WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian countries current

  1. Overview of current status of SLR production and uses in Japan and other Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, M.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of short-lived radionuclide (SLR) production and use in Japan and other Asian countries is reviewed. The activities of six cyclotrons for medical use in Asia (except Japan) and Australia are reported. In Japan 10 dedicated medical cyclotrons were installed by 1983. Even though SLR application in Japan is in the cradle stage and is limited to only a few institutions, an analysis of these applications indicates the high efficacy of the dedicated small cyclotrons as compared with large, multipurpose cyclotrons. Because of the lack of high-energy commercial cyclotrons by 1982, a satisfactory iodine-123 supply of labeling quality has been limited. However, since two of the three medical cyclotron manufacturers and more than three positron camera producers are located there, Japan has high potential for the routine practice of nuclear medicine

  2. Current status on research and development of accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2013-01-01

    This status report describes the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Japan, Korea and China. The report also includes all presentation materials presented in 'the 10th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2012)' held at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan on 6th and 7th December, 2012. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The 5 of 27 papers presented at the entitled report and meeting are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Rheumatologic services in Central Asian countries: current state of development of rheumatology in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurzakova, Nazgul A; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Saatova, Guli M; Shukurova, Surayo M; Mirzakhanova, Mavliuda I; Kydyralieva, Ryskul B; Jumagulova, Aynagul S; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Seisenbaev, Askar Sh; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Rheumatologic and public health services of Central Asia's republics have suffered hugely as a result of social and economic declines following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and transition of these republics to market economies. Between 1990 and 2000 there was a mass outflow of highly skilled rheumatologists and teachers and researchers in rheumatology to countries abroad, leading to significant deprivation of rheumatological service in Central Asian countries. During this time, there was continued growth of various rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatic fever, and musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. The medical and social burden of RDs imposed on society was strongly underestimated until recent times. There is an urgent need to define the epidemiology of RDs and their impact on the quality of life of people afflicted by these conditions, and to improve the diagnostics and treatment of these conditions.

  4. How current Clinical Practice Guidelines for low back pain reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: a systematic review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Cho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. METHODS: We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. RESULTS: Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54% mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure. However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure. Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (subacute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (subacute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system.

  5. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro OTA

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (authors)

  6. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro Ota

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (author)

  7. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years. The GLOBOCAN project showed that prostate cancer was the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men worldwide in 2012. This trend has been growing even in Asian countries, where the incidence had previously been low. However, the accuracy of data about incidence and mortality as a result of prostate cancer in some Asian countries is limited. The cause of this increasing trend is multifactorial. One possible explanation is changes in lifestyles due to more Westernized diets. The incidence is also statistically biased by the wide implementation of early detection systems and the accuracy of national cancer registration systems, which are still immature in most Asian countries. Mortality rate decreases in Australia, New Zealand and Japan since the 1990s are possibly due to the improvements in treatment and/or early detection efforts employed. However, this rate is increasing in the majority of other Asian countries. Studies of latent and incidental prostate cancer provide less biased information. The prevalence of latent and incidental prostate cancer in contemporary Japan and Korea is similar to those in Western countries, suggesting the influence of lifestyle changes on carcinogenesis. Many studies reported evidence of both congenital and acquired risk factors for carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. Recent changes in the acquired risk factors might be associated with the increasing occurrence of prostate cancer in Asian countries. This trend could continue, especially in developing Asian countries. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. Childcare Practices in Three Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Sham ah Md.

    2005-01-01

    Childcare practices such as feeding, toilet training, sleeping arrangement and discipline in three Asian countries (China, Japan, and India) are compared. These countries differ from each other in culture, religion, language and ethnic makeup from Euro-American culture. The differences in childcare practices are broadly related to the differences…

  9. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  10. Trade Liberalization between Russia and East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the international statistics data the author estimates effects of trade liberalization between Russia and East Asian countries. The prospective niche markets in mutual trade and the impact of trade liberalization on the national economies were identified. Using a partial equilibrium model the author indicates the following positive trade effects for Russia and East Asia: trade creation effect prevails over trade diversion effect; general welfare and mutual trade of the countries tend to increase. The Russian economy has positive trade effects with all the East Asian countries, with the highest scale in the case of Sino-Russian trade. At the same time trade liberalization has following some costs for the Russian economy: a the growing role of imports, mostly from China, compared to Russian exports; b reduction of tariff revenues, which are four times higher for Russia, compared to East Asian countries; c continued negative trade balance with the East Asian countries. The evaluation shows that the increase of Russian exports to East Asian countries is feasible only for certain commodity groups which determine marketable niches of specific East Asian countries; at the same time, Russia can import from East Asia a huge range of commodity groups. The study reveals that reduction in tariff measures and non- tariff restrictions will not lead to a massive increase in Russian exports and changing in its trade and geographical structure. On the basis of prolongation of short-term trends the author identifies long-term challenges and opportunities for the Russian economy from trade liberalization with East Asian countries. According to the estimation results, the author suggests that in the current environment of global trade liberalization the tariff measures become less significant as a tool for redistribution of commodity flows

  11. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  12. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  13. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviours on individuals’ lives in Western and East Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Kim, J.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.; Hofmann, S.G.; Chen, J.; Oh, K.Y.; Bögels, S.M.; Arman, S.; Heinrichs, N.; Alden, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical

  14. The challenges of disaster management in south Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar-ul-Islam; Anjum, G.A.; Shahzad, M.

    2005-01-01

    The type of this research work reflects an overview of disasters in South Asian countries. This outlines geographical aspects and institutional structures briefly in each country, and identifies gaps in disaster management regimes. Identified of these gaps is expected to give insights to the media to develop more informal disaster communications in South Asian Countries. Natural disasters have become a severe global problem. Deaths, displacements and damages resulting from natural disasters are colossal. During the 1990s global economic losses from major natural catastrophes averaged more than US $ 40 billion a year. The current Tsunami disaster has broken all previous records particularly in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India. This paper focuses particularly on sub continental countries in the South Asian countries, how they are managed and mismanaged, and aims to provide condensed resource material on the subject. In such countries issues related to natural disasters are covered under the legal frameworks for environment, land use, water resources and human settlements. The shift from emergency management to disaster preparedness requires coordination between various government building departments and ministries and with other international organization and various community organizations. (author)

  15. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youfeng

    1997-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  16. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  17. The Chinese Economy and Income Inequality among East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sumie Sato; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2010-01-01

    Using the Atkinson inequality measure of income distribution, we analyze the impact of China as a single country and examine the effect of its domestic income inequality on total income inequality among East Asian countries. First, we find that China's domestic income inequality exacerbated income inequality among East Asian countries from the 1980s, and this effect became even more pronounced from 1990. Second, the growth of China's per capita GDP had an equalizing effect on income distribut...

  18. Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean:Present situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. The infection is widely seen in tropical Latin and South American countries and results in several problems in that area. In addition, the previous big outbreak in many island countries in Pacific region brings attention to the further expansion of the infection worldwide. The specific situation of the infection in island countries is very interesting. Here, the current situation (in 2016) of Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean is summarized and presented. Although there is still no current problem in the Asian island countries in Indian Ocean, the appearance of infection in the sea resorts of countries lining Indian Ocean is a big concern. Due to the high volume of traveler to sea resorts, emergence of the new disease in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean can be expected.

  19. Education and training on radiation safety for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Y.; Sakurai, N.; Kamei, M.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term program for development and Utilization of nuclear energy planned by Japan Atomic Energy Commission decided to promote the international corporation with Asian countries in nuclear fields. PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has three programs in radiation safety field. They are STA program, JICA program and IAEA/RCA program. It is necessary to continue international cooperative activities to establish safety culture for development and utilization of nuclear energy in Asian countries

  20. The Asian countries and the non-proliferation treaty prorogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the non-proliferation treaty prorogation of Asia. The position of the asian countries under the old non-proliferation treaty is given. It includes the 1968 non-proliferation treaty signatories, the calling in question again and the criticisms revealed by the asian countries. The positions and the open forecasts expressed on the non-proliferation treaty prorogation and the article on the elimination of the nuclear weapons are also given. (O.L.)

  1. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5%–10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:26187060

  2. Policy Instruments for Eco-Innovation in Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun; Park, Mi; Roh, Tae; Han, Ki

    2015-01-01

    Eco-innovation globally emerged as an effort to implement sustainable development. States and firms established and implemented policies and strategies for eco-innovation as one route to achieving sustainable development. Eco-innovation has been facilitated in developed countries, specifically OECD members and European countries, through action plans. Recently, eco-innovation policies have emerged in developing countries. Thus, this study analyzes eco-innovation policies in Asian countries. ...

