average yields of the tested hybrids ranged from 8. 07 to 9. 15 t/hm2, 36. 1% and 54. 3% higher than that of the local check Puita. Based on the local conditions, the high-yielding cultivation techniques, including variety selection, seed export and transportation, land preparation, seed treatment and sowing, field management in irrigation and fertilization and integrated pest control, were proposed for hybrid rice production in Brazil.

  20. Elucidation of molecular dynamics of invasive species of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated rice fields are aggressively invaded by weedy rice in the U.S. and worldwide. Weedy rice results in loss of yield and seed contamination. The molecular dynamics of the evolutionary adaptive traits of weedy rice are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis and identify the i...

  1. Transfer to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical foods for the intake of radionuclides by humans is rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is the dominant staple food crop in humid tropical and sub-tropical countries across the globe. Cultivation methods have important effects on plant uptake of radionuclides from soil. Most rice is produced under flooded conditions, i.e. in fields with a water layer of 5-15 cm deep on soil. This is unlike the situation in unsaturated fields where the soil conditions are significantly different, meaning that the soil-to-rice transfer factors (Fvs) need to be discussed separately from Fv values of other cereals grown under unsaturated field conditions. In this section, rice refers to the crop grown on wet paddy fields; since water management is the dominant method for rice cultivation this is the most common type. Rice Fv values were collected from papers in international journals, books and proceedings with peer reviewing processes and Fv values based on dry weight rice grain were summarized here. Fv data for fallout isotopes (e.g. 90Sr and 137Cs), neutron activation products (e.g. 54Mn, 60Co, etc.) or naturally existing radionluclides (e.g. 210Pb, 226Ra, 238U, etc.) and those for naturally existing stable elements under agricultural field conditions were listed. (author)

  2. Molecular and cultivation-dependent analysis of metal-reducing bacteria implicated in arsenic mobilisation in south-east asian aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of sorbed As(V) to the potentially more mobile As(III) by As-respiring anaerobic bacteria has been implicated in the mobilisation of the toxic metalloid in aquifer sediments in SE Asia. However, there is currently only a limited amount of information on the identity of the organisms that can respire As(V) in these sediment systems. Here experiments are described that have targeted As(V)-respiring bacteria using cultivation-independent molecular techniques, and also more traditional microbiological approaches that have used growth media highly selective for organisms that can grow using arsenate as the sole electron acceptor supplied for anaerobic growth. The molecular techniques used have initially targeted DNA from microcosms displaying maximal rates of arsenate reduction, both with and without added electron donor. More recent studies from the authors' laboratory have used stable isotope probing techniques, targeting DNA from the active microbial fraction in microcosms labelled with [13C]acetate supplied as an electron donor for arsenate reduction. Phylogenetic analyses using a highly conserved genetic marker (the 16S rRNA gene) have suggested the involvement of Sulfurospirillum and Geobacter species in arsenate-respiration, and this has been supported further by complimentary experiments using more traditional microbiological techniques. Additional research required to clarify the role of these organisms in the mobilisation of As in situ are discussed

  3. 栽培方式对粳型巨胚稻干物质积累和产量的影响%Effects of Cultivation Regimes on Dry Matter Accumulation and Grain Yield in Japonica Giant Embryo Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣萍; 马均

    2011-01-01

    为了研究不同栽培方式对粳型巨胚稻各器官干物质积累动态及产量构成的影响,用粳型巨胚稻新品系'西巨胚1号'为试验对象,以常规粳稻'合系22-2'作对照.采用淹水、旱种和垄畦3种栽培方式进行种植.大田的移栽规格为(20+14)cm×14cm宽窄行双行种植,每穴种2苗,采用随机区组设计,3次重复.详细记载生育进程;于孕穗期、齐穗期和成熟期每个处理取4穴测定其叶面积和干物质重;成熟后,每处理取10穴考种测其产量性状,全小区收割计产.结果表明,3种栽培方式中,垄畦栽培下巨胚稻植株的分蘖增多,茎叶干物质积累较多,有利于构建早期高产群体;生育后期延长了叶片的寿命,提高了干物质运转率,有效穗和稳粒数显著增加,从而提高了稻谷产量.因此,在巨胚稻生产中建议采用垄畦栽培以提高物质积累和运转和获得最大产量.%For the purpose of studying the effects of different cultivation regimes on dynamics of dry matter accumulation in organs and grain yield components of ‘Japonica Xi-giant embryo-1', the experiment studied the three different cultivation regimes of submerged irrigation, dry cultivation and ridge cultivation used ‘Japonica Xi-giant embryo-1' as experimental materials, conventional japonica rice ‘Hexi-22-2' as control. The transplanting size was (20+ 14) cm × 14 cm the seedling number two plants per hill. This experiment with randomized block design and three repeated. The results indicated that, under the ridge cultivation, the tillering and the dry matter accumulation of stems and leaves were increased, and it was beneficial to build the high-yielding population in early stage. The effective panicles number and grain number per spike were increased for delaying the senescence of leaf during late growth stage and promoting the transportation percentage of dry matter accumulation under the ridge cultivation. Finally, the grain yield was increased

  4. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  5. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  6. Improvement Effects of Rice Straw Mixed with Biological Agent on Plastic Shed Continuous Cultivation Soil%稻草配施生物菌剂对大棚连作土壤的改良效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉珠; 宋述尧

    2012-01-01

    The decomposition characteristics in soil and the improvement effects of rice straw mixed with biological agent used in plastic shed continuous cultivation soil were studied. The results showed that, the decomposition of rice straw mixed with biological agent was rapidly in the beginning and then weaken. The decomposition efficiency of rice straw mixed with EM bacterium was higher. Soil capacity and solid fraction was decreased; soil moisture content and porosity was increased; and soil water infiltration was strengthened. The content of organic materials, total N, total P and available N, P and K was in-crensed. The pH and EC value of the soil decreased. The soil salinity was restrained to migrate to surface. The soil cation exchange ratio was increased; and the soil nutrient preserving capability was improved. The quantity of bacteria and action-mycetes and their ratio (B/F) increased. The plastic shed soil's continuous cultivation obstacle was relieved. From the comprehensive analysis of soil's improvement,0.8% rice straw mixed with 1.0% EM bacterium had great effect.%研究了稻草配合两种生物菌剂施入塑料大棚连作土壤后,在土壤中的分解特性及对连作土壤的改良效果.结果表明,稻草配施生物菌剂(EM菌、乐土菌)在大棚土壤中腐解,开始迅速,以后逐渐减缓,以稻草+EM菌处理腐解效率较高.稻草配施生物菌剂可降低土壤的容重和固相率,提高土壤的含水量和孔隙度,增加土壤通透性,改善了土壤结构;提高了土壤有机质、全氮、全磷含量及碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾含量,降低了土壤pH和EC,抑制了大棚土壤盐分的表聚,提高了土壤阳离子交换量,增强了土壤的保肥供肥能力;增加了土壤中细菌、放线菌的数量,B/F提高,可从根本上缓解大棚土壤连作的障碍.从大棚土壤改良效果的综合分析看,0.8%稻草与1.0%EM菌配施效果较好.

  7. Vietnamese rice exports: Do large destination markets stimulate?

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Hanh Thi; Doan, Hung Quang

    2013-01-01

    What determines Vietnamese rice export flows? Data on rice export from Vietnam and its 124 destination markets in 2010 shows that high-income from agricultural sector of importing countries do not necessarily result in higher rice exports whereas exports tend to be higher to highly populated countries. In order to confirm the negative effect of the importing countries' GDP, We proceed to split the full sample into subsamples for Asian and non-Asian importing countries. While GDP covers the en...

  8. 谷优3301作中稻丰产栽培技术%High-yielding cultivation technique of Guyou3301 as mid-season rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林光培

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduce field performance of Guyou3301 in the area with an elevation of 250-900 m in Pingnan County,Fujiang Province.It also summarized high-yielding cultivation technique of Guyou3301,including seedling-raising,transplanting,fertilizer and water management,insect and disease control.%介绍谷优3301在福建省屏南县海拔250~900 m区域的种植表现,从播种育秧、移栽、肥水管理、病虫防治等方面总结其丰产栽培技术。

  9. WHERE IS BASMATI RICE COMING FROM? A GLOBAL TRADE–RELATED OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Georges; Pirzada, Syed Wajid H.

    2009-01-01

    Rice contributes on 20% towards human calorie intake of the world population and 30% of Asian population. Worldwide paddy rice crop was 668 million tonnes in 2008, while rice trade during the year was 30 million tonnes. Trade represents 7% of overall rice cropping. Basmati rice export counts for high value and low volume. Although Basmati crop is primarily from two countries, specific data related to Basmati export are scarce. Basmati trade constituted 8.3% of rice world trade during 2008, wi...

  10. Demand analyses of rice in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; SHAMSUDIN Mad Nasir; Mohamed, Zainalabidin; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Radam, Alias

    2008-01-01

    As a typical developing Asian county, the growth in per capita income generally brings to diversification in Malaysians food basket. The most significant observation is the falling in per capita consumption of rice with continuous growth of demand for wheat based products. The objective of this study is to estimate the demand elasticities of rice in Malaysia, focusing whether rice is an inferior good. By using data from Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005, this study obtains demand elastic...

  11. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers. PMID:8332588

  12. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  13. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  14. Molecular Evolution of the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta in Invasive Weedy Rice in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R.; Olsen, Kenneth M; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variati...

  15. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s. 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  16. Changes in CH4 emission from rice fields from 1960 to 1990s: 1. Impacts of modern rice technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Hugo Denier

    2000-03-01

    Four countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Nepal) were taken as an example to assess the impact of changes in rice cultivation on methane emissions from rice fields since the 1960s. The change of rice area by type of culture from 1960-1990s is estimated, and its relative contribution to national harvested rice area is calculated and multiplied with an emission factor, to derive the relative methane emission per unit rice land. Relative methane emission per ha rice land has increased since 1960 for all four countries, largely due to an increase in irrigated rice area and partly due to a decrease in upland rice area. Patterns of rice area changes and related emission changes differ considerably among countries. On the basis of the rice area increases between 1960 and the 1990s, significant increases in methane emissions from rice fields due to increases in total rice cultivated area are not to be expected in the future. The impact of modern rice variety adoption is assessed by relating methane emissions to rice production. The organic matter returned to the paddy soil is largely determined by rice biomass production which, given a certain yield, is different for traditional and modern rice varieties. By calculating total organic matter returned to rice paddy soils and assuming a constant fraction to be emitted as methane, rice production and methane emission can be related. The analysis indicates that (1) up to now, rice yield increases in countries with high modern rice variety adoption have not resulted in increased methane emissions per unit of harvested area and, (2) global annual emission from rice fields may be considerably lower than generally assumed. The introduction of modern rice varieties can be regarded as a historical methane emission mitigation strategy because higher rice yields resulted in lower or equal methane emissions.

  17. Is there a second fragrance gene in rice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzgerald, M.A.; Hamilton, N.R.S.; Calingacion, M.N.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Butardo, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic rice is highly prized by most rice consumers, and many countries cultivate traditional and improved aromatic varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is the major aromatic compound in rice, and is believed to accumulate because of an eight-base-pair (8-bp) deletion in an allele at the fragranc

  18. Origins and evolution of weedy rice in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that infests crop fields and reduces US rice harvests by up to 80%. This agricultural weed has been proposed to arise either through de-domestication of feral US crop germplasm and/or introduction of foreign germplasm (potentially including ...

  19. Controle de brusone e manejo de nitrogênio em cultivo de arroz irrigado Blast control and nitrogen management in lowland rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand Kumar Fageria

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre práticas culturais, tais como a aplicação de N e o controle de doenças causadas por fungos, em solo de várzea do Brasil são insuficientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do arroz irrigado a épocas de aplicação de N e ao tratamento das sementes com fungicida no controle de brusone. Aplicaram-se 90 kg ha-1 de N da seguinte forma: todo no plantio (T1; 1/3 no plantio, 1/3 45 dias após o plantio e 1/3 na iniciação do primórdio floral (T2; 1/2 no plantio e 1/2 45 dias após o plantio (T3; 1/2 no plantio e 1/2 na iniciação do primórdio floral (T4; 2/3 no plantio e 1/3 45 dias após o plantio (T5; 2/3 no plantio e 1/3 aplicado na iniciação do primórdio floral (T6 e 1/3 no plantio e 2/3 20 dias após o plantio (T7. O fungicida pyroquilon foi aplicado nas doses de 0, 200 e 400 g de ingrediente ativo por 100 kg de sementes. A produção de grãos foi influenciada significativamente pela época de aplicação de N e pelo tratamento de fungicida. A aplicação de N influenciou significativamente a matéria seca da parte aérea e a acumulação de N nos grãos. A produção máxima de grãos foi obtida pelos tratamentos T2 e T3. O tratamento com 200 g de fungicida por 100 kg de sementes aumentou significativamente a produção de grãos, em relação à testemunha.Nitrogen timing and control of fungal diseases are cultural practices in lowland rice production. The objective of this study was to determine appropriate timing of N application and adequate rate of seed treatment with pyroquilon fungicide in lowland rice. The 90 kg ha-1 N application timing were alloted as follows: total at sowing (T1; 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at active tillering and 1/3 at panicle initiation (T2; 1/2 at sowing and 1/2 at active tillering (T3; 1/2 at sowing and 1/2 at panicle initiation (T4; 2/3 at sowing and 1/3 at active tillering (T5; 2/3 at sowing and 1/3 at panicle initiation (T6; and 1/3 at sowing and 2/3 at the start of

  20. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  1. Bumper harvest of super rice in south and north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Recently. a great progress was made in breeding and cultivation of super rice in China. The South Demonstration Acceptance Meeting of China Super Rice was held in Oct 17. 2000 in Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province. Yield monitoring group organized by the Department of Science,Technology and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, China, was consisting of famous rice research scientists, agricultural technology extension experts, and government officials. In the demonstration meeting, the group investigated the rice growth of the demonstration field of the improved integrated cultivation technology of super hybrid rice, Xieyou 9308. Four representative demonstration fields from 6.87 ha of the demonstration were harvested after the current investigation of the group.

  2. Low-carbon and Efficient Cultivation Techniques for Potato Grown in the Rotation System of Potato-Organic Rice-Leaf Vegetable in Hilly Areas%丘陵地区马铃薯-有机稻-叶菜低碳高效栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永平; 解振强; 罗先进

    2013-01-01

      马铃薯—有机稻—叶菜低碳高效栽培技术是一种将马铃薯、水稻、叶菜三类作物周年轮作的新型种植模式.2月份将马铃薯种摆放在水稻田里,覆盖稻草生产马铃薯,5月份收获马铃薯.马铃薯收获后种植早中稻,10~11月份收获水稻,保留稻草用于次年春季马铃薯种植.水稻收获后在水稻田内种植菠菜、芫荽、茼蒿等叶菜类蔬菜,叶菜在春节前后采收完毕.该方法将水旱轮作有机结合起来,既有利于稻草还田,增加土壤有机质,改善土壤生态环境,又有利于提高土地利用率,提高土地产出,为农业增效和农民增收提供一种有效途径.%The low-carbon and efficient cultivation technique of potato-rice-leaf vegetable is a new cultivation model that potato, rice and leaf vegetable are rotated annual y. Potato seeds are put on the surface of rice fields in February, covered with straw, and cropped in May. Early-mid rice is planted after potatoes harvested, the rice is cropped from October to November, and straw is kept for potato cultivation in spring of the next year. Leaf vegetables, such as spinach, coriander and crown daisy, are planted in the rice field, and the vegetables are harvested completely before or after Spring Festival. This method organical y combining wet field-dry field rotation, not only is conducive to the straw returning to field, increasing soil organic matter and getting soil environment better, but is beneficial to improving the utilization rate of land, and raising production from land. It is an effective way to increase agricultural crop and raise farmers income.

  3. Microbial community response to two water management systems for wetland rice production in high arsenic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice cultivation on arsenic (As) impacted soils has recently garnered considerable attention. Rice plants can accumulate As in grain, especially under the continuously flooded conditions commonly utilized in wetland-rice production. However, recent studies have indicated that rice-management system...

  4. Actividad Alelopática de las Arvenses Asociadas al Cultivo de Arroz (Oryza sativa L. en el Tolima-Colombia Allelophatic Activity of Arvenses Associated with the Cultivation of Rice (Oryza sativa l. in Tolima-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Murillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron e identificaron especies de arvense de la familia Asteraceae asociadas al cultivo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. en el Tolima-Colombia, y se caracterizaron morfológica, bromatológica y farmacognósticamente. Las fracciones orgánicas de la arvense con mayor contenido de sesquiterpenlactonas se evaluó por su actividad alelopática sobre la germinación y elongación de la radícula de semillas de O. sativa, colocadas en papel filtro a concentraciones de 200, 400 y 600 ppm e incubadas durante 120 horas. El cultivo de la gramínea se encontró asociado a 12 especies invasoras que presentaron gran variabilidad en sus características morfológicas y en los índices farmacognósticos. Las fracciones clorofórmicas mostraron diferencias significativas con el extracto etanólico crudo por el efecto sobre la división celular y el crecimiento radicular de semillas de O. sativa, actividad que parece estar asociada al contenido de sesquiterpenlactonas.Asteraceae weed species associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. in the state of Tolima-Colombia were gathered, identified and morphologic, pharmacognostic and bromatologically characterized. Allelopathic activity for those organic fractions of weed with high content of sesquiterpene lactone was evaluated on the germination and radicle length of O. sativa seeds in filter paper. Both crude extract and chromatographic fractions were incubated for 120 hours at concentrations of 200, 400 and 600 ppm. Cultivation of the grainswas associated to 12 weed species which presented great variability in its morphologic characteristics and farmacognostic index. Chloroformic fractions gave significant differences with the ethanolic extract due to the effect on the cellular division and the radicle elongation of the O. sativa seeds, activity that seems to be associated to the content of sesquiterpene lactone.

  5. Semi-dwarf rice varieties in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-dwarf rice varieties are grown extensively in California and are beginning to be adopted in the northern United States. Their background is varied. Some derive their semi-dwarf status from Asian ancestors. Use has been made of TN-1, IR8, IR659-10-8-3 and IR1318 (containing TN1). Other semi-dwarfs in California derive their short stature from induced mutants. The principal parent is Calrose 76 derived from an induced mutation in Calrose (released in 1976). The first US semi-dwarf variety was LA 110, developed at the Rice Experiment Station at Crowley, Louisiana from a cross TN-I x M4 (from Sri Lanka) released in 1974. The next group of semidwarf varieties was developed in cooperation between the California Coop. Rice Research Foundation, The California Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA Agric. Research Service. These are listed. Semidwarf long grain varieties were developed in Texas: Bellemont (1981) and Lemont (1983), both using IR659-10-8-3 as source of semidwarf culm. Two other long grain varieties Leah (1982) and Toro-2 (1984) released by the Rice Research Station in Crowley, Louisiana, derive their short stature form C19902, a line developed at Crowley, but still reaching a height of 89-94 cm. There are other short statured varieties in the US which are not truly semidwarfs, such as Bond and Newbonnet in Arkansas, Skybonnet and Pecos in Texas. The general trend is towards shorter varieties. Calrose 76 and M7 are being replaced. M-201 and L-202 are the shortest and have excellent lodging resistance. Their background is IR8 or TN1. Too short varieties like Bellemont may have seedling emergence problems. The area of cultivated varieties can only be estimated based upon seed production. According to such estimates, total rice area in California 1984 was 184,100 ha, of which 178,100 (ca. 97%) were under semidwarf varieties. The total rice area in the US 1984 was 1.139,000 ha, of which 249,500 ha or 21,9% were under semidwarf varieties. The rice

  6. Microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Björn eBreidenbach; Judith ePump; Marc Gregory Dumont

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized...