  3. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  4. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  5. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  6. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviors on individuals' lives in Western and East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Kim, Jinkwan; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Xinghua; Hofmann, Stefan G; Chen, Junwen; Oh, Kyung Ya; Bögels, Susan M; Arman, Soroor; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn E

    2011-09-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical vignettes describing socially withdrawn and shy behaviors versus socially outgoing and confident behaviors. Participants then answered questions following each vignette indicating the extent to which they would expect the subject of the vignette to be socially liked and to succeed in their career. Participants also completed measures of their own social anxiety and quality of life. The results indicated significant vignette-by-country interactions in that the difference in perceived social and career impact between shy and outgoing vignettes was smaller among participants from East Asian countries than from Western countries. In addition, significant negative correlations were shown between personal level of shyness and experienced quality of life for participants from both groups of countries, but the size of this relationship was greater for participants from Western than East Asian countries. The results point to the more negative impact of withdrawn and socially reticent behaviors for people from Western countries relative to those from East Asia. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekdar, Ashok V.

    2009-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has been an integral part of every human society. The approaches for SWM should be compatible with the nature of a given society, and, in this regard, Asian countries are no exception. In keeping with global trends, the systems are being oriented to concentrate on sustainability issues; mainly through the incorporation of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) technologies. However, degree and nature of improvements toward sustainability are varying and depend on the economic status of a country. High-income countries like Japan and South Korea can afford to spend more to incorporate 3R technologies. Most of the latest efforts focus on 'Zero Waste' and/or 'Zero Landfilling' which is certainly expensive for weaker economies such as those of India or Indonesia. There is a need to pragmatically assess the expectations of SWM systems in Asian countries. Hence, in this paper, we analyze the situation in different Asian countries, and explore future trends. We conceptually evaluate issues surrounding the sustainability of SWM. We propose a multi-pronged integrated approach for improvement that achieves sustainable SWM in the context of national policy and legal frameworks, institutional arrangement, appropriate technology, operational and financial management, and public awareness and participation. In keeping with this approach, a generic action plan has been proposed that could be tailored to suit a situation in a particular country. Our proposed concept and action plan framework would be useful across a variety of country-specific scenarios

  8. Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ... the low donor awareness of societal needs and the lack of donor education and skills development. ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... Supporting sustainable economic growth in ASEAN.

  9. Transformative Learning Experiences of International Graduate Students from Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; James, Waynne

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the transformative learning experiences of international graduate students from Asian countries. Data collection consisted of quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants included international graduate students from Asia, in the Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Engineering. Overall, 82.3% of the participants…

  10. Volatility of Stock Markets (an Analysis of South Asian and G8 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to make an analysis of volatility of stock markets between South Asian Stock Markets and Stock Markets of Group of Eight Countries. This study important for the investors whose want to invest in stock markets. This study helps investors to determine what stock market is more volatile. To make the analysis three South Asian stock markets and Group of Eight countries stock markets are selected. South Asian stock markets indexes include KSE 100 (Pakistan, SENSEX (India, ASPI (Sri Lanka, CAC 40 (France, DAX (Germany, S &P / TSX Composite (Canada, FTSE MIB (Italy, RTS (Russia, Nikkei 225 (Japan, S & P 500 (USA and FTSE 100 (UK. Data is collected from the period of January 1st 2005 to August 31st 2015. ARCH and GARCH model is used to analyze the volatility of South Asian Stock Markets and stock markets of Group of Eight Countries. The findings show that South Asian Stock Markets are less volatile while Stock Markets of Group of Eight Countries are high volatile. This study is useful for investment institutions and portfolio managers because it focuses on current issues and takes the current data.

  11. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  12. Future demands for imported coal in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the main characteristics of international coal trade in the 1980's was a much higher growth rate recorded in steam coal trade than in coking coal trade. Another was that coal import in Asia started to expand rapidly at the start of the 1980's. Increased coal imports by Asian countries is primarily attributed to growing steam coal imports. Steam coal accounted for more than two-thirds of the additional coal imports by Asian countries between 1980 and 1988. Nonetheless, coking coal still forms the largest segment of Pacific coal trade. Only in the early 1990's is steam coal trade expected to exceed coking coal trade in the Pacific

  13. Financial development and domestic savings in emerging Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-01-01

    Saving is one of the important determinants of economic growth. Therefore determinants of saving are indirectly important for a sustainable economic growth. Financial sector has come into prominence as a possible determinant of saving in the globalized financial markets. This study examines the relationship between gross domestic savings and financial development in the emerging Asian countries during the period 1992-2011 by using panel regression. We found that financial de...

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. - Contamination aspects of POPs in human breast milk from Asian countries were characterized

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp; Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790 8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. - Contamination aspects of POPs in human breast milk from Asian countries were characterized.

  16. Lessons learnt from the capacity building activities for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has being providing much of cooperative activities for establishing the nuclear regulatory infrastructure to the several Asian countries like China, Indonesia, Thailand and particularly Vietnam which either started extended construction of nuclear power stations or are launching on new nuclear power programs. Our cooperation to these countries covers several different types like long-term training course, issue-specific training course and periodic safety seminar etc. Through these activities what we have learnt is that to help other countries is not an easy business. To fully recognize what are actually requested by the recipients' countries is not at all an easy business either. This paper will illustrate our experiences to have worked on the cooperative activities putting the emphasis on the lessons learnt through these experiences. (author)

  17. Crude and intrinsic birth rates for Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, J R

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to estimate birth rates for Asian countries. The main sources of information in developing countries has been census age-sex distribution, although inaccuracies in the basic data have made it difficult to reach a high degree of accuracy. Different methods bring widely varying results. The methodology presented here is based on the use of the conventional child-woman ratio from the census age-sex distribution, with a rough estimate of the expectation of life at birth. From the established relationships between child-woman ratio and the intrinsic birth rate of the nature y = a + bx + cx(2) at each level of life expectation, the intrinsic birth rate is first computed using coefficients already computed. The crude birth rate is obtained using the adjustment based on the census age-sex distribution. An advantage to this methodology is that the intrinsic birth rate, normally an involved computation, can be obtained relatively easily as a biproduct of the crude birth rates and the bases for the calculations for each of 33 Asian countries, in some cases over several time periods.

  18. Cannabis and Amphetamine Use Among Adolescents in Five Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There has been a global increase in illicit drug use among young people. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lifetime cannabis and amphetamine use, as well as to explore factors associated with substance use among adolescents in five Asian countries: Iraq, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Methods: 38,941  school children (mean age 15.4 years, SD=1.5) completed the cross-sectional Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Topics covered in t...

  19. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health.

  20. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.; Naito, Koh; Pring, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  1. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.

  2. Cigarette price level and variation in five Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Ratanachena, Sophapan; Dorotheo, E Ulysses; Foong, Kin

    2015-06-01

    To monitor and analyse impacts of the interaction between tobacco excise tax policy and industry price strategy, on the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam). Prices of cigarette sold by sticks and packs were collected through an in-person survey of retailers during 2011. Mean cigarette prices and price variation were calculated in each study country for single cigarettes, whole packs and brand groups. Price variation of whole packs was greater in countries with ad-valorem excise tax structures (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam) than in countries with multitiered specific excise taxes (Indonesia and the Philippines). The price variation for single sticks appeared to be driven by local currency denomination. Cigarettes sold individually cost more per stick than cigarettes sold in whole packs in every brand group except for Indonesia's domestic brands. Tobacco industry strategy and excise tax structure drove the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in packs, while currency denominations influence the selling price of single sticks. To maximise the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies, countries should adopt specific excise tax structures to decrease cigarette price variation, which would minimise opportunities for smokers to 'trade down' to a cheaper brand to avoid a tax-driven price increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  4. Training of instructors on nuclear safety in Asian Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, Yuko; Shitomi, Hajimu; Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Technology and Education Center

    2002-11-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)is conducting the international cooperation's of training of the foreign instructors and sending the Japanese teacher to the countries of Indonesia, Thailand (both from 1996) and Vietnam (2000). The training is performed in the JAERI for the future instructors of the concerned country for the period of essentially 2 months and is mainly on nuclear safety principles and safety handling of unsealed radioactive sources. Until 2001, 22 instructors from those countries have been trained in 142 courses. The sent Japanese teacher together with the trained instructor conduct the education of mainly radiation protection and measurement for personnel in ETC of BATAN (Education and Training Center, Indonesia atomic energy agency), radiation protection and atomic energy technology/application in OAEP (Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Thailand) and the same subjects as BATAN in VAEC (Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission). Instruments for radiation measurement are essentially from Japan. This JAERI international cooperation will be open to other Asian countries. (K.H.)

  5. Training of instructors on nuclear safety in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Yuko; Shitomi, Hajimu; Saeki, Masakatsu

    2002-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)is conducting the international cooperation's of training of the foreign instructors and sending the Japanese teacher to the countries of Indonesia, Thailand (both from 1996) and Vietnam (2000). The training is performed in the JAERI for the future instructors of the concerned country for the period of essentially 2 months and is mainly on nuclear safety principles and safety handling of unsealed radioactive sources. Until 2001, 22 instructors from those countries have been trained in 142 courses. The sent Japanese teacher together with the trained instructor conduct the education of mainly radiation protection and measurement for personnel in ETC of BATAN (Education and Training Center, Indonesia atomic energy agency), radiation protection and atomic energy technology/application in OAEP (Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Thailand) and the same subjects as BATAN in VAEC (Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission). Instruments for radiation measurement are essentially from Japan. This JAERI international cooperation will be open to other Asian countries. (K.H.)

  6. Family interventions in schizophrenia: Issues of relevance for Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Subho

    2011-12-31

    A growing body of research evidence has confirmed the efficacy of family-interventions as adjuncts to antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. Much of the recent evidence for such interventions derives from Asian, principally Chinese, studies. These trials have shown that relatively simple forms of family-interventions have wide ranging benefits, and can be implemented successfully in routine clinical settings. With the accumulation of this evidence in their favour, family-interventions for schizophrenia in Asia are poised to take the next critical step, that of wider implementation and improved accessibility for potential users. However, several issues merit consideration. Family-interventions need to be based on a culturally-informed theory, which incorporates cultural variables of relevance in these countries. While the ideal format for conducting family-interventions is still to be determined, it is quite evident that for such interventions to be useful they need to be simple, inexpensive, needs-based, and tailored to suit the socio-cultural realities of mental health systems in Asian countries. The evidence also suggests that delivery by non-specialist personnel is the best way to ensure that such services reach those who stand to benefit most from these treatments. However, there are several existing challenges to the process of dissemination of family-interventions. The major challenges include the achievement of a critical mass of trained professionals capable of delivering these interventions, and finding innovative solutions to make family-interventions more acceptable to families. If these hurdles are overcome, we could look forward to a genuine collaboration with families, who have always been the mainstay of care for the mentally ill in Asia.

  7. Different time trend and management of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma in three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Waku; Tong, Daniel; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Ichihara, Shin; Uedo, Noriya; Gotoda, Takuji

    2017-04-01

    Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma has been on the increase in Western countries. However, in Asian countries, data on the incidence of EGJ adenocarcinoma are evidently lacking. In the present review, we focus on the current clinical situation of EGJ adenocarcinoma in three Asian countries: Japan, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. The incidence of EGJ adenocarcinoma has been reported to be gradually increasing in Malaysia and Japan, whereas it has stabilized in Hong Kong. However, the number of cases in these countries is comparatively low compared with Western countries. A reason for the reported difference in the incidence and time trend of EGJ adenocarcinoma among the three countries may be explained by two distinct etiologies: one arising from chronic gastritis similar to distal gastric cancer, and the other related to gastroesophageal reflux disease similar to esophageal adenocarcinoma including Barrett's adenocarcinoma. This review also shows that there are several concerns in clinical practice for EGJ adenocarcinoma. In Hong Kong and Malaysia, many EGJ adenocarcinomas have been detected at a stage not amenable to endoscopic resection. In Japan, histological curability criteria for endoscopic resection cases have not been established. We suggest that an international collaborative study using the same definition of EGJ adenocarcinoma may be helpful not only for clarifying the characteristics of these cancers but also for improving the clinical outcome of these patients. © 2017 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  9. Pharmacoeconomic research and application in 10 Asian countries between 2003 and 2013: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, V.N.H.; Hoang, T.M.; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and analyze specific aspects of pharmacoeconomic research and application in 10 Asian countries in recent years from 2003 to 2013. Methods: Our study concentrated on 10 Asian countries, including China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan,

  10. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  11. Alternative long term strategies for sustainable development: Rapidly increasing electricity consumption in Asian countries and future role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.

    1997-01-01

    Many people in the world express the concern that global warming will become an increasingly serious problem. A rapid increase in population and demand for energy in the Asian region must be discussed in this context. Despite the forecast of an increase in demand for energy, the Asian region is short of oil and natural gas resources. In addition, only less energy can be supplied by renewable energy sources in the Asian region than in the other regions because of high population density. Nuclear energy is an important energy resource for fulfilling the future increasing energy demand in the Asian region and for contributing to the suppression of carbon dioxide emissions. In the Asian region alone, however, we cannot rely limitlessly on LWR which does not use plutonium. According to a scenario analysis, the total capacity of nuclear power plants in the Asian region would reach large scale and the cumulative amount of demand for natural uranium will increase to about 5 million tons in the Asian region alone. Just the nuclear power plants of this scale in Asia alone will rapidly consume the world's cheap natural uranium resources if we rely only on natural uranium. In the Asian region, few countries have embarked on nuclear power generation and the capacity of equipment is still small. Currently, however, many plans for nuclear power generation are being designed. Many Asian countries obviously consider nuclear power generation as a valid option. Many potential policies must be examined in the light of future uncertainty. In the future, both renewable energy and nuclear energy must be resorted to. When nuclear energy is utilized, the use of plutonium and FBR in the Asian region must be taken into account in order to attain continual growth and development. (author)

  12. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  13. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between birds, vicinity to sources and trans-boundary movement of pollutants were identified as key exposure routes and subsequent OHCs contamination in Asian birds. There is extreme scarcity of literature on organohalogen contamination in birds from Northern, South-eastern and west Asian countries where an industrial boom has been witnessed in the past few decades. Current scenarios suggest that levels of OHCs, particularly the FRs, are rising in birds of Asia and it would be wise to develop baseline information and to regulate the OHCs emission

  14. Beyond Economic Interests: Attitudes Toward Foreign Workers in Australia, the United States and East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Chang Tsai; Rueyling Tzeng

    2014-01-01

    We compare attitudes toward foreign workers between two wealthy Western and four developing East Asian countries, using data from the 2006 and 2008 Asian Barometer surveys to test hypotheses on economic interests, cultural supremacy, and global exposure. Respondent majorities in all six countries expressed high levels of restrictivism. Regression model results indicate a consistent cultural superiority influence across the six countries, but only minor effects from economic interest factors. ...

  15. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  16. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Naramura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods: A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD, the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent. The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results: In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse' principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates.

  17. Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56, birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08. There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65. Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

  18. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA.

  19. Maritime archaeology of Kalinga and the contact with southeast Asian countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    During the last five thousand years in the maritime history of India, Kaling played an important role in diffusing the Indian culture in Southeast Asian countries. Archaeological exploration and excavations, epigraphical evidences and literary...

  20. Transnational corporations from Asian developing countries: The internationalisation characteristics and business strategies of Sime Darby Berhad

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, S.Z.; Kitchen, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    There is limited empirical research on the internationalisation processes, strategies and operations of Asian multinational corporations (MNCs), particularly MNC’s based in Malaysia. The emergence and development of an MNC from this developing country represents a significant addition to the literature on this topic which augments and supplements the information already available with regard to nascent MNCs from Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NIC’s). Drawing on primary data from in-dep...

  1. The Impact of Government Expenditure on Economic Growth: A Study of Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. K. S. Lahirushan; W. G. V. Gunasekara

    2015-01-01

    Main purpose of this study is to identify the impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Asian Countries. Consequently, main objective is to analyze whether government expenditure causes economic growth in Asian countries vice versa and then scrutinizing long-run equilibrium relationship exists between them. The study completely based on secondary data. The methodology being quantitative that includes econometrical techniques of cointegration, panel fixed effe...