  7. Microbial Community Structure in the Rhizosphere of Rice Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Breidenbach, Björn; Pump, Judith; Dumont, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized...

  8. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  9. The use of desalinated-dried jellyfish and rice bran for controlling weeds and rice yield

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer; Sugimoto, Hideki; Asagi, N.; Araki, T; Ueno, H; Morokuma, M.; Kato, H.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve higher rice production, rice-growing countries have used great amounts of synthetic chemical compounds (chemical fertilizers and pesticides) that can have adverse effects on the environment and humans. Organic products and organic farming technologies are friendlier to the environment and more conducive to sustainable agriculture but require different inputs, knowledge and skills. Weed control is one of the major challenges in organic rice cultivation. The present study proposes an...

  10. Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice Area in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bocchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla is a floating pteridophyte, which contains as endosymbiont the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae (Nostocaceae family. Widely cultivated in the Asian regions, Azolla is either incorporated into the soil before rice transplanting or grown as a dual crop along with rice. To examine the feasibility of its use in flooded rice fields sited in the Temperate European Areas, we carried out a series of experiments in PVC tanks during 2000–2002 in Po Valley (northern Italy conditions, to study the growth-development dynamics and the resistance/tolerance to low temperatures and to commonly used herbicides of several different Azolla strains. Three out of five strains tested survived the winter, with an increase in biomass from March to May producing approximately 30–40 kg ha−1 of nitrogen. One of these strains, named “Milan”, emerged as the most resistant to herbicide and the most productive. Of the herbicides tested, Propanil permitted the survival of growing Azolla.

  11. Mangrove swamp rice production in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Agyen-Sampong, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove swamp rice cultivation, located in coastal areas where the population is relatively dense, is one of the oldest forms of rice culture in West Africa. Of approximately 1.2 million hectares of mangrove swamp in West Africa about 200 000 ha is cleared for mangrove swamp rice production in Guinea Bissau, the Gambia, Guinea, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The mangrove swamp rice areas in West Africa cover a wide range of climatic conditions from dry tropical climate (savanna) with 800 mm or le...

  12. 中稻高产栽培最佳施肥量、施肥技术的研究%Study of Optimum Fertilizing Amount and Fertilization Technology of High-yield Cultivation of Middle-season Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑英

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to provide the basis for the fertilizing method of high-yield cultivation of middle-season rice.[Method] Trials of different fertilizing method,different level of nitrogenous fertilizer and different level of potash fertilizer were carried out.According to the nutrient preserving capability of the soil,law of fertilizer requirement and fertilizer response,optimum fertilizing amount and ratio of N,P2O5 and K2O and the corresponding fertilization technology were given.[Result] Based on the experimental results,the optimum fertilizing method and optimum fertilizing amount were obtained with variance analysis.[Conclusion] The optimum fertilizing method was stabilizing before and attack the middle method,whose ratio of basic fertilizer,tiller fertilizer,fertilization for head sprouting and granula fertilizer was 4∶ 3∶ 3∶ 0.The optimum fertilizing amount of N,P2O5 and K2Owas 180,75 and 120 kg/hm2,respectively.%[目的]为青阳县中稻超高产栽培提供科学施肥依据.[方法]通过对中稻开展不同施肥方法、不同氮肥水平、不同钾肥水平肥效试验,同时根据土壤供肥性能、作物需肥规律和肥料效应,提出氮磷钾适宜施用量、比例以及相应的施肥技术.[结果]根据试验结果,应用方差分析,得出最佳施肥方法和最佳施肥量.[结论]生产上推荐最佳施肥方法是稳前攻中法,即基肥∶分蘖肥∶穗肥∶粒肥为4∶3∶3∶0.最佳施肥量是纯氮(N) 180 kg/hm2、纯磷(P2O5)75 kg/hm2、纯钾(K2O) 120 kg/hm2.

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Rice Yield, Case: Nam Xong

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Nishan

    2016-01-01

    Most of the farmers in Lao PDR cultivate rice as the source of living. Most of the area used for rice cultivation is rainfed rice. The agriculture of a vast population in Nam Xong River Basin is dependent on monsoons where rice is grown between May and November. The most important parameters to determine the yield variation in the region is the climate and soil contrast. Nam Xong River Basin is located in the Vientiane province. It is divided into mountainous upper Nam Xong, valleys in th...

  14. Identification of Sheath Blight Resistance QTLs in Rice Using Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Lemont X Jasmine 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice sheath blight (RSB) caused by the soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most destructive diseases of rice around the globe, causing severe losses in rice yield and quality annually. Major gene(s) governing the resistance to RSB have not been found in cultivated rice worldwide...

  15. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  16. Nitrogen Release from Green Manure of Water Hyacinth in Rice Cropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Didik Wisnu Widjajanto; Terumasa Honmura; Nobufumi Miyauchi

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen derived from water hyacinth and recovered in rice crops was measured to evaluate the effect of different amounts of added water hyacinth residues into rice cultivation on the performance of rice crop, N derived (Ndev) from residues and N recovery (Nrec) in rice crop. Dry matter production and N yield of rice crop decreased significantly as the amounts of added water hyacinth increased. The Ndev from water hyacinth was significantly increased as amounts of added water hyacinth increas...

  17. The Subtelomere of Oryza sativa Chromosome 3 Short Arm as a Hot Bed of New Gene Origination in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanzhu Fan; Yong Zhang; Yeisoo Yu; Steve Rounsley; Manyuan Long; Rod A.Wing

    2008-01-01

    Despite general observations of non-random genomic distribution of new genes,it is unclear whether or not new genes preferentially occur in certain genomic regions driven by related molecular mechanisms.Using 1.5 Mb of genomic sequences from short arms of chromosome 3 of Oryza glaberrima and O.punctata,we conducted a comparative genomic analysis with the reference O.sativa ssp-japonica genome.We identified a 60-kb segment Iocated in the middle of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 3,which is unique to the species O.sativa.The region contained gene duplicares that occurred in Asian cultivated rice species that diverged from the ancestor of Asian and African cultivated rice one million years ago(MYA).For the 12 genes and one complete retrotransposon identified in this segment in O.sativa ssp.japonica,we searched for their parental genes.The high similarity between duplicated paralogs further supports the recent origination of these genes.We found that this segment was recently generated through multiple independent gene recombination and transposon insertion events.Among the 12 genes,we found that five had chimeric gene structures derived from multiple parental genes.Nine out of the 12 new genes seem to be functional,as suggested by Ka/Ks analysis and the presence of cDNA and/or MPSS data.Furthermore,for the eight transcribed genes,at least two genes could be classified as defense or stress response-related genes.Given these findings,and the fact that subtelomeres are associated with high rates of recombination and transcription,it is likely that subtelomeres may facilitate gene recombination and transposon insertions and serve as hot spots for new gene origination in rice genomes.

  18. Resposta e níveis críticos de potássio para o arroz cultivado em solos de várzea inundados Response and critical levels of potassium for rice cultivated in lowland waterlogged soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Rodrigo Cabbau

    2004-02-01

    ,0, 8,1, 7,8 e 4,4% para os solos RU, GX, GM e OY, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, os níveis críticos foliares de K foram 9,6, 11,1, 10,2 e 11,5 g kg-1.The present work was conducted in a greenhouse at the Department of Soil Science of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in the period of February to June 2002, to investigate the response to potassium fertilization by rice plants (Oriza sativa L. cv. Jequitibá cultivated in flooded soils, the contribution of the K form on their nutrition, and to estimate the critic levels of the nutrient in the soils and in the plants. The experimental design utilized was the totally randomized, in the 4 x 5 factorial scheme, with four replications. Four flooded soils (Mesic Organosoil - OY, Melanic Gleysoil - GM, Haplic Gleysoil - GX, and Fluvic Neosoil - RU and five levels of potassium saturation of the potential CEC (natural content, 4, 6, 8 and 10% of the pH - 7.0 CEC saturated with K were used. Natural soil K saturations (percentage of pH-7.0 CEC were 1.55 for the OY soil, 1.30 for the GM soil, 1.65 for the GX soil, and 1.49 for the RU soil. Initially, sufficient samples of 4 dm³ for all soils received limestone to elevate the V to 50% and were incubated for 30 days. Following that, samples of 3 dm³ received the potassium treatments and a basic fertilization with macro and micronutrients and were incubated for more 30 days, in vases with capacity for 5 dm³. In the end of this period, the soils were flooded, to receive two rice plants per vase, on which were measured the leaf content of potassium at the flowering period and the yield at the end of the cycle. In sub-samples obtained from the soils of the vases before and after cultivation, the forms of potassium total K (Ktot, nonexchangeable K (Kne, exchangeable K (Ke, K in solution (Ksol and available K by the Mehlich-1 extractant were measured. From the results, it was verified that the plants responded in grain yield to the potassium fertilization

  19. Rice Domestication Revealed by Reduced Shattering of Archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Jiang, Leping; Chen, Xugao

    2016-01-01

    Plant remains dating to between 9000 and 8400 BP from a probable ditch structure at the Huxi site include the oldest rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet bases and associated plant remains recovered in China. The remains document an early stage of rice domestication and the ecological setting in which early cultivation was taking place. The rice spikelet bases from Huxi include wild (shattering), intermediate, and domesticated (non-shattering) forms. The relative frequency of intermediate and non-shattering spikelet bases indicates that selection for, at the very least, non-shattering rice was underway at Huxi. The rice also has characteristics of japonica rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), helping to clarify the emergence of a significant lineage of the crop. Seeds, phytoliths and their context provide evidence of increasing anthropogenesis and cultivation during the occupation. Rice spikelet bases from Kuahuqiao (8000-7700 BP), Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP), Majiabang (6300-6000 BP), and Liangzhu (5300-4300 BP) sites indicate that rice underwent continuing selection for reduced shattering and japonica rice characteristics, confirming a prolonged domestication process for rice. PMID:27324699

  20. Rice-Traditional Medicinal Plant in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umadevi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.

  1. REVIEW ON BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani KUHN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a graminaceous crop. It is one of the important staple foods for Asian countries. Sheath blight disease is an important fungal disease of rice. Currently, this disease is distributed in almost all the rice growing states. The disease is alarming due to its intensive cultivation of modern high yielding varieties with high doses of nitrogenous fertilizers. Crop with a high plant density and close canopy associated favors disease build up from panicle initiation onwards. Poor weed management practices and increase in frequency of irrigation have aggravated, incidence of the disease due to modified micro climatic conditions. The disease was first recorded from Japan (Miyake, 1910. In India, the disease was first reported from Gurudaspur, Punjab (Paracer and Chahal, 1963 and later it was reported from Uttar Pradesh (Kohli, 1966. The management of this disease is possible only after the detailed study of different aspect of this disease and the pathogen. Management of the disease below its economic threshold is important for increasing the production, productivity and quality of the produce. Recognizing the importance of the problem, need for the effective and socio economically feasible management of the pathogen, the present review presented by keeping the above stated factors of the disease into consideration.

  2. Advances in the understanding of inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and wide-compatibility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG YiDan; CHEN JiongJiong; DING JiHua; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is a major form of postzygotic reproductive isolation and frequently occurs in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). It has been a major barrier for utilization of the strong heterosis expressed in hybrids between indica and japonica. A large number of loci for rice inter-subspecific hybrid sterility have been identified by genetic analysis. Cytological studies revealed that male and female gamete abortions and reduced affinity between the uniting gametes all occurred in indica-japonica hybrids, suggesting the complexity of the causes for inter-subspecific hybrid sterility. Two genes conditioning embryo-sac and pollen sterility respectively in indica-japonica hybrids have been cloned recently, providing opportunities for molecular characterization of the indica-japonica hybrid sterility and wide-compatibility. Future studies should aim at cloning more genes for indica-japonica hybrid sterility, characterizing the underlying molecular mechanism, and utilization of the findings for the development of inter-subspecific hybrids to increase rice productivity.

  3. Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice Combination Liangyouhang 2 in Jianyang County%优质杂交稻两优航2号在建阳种植表现及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金龙

    2012-01-01

    Liangyouhang 2,a two-line hybrid rice combination,was developed from the cross of a two-line male sterile SE21S and the restorer line Hang 2 by Rice Research Institute,Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences,and it was certified and released for commercial production in 2008 in Fujian province.In 2010,Liangyouhang 2 was introduced and planted in Jianyang County of Fujian province for high yield and rice quality.In this paper,we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Liangyouhang 2.%两优航2号是福建省农科院水稻所用两系不育系SE21S与恢复系航2号配组而成的两系杂交稻新品种,2008年通过福建省农作物品种审定。2010年建阳市引进试种,表现米质优、产量高。介绍了两优航2号在建阳市种植表现及高产栽培技术。

  4. Uptake of trace element by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of trace element in rice paddy field ecosystem is of great significance as rice is a staple food of India particularly in Meghalaya. In general, cultivating system is an important factor for the plant uptake of trace element from soil. Rice paddy fields have a unique ecosystem from Radioecology point of view. Rice is usually planted under flood conditions in order to provide the best environment for its growth. In the present study, rice grain samples and surface paddy soil samples were collected from the fields to obtain Transfer Factor under equilibrium condition in the field existing around Uranium mineralization zone. Obtaining local soil to rice uptake is important because it depends on climate and soil properties. The objective of the present study is to generate the transfer parameter in the paddy field ecosystem to predict the behaviour of trace elements in the paddy located in the area adjoining the uranium mines in Meghalaya. (author)

  5. The potential of natural enemies to suppress rice leaffolder populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, de, A Bram

    1996-01-01

    Rice leaffolders Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are considered major pests in many Asian countries. Insecticide use against leaffolders is wide-spread, but may not be justified due to tolerance of the rice crop to leaffolder injury and a high level of natural biological control. This study was conducted to obtain more insight in the potential of indigenous natural enemies to suppress rice leaffolder populations and reduce the damage inflicted to the crop. ...

  6. Mapping Rice Production in China with AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliouras, Eleni J.; Emery, William

    2001-01-01

    The study of rice agriculture is necessary for both the importance of rice as a vital food source and because of the fact that cultivating it has an unfortunate byproduct, namely methane gas. As a food source, rice is a staple for a large majority of the world's population, especially in Asia. Because the populations of many Asian nations are increasing at rapid rates, the production of rice will need to similarly increase. In 1989, it was estimated that the demand for rice would increase by 65% by the year 2019. Rice crops are considered to be one of the primary anthropogenic sources of methane gas. A reason for concern is that this gas is a so-called "greenhouse" trace gas and given its increasing levels in the atmosphere, is thought to contribute to the suspected global warming phenomenon. Some estimate that methane may contribute up to 20% to the global warming effect. Trace gas emissions from anthropogenic sources is an issue that generates great worldwide interest because of the fact that mankind is very likely affecting the current and future climate in potentially negative ways. In an effort to better understand these effects, scientists and engineers are conducting research on all of the varied fronts which relate to climate change and biosphere/atmosphere interactions. The study of global warming through increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is one area which has received much media and scientific attention. Research fueled by debates on this topic is being conducted on numerous, interrelated fronts in an effort to better understand the complex relationship between human activities and the earth's climate. The research ranges from attempting to verify if the observed data even supports the existence of an anthropogenically generated global-warming phenomenon, to identification of sources and sinks of the trace gases, to measuring the source strengths, to studies which focus on modeling the processes which generate the gases, and finally, to trying

  7. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice in Swedish retail

    OpenAIRE

    Fredlund, Elisabeth; Thim, Anna Maria; Gidlund, Ann; Brostedt, Siv; Nyberg, Marianne; Olsen, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed in 99 rice samples taken from Swedish retail. The main objective was to study mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with high content in fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for the content of ochratoxin A (HPLC), aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 (HPLC, RIDAQUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological ...

  8. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  9. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  10. Can transgenic rice cause ecological risks through transgene escape?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Alien transgene escape from genetically engineered rice to non-transgenic varieties or close wild relatives (including weedy rice) may lead to unpredictable ecological risks. However, for transgene escape to occur three conditions need to be met: (i) spatially, transgenic rice and its non-transgenic counterparts or wild relatives should have sympatric distributions; (ii) temporally, the flowering time of transgenic rice and the non-transgenic varieties or wild relatives should overlap; and (iii) biologically, transgenic rice and its wild relative species should have such a sufficiently close relationship that their interspecific hybrids can have normal generative reproduction. This paper presents research data on the geographic distribution, flowering habits, interspecific hybridization, and gene flow of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its closely related wild relatives containing the AA genome. The objective is to estimate the possibility of transgene escape to non-transgenic rice varieties and wild relatives of rice, which may result in unpredictable ecological risks.

  11. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of rice straw conversion to ethanol in Indonesia : The case of Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The vast rice production in some developing Asian countries like Indonesia raises expectation on poverty alleviation and energy diversification through second generation biofuel production from rice residues, specifically rice straw. This work attempts to estimate the potential environmental and socioeconomic benefits of rice straw-to-ethanol project in Indonesia. Literature research and interviews are performed to quantify several environmental and socioeconomic indicators that are considere...

  12. Screening of Exist Genetically Modified Elements in Local and Commercial Rice Available in Baghdad Markets Using PCR and Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Hayba Q. Younan

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods of the Iraqi population; therefore large amounts of rice cultivated and imported in Iraq. Because of increasing the production of GM crops especially rice crop, it was necessary to investigate if there is any genetically modified rice (GM rice) in Baghdad markets. Conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR used to create this investigation. Genomic DNA extracted from 7 samples of rice seeds that cultivated in Iraq; 31 samples of commercial rice seeds and 4 samples of k...

  13. World production and international trade - rice

    OpenAIRE

    Čihák, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: For the global rice production and consumption Asia represents its ancient cradle. From production perspective the dependency of rice as a cultivated crop on environmental conditions need to be revealed. Humidity and temperature are thus limitations defining possible cropping locations. Production and consumption is further naturally also driven by external factors associated with human activities. Thesis target is to reveal the relationships between these components. As pr...

  14. Statistical Inference of Selection and Divergence of the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta

    OpenAIRE

    Amei, Amei; Lee, Seonghee; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Jia, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The resistance gene Pi-ta has been effectively used to control rice blast disease, but some populations of cultivated and wild rice have evolved resistance. Insights into the evolutionary processes that led to this resistance during crop domestication may be inferred from the population history of domesticated and wild rice strains. In this study, we applied a recently developed statistical method, time-dependent Poisson random field model, to examine the evolution of the Pi-ta gene in cultiv...

  15. Monitoring and Management of Imidazolinone-Resistant Red Rice (Oryza sativa L., var. sylvatica) in Clearfield® Italian Paddy Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Scarabel; Cesare Cenghialta; Dario Manuello; Maurizio Sattin

    2012-01-01

    The introduction in Italy of Clearfield® rice cultivars carrying imidazolinone-resistant traits provides an efficient option to control red rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice. However, despite the promulgation of specific guidelines for Clearfield® technology management, imazamox red rice survivors have been reported by farmers. Forty-two fields were monitored in 2010 and 2011 throughout the Piedmont and Lombardy regions and field cases were recorded of herbicides use and agronomic p...