  2. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  5. Does ICT Participate in Economic Convergence among Asian Countries: Evidence from Dynamic Panel Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal MEHMOOD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Convergence models usually oversee the role of information and communications technology (ICT as a determinant of convergence. This paper introduces ICT as a factor contributing towards economic convergence in Asian countries. In addition to ICT, other factors like demographic traits, level of human development and electricity consumption are used as regressors. System GMM technique is used to estimate convergence regression for se-lected Asian countries for data of time span 2001-2010. Support for ICT-augmented conver-gence is found, implying that ICT has the tendency to participate in convergence process. Suitable demographic features, human development and electricity consumption are also found to contribute to economic convergence in the sample countries of Asia. Findings of this paper indicate the need to complement the favorable demographic endowments in Asian economies with economically productive usage of ICT to proceed towards economic convergence in Asian Region.

  6. Balance of Payments of East Asian Countries: Impact of the Coordinated Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the equilibrium state of balance of payments of East Asian countries by means of the monetary policy instruments. For this purpose the author determines the value of the equilibrium exchange rate of AMU (Asian Monetary Unit against the U.S. dollar. The equilibrium exchange rate is the one that smoothes values of net merchandise exports and net capital exports. The author employs panel data regression analysis (using statistics of trade and capital (foreign direct investment flows between East Asian countries and the United States to obtain quantitative estimation of trade and investment effects of the coordinated monetary policy. The paper shows that transition of East Asian region (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Thailand to the single currency (AMU will have a negative effect on the balance of payments of the studied countries: this will increase the mismatch between commodity and capital flows

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  8. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  9. Measuring and preventing alcohol use and related harm among young people in Asian countries: a thematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; Xiang, Xiaojun; Hao, Wei; Room, Robin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xuyi

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016. Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia. The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.

  10. Impact of Globalization on Income Inequality in Selected Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Mahnoor; Munir, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between globalization and income inequality in selected Asian economies i.e. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. The specific objectives of this study are to analyze the relationship between trade globalization, financial globalization and technological globalization on income inequality. For attaining these objectives this study used panel d...

  11. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)

  12. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author).

  13. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries: focus on South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2014-01-01

    With improvement in the economic situation, an increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is seen in developing countries in South Asia. Particularly vulnerable population groups include women and children, and intra-country and inter-country migrants. The main causes are increasing urbanization, nutrition transition, reduced physical activity, and genetic predisposition. Some evidence suggests that widely prevalent perinatal undernutrition and childhood 'catch-up' obesity may play a role in adult-onset metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Data show that atherogenic dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, thrombotic tendency, subclinical inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are higher in South Asians than white Caucasians. Many of these manifestations are more severe even at an early age in South Asians than white Caucasians. Metabolic and cardiovascular risks in South Asians are also heightened by their higher body fat, truncal subcutaneous fat, intra-abdominal fat, and ectopic fat deposition (liver fat, muscle fat, etc.). Further, cardiovascular risk cluster manifests at a lower level of adiposity and abdominal obesity. The cutoffs of body mass index and waist circumference for defining obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively, have been lowered for Asians, and same has been endorsed for South Asians in the UK. The economic cost of obesity and related diseases in developing countries, having meager health budget, is enormous. Increasing awareness of these noncommunicable diseases and how to prevent them should be focus of population-wide prevention strategies in South Asian developing countries. Community intervention programs focusing on increased physical activity and healthier food options for schoolchildren are urgently required. Data from such a major intervention program conducted by us on adolescent urban schoolchildren in north India (project MARG) have shown encouraging results and could serve as a model for initiating such

  14. Report on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Current statuses of Asian countries; 'Kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Asia shokoku no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Information systems, mainly aided by computers, are becoming increasingly important, contributing to development of wide areas of societies and economics, to begin with. However, few developing countries have established sufficient information systems, in spite of their strong desires to do so, which will further widen the gap between them and advanced countries, where these systems are acceleratedly advancing. Given these situations, Center of International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) has been implementing various projects for providing assistance to and cooperation with oversea countries which are trying to develop information systems. This report summarizes the project, which CICC has been commissioned by NEDO as part of the cooperation programs, for manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation. It outlines the research cooperation memoranda NEDO has concluded with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and the authorities of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  15. Safety classification of herbal medicines used among pregnant women in Asian countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Hwang, Jung Hye; Choi, Soojeung; Han, Dongwoon

    2017-11-14

    High prevalence of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and the lack of information on their safety is a public concern. Despite this, no significant research has been done regarding potential adverse effects of using herbal medicines during pregnancy, especially among developing Asian countries. Cross-sectional studies were searched up to year 2016 on PubMed/Medline and EMBASE, the data were extracted and quality of studies was assessed using the quality appraisal tool. The findings are reported in accordance to the PRISMA checklist (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Classification on safety of identified herbal medicines was done based on current scientific literature. This study included eight cross-sectional studies (2729 participants) from seven different Asian countries, of which 1283 (47.01%) women used one or more herbal medicines during pregnancy. Peppermint (22.8%), aniseed (14.7%), olibanum (12.9%), flixweed seed (12.2%) and ginger (11.5%) were the most frequently used herbal medicines. Out of the 33 identified herbal medicines, 13 were classified as safe to use, five as use with caution, eight were potentially harmful to use in pregnancy and information on seven herbal medicines was not available in the current literature. Several herbal medicines identified in this review were classified to be potentially harmful or the information regarding safety in pregnancy was missing. It is recommended that contraindicated herbal medicines should be avoided and other herbals should be taken under supervision of a qualified health care practitioner. The classification regarding safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy can be utilized to create awareness on prevention of adverse effects.

  16. Emergence in Asian Countries of Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Ito, Teruyo; Kapi, Maria; Kiem, Sungmin; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Oh, Won Sup; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in Asian countries, a total of 1,357 clinical isolates of MRSA collected from 12 Asian countries were screened by using brain heart infusion agar plates containing 4 mg of vancomycin per liter. The presence of strains that were heterointermediately resistant to vancomycin (hVISA) was confirmed by population analysis. Of 347 (25.6%) MRSA isolates that grew on the screening agar plates, 58 isolates (4.3%) were hVISA. hVISA strains were found in India, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. However, neither vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus nor vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolates were found among MRSA isolates from Asian countries in this survey. PMID:15561884

  17. Implications of Public External Debt for Social Spending: A Case Study of Selected Asian Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadia Shabbir; Hafiz M. Yasin

    2015-01-01

    For developing countries with budgetary and balance-of-payments gaps to meet, maintaining large stakes of external debt is not free of cost. Highly indebted countries have to set aside a sizeable fraction of their scarce resources to service their debt, which naturally affects their development spending in general and allocations for the social sector in particular. This study examines the behavior of seven developing Asian countries and analyzes the impact of public external debt on social s...

  18. Nonlinear and Asymmetric Adjustment to Purchasing Power Parity in East-Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chi Liu

    2014-01-01

    This study applies a simple and powerful nonlinear unit root test to test the validity of long-run purchasing power parity (PPP) in a sample of 10 East-Asian countries (i.e., China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand) over the period of March 1985 to September 2008. The empirical results indicate that PPP holds true for half of these 10 East-Asian countries under study, and the adjustment toward PPP is found to be nonlinear and in ...

  19. Comparison of trauma care systems in Asian countries: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Jin; Oh, Moon Young; Kim, Na Rae; Jung, Yoo Joong; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to compare the trauma care systems in Asian countries. Asian countries were categorised into three groups; 'lower middle-income country', 'upper middle-income country' and 'high-income country'. The Medline/PubMed database was searched for articles published from January 2005 to December 2014 using relevant key words. Articles were excluded if they examined a specific injury mechanism, referred to a specific age group, and/or did not have full text available. We extracted information and variables on pre-hospital and hospital care factors, and regionalised system factors and compared them across countries. A total of 46 articles were identified from 13 countries, including Pakistan, India, Vietnam and Indonesia from lower middle-income countries; the Islamic Republic of Iran, Thailand, China, Malaysia from upper middle-income countries; and Saudi Arabia, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore from high-income countries. Trauma patients were transported via various methods. In six of the 13 countries, less than 20% of trauma patients were transported by ambulance. Pre-hospital trauma teams primarily comprised emergency medical technicians and paramedics, except in Thailand and China, where they included mainly physicians. In Iran, Pakistan and Vietnam, the proportion of patients who died before reaching hospital exceeded 50%. In only three of the 13 countries was it reported that trauma surgeons were available. In only five of the 13 countries was there a nationwide trauma registry. Trauma care systems were poorly developed and unorganised in most of the selected 13 Asian countries, with the exception of a few highly developed countries. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Exogenous vs Endogenous Growth in the EU’s EaP and Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharipov Ilkhom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to determine and analyse the factors that affected economic growth in the EU’s Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries in the 2000-2015 period. Economic growth is one of the main targets of economic policy of any country and influenced by various determinants. Of particular interest is the endogenous and exogenous nature of these factors. Having classified these factors into exogenous and endogenous ones, we examined and determined the significance and robustness of various factors influencing the economic growth in these countries, like investment, human capital, research and development, economic policies and macroeconomic conditions, openness to trade, geography, political factors and others. Correlation and factor analysis showed significance and strong association of GDP per capita with physical, human capital, and R&D in EaP countries and with natural resources and active population share in Central Asian countries.