  16. BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF RED RICE ECOTYPES FROM THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL CARACTERIZAÇÃO BIOQUÍMICA E MOLECULAR DE ACESSOS DE ARROZ VERMELHO COLETADOS NO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Malone; Paulo Dejalma Zimmer; Maria Alice da Silva de Castro; Letícia Noemi Arias; Geri Eduardo Meneghello; Silmar Teichert Peske

    2007-01-01

    Red rice is one of the most important weeds of cultivated rice in Brazil. On the other hand, red rice constitutes a collection of genes lost during the cultivated rice domestication process and has a fundamental importance for recovery of promising genic constitutions. This study had the objective to analyze the genetic variability of a colletion of red rice (Oryza sativa L.) ecotypes from Rio Grande do Sul State, B...

  17. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chito Clare Ekwealor; Christie Amechi Oyeka

    2013-01-01

    Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples col...

  18. The System of Rice Intensification: Time for an empirical turn

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, D.

    2011-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is claimed to be a new, more productive and more sustainable method for cultivating rice. These claims have proved controversial. One dimension of the controversy has centred on the imprecision with which SRI's component practices have been defined. The supporters of SRI suggest that the system has been designed to satisfy the needs of rice itself, implying that it is a set of integrated, mutually reinforcing practices that need to be implemented as a ...

  19. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for sheath blight resistance in rice using recombinant inbred line population of Lemont X Jasmine 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice sheath blight (RSB) caused by the soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most destructive diseases of rice, causing severe losses in rice yield and quality annually. The major gene (s) governing the resistance to RSB have not been found in cultivated rice worldwide. However, ri...

  20. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  1. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  2. RICE CULTIVATION IN AN EBBTIDE SYSTEM IN THE MARANHÃO LOWLANDS, SOUTHEASTERN PERIPHERY OF AMAZONIA A CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SISTEMA DE VAZANTE NA BAIXADA MARANHENSE, PERIFERIA DO SUDESTE DA AMAZÔNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Silva Farias Filho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Agricultural production in the Maranhão State, southeastern periphery of Amazonia, Brazil, is predominantly smallholder-based and uses slash-and-burn technology. Nevertheless, other environmentally less aggressive land use systems are also relevant for food production, especially the so-called ebbtide system, in the Maranhão lowlands. This paper describes and evaluates ebbtide production, within the landless settlement project “Diamante Negro/Jutaí”, located in Monção and Igarapé do Meio, municipalities of the Maranhão lowlands. Our farmer-based assessment consisted of interviews with 14 farmers and in loco observations. Furthermore, an agroecological assessment was conducted, based on participative field experimentation, with 15 local farmers. The main factors causing rice productivity losses are related to hydric stress situations and rodents (Arvicola sapidus. The productivity and milling yield of improved rice varieties did not differ statistically.

     

    KEY-WORDS: Rice; Maranhão lowlands; smallholder agriculture; ebbtide production.

  1. Rice Responses and Resistance to Planthopper-Borne Viruses at Transcriptomic and Proteomic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Zhao, Wan; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, especially in Asian areas. Rice virus diseases are considered as the most serious threat to rice yields. Most rice viruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects such as planthoppers and leafhoppers. In Asia five rice viruses are transmitted mainly by three planthopper species in a persistent manner: Rice stripe virus, Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, Rice ragged stunt virus, Rice grassy stunt virus, and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus. In rice antivirus studies, several individual genes have been shown to function in rice resistance to viruses. Since plant responses to viral infection are complex, system-level omic studies are required to fully understand the responses. Recently more and more omic studies have appeared in the literatures on relationships between planthoppers and viruses, employing microarray, RNA-Seq, small RNA deep sequencing, degradome sequencing, and proteomic analysis. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and progress of omic studies in rice plant responses and resistance to four planthopper-borned viruses. We also discuss progress in the omic study of the interactions of planthoppers and rice viruses. Future research directions and translational applications of fundamental knowledge of virus-vector-rice interactions are proposed. PMID:26363817

  2. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  3. Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Tanweer, Fatah A.; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A.; Ahmed, Fahim; ASHKANI, SADEGH; Latif, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu S...

  4. Rice Crop Monitoring and Yield Assessment with MODIS 250m Gridded Vegetation Products: A Case Study of Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesingha, J. S. J.; N. L. Deshapriya; Samarakoon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of people in the world depend on rice as a staple food and as an income-generating crop. Asia is the leader in rice cultivation and it is necessary to maintain an up-to-date rice-related database to ensure food security as well as economic development. This study investigates general applicability of high temporal resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m gridded vegetation product for monitoring rice crop growth, mapping rice crop acreage and ana...

  5. Effect of System of Rice Intensification on Grain Plumpness in Association with Source-Sink Ratio in Mid-Season Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiong-hui; XU Fu-xian; WAN Bang-hui; XIONG Hong; PENG Hai-feng; ZHU Yong-chuan; LU Yan-peng; WANG Gui-xiong; LIANG Ke-qin; ZHAO Jing

    2004-01-01

    Grain plumpness under two cultivation methods, the system of rice intensification(SRI) and traditional cultivation, was examined using 18 mid-season hybrid rice combinations. There existed a highly significant negative correlation between the differences of grain plumpness under the two cultivation methods and number of spikelets per panicle. The small- or middle-panicle type hybrid rice though they showed a significant decrease in leaf-grain ratio under SRI maintained normal grain filling due to plenty of source supply,while the large-panicle hybrid rice was on the contrary. It suggested that the number of spikelets per panicle below 173 under traditional cultivation, was an index for selecting variety in application of SRI in the southern region of Sichuan Province, China.

  6. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Noppawat Pengkumsri; Chaiyavat Chaiyasut; Chalermpong Saenjum; Sasithorn Sirilun; Sartjin Peerajan; Prasit Suwannalert; Sophon Sirisattha; Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2015-01-01

    Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple), brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the prope...

  7. Developing rice mapping populations as a genetic resource for validation of GWAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is divided into two major subspecies, Indica and Japonica with the temperate and tropical japonica subpopulations being part of Japonica. These two subpopulations encompass the majority of the rice grown in the USA. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) iden...

  8. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe. PMID:19680928

  10. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

  11. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  12. Microbial dynamics and arsenic speciation in rice paddy soil under two water management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) undergoes several microbial transformations, including oxidation/reduction, methylation/demethylation, and volatilization in soil, which impact As bioavailability. Different water management systems for rice cultivation alter soil-redox conditions and As biogeochemistry. Soil microbial ...

  13. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  14. Aerobic Rice: Benefits without going to the Gym?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayot, Ruvicyn; Templeton, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Rice, a staple food for over 70% of Asians, is also the single biggest user of water, requiring 2‐3 times more water per unit of grain produced than crops such as wheat and maize. With growing populations, increased urbanisation and environmental degradation, the supply of fresh water is depleting. Recognising the water constraints to rice yield, the aim of the project entitled ‘Developing a System of Temperate and Tropical Aerobic Rice (STAR) in Asia’ was to develop water‐efficient aerobic r...

  15. Research on the Effect of Planting Density on Rice Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; LI; Jichao; YUAN; Guangze; CAI

    2013-01-01

    Planting density is of great significance in adjusting the population structure of rice,increasing yield and reducing the cost. And suitable planting density can not only bring the yield potential of rice population into full play, obtain the maximum grain yield per unit area, but save labor, protect the environment and improve rice quality. This article summarizes the impact of planting density on rice growth, yield, the components as well as qualities at an attempt to provide theoretical guidance for high yield and quality cultivation of rice.

  16. Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Middle Rice Combination Chuanyou 651 in Jianyang County%杂交中稻川优651在建阳种植表现及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祠平

    2014-01-01

    川优651系南平市农科所用自主选育的恢复系南恢651与四川省农科院作物所选育的不育系川香29A配组育成的籼型杂交中稻新品种,于2011年通过福建省农作物品种审定。总结了川优651在建阳2a试种表现及高产栽培技术。%Chuanyou 651, derived from the CMS line Chuanxiang 29A and a restorer line Nanhui 651, was a new hybrid rice combination developed by Nanping Institute of Agricultural Science and Crop Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Chuanyou 651 was registered and released in 2011 in Fujian province. In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Chuanyou 651 in Jianyang county.

  17. Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques for Heavy-panicle Type Hybrid Rice Combination Yongyou 17 at Jianyang City%重穗型杂交稻甬优17在建阳试种表现及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正美

    2014-01-01

    A new indica-japonica hybrid rice combination, Yongyou 17, was developed by Crop Research Institute of Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengjiang Province and Ningbo Seed Co. Ltd. It was grown at Jiangkou town of Jianyang city in 2013, exhibiting tough stem, strong resistant lodging, medium growth duration, good adaptability, large spikelet and more grains, high yield, and fine quality. In order to promote the extension and application of this variety, its high-yielding cultivation techniques were summarized.%甬优17是浙江省宁波市农业科学研究院作物研究所和宁波市种子有限公司育成的籼粳杂交新品种。2013年在建阳市将口镇种植,表现出茎秆坚韧、抗倒性强,生育期适中、适应性好,穗大粒多、产量高,米质优良。为促进该品种的推广应用,总结其高产栽培技术。

  18. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, Ana L; Williamson, Scott H; Hernandez, Ryan D;

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments......, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models...... plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that...

  19. Balanço de nutrientes e da fitomassa em um Argissolo Amarelo sob floresta tropical amazônica após a queima e cultivo com arroz Nutrient and phytomass dynamics in a yellow Argissol under Amazonian tropical forest after burning and rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. R. Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    burned areas with cultivation of rice (cultivated. Furthermore, these areas were compared with an area of primary vegetation (forest used as reference. Burning consumed 36.3% of the initial biomass and produced 5.5 Mg ha-1 of ashes with significant amounts of nutrients, mainly Ca, Mg, and K. To clear areas by means of burning turned out to be a practice of low efficiency, because only a small percentage of the original biomass was converted into ashes and the greatest part remained in the form of residues. Even with the restitution of nutrients such as Ca, Mg, K by rain, there was a considerable removal of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, on the one hand by direct action of the fire, on the other through the carrying off of the ashes by the wind, and/or the removal by the crop. Results indicated that nutrient loss in the burned uncultivated area was greater than in the burned cultivated one, demonstrating the importance of soil covering to keep the elements in the system. At the end of the culture cycle, the residual effect of the ashes was still noticeable in the system, clearly expressed by the P, K, Ca, and Mg values which were higher than those measured in the control area (forest.

  20. 中浙优8号作中稻种植表现及高产栽培技术%Planting performance and cultivation techniques for"zhongzheyou8"planted as semilate rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正美

    2015-01-01

    "Zhongzheyou8"was planted in Jianyang City,and it performed good plant type,dark green leaves,strong tille-ring capacity,big grain,high seed setting rate,high yielding and good quality. In this paper its planting performance and high-yield cultivation techniques in Jianyang City were summarized.%中浙优8号在建阳市种植,表现株型挺拔、叶色深绿、分蘖力较强、穗大粒多、结实率高、丰产性较好、米质优良.总结中浙优8号在建阳市推广种植表现及其高产栽培技术.

  1. Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years.However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors' experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production)were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8%over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super

  2. Hydropriming Treatment of Rice Seeds With Microbubble Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromi Ikeura; Fumiyuki Kobayashi; Masahiko Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    In rice cultivation, seed emergence and seedling establishment tend to be unstable, and rice plants are likely to lodge during the ripening period in direct seeding, leading to an unsteady yield. Although the possibility of direct seeding in dry paddy fields is being re-examined from the viewpoint of reducing labor, unstable seed emergence and seedling establishment remain as challenges to be dealt with. Therefore, in order to improve unstable seed emergence and seedling establishment, we inv...

  3. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; LI, SHAOQING

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  4. Effect of application timing of potassium fertilizer on root uptake of 137Cs in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have already reported that potassium fertilizer is effective to reduce radiocesium in brown rice. In this study, we tried to find the most appropriate timing for potassium fertilizer application during the rice cultivation period in terms of 137Cs concentrations in brown rice. The concentration of 137Cs in brown rice cultivated without application of potassium fertilizer was 32 Bq kg-1, while that with application of basal fertilizer including potassium was 5 Bq kg-1. The concentration of 137Cs in brown rice was increased with the late application timing. Therefore, application of potassium fertilizer in the early growing period reduced the uptake of 137Cs by rice plant from contaminated soils effectively. (author)

  5. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Rolon, Ana Silvia; Stenert, Cristina; Machado, Iberê Farina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-12-01

    Conservation of species in agroecosystems has attracted attention. Irrigation channels can improve habitats and offer conditions for freshwater species conservation. Two questions from biodiversity conservation point of view are: 1) Can the irrigated channels maintain a rich diversity of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians over the cultivation cycle? 2) Do richness, abundance and composition of aquatic species change over the rice cultivation cycle? For this, a set of four rice field channels was randomly selected in Southern Brazilian wetlands. In each channel, six sample collection events were carried out over the rice cultivation cycle (June 2005 to June 2006). A total of 160 taxa were identified in irrigated channels, including 59 macrophyte species, 91 taxa of macroinvertebrate and 10 amphibian species. The richness and abundance of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians did not change significantly over the rice cultivation cycle. However, the species composition of these groups in the irrigation channels varied between uncultivated and cultivated periods. Our results showed that the species diversity found in the irrigation channels, together with the permanence of water enables these man-made aquatic networks to function as important systems that can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in regions where the wetlands were converted into rice fields. The conservation of the species in agriculture, such as rice field channels, may be an important alternative for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost and the remaining ones are still at high risk due to the expansion of rice production. PMID:22208101

  6. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  7. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, C.; Wang, F.; Schnürer, A.; Sun, C.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  8. Optimal fertilizer N rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the USA. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to the presence of both anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management pr...

  9. Excavation of Pid3 Orthologs with Differential Resistance Spectra to Magnaporthe oryzae in Rice Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao; Lv, Qiming; Shang, Junjun; Pang, Zhiqian; Zhou, Zhuangzhi; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Guanghuai; Tao, Yong; Xu, Qian; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xianfeng; Li, Shigui; Xu, Jichen; Zhu, Lihuang

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six orthologs of the rice blast resistance gene Pid3 from cultivated varieties and wild rice accessions distributed in different areas were cloned by allele mining. Sequence analysis showed that while each of the orthologous genes from indica varieties and most wild accessions encodes a complete NBS-LRR protein, each of the proteins encoded by those from japonica varieties and few wild rice accessions presents a premature termination. Eleven of the 26 orthologs were selected for blast ...

  10. RICE ORGANIC FARMING IS A PROGRAMME FOR STRENGTENNING FOOD SECURITY IN SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Entun Santosa

    2012-01-01

    Rice domestic demand is steadily increase due to population’s growth, to increase rice production by increasing dosage of inorganic fertilizer and pesticide could not increase rice yield due to bad soil condition. These condition need improvement because soil is the source of life for soil micro-organism and biological activities. To overcome the problem, the farmers are supposed to be educated and trained to be able to analyze and study and practice plant cultivation emphasizing on local pot...

  11. Relationships of wild and domesticated rices (Oryza AA genome species) based upon whole chloroplast genome sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Wambugu, Peterson W.; Marta Brozynska; Agnelo Furtado; Daniel L. Waters; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the most important crop in the world, acting as the staple food for over half of the world’s population. The evolutionary relationships of cultivated rice and its wild relatives have remained contentious and inconclusive. Here we report on the use of whole chloroplast sequences to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships in the AA genome Oryza species, representing the primary gene pool of rice. This is the first study that has produced a well resolved and strongly su...

  12. Molecular Evolution of the TAC1 Gene from Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahuan Jiang; Lubin Tan; Zuofeng Zhu; Yongcai Fu; Fengxia Liu; Hongwei Cai; Chuanqing Sun

    2012-01-01

    Tiller angle is a key feature of the architecture of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa),since it determines planting density and influences rice yield.Our previous work identified Tiller Angle Control 1 (TAC1) as a major quantitative trait locus that controls rice tiller angle.To further clarify the evolutionary characterization of the TAC1 gene,we compared a TAC1-containing 3164-bp genomic region among 113 cultivated varieties and 48 accessions of wild rice,including 43 accessions of O.rufipogon and five accessions of O.nivara.Only one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP),a synonymous substitution,was detected in TAC1 coding regions of the cultivated rice varieties,whereas one synonymous and one nonsynonymous SNP were detected among the TAC1 coding regions of wild rice accessions.These data indicate that little natural mutation and modification in the TAC1 coding region occurred within the cultivated rice and its progenitor during evolution.Nucleotide diversities in the TAC1 gene regions of O.sativa and O.rufipogon of 0.00116 and 0.00112,respectively,further indicate that TAC1 has been highly conserved during the course of rice domestication.A functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP) of TAC1 was only found in the japonica rice group.A neutrality test revealed strong selection,especially in the 3'-flanking region of the TAC1 coding region containing the FNP in the japonica rice group.However,no selection occurred in the indica and wild-rice groups.A phylogenetic tree derived from TAC1 sequence analysis suggests that the indica and japonica subspecies arose independently during the domestication of wild rice.

  13. Mapping Flooded Rice Paddies Using Time Series of MODIS Imagery in the Krishna River Basin, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pardhasaradhi Teluguntla; Dongryeol Ryu; Biju George; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Hector M. Malano

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the major crops cultivated predominantly in flooded paddies, thus a large amount of water is consumed during its growing season. Accurate paddy rice maps are therefore important inputs for improved estimates of actual evapotranspiration in the agricultural landscape. The main objective of this study was to obtain flooded paddy rice maps using multi-temporal images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the Krishna River Basin, India. First, ground-based spe...

  14. How Do New Cash Crops Spread or Not Spread?: The Case of Rice in a Suburban Area, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Tachibana, Towa; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of rice-cultivation adoption in inland-valley bottom areas in Ghana. In West African countries, surging import of rice has shown farmers a new and potentially huge income source. Around the second largest urban area in Ghana, Kumsi, there are inland-valley bottoms which are suitable for rain-fed rice cultivation. The puzzle is that not much part of these inland-valley bottoms has been utilized for rice production. In 2001, in four villages around Kumasi, w...

  15. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions. PMID:25044150

  16. Recent Progress on Rice Genetics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Long-Biao Quo; Qian Qian

    2007-01-01

    Through thousands of years of evolution and cultivation, tremendously rich genetic diversity has been accumulated in rice (Oryza sativa L.), developing a large germplasm pool from which people can select varieties with morphologies of interest and other important agronomic traits. With the development of modern genetics, scientists have paid more attention to the genetic value of these elite varieties and germplasms, and such rich rice resources provide a good foundation for genetic research in China. Approximately 100 000 accessions of radiation-, chemical- or insertion-induced mutagenesis have been generated since the 1980s, and great progress has been made on rice molecular genetics. So far at least 16 variant/mutant genes including MOC1, BC1, SKC1, and Rf genes have been isolated and characterized in China. These achievements greatly promote the research on functional genomics, understanding the mechanism of plant development and molecular design breeding of rice in China. Here we review the progress of three aspects of rice genetics in China: moving forward at the molecular level, genetic research on elite varieties and germplasms, and new gene screening and genetic analysis using mutants. The prospects of rice genetics are also discussed.