  1. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio investment, GARCH (1,1 is used because shocks are responded quickly by this model. The results reveal that there exists significant relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility. Thus, less volatility in international portfolio flows is associated with high interest rate, currency depreciation, foreign direct investment, lower inflation, and higher GDP growth rate of the host country. Thus findings of this study suggest that foreign portfolio investors focus on stable macroeconomic environment of country.

  2. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  3. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

  4. A study of work injuries in eight Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, C N; Phoon, W O; Tan, T C; Jeyaratnam, J; Cho, S C; Suma'mur, P K; Mahathevan, R; Reverente, B R; Wongphanich, W; Kogi, K

    1984-04-01

    This study is based on a survey conducted in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand on occupational injuries during the years 1975-1980. The number of work accidents have risen rapidly during this period in all of the 8 countries studied. In the case of Thailand, the total number of work injuries increased four fold from 1975-1978, whereas, in Singapore it has almost doubled in 6 years. The number of permanent disablement nearly trebled in Korea, and the Philippines for the year 1967-1980. The largest percentage of accidents are lost-time injuries in all of the 8 countries. Thailand had a three fold increase in lost-time injuries whilst in Hong Kong the figure doubled. Six out of the 8 countries indicated that the building construction industry had the largest number of fatal accidents, followed by the manufacturing industry.

  5. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  6. Academic Adaptation among International Students from East Asian Countries: A Consensual Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Liu, Xun; Xu, Yusu; Cui, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore academic adaptation experiences of international students (N = 13) from East Asian countries at a U.S. university. The analysis yielded five domains from the data (challenges, feelings, strategies, suggestions, and self-reflections). Implications for college counselors, university…

  7. Journals with Borders, Journals without Borders: Under-Representation of Asian Countries in Educational Research Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" (AJET) Production Editor, the author evaluates whether AJET is providing a fair and adequate representation for researchers in Asian countries, with particular reference to AJET's aspiration to be "a front ranked international journal with an Australasian character" (Atkinson…

  8. Each-One-Teach-One Mobile Networks: An Innovative Strategy for Knowledge Access in Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    The changing landscape of learning is helping Asian countries to emerge as technology-driven knowledge-based societies. The success of these societies depends on promoting the acquisition of key competences and broadening opportunities for innovative and more flexible forms of learning for every citizen. Considering that in Asia almost everyone…

  9. Unemployment and Economic Growth of Developing Asian Countries: A Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran; Khurrum S. Mughal; Aneel Salman; Nedim Makarevic

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the new regression estimates of the relationship between unemployment and economic growth for 12 selected Asian countries over the period 1982-2011. Fixed effect and Pooled OLS techniques are used to analyze the panel data for measuring individual country effects, group effects and time effects while exploring the relationship between Unemployment rate and the Economic Growth. The results showed that higher unemployment rate has significant negative impact on GDP per capit...

  10. Characteristic differences in the mini-mental state examination used in Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Yong S.; Yang, Dong Won; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2017-01-01

    Background The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was adapted by individual countries according to their languages and cultures, though it has not been systematically compared. The objective of this study was to compare the linguistic and cultural variations of the MMSE used in various Asian countries. With this, we can analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the MMSE and consider using a common version in future international clinical studies in Asia. Methods We collected the MMSEs used in...

  11. Stock Market Volatility Dynamics around National Elections : Empirical Evidence from Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kon Wah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a sample of 8 Asian countries to test whether the stock market volatility would be induced higher during national election periods. Our empirical findings show the country-specific component of variance in election periods can easily reach up to 43% higher than the no election periods. It indicates that the investors are shocked with the election outcomes and investors’ sentiments are affected by the political events, no matter how well the preparation is made by inves...

  12. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thi Hong Le

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the panel data and, then, a GMM estimator is employed to ensure the consistency of the estimates. The results point out that the exchange rate exposure of these countries is asymmetric. At market level, for a rise in the exchange rate (or local currency depreciates, the average stock returns tend to decrease. However, due to the favourable impact of currency depreciation on the net export position, the reduction speed of stock returns is faster than the rising speed of the exchange rate.

  13. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P countries had significantly more with both mood (P countries, patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. 1996 hazardous waste management survey in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.; Christie, K.; Tao, Hong-lei [EnviroSearch International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report documents the results of a 42-question survey submitted to countries in Asia concerning their hazardous waste management programs and other issues. The same survey questions were distributed in 1992. This report compares the 1992 and 1996 responses. The respondents were Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, People`s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. 7 figs.

  15. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Thi Hong Le; Ha Thi Cam Huynh; Hong Thi Thu Dinh

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the...

  16. Dietary intake and habits of South Asian immigrants living in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Madison N; Stevens, June

    2017-06-01

    Previous reviews have indicated that immigration from South Asian to Western countries leads to unhealthy changes in diet; however, these reviews have been limited by the methods used in some included studies. This critical narrative review summarizes findings from original research articles that performed appropriate statistical analyses on diet data obtained using culturally appropriate diet assessment measures. All studies quantitatively compared the diets of South Asian immigrants with those of residents of Western or South Asian countries or with those of South Asian immigrants who had varying periods of time since immigration. Most studies examined total energy and nutrient intake among adults. Total energy intake tended to decrease with increasing duration of residence and immigrant generation, and immigrants consumed less protein and monounsaturated fat compared with Westerners. However, findings for intakes of carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and micronutrients were mixed. Studies that examine food group intake and include South Asians living in South Asia as a comparison population are needed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Effect of Ethnocentrism and Image of Asian Industrialised Countries on Perceived Relative Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulhaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of consumer ethnocentrism and country image on perceived relative quality. The respondents of the study were consumers at a shopping mall in Mataram, Indonesia. They compared the quality of televisions from three industrialised Asian countries, i.e. Japan, South Korea and China, to those from Indonesia. The result of the study was that image of those countries has a significant effect on perceived relative quality. Indonesian consumers perceived televisions from those countries to be more favourable in terms of quality compared to Indonesian televisions. Indonesian consumers have a similar perception on the quality of televisions made in those main Asian countries relative to those of Indonesia. The image of those countries is favourable leading to a better perception on quality of televisions made in the countries relative to domestically made. Domestic consumers view that those countries have better capabilities in producing higher quality televisions. However, consumer ethnocentrism do not lead them to negatively perceive the quality of imported televisions. Indeed, the image of those countries has a greater role in Indonesian consumers’ quality evaluation. The result calls for a substantial improvement in quality of domestically made televisions.

  18. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause in five Asian countries: results from the Pan-Asian REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Y; Limpaphayom, K K; Cheng, B; Ho, C M; Sumapradja, K; Altomare, C; Huang, K

    2017-08-01

    The Pan-Asian REVIVE survey aimed to examine women's experiences with genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and their interactions with health-care professionals (HCPs). Self-completed surveys were administered face-to-face to 5992 women (aged 45-75 years) in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Of 638 postmenopausal women with GSM symptoms, only 35% were aware of the GSM condition, most of whom first heard of GSM through their physician (32%). The most common symptoms were vaginal dryness (57%) and irritation (43%). GSM had the greatest impact on sexual enjoyment (65%) and intimacy (61%). Only 25% had discussed their GSM symptoms with a HCP, and such discussions were mostly patient-initiated (64%) rather than HCP-initiated (24%). Only 21% had been clinically diagnosed with GSM and only 24% had ever used treatment for their symptoms. Three-quarters of those who had used treatment for GSM had discussed their symptoms with a HCP compared to only 9% of those who were treatment-naïve. GSM is underdiagnosed and undertreated in Asia. As discussion of GSM with HCPs appears to be a factor influencing women's awareness and treatment status, a more active role by HCPs to facilitate early discussions on GSM and its treatment options is needed.