  17. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  18. Sustainability opportunities through small scale rice husk generators

    OpenAIRE

    De Carlo, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Rice cultivation is widespread in the world, covering about 1% of the planet's surface and involving about a fifth of the world population. During the processing of rice, its husk (the outer part of the grain) is produced as a by-product. The use of this organic waste varies depending on the country and farmers??? traditions: in the best cases, rice husk is used as a fertilizer or for feeding animals; on the contrary, most of the times it is burned in open air or abandoned and left to ferment...

  19. Controlling rice bacterial blight in Africa : needs and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Valérie; Cruz, C.V.; Leach, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Rice cultivation has drastically increased in Africa over the last decade. During this time, the region has also seen a rise in the incidence of rice bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The disease is expanding to new rice production areas and threatens food security in the region. Yield losses caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae range from 20 to 30% and can be as high as 50% in some areas. Employing resistant cultivars is the most economical and effective way to...

  20. Caracterização da fração protéica da cianobactéria Aphanothece Microscopica Nägeli cultivada no efluente da parboilização do arroz Protein characterisation of the Aphanothece Microscopica Nägeli cyanobacterium cultivated in parboiled rice effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jacob-Lopes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a fração protéica da cianobactéria Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cultivada no efluente da parboilização do arroz quando submetida a diferentes condições de secagem. A produção da biomassa foi realizada a partir da água residuária do processo de parboilização do arroz em bioreatores de coluna de bolhas. A biomassa foi separada do efluente por centrifugação e desidratada em secador descontínuo de bandejas nas condições de 40, 50 e 60ºC e espessuras de bandejas de 5 e 7 mm. O comportamento eletroforético das proteínas da biomassa foi analisado por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamamida na presença de dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE e apresentou bandas com peso molecular de 15 kDa a 62,5 kDa. O perfil aminoacídico mostrou teores superiores aos recomendados pelo padrão FAO, com exceção dos aminoácidos lisina e dos sulfurados (MET+CYS. A caracterização funcional, expressa em termos de solubilidade e capacidade emulsificante, demonstrou a influência da condição de secagem na funcionalidade protéica da biomassa.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the protein fraction of Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cyanobacteria cultivated in the parboiled rice effluent, submitted to different drying conditions. The production of the biomass was done by using wastewater from the process of rice parboiling in a bubble column bioreactor. The biomass was separated from the effluent by centrifugation and dehydrated in a tray dryer at 40, 50 and 60ºC and thicknesses of 5 and 7 mm. The eletroforetic profile of proteins of the biomass was analysed by SDS-PAGE and presented bands with molecular weight between 62.5-15kDa. The amino acid profile was higher than the concentrations recommended by standard FAO, with the exception of the amino acids (LYS and the sulphurated (MET+CYS. The functional properties characterisation in terms of protein solubility and emulsification

  1. Molecular evolution and strong selective sweep at the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta during crop domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively deployed worldwide to prevent the infection by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene for gene specificity. The genomic region spanning Pi-ta and six flanking genes in 157 rice accessions composed of seven Oryza species including US and Asian culti...

  2. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND INTEGRATED STUDY OF RICE PRECISION FARMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In terms of demands of rice farming in the southern China, the information processing system and the yield measurement system that is installed in combine harvester, are designed and completed. Now the systems have been used in demonstration site in the Experiment Base of Shanghai Precision Agriculture. Based on the idea of spatial-oriented, object-oriented, user-oriented, the Farm Geographic Information System for precision farming of rice was developed, which is characterized by intelligence and visualized. The Decision-making Management System is integrated with rice growth model, expert model for rice cultivation. The DGPS, RS, GIS and intelligence sensors and computer technique were adopted in building the artificial intelligence system for measuring grain yield that is installed in combine harvester, so the combine harvester could provide the grain yield distribution map real-timely. The environmental and economic assessment shows that the precision rice farming applied in the demonstration site will benefit the society, economy and ecology greatly.

  3. Strategies for developing Green Super Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qifa

    2007-01-01

    From a global viewpoint, a number of challenges need to be met for sustainable rice production: (i) increasingly severe occurrence of insects and diseases and indiscriminate pesticide applications; (ii) high pressure for yield increase and overuse of fertilizers; (iii) water shortage and increasingly frequent occurrence of drought; and (iv) extensive cultivation in marginal lands. A combination of approaches based on the recent advances in genomic research has been formulated to address these...

  4. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  5. Functional diversity of jasmonates in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Shumin; Sun, Ning; Liu, Hongyun; Zhao, Yanhong; Liang, Yuling; Zhang, Liping; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-12-01

    Phytohormone jasmonates (JA) play essential roles in plants, such as regulating development and growth, responding to environmental changes, and resisting abiotic and biotic stresses. During signaling, JA interacts, either synergistically or antagonistically, with other hormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA), ethylene (ET), auxin, brassinosteroid (BR), and abscisic acid (ABA), to regulate gene expression in regulatory networks, conferring physiological and metabolic adjustments in plants. As an important staple crop, rice is a major nutritional source for human beings and feeds one third of the world's population. Recent years have seen significant progress in the understanding of the JA pathway in rice. In this review, we summarize the diverse functions of JA, and discuss the JA interplay with other hormones, as well as light, in this economically important crop. We believe that a better understanding of the JA pathway will lead to practical biotechnological applications in rice breeding and cultivation. PMID:26054241

  6. Lead and Cadmium Content of Korbal Rice in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhtiarian

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Every year the entrance of factory wastes such as Shiraz Petrochemical Complex, Marvdasht sugar cube factory, and Charmineh factory, and other industrial units into the Kor and Sivand rivers and also the entrance of the Marvdasht and Zarghan city sewer system wastes into the Kor river and the use of their water in the cultivation of the rice has caused a significant increase in the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice. To study the effect of the Kor river's pollution on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice, 57 samples of 6 different types of rice were prepared in 19 different stations in Korbal region and also 18 samples of 6 different types of rice, cultivated with unpolluted water, were prepared in the National Institute of Rice Research (Gilan. A comparison of the pollution level of the Korbal and Gilan rice samples shows a significant difference and indicates the significant effect of the pollution of the river on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the hybrid, prolific, and late rice sample types were greater than that of unprolific and early types, such that the amount of these two elements were highest in the Hassani type (the lead content was 0.9625 ppm and the cadmium content was 0.0793 ppm, whereas the Gasroddashti type which blooms earlier and is long seeded has the lowest amount of these two elements.

  7. Eficiência de extratores de fósforo para um solo adubado com fosfatos e cultivado com arroz The efficiency of phosphorus extractants for a soil treated with phosphatic fertilizers and cultivated to rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.DE Holanda

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando comparar a eficiência de extratores químicos e isotópico na avaliação da disponibilidade de fósforo no solo, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação com Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram realizados dois cultivos anteriores, com aplicação de fosfatos somente no primeiro. Os fosfatos usados foram: superfosfato simples, termofosfato Yoorin, Fosmag, fosfatos de Araxá e de Gafsa, nas doses de 50 e 150 mg.kg-1 terra. Neste experimento, terceiro cultivo, foram avaliados os extratores: Mehlich 1, Bray-1, resina e valor "E". As maiores correlações entre P-extraível do solo com produção de matéria seca e absorção de P pelo arroz foram apresentadas pelos extratores Bray-1 (r = 0,92 e resina (r = 0,91. O fósforo determinado pelo extrator Mehlich-1 somente apresentou alta correlação com os parâmetros da ¡danta (r = 0,96 quando da exclusão dos tratamentos com fosfato de Araxá. Os resultados de fósforo extraído pelo Bray-1 e resina foram altamente correlacionados entre si (r = 0,98.In order to assess the efficiency of several extracting procedures for soil phosphorus a pot experiment was carried out using a Red Yellow Latosol. Previously two successive croppings had been made, P fertilizers being applied only in the first one. The following products were used at the rates of 50 and 150 mg.kg-1 soil: Yoorin (thermo-phosphate, "Fosmag", Araxa and Gafsa rock phosphates. Mehlich-1, Bray-1, anion exchange resin, and isotopic dilution ("E" value methods were used as extracting procedures of available soil-P. The closest correlations between soil - P and either dry matter yield or phosphorus taken up by the rice plant were found with Bray-1 (r = 0.92 and resin (r = 0.91. Phosphorus determined by Mehlich-1 extracting solution showed high correlation with plant parameters (r = 0.96 only when the Araxa rock phosphate treatments were excluded from the calculation. High correlations (r = 0.98 were found between the values

  8. Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Rice as Influenced by Zinc-Solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae Strain ZSB14

    OpenAIRE

    Krithika, Selvaraj; Balachandar, Dananjeyan

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understandin...

  9. Investigation on subcellular localization of Rice stripe virus in its vector small brown planthopper by electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jinhua; Li, Shuo; Hong, Jian; Ji, Yinghua; Zhou, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice stripe virus (RSV), which is transmitted by small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, SBPH), has been reported to be epidemic and cause severe rice stripe disease in rice fields in many East Asian countries, including China. Investigation on viral localization in the vector is very important for elucidating transmission mechanisms of RSV by SBPH. In this study, transmission electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling technique were used to investigate the subcel...

  10. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  11. Survey of Rice Cropping Systems in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker KLEINHENZ; Sophon CHEA; Ngin HUN

    2013-01-01

    Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production,its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity,low farmer income and rural poverty.The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June,2011.It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement.Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies.At distances greater than 10 km,transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails.This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH (< 4.0),use of ‘late' cultivars,and exclusive use of self-propagated seeds.To improve this cropping system,commercial ‘medium' cultivars help prevent crop failure by shortening the cultivation period by one month and complementation of wet-season rice with non-rice crops should be expanded.Areas adjacent (≤ 1 km) to the water bodies become inundated for up to seven months between July until January of each year.In this area,soils contain more fine sand,silt and clay,and their pH is higher (> 4.0).Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April.Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines.Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59%and yields average 3.2 t/hm2.Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system.Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies,using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality.Along with rice,farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.

  12. Recent advances in the dissection of drought-stress regulatory networks and strategies for development of drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke eTodaka; Kazuo eShinozaki; Kazuko eYamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in the development of drought-tolerant transgenic plants, including cereals. Rice, one of the most important cereals, is considered to be a critical target for improving drought tolerance, as present-day rice cultivation requires large quantities of water and as drought-tolerant rice plants should be able to grow in small amounts of water. Numerous transgenic rice plants showing enhanced drought tolerance have been developed to date. Such genetically engineered plants ...

  13. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  14. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  15. 穗肥施氮量对抛栽杂交中稻抗倒伏性状和产量的影响%Effect of Amount of Panicle Fertilizer Application on Lodging Resistance and Yield of Hybrid Rice by Throwing Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段素梅; 杨安中; 黄义德; 沈树周

    2011-01-01

    采用大田随机区组设计研究了穗肥施氮量对徽两优2115抗倒伏性状及产量的影响.结果表明:穗肥氮肥用量对徽两优2115的株高、抗倒伏系数、产量因素及产量均有不同程度的影响.氮肥施用量以底肥(纯N)69 kg/hm.、蘖肥(纯N)69 kg/hm.、穗肥(纯N)138 kg/hm2的处理N4产量最高,较不施穗肥的对照No(ck)增产3 258.1 kg/hm2,增幅达40.7%,增产达极显著水平.%By methods of field trials and randomized blocks design, the influences of amount of panicle fertilizer application on lodging resistance and yield of hybrid rice‘ Huiliangyou 2115’ by throwing cultivation had been studied. The results indicated that amount of nitrogen fertilizer application had different effects on the plant height, the lodging resistance traits, the yield component and the production. The rice yield of N4 treatment was the highest. The yield increased by 3258.1 kg/hm2 compared with to the CK. The increase amplitude was 40.7% and reached the extreme significant level.

  16. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  17. Cambodia Rice Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Cambodias rice exports are on a steep upward trajectory, benefiting from import duty preferences and new investments in rice mills and polishing factories. Cambodia’s major export competitors are Thailand and Vietnam. Thailand is a main competitor for fragrant rice, exporting itself ca 2.65 million tons of aromatic rice (including brokens) in 2010/2011. Vietnam is the principal competitor ...

  18. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  19. SUSTENTABILIDADE DE SISTEMAS ORGÂNICOS COM PLANTAS DE COBERTURA NA CULTURA DO ARROZ, POR MEIO DE ALTERAÇÕES FÍSICAS DO SOLO ORGANIC SYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY USING COVER CROPS IN RICE CULTIVATION THROUGH SOIL PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paula de Jesus

    2010-05-01

    ísica intermediária. A porcentagem de agregados com diâmetro maior que 2 mm e o diâmetro médio ponderado dos agregados foram maiores, independentemente de cobertura de solo, na camada 0,10-0,20 m de profundidade. Também, independentemente da cobertura de solo, o conteúdo de matéria orgânica decresceu com a profundidade do solo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantas de cobertura; preparo do solo; porosidade; estabilidade de agregados.

    To evaluate the influence of cover crops on Oxisol physical attributes, in an organic production system with conventional tillage, a study was conducted at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil, for two years, in a succession cover crops-rice, in which cover crops were sown in the autumn/winter and the subsequent crop, rice cultivar Aimoré, was sown in the summer. Five cover crops were used: Velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima, Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, Broom sorghum (Sorghum technicum, and spontaneous vegetation fallowing. A randomized blocks design with four replications was used. In the second year of

  20. Radiation breeding for high protein rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the main food of the people in Thailand as well as in most Asian countries. Most of the recommended rice varieties in Thailand are low in protein content. Protein deficiency is a serious problem of the people in the Northeastern region. Rice breeding for high protein should be practiced to solve this problem. Mutation breeding or the use of induced mutations in rice breeding has been studied for many years. Many successful results have been reported and presently 3 mutant varieties have been released. The parental RD 9 variety is recommended to the farmers due to its high yield resistance to brown plant hopper and moderated resistance to ragged stunt virus disease in the field conditions, even though protein content is moderately low (7 - 8% protein). In 1978, dry seeds of RD 9 were treated with 20 and 30 kilorads of gamma rays at the Office of Thai Atomic Energy for Peace. Higher protein content is the main objective of this mutation breeding. All of the treated seeds were planted in the field at Bangkhen Rice Experiment Station, and were analysed for protein content by the use of Dye Binding Capacity method at the Rice Division. Ninety-two samples of M2 seeds show higher protein content than the original variety RD 9 and they are in the range of 10 - 12 percent protein content. During the year 1979 - 1981, several high protein mutant lines of RD 9 variety were carried on in observation test at Khlong-Luang Rice Experiment Station Pathumthani province. The last wet season 1981, M5 plants were harvested and will be analysed for total protein and some essential amino acids

  1. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  2. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  3. 水稻纹枯病菌拮抗菌的筛选、鉴定及培养条件探索%Screening, Identification and Cultivation Conditions of Microbes Antagonistic to Rice Sheath Blight Fungus Rhizoctonia solani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琦琦; 周登博; 郑丽; 杨媚; 周而勋

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty five bacterial strains and eighty six actinomycete strains were isolated from the samples taken from different soils, plants and Rhizoctonia solani sclerotia. One bacterial and one actinomycete strains with strong antagonistic activities to R. solani were selected by using both agar plate dual culture and fermentation filtrate-amended medium screening methods. Their inhibition rates to mycelial growth of R. solani were 75.56% and 84.07%, respectively, on the two medial plates. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characteristics, NB12 was identified as Bacillus subtilis, and NA1 as Streptomyces triostinicus. The cultivation conditions for antifungal substance production by NB12 were: LB or BPY medium at initial pH 7.0, culture volume at 40 mL/250 mL flask, incubation temperature at 30 ˚C, and shaking rate at 180 r·min−1 for 48 h; whereas those for NA1 were: soybean or soybean–corn powder liquid medium at initial pH 6.0—9.0, culture volume at 130 mL/250 mL flask, incubation temperature at 35 ˚C, and shaking rate at 140 r·min−1 for 72 h or above.%  从不同土壤、植物和水稻纹枯病菌 Rhizoctonia solani 菌核样品上分离到细菌菌株325株和放线菌菌株86株。通过琼脂平板对峙法及发酵滤液介质筛选法,获得了对水稻纹枯病菌具有较强拮抗活性的细菌和放线菌菌株各1株,它们对水稻纹枯病菌菌丝生长的抑制率分别为75.56%和84.07%。采用形态学和生理生化学以及分子生物学方法,将细菌菌株 NB12鉴定为枯草芽胞杆菌 Bacillus subtilis、放线菌菌株 NA1鉴定为 Streptomyces triostinicus。对它们产生抑菌物质的发酵条件进行了探索,明确了菌株 NB12的最佳发酵条件为:初始 pH 7.0的 LB 或 BPY 培养液、装液量40 mL/250 mL、培养温度30℃、摇床转速180 r·min−1、培养时间48 h;菌株 NA1的最佳发酵条件为:初始 pH 6.0~9.0的大豆粉培养液

  4. Effect of supplementing rice straw with water hyacinth on the yield and nutritional qualities of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bandopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of oyster mushroom on the aquatic weed water hyacinth is an eco- friendly way of disposing the problematic weed. In the present work, water hyacinth (without root) has been used as low cost substrate in different combinations with rice-straw for cultivation of Pleurotus florida, P. citrinopileatus and P. pulmonarius to determine the effect of the weed on the biological yield, as well as on nutritional qualities of the mushrooms. Water hyacinth and rice straw (1:1) supported signif...

  5. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  6. Patterns of Asian and non-Asian morbidity in hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, L. J.; Taylor, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of surname, 6418 Asians were identified out of a total of 109 187 deaths and discharges of Leicestershire residents who had been treated in hospitals in the Trent Regional Health Authority over two years. After linkage to Hospital Activity Analysis computerised records, hospital morbidity in Asians and non-Asians was compared. Asian patients in certain age groups were more likely than non-Asian patients to be diagnosed as having asthma; leukaemia; diabetes mellitus; blood, thyroi...

  7. Extensification and Intensification Process of Rainfed Lowland Rice Farming in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Kajisa, Kei; Payongayong, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the extensification and intensification process of rice production in Mozambique’s dominant rice ecology, i.e., rainfed lowland area. Our household-level data show that the potential of extensification is not fully exploited, as only 41% of the cultivable lowland is used for rice. The lack of power predominantly constrains rice area expansion. High potential also exists in land intensification as indicated by the average yield of 2.5 t/ha among the top 25% of rainfed farme...

  8. Weed-Suppressing Effect and Mechanism of Allelopathic Rice Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUFei; KONGChui-hua; XUXiao-hua; ZHANGChao-xian; CHENXiong-hui

    2004-01-01

    Two allelopathic rice accessions, PI312777 and Allelopathy i, significantly suppressed the growth of associated weeds in the field. Moreover, their weed-suppressing effects were correlated with the cultivation patterns. The weed-suppressing effects of throwing and transplanting were more effective than that of direct seeding. Furthermore, the amounts of allelochemicals (resorcinols, flavones and hydroxamic acids) produced and released from two allelopathic rice accessions were much higher than that from a nonallelopathic rice variety Hua-Jing-Xian i, and reached the maximum concentration at the 6th leaf stage. Differences in the weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions appear to result from the accessions producing and releasing different amounts of allelochemicals in the field. Further research confirmed that in PI312777 plants, allelochemicals were synthesized by the above-ground parts, and then secreted through the root tissues. Root tissues of PI312777 plants never produced the allelochemicals. Root exudates from PI312777 could significantly inhibit the growth of E. crus-galli surrounding rice plants in water culture. However, when activated carbon was added to the culture solution, which could absorb allelochemicals from root exudates, the growth of E. crus-galli was no longer significantly inhibited. Weed-suppressing effects of rice accessions depended on allelopathy, cultivation patterns and other factors in rice fields, while allelopathy was one of important factors. Interestingly, the amounts of allelochemicals produced and released from allelopathic rice plants may be induced by the presence of E. crus-galli.This suggests that there is a possible chemical recognition between rice and E. crus-galli.

  9. Transfer of technetium from soil to paddy and upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-plant transfer factors (concentration ratio between the plant and soil) of technetium in paddy and upland rice plants were obtained from laboratory experiments. The transfer factor is one of the most important parameters for environmental radiation dose assessment. Technetium tracer (95mTcO4-) was added to the soil prior to rice cultivation. The transfer factor of technetium for the hulled grains (brown rice) of paddy rice (≤0.0002) was much lower than for that of upland rice (0.021). The transfer factors for both types of hulled grains were much lower than in the leaves. The technetium decontamination rate from hulled grains by polishing was 34%, the percentage of the weight decrease being 12%. The concentration of technetium in the soil solution collected from the paddy rice soil (flooded conditions) decreased rapidly with time due to its adsorption on the soil. In the upland rice soil (non-flooded) solution, the decrease in the technetium concentration was fairly slow. The low transfer factors for the paddy rice plants could be explained by the immobilization of technetium in the flooded soil. The oxidation-reduction potentials (Eh) in the flooded soil decreased rapidly with time. We conclude that technetium tracer added as TcO4- to flooded soil is readily transformed to an insoluble form (e.g.TcO2) under the reducing conditions provided by flooding. (author)

  10. Relationship between Living Rate of Bud and Emeraence Rate of Ratoon Rice and Characteristics of the First Cropping Mid-season Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ZHANG; Hong XIONG; Fuxian XU; Yongchuan ZHU; Xiaoyi GUO; Xingbing ZHOU; Mao LIU

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relationship of plant characters with bud living rate and mother stem emergence rate of ratoon rice before harvest. [Method] Eighteen mid-season hybrid rice cultivators approved recently were taken as materials and relationship of plant characters including bud living rate and moth- er stem emergence rate of ratoon rice before harvest was explored, based on relat- ed data. [Result] The shorter rice with lower harvesting index is the main character of high emergence rate for first cropping rice; decline of plant height and increase of ear-bearing percentage would improve emergence of regenerative seedlings. [Conclusion] The research provided scientific reference for breeding of rice cultivars with high regenerative capacity.

  11. Development and appraisal of economical and sustainable approach for weed management in drill seeded aerobic rice (oryza sativa l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional rice cultivation by puddling and transplanting is a labor intensive activity. Water scarcity is a threat for the sustain ability of transplanted rice. In many areas of Asia, rice transplantation of rice is being replaced by direct seeding as farmers tried to solve the problems of labor cost and water scarcity but weed control is one of the major constraints to direct seeding. So, to control weeds in direct seeded rice present studies were designed. A two years study was conducted to develop sustainable and economical methods for managing weeds in aerobic rice grown by dry direct-seeding at Student's Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the years 2008 and 2009. Experiment was laid out in RCBD with five weed management strategies: hand weeding, hoeing with kasula, inter-row cultivation with tine cultivator, inter-row cultivation with spike hoe and chemical control with Nominee 100 SC along with control (no weeding). Weed dry weight was 300 g m/sup -2/, 257 g m/sup -2/, 225 g m/sup -2/ and 157 g m/sup -2/ less in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. Paddy yield was 221%, 203%, 181% and 105% more in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. (author)

  12. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOLDER RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EBONYI STATE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaobiala C.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated

  13. Impact of Iron and Steel Slag on Crop Cultivation: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Syeda Yuhannatul Humaria

    2014-01-01

    This review paper addresses the issuesto analyze the impacts of Iron and Steel slag on crop cultivation. The use of steel slag in agriculture produces not only economic but also ecological advantages. The value of silicon (Si) application for rice (Oryzasativa) has been demonstrated when soil soluble Si is low.Impact of solid waste on crop cultivation depends on the availability and quantity of different constituents like PH, Ammonia, Nitrites, Nitrates, Permanganate Value (PV), Biochemical O...

  14. [Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and allied species (Fungi: Pleurotaceae) upon semi-sterile natural media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya-Lizano AV

    1988-11-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Quélet and its allies are edible mushrooms whose cultivation is successful in parts of Europe and Asia. In Costa Rica only Agaricus bisporus has been commercially cultured, but requires elaborate facilities. The use of waste material (e.g. sawdust, rice straw, sugar cane debris) and non-controlled environmental conditions suitable for easy artisanal cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus is reported here.

  15. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Marchezi Mora; Adriane Marinho de Assis; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto; Kathia Fernandes Lopes Pivetta; Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2015-01-01

    For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coc...

  16. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities’ richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice ...

  17. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  18. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  19. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  20. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  1. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component ana...

  2. The Asian Face Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2009-01-01

    The face-lift procedure (rhytidectomy) is increasingly popular in Asia. There is extensive literature on different techniques in Western patients. Cultural and anthropomorphologic differences between Asian and Caucasians require the adaptation of current techniques to obtain a satisfactory outcome for both the patient and the surgeon. This article therefore attempts to define important differences between Asians and Caucasians in terms of signs of facial aging, perception of beauty, and surgi...

  3. Genetic enhancement of specialty rice through mutation approach - short grain aromatic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has a rich diversity of widely distributed aromatic rices. They include Basmati, whose cultivation is limited to a marked out geographic zone while the short grain aromatic rices are grown in localized pockets throughout India and with their unique sensory and cooking traits, cater defined groups of consumers in specific niche markets. Some short grain aromatic rices like Dubraj, Durgabhog, Makarkanda, Badshabhog are superior to Basmati in traits like high kernel elongation, high volume expansion and high head rice recovery while Bindli, is superior to Basmati in aroma and grain elongation (∼200%). The well known Kalajeera is known for the retention of aroma even after long storage. Till date, little attention was paid to short grain aromatic rice improvement as all focus was directed towards improvement of Basmati. The less coverage under the short grain aromatic rices can be attributable to their low productivity, long duration and tall plant stature. As high economic returns are feasible with varieties with shorter duration and shorter height with high yield, mutation approach was attempted to induce erect, semi dwarf, non lodging mutants with high yield potential while keeping the unique grain type and cooking quality traits of the parent cultivar. Twelve popular cultivars from different states i.e. Kalanamak, Dubraj, Tulsiphool, Randhunipagal, Badshahbhog, Katrani, Improved Raskadam, Kalajeera, Pimpudibasa, Chinikamini, Dhusara and Kalajoha were subjected to gamma (γ) irradiation. From M2 generation, selection was initiated to isolate mutants with shorter duration and plant height. Mutants with shorter (∼20%) stature derived from Kalanamak, Dubraj, Kalajeera and Chinikamini showed high promise in the evaluation trials. Mutants with shortened duration (∼10d) were also isolated in all these four genotypes. With the isolation of mutants with desirable traits, expansion in area under the short grain aromatic rices is feasible and the expected rice

  4. Genetic Enhancement of Speciality Rice through Induced Mutation - Short-Grain Aromatic Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has a rich diversity of widely distributed aromatic rices. They include Basmati, whose cultivation is limited to a well-demarcated geographic zone, and the short grain aromatic rices that are grown in localized pockets throughout India, which with their unique sensory and cooking traits, cater to defined groups of consumers in specific niche markets. Some short-grain aromatic rices like Dubraj, Durgabhog, Makarkanda, Badshabhog are superior to Basmati in traits like high kernel elongation, high volume expansion and high head rice recovery, while Bindli is superior to Basmati in aroma and grain elongation. Kalajeera is known for the retention of aroma even after long storage. To date, little attention has been paid to short-grain aromatic rice, as the focus was directed towards improvement of Basmati. Less attention to the short-grain aromatic rices can be attributed to their low productivity, long duration and tall plant stature. As high economic returns are feasible with high-yielding varieties with shorter duration and shorter height, a mutagenesis approach was attempted to induce erect, semi dwarf, non-lodging mutants with high yield potential, while keeping the unique grain type and cooking quality traits of the parent cultivar. Twelve popular cultivars from different states (Kalanamak, Dubraj, Tulsiphool, Randhunipagal, Badshahbhog, Katrani, Improved Raskadam, Kalajeera, Pimpudibasa, Chinikamini, Dhusara and Kalajoha) were subjected to gamma (γ) irradiation. From the M2 generation, selection was initiated to isolate mutants with shorter duration and plant height. Mutants with shorter (∼20%) stature derived from Kalanamak, Dubraj, Kalajeera and Chinikamini showed high promise in the evaluation trials. Mutants with shortened duration (∼10d) were also isolated in all the four genotypes. With the isolation of mutants with desirable traits, an expansion in the area under short grain aromatic rices is feasible, and the expected rice surplus can augment

  5. The Asian methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  6. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Caicedo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii bottleneck plus migration model, (iii multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been the dominant demographic model for domesticated species, cannot explain the derived nucleotide polymorphism site frequency spectrum in rice. Instead, a bottleneck model that incorporates selective sweeps, or a more complex demographic model that includes subdivision and gene flow, are more plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that selection results only in a local signature of variation.

  7. Remote sensing based change analysis of rice environments in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Mohanty, Samarendu; Nelson, Andrew; Arnel, Rala; Mohammed, Irshad A; Das, Satya Ranjan

    2015-01-15

    The rainfed rice-growing environment is perhaps one of the most vulnerable to water stress such as drought and floods. It is important to determine the spatial extent of the stress-prone areas to effectively and efficiently promote proper technologies (e.g., stress-tolerant varieties) to tackle the problem of sustainable food production. This study was conducted in Odisha state located in eastern India. Odisha is predominantly a rainfed rice ecosystem (71% rainfed and 29% canal irrigated during kharif-monsoon season), where rice is the major crop and staple food of the people. However, rice productivity in Odisha is one of the lowest in India and a significant decline (9%) in rice cultivated area was observed in 2002 (a drought year). The present study analyzed the temporal rice cropping pattern in various ecosystems and identified the stress-prone areas due to submergence (flooding) and water shortage. The spatial distribution of rice areas was mapped using MODIS (MOD09Q1) 250-m 8-day time-series data (2000-2010) and spectral matching techniques. The mapped rice areas were strongly correlated (R(2) = 90%) with district-level statistics. Also the class accuracy based on field-plot data was 84.8%. The area under the rainfed rice ecosystem continues to dominate, recording the largest share among rice classes across all the years. The use of remote-sensing techniques is rapid, cost-effective, and reliable to monitor changes in rice cultivated area over long periods of time and estimate the reduction in area cultivated due to abiotic stress such as water stress and submergence. Agricultural research institutes and line departments in the government can use these techniques for better planning, regular monitoring of land-use changes, and dissemination of appropriate technologies. PMID:24405761

  8. Effects of Mulching Mode on Canopy Physiological, Ecological Characteristics and Yield of Upland Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhu; LIU Yang; ZENG Xiang; CHEN Kai-lin; HUANG Zc-hui; XIE Hong-ke

    2011-01-01

    The effects of mulching mode on population physiology and ecology of rice were studied using a combination P88S/1128 as the material under three mulching cultivation modes including plastic film mulching,straw mulching and liquid film mulching,as well as bare cultivation (control).The results indicated that mulching mode had significant effects on micro-meteorological factors and individual growth of rice,as shown by an increase of relative humidity,a better internal micro-meteorological environment of rice population,a significant reduction under the rice canopy temperature,especially during high-temperature periods.Rice plants under mulching cultivation conditions displayed a stronger transpiration and lower leaf temperature,thereby improving the ability of anti-high temperature stress and markedly increasing the photosynthetic rate.Furthermore,the yield components of rice were significantly optimized under mulching cultivation,of which with plastic film mulching displayed the highest grain number per panicle and seed-setting rate,and a yield increase of 16.81% compared with the control; and with straw mulching displayed an increase of effective panicle number and a 9.59%increase of total yield compared to the control.

  9. Methane efflux in rice paddy field under different irrigation managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovane Freire Moterle

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice fields may contribute to methane (CH4 emission from soil due to anaerobic conditions after flooding. Alternatives to continuous flooding irrigation in rice have been developed to mitigate CH4 efflux into the atmosphere. This study aims to investigate the effects of irrigation managements in the CH4 efflux during the rice growing season. An experiment was carried out at in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 2007/08 and 2009/10 growing seasons. The treatments were continuous flooding and intermittent irrigation in 2007/08 and continuous flooding, intermittent irrigation and flush irrigation in 2009/10. Intermittent irrigation is effective in mitigating CH4 efflux from rice fields when climatic conditions enable water absence during cultivation, but its efficiency depends on the electrochemical soil conditions during the flooding cycles.

  10. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; YANG Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrati...

  11. Incorporation of whole, ancient grains into a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce the burden of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anjali A; Azar, Kristen Mj; Gardner, Christopher D; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:21790614

  12. Incorporation of Whole, Ancient Grains into a Modern Asian Indian Diet: Practical Strategies to Reduce the Burden of Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anjali A.; Azar, Kristen M. J.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2011-01-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet, in an effort to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:21790614

  13. WTO REFORMS AND RICE MARKET IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bachal Jamali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the WTO reforms and Rice market in Pakistan. Data were collected from the Primary as well secondary sources of the Rice producing countries, and data were analysis by using SPSS-18 version, A structural questionnaire was developed for reliability and validity of the data. It was revealed that from the last five years there is no visible impact on export laid growth but from last three years price shocks was observed in Pakistan, due to increases in the world rice market by 200 percent in various Asian countries. Consumers are facing the price shock problem in Pakistan and world Rice market the statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins specification were about a third of those using the prices specification. The gross margin specification yielded additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities. The analysis indicates that there are lags which are due primarily to the difficulties and cost of rapid adjustment rather than to the time required to revise expectations. The statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities

  14. Mapping paddy rice distribution using multi-temporal Landsat imagery in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cui; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Qin, Yuanwei; Wang, Zongming

    2016-03-01

    Information of paddy rice distribution is essential for food production and methane emission calculation. Phenology-based algorithms have been utilized in the mapping of paddy rice fields by identifying the unique flooding and seedling transplanting phases using multi-temporal moderate resolution (500 m to 1 km) images. In this study, we developed simple algorithms to identify paddy rice at a fine resolution at the regional scale using multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Sixteen Landsat images from 2010-2012 were used to generate the 30 m paddy rice map in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China—one of the major paddy rice cultivation regions in China. Three vegetation indices, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), were used to identify rice fields during the flooding/transplanting and ripening phases. The user and producer accuracies of paddy rice on the resultant Landsat-based paddy rice map were 90% and 94%, respectively. The Landsat-based paddy rice map was an improvement over the paddy rice layer on the National Land Cover Dataset, which was generated through visual interpretation and digitalization on the fine-resolution images. The agricultural census data substantially underreported paddy rice area, raising serious concern about its use for studies on food security.

  15. Economic Analysis of Paddy Rice Production in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadiri, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined economic analysis of paddy rice production in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria in view to determine how profitable the crop is in the study area and how inputs or resources used in paddy rice production significantly affect the crop’s production. The data for the study was collected from 300 rice farmers in three out of nine states in the region based on their intensity in rice production in the study area using multistage and simple random sampling technique. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, multiple regression model and profitability model. Rice production was found to be profitable as farmers realized ₦300,071.84 as Net farm Income. It was also found that resources used in paddy rice production significantly affect paddy rice production. The result indicated that mean age of paddy rice farmers was 49 years, the mean farming experience was 17 years while mean cultivated land was 2.32 hectares It was recommended that Reviewing the Land Use Act of 1990 is critical so that most of the fertile land held by government will be released to rice farmers, also providing skilled labour required in rice production and easy evacuation of farm produce will go a long way in increasing the production of paddy rice in the study area.

  16. Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Weedy Rice in Taizhou City,Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Juan; Nilda R. BURGOS; MA Kun; ZHOU Yong-jun; GENG Rui-mei; YU Liu-qing

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellite markers and morphological charactedstics were used to explore the genetic diversity and possible origin of weedy dce in Taizhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Fifty-two weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions were compared with two wild rice, four hybdd rice and five cultivars using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. A total of 107 fragments were amplified, averaging 5.6 alleles per primer pair. The polymorphic index content (PIC) values ranged from 0.3077 to 0.7951, averaging at 0.5870. The average genetic distance of all samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.46 with an average of 0.262. The genetic distance among Taizhou weedy rice ranged from 0.03 to 0.44 with an average of 0.224. Cluster analysis showed that all the weedy rice accessions from Taizhou City were indica, and could be subdivided into different genotypes. The majority (86%) of weedy rice was most closely related to hybrid rice. The Taizhou weedy dce accessions were morphologically similar, but still could be delineated into indica or japonica group by some morphological traits. it is suggested that the levels of genetic and morphological diversities of weedy rice in Taizhou City are low and these weedy rice plants originated from the segregating progenies of hybrid rice that had naturally introgressed with cultivated rice.

  17. Produtividade do arroz irrigado por aspersão em função do espaçamento e da densidade de semeadura Yield of upland rice cultivated under sprinkler irrigation as a function of row spacing and seed density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALEXANDRE COSTA CRUSCIOL

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de três espaçamentos entre fileiras (30, 40 e 50 cm e três densidades de semeadura (100, 150 e 200 sementes viáveis/m² sobre o desenvolvimento da planta, os componentes da produção e a produtividade do arroz irrigado por aspersão até a tensão de reposição de água de -0,070 MPa, foi instalado um experimento em condições de campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, epieutrófico, textura argilosa, em Selvíria, MS. A cultivar avaliada foi a IAC 201. Esta cultivar apresenta suscetibilidade ao acamamento, no sistema de irrigação por aspersão, até uma tensão de reposição de água, no solo, de -0,070 Mpa. O número de colmos e de panículas é incrementado com a redução do espaçamento. A densidade de 100 sementes/m² é a mais indicada para a cultivar IAC 201 irrigada por aspersão, por proporcionar menor gasto de sementes. O espaçamento de 30 cm entre fileiras de plantas proporciona maior produtividade de grãos da cultivar IAC 201 no sistema de irrigação por aspersão.Plant development, plant phenology, yield components and grain yield of upland rice, cv. IAC 201, submitted to three different row spacings (30, 40 and 50 cm and densities (100, 150 and 200 viable seeds/m² were studied. The experiment was set under field conditions in a Dark-Red Latosol, loamy texture, in Selvíria, MS, Brazil, under sprinkler irrigation conditions with water replacement tension of -0.070 MPa. The number of stalks and panicles per area increased with row spacing reduction; density of 100 viable seeds/m² is more indicated for IAC 201 cultivated under sprinkler irrigation conditions, because seed spend is smaller; row spacing of 30 cm allowed the maximum grain yield.

  18. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  19. Impact of increasing mean air temperature on the development of rice and red rice Impacto do aumento na temperatura média do ar sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz e do arroz-vermelho

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Lago; Nereu Augusto Streck; Cleber Maus Alberto; Felipe Brendler Oliveira; Gizelli Moiano de Paula

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the development response of cultivated rice and red rice to different increases in minimum and maximum daily air temperatures, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. One hundred years climate scenarios of temperatures 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, and +5ºC, with symmetric and asymmetric increases in minimum and maximum daily air temperatures were created, using the LARS-WG Weather Generator, and a 1969-2003 database. Nine cultivated rice genotypes (IRG...