  19. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  1. Quantifying the digital divide: a scientific overview of network connectivity and grid infrastructure in South Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S M; Cottrell, R L; Kalim, U; Ali, A

    2008-01-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices

  2. Quantifying the Digital Divide: A Scientific Overview of Network Connectivity and Grid Infrastructure in South Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shahryar Muhammad; Cottrell, R. Les; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad

    2007-01-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices

  3. URBAN TRANSPORT AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ASIAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira MORITA

    2004-01-01

    This paper comprises a GIS-based land use analysis on the relationship between urbanization and transport infrastructure development, b GPS-based travel behavior survey, and c interview survey on residents' satisfaction with transport infrastructures and services. It was shown that the current land use patterns largely differ depending on the existence of agricultural infrastructure development in the pre-urbanized stage. It was also confirmed by a GPS-based travel survey that travel behavior patterns in scattered development areas are significantly different from those in orderly development areas. The former areas lack not only road space but also a structured hierarchy of networks, resulting in inefficient travel behaviors with low speed and detours. The GPS survey gave clearer pictures to grasp the relationship between travel patterns of residents and their demand for the improvement of local transport services. It was indicated that local governments who are responsible for these demands often fail to meet them due to financial and institutional limitations of the current system.

  4. Clinical and sociodemographic correlates of suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder from six Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background East Asian countries have high suicide rates. However, little is known about clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with suicidality in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from six Asian countries. Methods The study cohort consisted of 547 outpatients with MDD. Patients presented to study sites in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Singapore (n = 40), Thailand (n = 103), and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Global Severity Index(SCL-90R), the Fatigue Severity Scale, the 36-item short-form health survey, the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Patients were classified as showing high suicidality if they scored ≥6 on the MINI suicidality module. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors related to high suicidality. Results One hundred and twenty-five patients were classed as high suicidality. Unemployed status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.43, p suicidality. Hindu (adjusted OR 0.09, p suicidality. Conclusions A variety of sociodemographic and clinical factors were associated with high suicidality in Asian patients with MDD. These factors may facilitate the identification of MDD patients at risk of suicide. PMID:24524225

  5. Summary of current research on Central Asian vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mei YANG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian vortex (CAV is an important synoptic-scale system that causes rainstorms, short-term heavy precipitation, hail, and sustained low temperatures in Xinjiang. This paper summarizes the current research conducted on the CAV since the 1960s. The objective definition of the CAV has been revised and a deep and shallow CAV classification proposed. Two high-frequency areas of deep CAV activity are the Kazakhstan hills (Sayan mountains and the eastern area of the Aral Sea (Tashkent; events mostly occur in summer and 40% cause strong rainfall. In addition, two high-frequency activity areas of the shallow CAV are located in the west and south of the Pamirs Plateau and mostly occur in spring; 23.2% of occurrences cause strong rainfall. The western and eastern water vapor transport relates to westerlies and a strong low-level easterly jet stream (LLEJ extending from Gansu to Xinjiang, respectively, and water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau transports even more northwards and enters Xinjiang. The deep CAV has an obvious cold core structure down to 300 hPa. The conversion terms from eddy available potential energy (AE to eddy kinetic energy (KE and eddy kinetic energy inflow (BKE from the open atmospheric region boundaries are the main sources of KE which cause rapid development of the CAV. The anomalous anti-cyclone center over the northeast Atlantic is the fountain of Rossby wave energy dispersion; Rossby waves propagate from the northeast Atlantic to eastern Europe (Urals (EEU, and then continuously propagate to Central Asia causing development of the CAV. The CAV requires further study to characterize the meso-scale system structure and evolution characteristics. In addition, physical modeling of the severe convective weather occurring under the CAV is required to determine the critical impacts of this severe convective weather and enable forecasting and early-warning indexes.

  6. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, I; Guan, R; Amarapuka, D; Alexander, M J; Chutaputti, A; Chien, R N; Hasnian, S S; Leung, N; Lesmana, L; Phiet, P H; Sjalfoellah Noer, H M; Sollano, J; Sun, H S; Xu, D Z

    2000-12-01

    Of the estimated 50 million new cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection diagnosed annually, 5-10% of adults and up to 90% of infants will become chronically infected, 75% of these in Asia where hepatitis B is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Indonesia, 4.6% of the population was positive for HBsAg in 1994 and of these, 21% were positive for HBeAg and 73% for anti-HBe; 44% and 45% of Indonesian patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, were HBsAg positive. In the Philippines, there appear to be two types of age-specific HBsAg prevalence, suggesting different modes of transmission. In Thailand, 8-10% of males and 6-8% of females are HBsAg positive, with HBsAg also found in 30% of patients with cirrhosis and 50-75% of those with HCC. In Taiwan, 75-80% of patients with chronic liver disease are HBsAg positive, and HBsAg is found in 34% and 72% of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively. In China, 73% of patients with chronic hepatitis and 78% and 71% of those with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, are HBsAg positive. In Singapore, the prevalence of HBsAg has dropped since the introduction of HBV vaccination and the HBsAg seroprevalence of unvaccinated individuals over 5 years of age is 4.5%. In Malaysia, 5.24% of healthy volunteers, with a mean age of 34 years, were positive for HBsAg in 1997. In the highly endemic countries in Asia, the majority of infections are contracted postnatally or perinatally. Three phases of chronic HBV infection are recognized: phase 1 patients are HBeAg positive with high levels of virus in the serum and minimal hepatic inflammation; phase 2 patients have intermittent or continuous hepatitis of varying degrees of severity; phase 3 is the inactive phase during which viral concentrations are low and there is minimal inflammatory activity in the liver. In general, patients who clear HBeAg have a better prognosis than patients who remain HBeAg-positive for prolonged periods of

  7. Free Trade Agreements in East Asian Countries: What Has Been Done and What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JungTaik Hyun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trIn this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trade agreements (FTAs and suggest future steps of action. The FTAs of three Northeast Asian countries and five ASEAN countries are examined. We find that the concluded and currently negotiated FTAs of East Asia have produced a fairly limited impact on trade and welfare. The limitation came from the fact that the selection of FTA partners was not based on economic gains but on an ad hoc basis or a defensive purpose. Therefore, we suggest that East Asian countries concentrate FTA activities on trade partners with large trade volumes. In this regard, the successful conclusion of the ongoing Korea-Japan FTA negotiation is crucial, and the two governments need to dissociate social and historical concerns with economic considerations. The FTAs between China, Korea, Japan and the U.S. should immediately follow the Korea-Japan FTA to realize the potentials and to prevent biased specialization. The FTAs of East Asia allowed a wide range of exemptions to protect inefficient sectors such as agriculture. The proper approach, we suggest, is not to avoid the problem but to proceed with comprehensive agreements and thus maximize the gains of FTAs. Restructuring industries and reallocating resources to the sectors with comparative advantage, while providing adequate assistance programs, is required. We also note that East Asian countries should utilize existing unilateral, regional and multilateral methods of liberalization as well as bilateral FTAs.

  8. A NAA collaborative study in white rice performed in seven Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Ebihara, M.; Arporn, B.; Setyo, P.; Theresia, R.M.; Wee, B.S.; Salim, N.A.Abd.; Pabroa, P.C.B.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, collaborative studies for applying NAA have been performed through the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) sponsored by the Japanese Government. White rice is a main food for Asians and thus was selected as a common target sample for a collaborative study in 2008. Seven Asian countries including China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand, are greatly concerned about the composition of arsenic, heavy metals, and essential trace elements and took part in this study. Rice samples were purchased and prepared by following a protocol that had been proposed for this study. Samples were analyzed by their own NAA systems. In each country, more than 10 elements were examined and the results were compared. These data will be very useful in the monitoring of the levels of food contamination and to evaluate the nutritional status for people living in Asia. (author)

  9. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  10. Dengue viral infections in Pakistan and other Asian countries: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahsan, Aitezaz; Nazir, Noor-Ul-Ain; Hanif, Hina; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-07-01

    Infections due to Dengue virus are widespread throughout the world. Disease starts with mild flu like sickness to a severe intricate condition which results in the death of the patient. Dengue illness has high morbidity and mortality in Pakistan as well as in other Asian countries. The Review article is a discourse analysis that explores the facts about the history, emergence and impact of dengue in Pakistan and other Asian countries. Data was collected from internet sources, mainly using Science Direct and PubMed. The final literature was reviewed and summarised. About 150 articles were identified and 47 articles were shortlisted for final review. Aedesaegypti was found to be a major vector for the transmission and spread of dengue illness. Treatment comprises supportive therapy as no specific treatment was available. During the last couple of years, the incidence of dengue fever was extraordinary in metropolitan cities of Pakistan.