  20. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  1. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y; Y. Tao; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; S. Lin; K. Butterbach-Bahl

    2014-01-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere–atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better un...

  2. Rice-gall midge interactions: Battle for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Jagadish S; Rawat, Nidhi; Divya, D; Sinha, Deepak K; Agarrwal, Ruchi; Atray, Isha; Nair, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gall midges are insects specialized in maneuvering plant growth, metabolic and defense pathways for their benefit. The Asian rice gall midge and rice share such an intimate relationship that there is a constant battle for survival by either partner. Diverse responses by the rice host against the midge include necrotic hypersensitive resistance reaction, non-hypersensitive resistance reaction and gall-forming compatible interaction. Genetic studies have revealed that major R (resistance) genes confer resistance to gall midge in rice. Eleven gall midge R genes have been characterized so far in different rice varieties in India. In addition, no single R gene confers resistance against all the seven biotypes of the Asian rice gall midge, and none of the biotypes is virulent against all the resistance genes. Further, the interaction of the plant resistance gene with the insect avirulence gene is on a gene-for-gene basis. Our recent investigations involving suppressive subtraction hybridization cDNA libraries, microarray analyses, gene expression assays and metabolic profiling have revealed several molecular mechanisms, metabolite markers and pathways that are induced, down-regulated or altered in the rice host during incompatible or compatible interactions with the pest. This is also true for some of the pathways studied in the gall midge. Next generation sequencing technology, gene expression studies and conventional screening of gall midge cDNA libraries highlighted molecular approaches adopted by the insect to feed, survive and reproduce. This constant struggle by the midge to overcome the host defenses and the host to resist the pest has provided us with an opportunity to observe this battle for survival at the molecular level. PMID:26455891

  3. CFD Analysis of Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Rice Husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi Inder; Mohapatra, S. K.; Gangacharyulu, D.

    Rice is Cultivated in all the main regions of world. The worldwide annual rice production could be 666million tons (www.monstersandcritics.com,2008) for year 2008. The annual production of rice husk is 133.2 million tons considering rice husk being 20% of total paddy production. The average annual energy potential is 1.998 *1012 MJ of rice husk considering 15MJ/kg of rice husk. India has vast resource of rice husk; a renewable source of fuel, which if used effectively would reduce the rate of depletion of fossil energy resources. As a result a new thrust on research and development in boilers bases on rice husk is given to commercialize the concept. CFD is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of computer-based simulation. High quality Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective engineering tool for Power Engineering Industry. It can determine detailed flow distributions, temperatures, and pollutant concentrations with excellent accuracy, and without excessive effort by the software user. In the other words it is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions and related phenomena; and an innovate strategy to conform to regulations and yet stay ahead in today's competitive power market. This paper is divided into two parts; in first part review of CFD applied to the various types of boilers based on biomass fuels/alternative fuels is presented. In second part CFD analysis of fluidized bed boilers based on rice husk considering the rice husk based furnace has been discussed. The eulerian multiphase model has used for fluidized bed. Fluidized bed has been modeled using Fluent 6.2 commercial code. The effect of numerical influence of bed superheater tubes has also been discussed.

  4. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    Consumers throughout the world have gained familiarity with the seaweed nori (porphyra spp) thanks to the popularity of Asian cuisine, particularly Japanese sushi. Few actually know much about the people who produce this seaweed, however. This article presents qualitative social science research...

  5. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  6. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  7. Suppression of Magnaporthe oryzae and interaction between Bacillus subtilis and rice plants in the control of rice blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yuexia; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative pathogen of rice blast, has caused extensive losses to rice cultivation worldwide. Strains of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis have been used as biocontrol agents against rice blast. However, little has been reported about the interaction between B. subtilis and the rice plant and its mechanism of action. Here, the colonization process and induced disease resistance by B. subtilis SYX04 and SYX20 in rice plants was examined. Strains of B. subtilis labeled with green fluorescent protein reached population of more than 5 × 10(6) CFU/g after 20 days on mature rice leaves and were detected after 3 days on newly grown leaves. Results showed that SYX04 and SYX20 not only inhibited spore germination, germ tube length, and appressorial formation but also caused a series of alterations in the structures of hyphae and conidia. The cell walls and membrane structures of the fungus showed ultrastructural abnormalities, which became severely degraded as observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The mixture of both B. subtilis and M. oryzae resulted in enhanced activity of peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase while there was significantly more superoxide dismutase activity in plants that had been sprayed with B. subtilis alone. The present study suggests that colonized SYX04 and SYX20 strains protected rice plants and exhibited antifungal activity and induced systemic resistance, thus indicating their potential biological control agents. PMID:27536521

  8. Impacts of irrigated rice production on the water quality of the Paraíba do Sul river - Taubaté region, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geanini Peres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The urban, industrial and agricultural growth of the cities across Taubaté region influences water quality of Paraíba do Sul river. Due to the importance for human life quality, economic development and environmental sustainability it is necessary to keep water quality control of this river. In this study, physical, chemical and biochemical attributes of rice cultivation were analyzed in the Paraiba do Sul river water in the Taubaté region. The analyses were made during the rice growing season. The results showed that the practice of rice cultivation increased the pollution level of Paraíba do Sul river. Due to rice cultivation, fertilizers and organic matter were introduced in the river waters demonstrating that fertilization practices require rigid control for wetland rice production.

  9. Tackling Water Scarcity in Bangladesh – A Lesson from the Country’s Rice Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Nasima Tanveer Chowdhury

    2010-01-01

    In many parts of Bangladesh water scarcity is a seasonal problem. An assessment is done to understand whether water is being used efficiently for the cultivation of one of the most important food crops in the country, boro rice.

  10. A Bentazon and Sulfonylurea-sensitive Mutant in Rice and its Application in Hybrid Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rice bentazon-lethal mutant 8077S obtained by radiation, is being utilized in developing new hybrid rice systems. Genetic analysis revealed that the bentazon-lethal mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene, which is named bel. The mutant can be killed at the seedling stage by bentazon with a lethal dosage at 300 mg/l or above, while this dosage is safe for its F1 hybrids and all other normal rice. This mutant is also sensitive to all the tested sulfonylurea herbicides and this sensitivity is also controlled by bel. Interestingly, another rice bentazon-lethal mutant Norin8m also obtained by radiation in Japan, was controlled by the allelic locus of bel, which is named as bsl. These two mutant genes were cloned by map-based cloning. Both mutant alleles had a single-base deletion respectively. There is a G deletion in the bel. and a C deletion in the bsl. The wild-type gene bel. encodes a novel cytochrome P450 monooxgenase, named CYP81A6. Otherwise, the use of photo-thermogenic male sterility (P/TGMS) system in two-line hybrid rice breeding is affected greatly by the sterility instability of P/TGMS lines caused by temperature fluctuation beyond their critical temperatures for fertility reversion. To prevent the hybrid seed contamination, we have developed three bentazon-lethal P/TGMS lines using 8077S by backcross and three new hybrid rice varieties using these P/TGMS lines had been registered. When these P/TGMS lines selfed by temperature fluctuation, the seedlings from the selfed seeds can be killed by spraying bentazon at seedling stage but the hybrid seedlings are safety. These new hybrid rice varieties have been cultivated in five provinces in China. (author)

  11. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between As...

  12. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  13. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  14. Using artificial neural network and satellite data to predict rice yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-09-01

    Rice production in Bangladesh is a crucial part of the national economy and providing about 70 percent of an average citizen's total calorie intake. The demand for rice is constantly rising as the new populations are added in every year in Bangladesh. Due to the increase in population, the cultivation land decreases. In addition, Bangladesh is faced with production constraints such as drought, flooding, salinity, lack of irrigation facilities and lack of modern technology. To maintain self sufficiency in rice, Bangladesh will have to continue to expand rice production by increasing yield at a rate that is at least equal to the population growth until the demand of rice has stabilized. Accurate rice yield prediction is one of the most important challenges in managing supply and demand of rice as well as decision making processes. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to construct a model to predict Aus rice yield in Bangladesh. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based remote sensing satellite data vegetation health (VH) indices (Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) are used as input variables and official statistics of Aus rice yield is used as target variable for ANN prediction model. The result obtained with ANN method is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%. Therefore, prediction can play an important role in planning and storing of sufficient rice to face in any future uncertainty.

  15. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  16. Research on genetics of rice heading date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heading date is one of the most important traits for rice adaptation to cultivation area and crop seasons, and it is mainly determined by photoperiod, basic vegetative growth, and temperature of cultivars. The diversity of combinations of photo-sensitive varieties and the basic vegetative, makes the heading date varied. On one hand, this supplies abundant resources for different ecotypes breeding; on the other hand, it complicates the inheritance of heading date. In recent years, transgression of late maturity has often been encountered, especially between indica and japonica subspecies, this had inhabited the use of hybrid vigor. Therefore, understanding the inheritance basis of heading date is very important for breeding practices.

  17. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  18. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  19. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  20. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  1. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  2. Asian-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants provided cheap…

  3. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: info@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  4. The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Keywords: tropical Savannah, biochar, soil fertility, aerobic rice, grain yield, N2O emission Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (2015). The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English, Dutch and Portuguese,  160 pp. Rice is a staple food for 3 billion people in the world. In Brazil, rice is a traditional staple food mostly cultivated by smallh...

  5. Cost – Benefit Analysis of Different Rice Cropping systems in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    ARAYAPHONG, SUPISRA

    2012-01-01

    System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been introduced and practiced throughout Thailand. However, the conventional transplanting system is well-accepted among Thai farmers over the country. This paper quantifies and compares costs and benefits of SRI and the conventional system of rice cultivation in Thailand to find the best system for a farmer, the environment and a society. The scope of this paper includes a farmer’s profit, the environmental damages and a society’s net benefits categor...

  6. Remote Sensing Based Methane Emission Inventory Vis-A-Vis Rice Cultural Types Of South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath, K. R.; More, R.; P. Chauhan; Vyas, A.; S. Panigrahy; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Rice cultivation has been recognized as one of the major anthropogenic source for methane (CH4) emissions which is a microbial mediated anaerobic activity, mainly favoured by the flooded conditions in the rice fields. Information available on CH4 emission is limited, especially in a spatial domain, mainly because of the complexity involved in generating such data. The current approach demonstrates the use of secondary data sources available on the methane emission scaling factors, co...

  7. Prospects for Rice Yield Improvement in the Post-Green Revolution Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    P. L. Pingali; P. F. Moli; L. E. Velasco

    1990-01-01

    Evidence from farm level and experimental data from the Philippines indicates a trend towards stagnation and/or decline in irrigated rice yield when intensively cultivated, even under scientific management on experiment station. Given current rice technology, there is a minimal yield gap between the experiment station and the "best" irrigated farms in the Philippines. if the current yield frontier does not shift outwards, the long-term prospects are for stagnation and/or decline in the farm y...

  8. The determinants of technology adoption: a case of the rice sector in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Yuko; Kajisa, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Using an extensive household-level data set collected in Tanzania, this paper investigates the determinants of technology adoption in rice cultivation by focusing on the role of credit. We find that credit enhances fertilizer use and the adoption of labor-intensive agronomic practices such as transplanting in rows and plot leveling. Based on these findings, we argue that with appropriate policies including credit, a rice Green Revolution can improve the productivity of small-scale farmers in ...

  9. Development of a Remote Sensing-Based “Boro” Rice Mapping System

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa K. Mosleh; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods across the world, thus information about its production is essential for ensuring food security. Here, our objective was to develop a method for mapping “boro” rice (i.e., cultivated during the months January to May) in a Bangladeshi context. In this paper, we used a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived 16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at 250 m spatial resolution in conjunction with ancillary datasets (i...

  10. The Power of Inbreeding: NGS-Based GWAS of Rice Reveals Convergent Evolution during Rice Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Xu, Xun; Vieira, Filipe Garrett; Xiao, Yunhua; Li, Zhikang; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus; Chu, Chengcai

    2016-07-01

    Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing is an effective strategy for genome-wide association studies in humans, due to the availability of large reference panels for genotype imputation. However, it is unclear whether this strategy can be utilized in other species without reference panels. Using simulations, we show that this approach is even more relevant in inbred species such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), which are effectively haploid, allowing easy haplotype construction and imputation-based genotype calling, even without the availability of large reference panels. We sequenced 203 rice varieties with well-characterized phenotypes from the United States Department of Agriculture Rice Mini-Core Collection at an average depth of 1.5× and used the data for mapping three traits. For the first two traits, amylose content and seed length, our approach leads to direct identification of the previously identified causal SNPs in the major-effect loci. For the third trait, pericarp color, an important trait underwent selection during domestication, we identified a new major-effect locus. Although known loci can explain color variation in the varieties of two main subspecies of Asian domesticated rice, japonica and indica, the new locus identified is unique to another domesticated rice subgroup, aus, and together with existing loci, can fully explain the major variation in pericarp color in aus. Our discovery of a unique genetic basis of white pericarp in aus provides an example of convergent evolution during rice domestication and suggests that aus may have a domestication history independent of japonica and indica. PMID:27179918

  11. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  12. Potential of rice straw for bio-refining: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Amith; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Sindhu, Raveendran; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2016-09-01

    The biorefinery approach for the production of fuels and chemicals is gaining more and more attraction in recent years. The major advantages of biorefineries are the generation of multiple products with complete utilization of biomass with zero waste generation. Moreover the process will be economically viable when it targets low volume high value products in addition to high volume low value products like bioethanol. The present review discuss about the potential of rice straw based biorefinery. Since rice is a major staple food for many Asian countries, the utilization of the rice straw residue for fuel and chemicals would be very economical. The review focuses the availability and the potential of this residue for the production of fuel and other high value chemicals. PMID:27067674

  13. Comparative metabolomic analysis reveals a reactive oxygen species-dominated dynamic model underlying chilling environment adaptation and tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Luo, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, Yunyuan; Song, Shuhui; Chong, Kang

    2016-09-01

    Cold, a major environmental stress for plants, has been studied intensively for decades. Its response system has been revealed, especially at the transcriptional level. The mechanisms underlying recovery growth and environmental adaptation, however, remain unknown. Taking advantage of a naturally existing system, two subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) with significant divergence in chilling tolerance, we analyzed representative japonica and indica varieties, Nipponbare and 93-11, using comparative metabolomic analysis at six time points covering chilling treatment and recovery. In total, 223 known metabolites were detected. During chilling treatment, significant biochemical changes were centered on antioxidation. During recovery, a wide-ranging chilling response was observed. Large-scale amino acid accumulation occurred, consistent with the appearance of chilling injury. At the mid-treatment stage, the accumulation of antioxidation-related compounds appeared earlier in Nipponbare than in 93-11, consistent with the higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in japonica vs indica varieties. A significant contribution of ROS-mediated gene regulation, rather than the C-repeat binding factor/dehydration-responsive-element binding factor (CBF/DREB) regulon, to the more vigorous transcriptional stress response in Nipponbare was revealed by RNA-seq. Accordingly, during recovery, the induction of stress-tolerant-related metabolites was more active in the chilling-tolerant variety Nipponbare. Senescence-related compounds accumulated only in the chilling-sensitive variety 93-11. Our study uncovers the dynamic metabolic models underlying chilling response and recovery, and reveals a ROS-dominated rice adaptation mechanism to low-temperature environments. PMID:27198693

  14. Biowaste fuels South-East Asian COGEN schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on the COGEN Programme of the European Commission in association with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and considers the benefits of using biowaste for the production of energy using cogeneration with the corresponding reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. The substitution of rice husks for the fuel in a cogeneration plant at a Thai rice mill, and the combustion of wood in the cogeneration plant at the Homet Raya plant in Malaysia are described, and details are given of the backgrounds to the projects, locations, the technologies used, and the process economics. The next phase of the COGEN programme due to start in 1998 which will see the programme expanded to include coal-fired and gas-fired cogeneration projects is discussed

  15. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  16. Genome of Pseudomonas sp. FeS53a, a Putative Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Associated with Rice Grown in Iron-Stressed Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rocheli; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Ambrosini, Adriana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. FeS53a was isolated from the roots of rice plants cultivated in one area with a well-established history of iron toxicity. The FeS53a genome sequence provides the genetic basis for understanding its lifestyle and survival in association with rice in conditions of iron toxicity. PMID:25838496

  17. Genome of Pseudomonas sp. FeS53a, a Putative Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Associated with Rice Grown in Iron-Stressed Soils

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Rocheli; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Ambrosini, Adriana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. FeS53a was isolated from the roots of rice plants cultivated in one area with a well-established history of iron toxicity. The FeS53a genome sequence provides the genetic basis for understanding its lifestyle and survival in association with rice in conditions of iron toxicity.

  18. Integrated Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Analysis Identifies Important Traits and Mechanisms Associated with Differential Response of Rice Genotypes to Elevated Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sailaja, Boghireddy; Subrahmanyam, Desiraju; Neelamraju, Sarla; Vishnukiran, Turaga; Rao, Yadavalli Venkateswara; Vijayalakshmi, Pujarula; Voleti, Sitapati R.; Bhadana, Vijai P.; Mangrauthia, Satendra K.

    2015-01-01

    In changing climatic conditions, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in 11 popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS), antio...

  19. Rice trade liberalization and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Ashok; Narayanan, Sudha

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the lifeline of almost 70% of the world's poor residing in Asia, where more than 90% of world rice production and consumption takes place. Rice trade liberalization therefore has tremendous implications for poverty. The world rice market is highly distorted, partly because of the high degree of intervention in rice markets across the world. While poor countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, and India tend to “disprotect” rice sectors, the rich countries of East Asia (Japan and Korea), Eu...

  20. Estrutura fitossociológia de um fragmento natural de floresta inundável em área de orizicultura irrigada, município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins Phytosociologial structure of a natural fragment of floodplain forest in area of irrigated rice cultivation, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rodrigues Brito

    2006-10-01

    , inserted in area of irrigated rice cultivation. For the phytosociological survey, all the tree/shrub individuals with perimeter at 1.30m (PBH > 15 cm were sampled. On the whole, 807 individuals, 35 families and 70 species were sampled. The species with higher VC, in descending order, were Hirtella racemosa Lam., Qualea multiflora Mart. and Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. The richest families in species were Fabaceae (9, Vochysiaceae (6, Annonaceae and Malvaceae (4. The Shannon diversity index (H' was 3.44. The distribution of diameter classes showed an inverted "J" curve, with most of the individuals being in the first class.

  1. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  2. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  3. Multiple loci and epistases control genetic variation for seed dormancy in weedy rice (Oryza sativa).

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Xing-You; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Foley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Weedy rice has much stronger seed dormancy than cultivated rice. A wild-like weedy strain SS18-2 was selected to investigate the genetic architecture underlying seed dormancy, a critical adaptive trait in plants. A framework genetic map covering the rice genome was constructed on the basis of 156 BC(1) [EM93-1 (nondormant breeding line)//EM93-1/SS18-2] individuals. The mapping population was replicated using a split-tiller technique to control and better estimate the environmental variation. ...