  11. The relationship between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-T.; Kuo, H.-I; Chen, C.-C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationships between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 newly industrializing and developing Asian countries using both single data sets and panel data procedures. The empirical results from single data set indicate that the causality directions in the 10 Asian countries are mixed while there is a uni-directional short-run causality running from economic growth to electricity consumption and a bi-directional long-run causality between electricity consumption and economic growth if the panel data procedure is implemented. These empirical findings imply that electricity conservation policies through both rationalizing the electricity supply efficiency improvement to avoid the wastage of electricity and managing demand side to reduce the electricity consumption without affecting the end-user benefits could be initiated without adverse effect on economic growth. The findings on the long-run relationship indicate that a sufficiently large supply of electricity can ensure that a higher level of economic growth

  12. Transnational corporations from Asian developing countries: The internationalisation characteristics and business strategies of Sime Darby Berhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited empirical research on the internationalisation processes, strategies and operations of Asian multinational corporations (MNCs, particularly MNC’s based in Malaysia. The emergence and development of an MNC from this developing country represents a significant addition to the literature on this topic which augments and supplements the information already available with regard to nascent MNCs from Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NIC’s. Drawing on primary data from in-depth interviews with 12 key executives from Sime Darby Berhad (SDB, a developing Malaysian-based MNC, this paper will examine and investigate the firm’s internationalisation process, its characteristics and strategies, including motivations, patterns, and sources of competitive advantage. The empirical findings, limitations and areas for further research are discussed.

  13. CRISIS, SOCIAL SECTOR AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN SOME SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhaya, Pundarik

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the social impact of the recent Asian Economic crisis, drawing on the results of studies in two countries: Singapore and Thailand. The economic crisis had interrupted three decades of steady growth that had been accompanied by remarkable progress in poverty reduction and a betterment of social indicators like health and education. In particular, this crisis is feared to have a large negative effect on household welfare. It is found that absolute poverty became more acute i...

  14. Violence against women during pregnancy in some Asian countries: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif, Mobina; Murtaza, Kashif; Kirkman, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a recognized violation of human rights and an important public health concern. Violence during pregnancy is a risk to both the woman and her baby. Aims: The aim of this review was to identify what the literature reveals about violence during pregnancy in Asian countries.

    Methods: A systematic, integrated review was conducted of peer-reviewed literature published 1995-2009...

  15. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and their implications for human exposure in several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zifeng; Alomirah, Husam; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Li, Yi-Fan; Liao, Chunyang; Minh, Tu Binh; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Nakata, Haruhiko; Ren, Nanqi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-08-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Due to the potential of this compound to disrupt normal endocrinal functions, concerns over human exposure to BPA have been raised. Although several studies have reported human exposure to BPA in Western nations, little is known about exposure in Asian countries. In this study, we determined total urinary BPA concentrations (free plus conjugated) in 296 urine samples (male/female: 153/143) collected from the general population in seven Asian countries, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). On the basis of urinary BPA concentrations, we estimated the total daily intake. The results indicated that BPA was detected in 94.3% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from Malaysia (1.06 ng/mL, 2.31 μg/g), and Japan (0.95 ng/mL, 0.58 μg/g). Among the five age groups studied (≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), the highest median concentration of BPA was found in urine samples from the age group of ≤ 19 years. There was no significant difference in BPA concentrations between genders (male and female) or domicile of residence (rural and urban). The estimated median daily intakes of BPA for the populations in Kuwait, Korea, India, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Japan were 5.19, 3.69, 2.90, 2.13, 2.01, 1.80, and 1.61 μg/day, respectively. The estimated daily intake of BPA in the seven Asian countries was significantly lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This is the first study to document the occurrence of and human exposure to BPA in several Asian countries.

  16. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in\\ud Asian developing countries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Baxter, Susan; Kirkpatrick, P.; Vijay Singh, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature of factors affecting adherence to Antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Asian developing countries.\\ud Methods Database searches in Medline ⁄ Ovid, Cochrane library, CINAHL, Scopus and PsychINFO for studies published between 1996 and December 2010. The reference lists of included papers were also checked, with citation searching on key papers.\\ud Results A total of 437 studies were identified, and 18 articles met the inclusion criteria and were ex...

  17. Petroleum product pricing in Asian developing countries: Lessons from the past and future issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the pricing of petroleum products in ten Asian developing countries using a data series for 1973--1992. Prices of petroleum products are compared with international prices. Differential prices are measured with respect to diesel prices. It is found that energy prices are used as instruments for revenue earnings. Pricing policies vary widely among countries and neighbors have different fuel prices. Countries try to align the local prices of petroleum products in line with international prices but with a lag of 1--2 years. The wave of liberalization and privatization is sweeping many developing countries. Additionally, environmental issues are gaining importance even in developing countries. The paper also discusses these emerging issues that need to be taken into account in the petroleum product pricing

  18. Maternal health and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Boyle, Jacqueline; Cheng, I-Hao; East, Christine; Knight, Michelle; Teede, Helena

    2015-05-01

    To compare maternal health, prenatal care, and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background (born in Asian humanitarian source countries [HSCs]) and non-refugee background (born in Asian non-HSCs) at Monash Health (Melbourne, VIC, Australia). In a retrospective study, data were obtained for women born in HSCs and non-HSCs from the same region who received government-funded health care for singleton pregnancies between 2002 and 2011. Multivariable regression analyses assessed associations between maternal HSC origin and pregnancy outcomes. Data were included for 1930 women from South Asian HSCs and 7412 from non-HSCs, 107 from Southeast Asian HSCs and 5574 from non-HSCs, 287 from West Asian HSCs and 990 from non-HSCs. Overweight, anemia, and teenage pregnancy were generally more common in the HSC groups. Birth in an HSC was independently associated with poor/no pregnancy care attendance (OR 4.2; 95% CI 2.5-7.3), late booking visit (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5), and post-term birth (OR 3.0; 95% CI 2.0-4.5) among women from South Asia. For Southeast Asia, HSC birth was independently associated with labor induction (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1-3.5). No independent associations were recorded for West Asia. Women born in Afghanistan, Bhutan, Iraq, and Myanmar had poorer general maternal health. Those from South Asian HSCs had increased risks of lower engagement in prenatal care, and post-term birth. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Frerichs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.

  20. Trends and prospects of nuclear power development programs in the Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report is intended to look into the trends and prospects of nuclear power development programs in the Asian countries which will emerge as major business markets for the international nuclear industry and will seek to strengthen nuclear cooperation with Korea. In Asia, which accounts for about half of the world's population, there are many countries which have already expanded and are ready to embark on nuclear programs to meet increasing energy demands resulting from the rapidly growing economic development in the region. The Asian region will also emerge as a new area for economic development in the 21st century. The future demand for nuclear power programs will also increase in booming Asia where rapid industrialization has been in progress. The main constraints to nuclear power deployment in Asia include fund-raising for nuclear development, weakness of technical infrastructure and so on. In this regard, these problems need to be addressed to successfully implement nuclear programs in the region. This report could be used to establish national policies for nuclear cooperation and nuclear business with Asian countries expected to develop active nuclear power programmes in the future. (author). 8 refs., 11 tabs

  1. Characteristic differences in the mini-mental state examination used in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yong S; Yang, Dong Won; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2017-07-21

    The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was adapted by individual countries according to their languages and cultures, though it has not been systematically compared. The objective of this study was to compare the linguistic and cultural variations of the MMSE used in various Asian countries. With this, we can analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the MMSE and consider using a common version in future international clinical studies in Asia. We collected the MMSEs used in 11 Asian nations. After translating those into English, we compared them to understand the differences in the questionnaires with regard to cultural aspects. Many items may be applicable or comparable with a little modification, for Asian countries. However, attention and calculation and repetition may be incomparable. There were some differences in the contents and the ways to administer. The lack of consideration of the cultural differences and their influences on the interpretation of the same cognitive test makes cross-cultural studies difficult. Some items of MMSE tasks need readjusting for, if any, multi-national studies. This study might serve as a first step in the development of a standardized cross-cultural cognitive instrument, especially in Asia.