  4. Effects of Salt Stress on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Some Kenyan Rice Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four rice cultivars (Basmati-217, BW-196, Sindano and Ita-310) were subjected to increasing substrate salinity (0-1.5 Sm-1 ECe), under both laboratory and soil experiments. The salt stress significantly (P -1 ECe) completely inhibited germination in potted soil, but not petri dish tests in the laboratory.It was concluded that the three rice cultivars are susceptible to even mild substrate salinity, and cannot be relied upon for cultivation in saline soils. There is a need to assess the response many of the rice cvv for resistance to salt stress, and, if possible isolate and develop high yielding, resistant cultivars

  5. Fusarium spp. associated with rice Bakanae: ecology, genetic diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, E.G.; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Lubeck, M.;

    2010-01-01

    African and Asian populations of Fusarium spp. (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex) associated with Bakanae of rice (Oryzae sativa L.) were isolated from seeds and characterized with respect to ecology, phylogenetics, pathogenicity and mycotoxin production. Independent of the origin, Fusarium spp....... were detected in the different rice seed samples with infection rate ranges that varied from 0.25% to 9%. Four Fusaria (F. andiyazi, F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides) were found associated with Bakanae of rice. While three of the Fusaria were found in both African and Asian seed...... samples, F. fujikuroi was only detected in seed samples from Asia. Phylogenetic studies showed a broad genetic variation among the strains that were distributed into four different genetic clades. Pathogenicity tests showed that all strains reduced seed germination and possessed varying ability to cause...

  6. Changes in Soil Properties of Paddy Fields Across A Cultivation Chronosequence in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-Pei; ZHANG Tao-Lin; LI De-Cheng; B.VELDE; HAN Feng-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    Rice production plays a crucial role ia the food supply of China and a better understanding of the changes in paddy soil fertility and the management effects is of practical importance for increasing rice productivity. In this study, field sampling in a typical red soil region of subtropical China, Jiangxi Province, was used to observe changes in the soil physical, chemical,and biological properties in a cultivation chronosequence of paddy fields. After cultivation, clay (< 0.002 mm) content in the soil, which was 39% in the original uncultivated wasteland, decreased to 17% in the 80-year paddy field, while silt(0.02-0.002 mm) content increased. Additionally, macroporosity increased and pore shapes became more homogeneous.Soil pH generally increased. Soil organic C and total N contents of the 0-10 cm layer increased from 4.58 and 0.39 g kg-1to 19.6 and 1.62 g kg-1, respectively, in the paddy fields after 30-year cultivation and then remained stable. Soil total P content increased from 0.5 to 1.3 g kg-1 after 3 years of rice cultivation, indicating that application of phosphate fertilizer could accelerate phosphorous accumulation in the soil. Total K content in the 0-10 cm soil layer for the 80-year paddy field decreased by 28% compared to that of the uncultivated wasteland land. Total Fe and free Fe contents declined with years of cultivation. The bacterial population increased and urease activity noticeably intensified after years of cultivation.In this chronosequence it appeared that it took 30 years to increase soil fertility to a relatively constant value that was seen after 80 years of cultivation.

  7. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Swee Keong Yeap; Boon Kee Beh; Joan Kong; Wan Yong Ho; Hamidah Mohd Yusof; Nurul Elyani Mohamad; Aminuddin bin Hussin; Indu Bala Jaganath; Noorjahan Banu Alitheen; Anisah Jamaluddin; Kamariah Long

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities w...

  8. Investigating Market Integration and Price Transmission of Different Rice Qualities in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Chizari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice production in most of Asian countries has been increased more rapidly than population and this has been led to increase in supply and proportionately decrease in the real price of rice in world and domestic markets. Furthermore, together with growth in production and national gross income of the country per-capita income has been increased and also demand for rice at national and international level quality has been increased. In this case studying the market conditions of different qualities of rice including marketing margins, causative relations among the prices, market integrations in long term and finally price transferring and market integration in short term is the important consequence that can help policymakers and planners in their decision makings on research, production, distribution and marketing of rice strategic product. So, using the statistics from Jihad Agriculture Organization of Guilan Province in case of the price of rice qualities (items including Sadri momtaz (S1, Sadri darge yek (S2, Sadri mamooli (S3 and Khazar (K1 during 1999-2009 market conditions of different qualities of rice was studied. Results show that impulses in wholesale prices in Khazar rice rapidly influence on-farm prices, however, in case of other rice qualities the rate and speed of this influence is low. But in wholesale-retail market for Sadri quality rice impulses influence strongly in wholesale price and this shows intense integration of these two rice markets in Iran. It is suggested that according to the different quality of rice verities, support policy design and decision making process assigned separately

  9. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  10. Asian material culture

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This exciting, richly illustrated volume gives the reader a unique insight into the materiality of Asian cultures and the ways in which objects and practices can simultaneously embody and exhibit aesthetic and functional characteristics, everyday and spiritual aspirations. Material culture is examined from a variety of perspectives and the authors rigorously investigate the creation and meaning of material object, and their associated practices within the context of time and place. All chapte...

  11. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  12. Agrobiodiversity of Muda Rice Agroecosystem:A case Study in Largest Granary Area of Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Shah Ruddin Md Shah; Mashhor Mansor; Shahrul Anuar Mohd Shah; Che Salmah Mohd Rawi; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Ibrahim Jaafar

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out at the largest rice cultivation area in Peninsular Malaysia, the Muda rice agroecosystem. The main objective of this study was to document the overall biodiversity associated with this unique agroecosystem by using a combination of sampling techniques in order to record different groups of fauna and flora. The total number of biota recorded and identified from the rice field ecosystem during the study period consisted of 46 species of zooplankton, 81 species of aquatic insects, 5 species of rodents, 7 species of bats, 87 species of birds, 11 species of fishes and 58 species of weeds. A long-term study should be carried out as more species are expected to be recorded when more of the Muda rice agroecosystem area has been sampled to obtain sufficient information on the Muda rice agrobiodiversity.

  13. Morphological and molecular variation of five rice varieties to Ultra Violet-B radiation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John De Britto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the major rice producing countries. Rice cultivation is affected by several factors such as climate, soil pollution, UV radiation etc. The present study is an attempt made to understand the morphological variation and molecular variation through SDS-PAGE in five different rice varieties induced with UV-B stress. Five varieties of rice were irradiated with UV-B for 10, 20 and 30 min and a set was maintained as control for every variety. Morphological variations were estimated using morphometric analysis that showed significant variation in stressed and controlled sets. The leaf protein was separated through SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and molecular weight markers were used to calculate the molecular weight of the proteins. UV treated varieties had the lowest record based on the banding pattern than the control. These results show that the UV radiation could induce both phenotypic and genotypic changes in rice.

  14. Factors affecting the income from major crops in rice-wheat ecological zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture is an important sector of our economy. About twenty-two percent of national income and 44.8 percent of total employment is generated by this sector. About 66 percent of country's population is living in rural areas and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. It also supplies raw materials to industry. The rice-wheat zone of Punjab covers 1.1 million hectare, 72% of wheat is grown in rotation with rice. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of different factors on the productivity and ultimately on income from of major crops (wheat, rice and sugar-cane) in rice-wheat ecological zone. The results show that for wheat crop, land preparation, use of fertilizer and chemicals, for Sugarcane crop, area under cultivation, fertilizer and chemical costs and for rice crop, applications of chemicals, irrigation and land holding were the main determinants of productivity and crop income. (author)

  15. Improvement results of rice (Oryza glaberima) by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mali, rice (Orzya glaberima) is still largely cultivated under conditions of natural semi-controlled submersion. To improve productivity the local varieties have been gradually replaced by new varieties, but the yields of these became lower because of the irregularity of the rain and the comparative weakness of the strain. For this reason a programme to improve the local varieties by means of gamma radiation has been undertaken. This document presents the results obtained to date

  16. Evaluation of spectral reflectance of seven Iranian rice varieties canopies

    OpenAIRE

    Darvishsefat, A A; Abbasi, M.; Schaepman, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Rice cultivated areas and yield information is indispensable for sustainable management and economic policy making for this strategic food crop. Introduction of high spectral and special resolution satellite data has enabled production of such information in a timely and accurate manner. Knowledge of the spectral reflectance of various land covers is a prerequisite for their identification and study. Evaluation of the spectral reflectance of plants using field spectroradiometry provides the p...

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping; Cui, Fenglei; Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated) and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26752408

  18. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  19. A built-in mechanism to mitigate the spread of insect-resistance and herbicide-tolerance transgenes into weedy rice populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM rice (Oryza sativa at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea. The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m(2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F(2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13 and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations.

  20. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700-500 BC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Deng

    Full Text Available Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds, from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres, producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa between 6300-6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato. In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum. Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum in the Late Longshan levels (2200-1800 BC. Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north.

  1. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700–500 BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300–6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200–1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  2. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  3. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  4. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  5. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  6. Dissipation gradients of phenanthrene and pyrene in the Rice rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y.; Wu, S.C.; Yu, X.Z. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China)

    2010-08-15

    An experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of rice cultivation as well as polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates (PAHs) degrading bacterium (Acinetobacter sp.) on the dissipation gradients of two PAHs (PHE and PYR) in the rhizosphere. The results showed that the presence of rice root and bacteria significantly accelerated the dissipation rate of PHE and PYR. The root exudates contributed to the formation of dissipation gradients of PHE and PYR along the vertical direction of roots, with a higher dissipation rate in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere zone than the soil far away the rhizosphere. - The formation of dissipation gradients of PAHs were attributed to the presence of rice root and the degrading bacteria in paddy soil.

  7. Dissipation gradients of phenanthrene and pyrene in the Rice rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of rice cultivation as well as polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates (PAHs) degrading bacterium (Acinetobacter sp.) on the dissipation gradients of two PAHs (PHE and PYR) in the rhizosphere. The results showed that the presence of rice root and bacteria significantly accelerated the dissipation rate of PHE and PYR. The root exudates contributed to the formation of dissipation gradients of PHE and PYR along the vertical direction of roots, with a higher dissipation rate in the rhizosphere and near rhizosphere zone than the soil far away the rhizosphere. - The formation of dissipation gradients of PAHs were attributed to the presence of rice root and the degrading bacteria in paddy soil.

  8. The oryza map alignment project: the golden path to unlocking the genetic potential of wild rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rod A; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Luo, Meizhong; Kim, Hyeran; Yu, Yeisoo; Kudrna, Dave; Goicoechea, Jose L; Wang, Wenming; Nelson, Will; Rao, Kiran; Brar, Darshan; Mackill, Dave J; Han, Bin; Soderlund, Cari; Stein, Lincoln; SanMiguel, Phillip; Jackson, Scott

    2005-09-01

    The wild species of the genus Oryza offer enormous potential to make a significant impact on agricultural productivity of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. To unlock the genetic potential of wild rice we have initiated a project entitled the 'Oryza Map Alignment Project' (OMAP) with the ultimate goal of constructing and aligning BAC/STC based physical maps of 11 wild and one cultivated rice species to the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project's finished reference genome--O. sativa ssp. japonica c. v. Nipponbare. The 11 wild rice species comprise nine different genome types and include six diploid genomes (AA, BB, CC, EE, FF and GG) and four tetrapliod genomes (BBCC, CCDD, HHKK and HHJJ) with broad geographical distribution and ecological adaptation. In this paper we describe our strategy to construct robust physical maps of all 12 rice species with an emphasis on the AA diploid O. nivara--thought to be the progenitor of modern cultivated rice. PMID:16217601

  9. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  10. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother. PMID:8109248

  11. Monitoring and Management of Imidazolinone-Resistant Red Rice (Oryza sativa L., var. sylvatica in Clearfield® Italian Paddy Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scarabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction in Italy of Clearfield® rice cultivars carrying imidazolinone-resistant traits provides an efficient option to control red rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice. However, despite the promulgation of specific guidelines for Clearfield® technology management, imazamox red rice survivors have been reported by farmers. Forty-two fields were monitored in 2010 and 2011 throughout the Piedmont and Lombardy regions and field cases were recorded of herbicides use and agronomic practices. Whole-plant sensitivity to imazamox was assessed and the resistance mechanism was determined by molecular analysis. Twenty-six red rice populations out of 42 were imazamox-resistant and plants of all the resistant populations possess a Ser to Asn substitution at locus 653 of the ALS gene determining the target-site resistance. Farmers frequently grow Clearfield® varieties for more than two consecutive years so increasing the selection pressure exerted by imazamox and favoring the evolution of resistant red rice. To maintain the sustainability of this new technology, a proper management based on crop rotation, utilization of certified seeds and strict control of red rice escapes has to be implemented. More generally, all stakeholders must increase their awareness that the selection pressure exerted by ALS inhibitors in rice cropping system should be reduced.

  12. Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EikoNakazono-Nagaoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. In an effort to improve control, many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA-interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral “Achilles’ heel” gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.

  13. Phenotypic Diversity of Farmers’ Traditional Rice Varieties in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional rice varieties maintained and cultivated by farmers are likely sources of germplasm for breeding new rice varieties. They possess traits potentially adaptable to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. Characterization of these germplasms is essential in rice breeding and provides valued information on developing new rice cultivars. In this study, 307 traditional rice varieties newly conserved at the PhilRice genebank were characterized to assess their phenotypic diversity using 57 morphological traits. Using the standardized Shannon-Weaver diversity index, phenotypic diversity indices averaged at 0.73 and 0.45 for quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively. Correlation analyses among agro-morphological traits showed a high positive correlation in some traits such as culm number and panicle number, flag leaf width and leaf blade width, grain width and caryopsis width. Cluster analysis separated the different varieties into various groups. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that seven independent principal components accounted for 74.95% of the total variation. Component loadings for each principal component showed morphological characters, such as culm number, panicle number and caryopsis ratio that were among the phenotypic traits contributing positive projections in three principal components that explained 48% of variation. Analyses of results showed high diversity in major traits assessed in farmers’ rice varieties. Based on plant height and maturity, 11 accessions could be potential donor parents in a rice breeding program. Future collection trips and characterization studies would further enrich diversity, in particular traits low in diversity, such as anthocyanin coloration, awn presence, awn color, culm habit, panicle type and panicle branching.

  14. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  15. High-yielding Cultivation and Fertilization Technology of Lvhan No.1 in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research high-yielding cultivation and fertilization technology for Lvhan No.l, a new Chinese rice cultivar, in Angola. [Method] In rainy season of 2012, high-yielding cultivation and fertilization technology of Lvhan No.l, a new cultivar of earlier ripe and drought resistant rice, was researched in CATETE farm of Luanda suburb with pot experiment method. [Result] In CATETE farm, Lvhan No.1 rice were directly sown in black clay and the rice can be significantly improved in plant height, grain weight of single plant, biological yield of single plant, ear length, total grain number per ear, number of filled grain per ear and thousand seed weight, as well as economic coefficient and ratio of grain to straw, if applied with base fertilizer made up of DAP (N:P2Os=14:43), or compound fertilizer of N, P and K (N:P2Os:K~O=15:15:15) and with Duannai fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer made up of urea. If DAP is taken as base fertilizer, the optimal quantity is 300 kg/hm2. If compound fertilizer of N, P and K is taken as base fertilizer, the optimal quantity is 450 kg/hm2, but urea at 75 kg/hm2 should be applied as Duannai fertilizer and ear- grain fertilizer, respectively, on time. [Conclusion] The research provides technical ref- erences for planting of Chinese rice cultivars in Angola.

  16. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to...

  17. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  18. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  19. Modeled concentrations in rice and ingestion doses from chronic atmospheric releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expansion of nuclear power programs in Asia has stimulated interest in the improved modeling of concentrations of tritium in rice, a staple crop grown throughout the far east. Normally, the specific activity model is used to calculate concentrations of tritium in the tissue water of edible plants to assess ingestion dose from chronic releases. However, because rice, like other grains, has much lower water content than most crops, the calculation must also account for organically bound tritium. This paper reviews ways to calculate steady-state concentrations of tritium in rice, including the methods of Canadian and US regulatory models, and the assumptions behind them. Concentrations in rice and resulting ingestion doses are compared for the various methods, and equations for calculating concentrations are recommended. The regulatory models underestimate doses received from ingestion of rice contaminated with tritium since they do not account explicitly for organically bound tritium. The importance of including organically bound tritium is illustrated in a comparison of doses from rice, leafy vegetables and milk for an Asian diet. Dose factors from tritium for these foods are estimated to be 135, 47, and 20 nSv y-1/(Bq m-3), respectively. Assuming known air concentrations, tritium concentrations in rice, calculated with the recommended equations, are uncertain by less than a factor 2 when tritium concentrations in the rice paddy water are known, and by less than a factor of 2.3 when concentrations in paddy water are unknown

  20. Rice Varietal Improvement and International Exchange of Rice Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Rice is the most important food grain in developing countries. Rapid population growth in developing countries during the 1950s and 1960s presented a massive challenge to rice producers. Rice production would have to be expanded at historically unprecedented rates to maintain per capita rice consumption levels. That challenge was met. Rice production expanded more rapidly than population. The challenge was met primarily by increased yields per hectare of land. This paper documents the role of...

  1. Screening of Exist Genetically Modified Elements in Local and Commercial Rice Available in Baghdad Markets Using PCR and Real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayba Q. Younan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the staple foods of the Iraqi population; therefore large amounts of rice cultivated and imported in Iraq. Because of increasing the production of GM crops especially rice crop, it was necessary to investigate if there is any genetically modified rice (GM rice in Baghdad markets. Conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR used to create this investigation. Genomic DNA extracted from 7 samples of rice seeds that cultivated in Iraq; 31 samples of commercial rice seeds and 4 samples of kids' food, where rice is one of their ingredients. The primers RM 171 selected to amplify the Rice Microsatellite Region (RM for the DNA integrity inspection and rice species detection especially samples of kids' food, as well as, the primers P35S selected to amplify the CaMV35S promoter region (P35S for Genetically Modified elements (GM elements detection. There was no existence of GM elements in all samples except one, which was one of kids' food samples. These results indicate that the ability to produce GM crops and monitoring of the GM food entry are limitable in Iraq. Moreover, no commitment in the labeling regulations of genetically modified food.

  2. Changes in the concentration of fumonisins in forage rice during the growing period, differences among cultivars and sites, and identification of the causal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Tohno, Masanori; Yamamura, Kohji; Tsukiboshi, Takao

    2014-04-16

    To clarify the changes in rice fumonisin (FUM) concentrations, we conducted field cultivation of 10 forage rice cultivars and inoculation with fumonisin-producing fungal isolates. We cultivated 10 forage rice cultivars at the NARO Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science and one cultivar at two additional farmland sites in Japan in 2011 and 2012. Fusarium fujikuroi, which primarily infects plants shortly after heading, was inoculated on rice just after heading, and we sampled heads at the yellow-ripe and full-ripe stages to assess FUM concentrations. We found differences among cultivars in the FUM concentration and differences among the sites for the same cultivar, but no cultivar had high levels in leaves and stems. Fusarium fujikuroi was the main fumonisin producer. The FUM concentration in heads increases from stage. To control FUM levels, it is necessary to select low-FUM cultivars and manage the cultivation environment. PMID:24628734

  3. Mushroom Cultivation in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kemal Soylu; Mingu Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation in South Korea is increasing fast last decades. Mushroom cultivation of South Korea is 173577 tones and South Korea gains 800 million dollars income annually. Different kind of mushroom species are cultivated and 31% enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes), 26% king oyster (Pleurotus eryngii), 26% oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), 13% white buton mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and 4% rest of the total mushroom Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus vb. are produc...

  4. A Century of Rice Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Halos, Saturnina C.

    2005-01-01

    Rice innovations are technologies and practices extensively adopted so as to change production practices and productivity. This paper documents the changes in rice productivity, policy and institutions in the last 100 years and identifies the technological change that may have affected rice productivity. One hundred years has totally changed rice production practices and improved productivity. Technical innovations that helped improved rice productivity include irrigation, pest management not...

  5. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  6. DNA evolution in cultivated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LAZANYI

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available In long cultivated plant species - such as wheat, barley, bean, soya, tomato - during their microevolution from wild to modern cultivated species, the genome size has increased by 200 - 300 %. Presumably the newly acquired DNA of the cultivated species consists both of no coding, repetitive DNA and of new copies of the polygenesis that control the culture-characters. It seems, that in cultivated plants the genetic bases of the gigas-character and of the allometric-growth of the plant organs useful for man, are the amplified polygenesis, which control these characters.

  7. Assimilation of MODIS-derived LAI by radiative transfer modelling to crop growth simulation model for rice crop monitoring and yield estimation in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; de Bie, K.; Verhoef, W.

    2014-12-01

    Successful monitoring of rice crops and estimation of its yields in Mekong delta provide vital information to government agencies, rice production stakeholders and insurance companies in making their decisions and plans to establish solutions to protect rice smallholders from the risks involved. Remote sensing-based information promises a cost-effective way to observe rice crop growth in the largest rice producing region of Vietnam. For an extensive rice cultivation region as the Mekong delta, the use of divergence statistic to extract information from long-term or hypertemporal optical remote sensing NDVI profile to map rice cropping patterns has shown a high degree of success. The result map provides accurate information on where rice grew, when it was seeded and harvested, how many time it was cultivated every year. In addition, by using 8-day MODIS TERRA surface reflectance in Soil-Leaf-Canopy (SLC) radiative transfer model, 70 percent variation of seasonal rice LAI values was able to capture, making it useful to be assimilated into a rice crop growth simulation model (ORYZA 2000) to estimate the regional rice production in the season of 2008-2009. Tested results from 56 rice fields located in different rice cropping patterns showed that yields estimated using ORYZA2000 can explain 83 percent variation of field measured yields. However, simulated yields by ORYZA 2000 were used to overestimate by the model since some of model parameters could not be recalibrated due to the lack of field experiment data. This suggest that in the future, in order to gain a better results of rice crop monitoring and yield estimation, apart from improving the estimation of MODIS -derived LAIs by using SLC, calibrating crop growth simulation's parameter have to be taken into account.

  8. Gas transport through the root-shoot transition zone of rice tillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, TT; van Bodegom, PM; Meijer, HAJ; Harren, FJM

    2005-01-01

    Rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) are mainly cultivated in flooded paddy fields and are thus dependent on oxygen transport through the plant to maintain aerobic root metabolism. This gas transport is effectuated through the aerenchyma of roots and shoots. However, the efficiency of gas transport through

  9. Selection of tolerant rice germplasm through phenotypic and genotypic evaluation for germination under low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low temperature germinability (LTG) is an important trait for stand establishment in the direct-seeding method of rice cultivation. In temperate growing regions, water temperature during sowing season is frequently below 15°C resulting in poor crop establishment. The objective of this study was to s...

  10. Isolation and Characterisation of Diazotrophic Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Different Rice Cultivars of South Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    FOLGUNI LASKAR; Sharma, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    Free living heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of 10 local and cultivated varieties of rice grown in Karimganj district of South Assam. Among the 25 isolates, 11 isolates withplant growth promoting activity were identified based on phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strains were identified as Shingomonasazotifigens, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonasmaltophila,Acinetobacterradioresistance, Alkaligenesfaecalis, Enterobactercloaceae subsp. dissolvens, Pant...

  11. Analysis of the temporal variation of radiation balance components in arid rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time variation of measured radiation balance components in a cultived rice area (Oryza sativa L.) under arid conditions in the Brazil central-west region was analysed. The relation between global solar radiation, radiation balance, reflected radiation and terrestrial effective radiation in three different stages of the culture development: vegetative stage; blooming and maturation, was determined. (M.C.K.)

  12. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse of ...

  13. PETROCHINA TOPS ASIAN COMPETITIVENESS RANKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    PetroChina, the largest oil producer in China, ranks first in a competitiveness report of listed Asian enterprises recently published by the Research Institute of Boao Forum for Asia. The oil giant tops the ranks in the Asian Competitiveness: Annual Repor

  14. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arao, Tomohito, E-mail: arao@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: > Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). > Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. > MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  15. Comparison between rice husk ash grown in different regions for stabilizing fly ash from a solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, L; Bosio, A; Dalipi, R; Borgese, L; Rodella, N; Pasquali, M; Depero, L E; Bergese, P; Bontempi, E

    2015-08-15

    The Stabilization of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by rice husk ash (RHA) is under intense study as an effective strategy to recover and reuse industrial and agricultural waste together. We compare the metal entrapment performances of RHA from different Asian rice sources – namely from Japonica rice grown in Italy and Indica rice grown in India – Physicochemical and morphological characterization of the final stabilized material show that the same thermal treatment may result in marked structural differences in the silica contained in the two RHA. Remarkably, one of them displays a crystalline silica content, although obtained by a thermal treatment below 800 °C. We also find that the presence of an alkali metal ion (potassium) in the rice husk plays a crucial role in the attainment of the final silica phase. These physicochemical differences are mirrored by different stabilization yields by the two RHA. PMID:26063517

  16. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  17. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  18. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chito Clare Ekwealor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples collected from 201 farmers with lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses were processed and the organisms identified. Questionnaires were used to obtain other necessary data and were statistically analyzed. Of the 2,580 rice farmers screened, 201 (7.79% showed positive lesions. Organisms recovered included Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megnini, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus scleriotorum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Scopulariopsis sp., Chrysosporium sp., Eupenicillium javanicum, Fusarium sp., Penicillium aculeatum, and Penicillium pinophilum. At the end of this work, onychomycosis was observed to be the most prevalent with nondermatophyte molds now becoming very important agents of cutaneous mycoses among rice farmer.

  19. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture. PMID:25354441

  20. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  1. Some results of NAA collaborative study in white rice performed at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White rice is a main food for Asian people. In the framework of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), therefore, the eight Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam selected white rice as a common target sample for a collaboration study since 2008. Accordingly, rice samples were purchased and prepared by following a protocol that had been proposed for this study. The groups of elements that were analyzed by using neutron activation analysis in the white rice samples were toxic elements and nutrient elements, including: Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn. The analytical results were compared between the different countries and evaluated by using the Tolerable Intake Level of World Health Organization (WHO) and Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake (AI) of the U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) guideline values. These data will be very useful in the monitoring of the levels of food contamination and in the evaluation of the nutritional status for people living in Vietnam and other Asian countries. (author)

  2. Germination Response of MR 219 Rice Variety to Different Exposure Times and Periods of 2450 MHz Microwave Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Daryush Talei; Alireza Valdiani; Mahmood Maziah; Mohammad Mohsenkhah

    2013-01-01

    Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR), germination percentage (GP), and mean germination time (MGT) were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequenc...

  3. Weed management through herbicide application in direct-seeded rice and yield modeling by artificial neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Dibakar Ghosh; Singh, Udai P; Krishnendu Ray; Anupam Das

    2016-01-01

    In direct seeded rice (DSR) cultivation, weed is the major constraint mainly due to absence of puddling in field. The yield loss due to weed interference is huge, may be up to 100%. In this perspective, the present experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of selected herbicides, and to predict the rice yield using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The dry weight and density of weeds were recorded at different growth stages and consequently herbicidal efficacy was evaluated. Experi...

  4. Searching for South Asian intelligence: psychometry in British India, 1919-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Shivrang

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction and development of intelligence testing in British India. Between 1919 and 1940 experimenters such as C. Herbert Rice, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Venkatrao Vithal Kamat imported a number of intelligence tests, adapting them to suit a variety of South Asian languages and contexts. Charting South Asian psychometry's gradual move from American missionary efforts toward the state, this paper argues that political reforms in the 1920s and 1930s affected how psychometry was "indigenized" in South Asia. Describing how approaches to race and caste shifted across instruments and over time, this paper charts the gradual recession, within South Asian psychometry, of a "race" theory of caste. Describing some of the ways in which this "late colonial" period affected the postcolonial landscape, the paper concludes by suggesting potential lines for further inquiry into the later career of intelligence testing in India and Pakistan. PMID:25183435

  5. Analysis of Active Components and Proteomics of Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) and Indica Rice (Nagina22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Xia; Zhai, Li-Jie; Yang, Hua; Zhai, Shu-Menghui; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2016-08-01

    The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions. To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica rice (N22). We used routine methods to determine the protein, total dietary fiber, amino acid, mineral substance, plant secondary metabolites, and amino acid composition of CWR and N22. The protein and mineral contents of CWR were two times that of N22, and the levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium, chromium, iron, and zinc were significantly higher than those of N22 (P Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the main seed proteins of CWR were glutelins, including both acid and alkaline subunits, which were approximately twice those of N22. To investigate the differences in protein profiles between CWR and N22, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of the total proteins in the seeds of the two rice species. 2-DE gels revealed 19 differentially expressed proteins. Information obtained from peptide mass fingerprinting indicates that glutelin precursor caffeoyl coenzyme A (CoA) O-methyltransferase and putative bithoraxoid-like protein can provide good gene sources for improving rice quality. PMID:27533651

  6. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...

  7. Effect of potassium application on root uptake of radiocesium in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011, the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice that has been produced in some area has exceeded the provisional regulation value. In order to decrease the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice, we investigated the effect of the application of potassium fertilizer in rice paddy fields on the root uptake of radiocesium. The observed concentration ratio of 134Cs to 137Cs was 0.81 at the time of sample collection, and the mean concentrations of radiocesium in the soils at depths of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm were 5879 Bq kg-1 DW, 3223 Bq kg-1 DW and 1835 Bq kg-1 DW, respectively. The results showed that the vertical distribution of radiocesium was not uniform, although the rice paddy fields had been plowed. The concentration of radiocesium at a depth of 0-5 cm in soil collected from the 5 different rice paddy fields was in the range of 2465-7823Bq kg-1 DW, showing an approximately 3-fold variation between the upper and lower limits of the range. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice cultivated in 5 different fields, was in the range of 52-485 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice was found to be not correlated with that in the soil, and the soil-to-brown rice transfer factor was found to lie in the range of 0.0075-0.11. However, the radiocesium in brown rice decreased with an increase in exchangeable potassium in the soil. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice also decreased from 370 to 138 Bq kg-1 upon the application of a top dressing of potassium fertilizer. Thus, the application of potassium fertilizer is shown to reduce the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice. (author)

  8. Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids Between Oryza sativa L. and Three Wild Rice Species of China by Genomic In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Xuan Tan; Zhi-Yong Xiong; Hua-Jun Jin; Gang Li; Li-Li Zhu; Li-Hui Shu; Guang-Cun He

    2006-01-01

    In the genus Oryza, interspecific hybrids are useful bridges for transferring the desired genes from wild species to cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, hybrids between O. sativa (AA genome)and three Chinese wild rices, namely O. rufipogon (AA genome), O. officinalis (CC genome), and O. meyeriana (GG genome), were produced. Agricultural traits of the F1 hybrids surveyed were intermediate between their parents and appreciably resembled wild rice parents. Except for the O. sativa × O. rufipogon hybrid,the other F1 hybrids were completely sterile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for hybrid verification. Wild rice genomic DNAs were used as probes and cultivated rice DNA was used as a block. With the exception of O. rufipogon chromosomes, this method distinguished the other two wild rice and cultivated rice chromosomes at the stage of mitotic metaphase with different blocking ratios. The results suggest that a more distant phylogenetic relationship exists between O. meyeriana and O. sativa and that O. rufipogon and O. sativa share a high degree of sequence homology. The average mitotic chromosome length of O. officinalis and O. meyeriana was 1.25- and 1.51-fold that of O. sativa, respectively. 4',6'-Diamidino2-phenylindole staining showed that the chromosomes of O. officinalis and O. meyeriana harbored more heterochromatin, suggesting that the C and G genomes were amplified with repetitive sequences compared with the A genome. Although chromocenters formed by chromatln compaction were detected with wild rice-specific signals corresponding to the C and G genomes in discrete domains of the F1 hybrid interphase nuclei, the size and number of O. meyeriana chromocenters were bigger and greater than those of O. officinalis. The present results provide an important understanding of the genomic relationships and a tool for the transfer of useful genes from three native wild rice species in China to cultivars.

  9. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  10. Cultivation of Flammulina velutipesmushroom using various agro-residues as a fruiting substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Nooraishah Harith; Noorlidah Abdullah; Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of different agro-residues as a carbon source in the fruiting substrates of Flammulina velutipes mushroom and the effect of supplementation with the nitrogen sources spent brewer's yeast and rice bran. The following fruiting substrates were evaluated: rubber wood sawdust (SD), paddy straw (PS), palm empty fruit bunches (EFB), and palm-pressed fiber (PPF). Cultivation was done on each agro-residue, based on formulations consisting of t...

  11. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  12. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes per 100 population (2014) Asian American White Asian American/White Ratio Men 5.8 6.3 0.9 Women 5.7 5.3 1.1 Total 5.8 5.7 1.0 Source: CDC 2016. National Diabetes Surveillance ... Asian American/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asian American/Pacific ...

  13. Exploring the likelihood of the formation of Organization of Rice Exporting Countries in international rice market

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyadul, Supaluck

    2008-01-01

    The situation in international rice trade can be considered as in crisis because of two main factors; an increase in rice prices and shortage of rice supply. The rice crisis has impacts on rice producers, traders, consumers in terms of life quality, especially those in Asia where rice is considered a basic staple and necessary commodity. To alleviate negative consequences from the crisis, an idea to stabilize international rice market is to form a rice cartel called Organization of Rice Expor...

  14. Soil erosion from shifting cultivation and other smallholder land use in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Andreas de; Magid, Jakob; Mertz, Ole

    2008-01-01

    to compare soil erosion from three land use types in a shifting cultivation system, namely upland rice, pepper gardens and native forest. We used two sample sites within the humid tropical lowland zone in Sarawak, Malaysia. Both areas had steep slopes between 25° and 50°, and were characterised by a mosaic...... land use of native forest, secondary re-growth, upland rice fields and pepper gardens. Soil samples were collected to 90 cm depth from all three land use types, and analysed for various chemical parameters, including texture, total organic matter and 137Cs content. 137Cs is a radioactive isotope...... derived from nuclear fallout, and was used to estimate the retention of topsoil in the profiles. Soil chemical parameters in upland rice fields, such as extractable cations, pH and conductivity, indicated limited soil transportation downslope, and depletion of cations from upslope samples are most likely...

  15. Annual Changes of Paddy Rice Planting Areas in Northeastern Asia from MODIS images in 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Dong, J.; Menarguez, M. A.; Kou, W.; Jin, C.; Qin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Moore, B., III

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions, and understanding avian influenza virus transmission. Over the past two decades, paddy rice cultivation has expanded northward in temperate and cold temperate zones, particularly in Northeastern China. There is a need to quantify and map changes in paddy rice planting areas in Northeastern Asia (Japan, North and South Korea, and northeast China) at annual interval. We developed a pixel- and phenology-based image analysis system, MODIS-RICE, to map the paddy rice in Northeastern Asia by using multi-temporal MODIS thermal and surface reflectance imagery. Paddy rice fields during the flooding and transplanting phases have unique physical and spectral characteristics, which make it possible for the development of an automated and robust algorithm to track flooding and transplanting phases of paddy rice fields over time. In this presentation, we will show the MODIS-based annual maps of paddy rice planting area in the Northeastern Asia from 2000-2014 (500-m spatial resolution). Accuracy assessments using high-resolution images show that the resultant paddy rice map of Northeastern Asia had a comparable accuracy to the existing products, including 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China, the 2010 RapidEye-based paddy rice map in North Korea, and the 2010 AVNIR-2-based National Land Cover Dataset in Japan in terms of both area and spatial pattern of paddy rice. This study has demonstrated that our novel MODIS-Rice system, which use both thermal and optical MODIS data over a year, are simple and robust tools to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones.

  16. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia...

  17. 稻鸭共育对病虫草害及经济效益的影响%Effects of Rice-duck Mutualism on Diseases Insect Pests and Weeds and Economic Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓强辉; 潘晓华

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]Study on the effects of rice-duck mutualism on weeds and insects pests and economic benefits of paddy field.[Method]Comparison of the incidence of weeds,sheath blight and insects pest under rice-duck mutualism,conventional cultivation and control treatment,the yield and economic benefits were analyzed under the 3 treatments.[Result]Average occurrence of weeds in rice-duck mutualism group decreased by 2.33 and 52.08 ind/m2 compared with that in conventional cultivation and control treatment;the control rate of mutualism was up to 75% against rice hopper,but just between 25%-60% against rice leaf miler and Chilo suppressalis.The rates of diseased plant and diseased holl against rice sheath blight were higher and disease indices were lower compared with control group.The yield of mutualism group was identical with conventional cultivation,which was greatly higher than that of control group.The results suggested an higher economic benefits and lower cost benefit ratio for rice-duck mutualism treatment.[Conclusion]Rice-duck mutualism gives birth to a positive effect to control the diseases,insect pests and weeds,as well as to economic benefits,providing basis on extension of rice-duck mutualism system.

  18. Factors Affecting the Growth and Production of Milk-Clotting Enzyme by Amylomyces rouxii in Rice Liquid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Pei-Jing; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2005-01-01

    Amylomyces rouxii is one of the main fungi usually coexisting with yeasts in Chinese yeast ball, the starter of chiu-niang, a traditional Chinese fermented product from rice. In the present study, growth and production of milk-clotting enzyme (MCE) in gelatinous rice liquid culture of A. rouxii as influenced by waxy (gelatinous) rice content in the medium (5–20 %), temperature (25–40 °C), cultivation time (1–6 days), shaking speeds (0–150 rpm) and metal ions (Na+, K+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, ...

  19. Induced short culm mutations in local quality rice cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushqa Budji a local quality rice cultivar (land race) adapted to cool and temperate agro-climatic conditions of Kashmir valley possesses fairly good degree of tolerance to low temperatures during seedling and grain filling stages of growth (stages when day/night temperatures are usually very low). The cultivar is grown in some localized areas of valley under transplanted-irrigated rice production ecosystem. The cultivar is low yielding but it has aromatic bold grains and good cooking qualities. This variety has a good potential for export to South East Asian countries and domestic markets. The present investigations were, therefore, undertaken to induce genetic variability in the cultivar using gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate as mutagens. In the present paper morphology and initial performance of the two induced dwarf mutants is presented

  20. Soil potassium dynamics under intensive rice cropping. A case study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:potassium, nutrient budgets, nutrient depletion, fertilizer, kinetics, adsorption,desorption, fixation, release, modeling, rice cropping system,NaTPB-extractable K, NH 4 OAc-extractable K, sedimentation.           Rice cropping has been greatly intensified in many Asian countries during the last decades to meet the increasing demand for food by the increasing population. There is some concern now that the increased crop yields and nutrient withdrawal, in combination with unbalanced f...