  2. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005, Paris (France); Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between < LOD (limit of detection) to 14,000,000 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), < LOD to 790,000 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), < LOD to 12,000 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), < LOD to 29,000 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), < LOD to 47,000 for chlordanes (CHLs) and < LOD to 4600 for total cyclodienes. Further, ranges (ng/g LW) of 1.1 to 150,000 for Co-PCBs; < LOD to 27 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); < LOD to 45 for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 0.02 to 73 for PCDD/DFs have been reported in Asian aves

  3. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between < LOD (limit of detection) to 14,000,000 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), < LOD to 790,000 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), < LOD to 12,000 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), < LOD to 29,000 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), < LOD to 47,000 for chlordanes (CHLs) and < LOD to 4600 for total cyclodienes. Further, ranges (ng/g LW) of 1.1 to 150,000 for Co-PCBs; < LOD to 27 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); < LOD to 45 for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 0.02 to 73 for PCDD/DFs have been reported in Asian aves

  4. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  5. Korea's Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and FDI in Trade with East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegi Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Korea's intra-industry trade (IIT by disentangling vertical from horizontal IIT, and analyzes the determinants of both IIT types in trade with East Asian countries during the period of 1991-2005. Korea's IIT with East Asian countries has increased rapidly, especially its high quality IIT, which has increased faster than horizontal IIT and low quality IIT, implying that Korea's product quality has improved over time. Korea's high quality IIT is larger in trade with developing countries, but its low quality IIT is larger in trade with Japan. The regression results show that the income differences between countries have a negative effect on horizontal IIT, and that Korea's high quality IIT becomes larger when Korea's income is higher than the income of partner countries. This supports the theory of IIT. Foreign direct investment (FDI inflow has had a positive effect on increases in IIT, but the effects of FDI outflow are not certain. This suggests a policy implication that FDI inflow has a more positive effect on IIT than FDI outflow.

  6. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African–Indian family in three tropical Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African–Indian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East African–Indian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries

  7. Current nuclear programmes in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Anna.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1964, when China became the fifth declared nuclear weapons state NWS (joining the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France), no other state has openly declared a nuclear capacity. But four states - Israel, South Africa, India and Pakistan - are now believed to have such a capacity. This chapter will briefly document the nuclear weapons programmes of these four 'threshold' countries which possess the industrial infrastructure to enable them to produce nuclear weapons' but assiduously refrain from publicly expressing any interest in acquiring such weapons. The chapter will go on to discuss those states which are not on the threshold but which are attempting to become nuclear-capable through building the necessary technology or acquiring it on the international market. The political motivation for these countries to 'go nuclear', and the assistance they have received in this endeavour from the NWSs themselves, will also be discussed. (author)

  8. Policy options for developing Asian countries in the Post-Kyoto world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, Toufiq A.

    2003-01-01

    The developing countries of Asia are amongst the largest contributors to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases as well as being amongst those most likely to be impacted by global climate change. There are at present no legal requirements for the Asian developing countries to reduce their emissions, however, the medium and long-term impact of global climate change is likely to be proportionately larger for the developing countries than for the industrialized countries, since the latter have the resources to reduce the adverse impacts. Therefore, it is of great interest of the developing countries, as well as the rest of the world, to have longer-term goals for stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions, and taking actions during the medium term to achieve these goals. Asia is home to about 50% of the world's population, and there is great variation in the levels of industrialization and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. A differentiated strategy for addressing concerns related to global climate change may be appropriate for the Asian developing countries at this time. Some elements of this strategy are discussed in this paper. Development in energy technology present several attractive options for the developing countries. However, their introduction and successful use depends at least as much on the existence of the necessary infrastructure as on the attractiveness of the technologies themselves. It is suggested that international and bilateral development agencies, as well as the countries themselves, consider the accelerated development of such infrastructure as a major way to contribute to the efforts to address global climate change. (BA)

  9. The Socio-Cultural Environment for Entrepreneurship: A Comparison Between East Asian and Anglo-Saxon Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Begley; Wee-Liang Tan

    2001-01-01

    This study uses a theory of face to identify predictors of interest in entrepreneurship in six East Asian and four Anglo-Saxon countries. At the cultural level, social status of entrepreneurship and shame from business failure predict interest in entrepreneurship better in East Asian than Anglo countries. At the individual level, social status predicts interest in entrepreneurship in the entire sample.© 2001 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2001) 32, 537–553

  10. Human development and South East Asian countries: Special emphasis on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpa

    2013-08-31

    'Development' is to improve the quality of people's lives by creating an environment for them to engage in a wide range of activities, to be healthy and well nourished, to be knowledgeable and to be able to participate in the community life. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a multi-dimensional index of development as it is the combination of three development indices- health index, education index and income index. This article attempts to compare the HDI and its components between various South East Asian countries. Secondary data is used. India's position on the HDI scale is equivalent to the South East Asian average and rank 134 out of more than 190 countries. In South East Asia, India stood fifth in HDI, behind Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives and Indonesia. Country has launched several schemes and programs to improve the health indicators, to provide elementary education to every child and to alleviate poverty. India's HDI value has improved with time but still country has a long way to go in achieving an acceptable HDI. Need is to strengthen the existing schemes and programs.

  11. Clinical and sociodemographic correlates of suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder from six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ah-Young; Lee, Ah-Rong; Hatim, Ahmad; Tian-Mei, Si; Liu, Chia-Yih; Jeon, Hong Jin; Udomratn, Pichet; Bautista, Dianne; Chan, Edwin; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chua, Hong Choon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-13

    East Asian countries have high suicide rates. However, little is known about clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with suicidality in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from six Asian countries. The study cohort consisted of 547 outpatients with MDD. Patients presented to study sites in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Singapore (n = 40), Thailand (n = 103), and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Global Severity Index(SCL-90R), the Fatigue Severity Scale, the 36-item short-form health survey, the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Patients were classified as showing high suicidality if they scored ≥ 6 on the MINI suicidality module. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors related to high suicidality. One hundred and twenty-five patients were classed as high suicidality. Unemployed status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.43, p < 0.01), MADRS score (adjusted OR 1.08), p < 0.001, and GSI (SCL-90R) score (adjusted OR 1.06, p < 0.01) were positively related to high suicidality. Hindu (adjusted OR 0.09, p < 0.05) or Muslim (adjusted OR 0.21, p < 0.001) religion and MSPSS score (adjusted OR 0.82, p < 0.05) were protective against high suicidality. A variety of sociodemographic and clinical factors were associated with high suicidality in Asian patients with MDD. These factors may facilitate the identification of MDD patients at risk of suicide.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in children: current issues and South Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Vikram, Naval K; Goel, Ashish; Wasir, Jasjeet S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss definition, determinants, and management issues of the metabolic syndrome in children with a focus on South Asians. The literature search was done using the PubMed search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manual searches for other important references and medical databases were also done. There is a need for an integrated definition of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, taking cognizance of the ethnic-specific variations. Obesity and body fat patterning are important determinants of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in children and ethnic variations in these parameters are seen. Excess body fat and thicker truncal subcutaneous fat are important predisposing factors for development of insulin resistance in South Asian children. Because the metabolic syndrome tracks into adulthood, its manifestations need to be recognized early for prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, maintenance of high levels of physical activity and normal weight are most important strategies; pharmacologic therapy for individual components of the metabolic syndrome is occasionally needed. The metabolic syndrome in children is an important clinical marker of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adults. In view of the rapid increase in the metabolic syndrome in most populations, high-risk screening and effective public-intervention educational programs are urgently needed.

  13. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

  14. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Suwonsichon, Suntaree; Chitra, Uma; Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries. PMID:28234307

  15. Analysis of consumed fish species by neutron activation analysis in six Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Ni, B.F.; Theresia, R.M.; Salim, N.A.A.; Arporn, B.; Vu, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Fish were selected as a common target sample for a collaborative study of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia)-NAA (neutron activation analysis) project in 2011. Six Asian countries took part in this work. Fish samples were purchased from commercial markets and prepared by following an agreed protocol. Toxic and essential elements in the prepared samples were determined by NAA. The concentration levels of As, Hg in many fish samples have higher values than the regulation ones. The fish contamination by heavy metals should be monitored continuously for human health. (author)

  16. Public revenue, fiscal deficit and economic growth: Evidence from Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    AMGAIN, Jeeban; DHAKAL, Nanda Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of public revenue and fiscal deficit on economic growth in 20 Asian Countries. We use panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) to estimate both the short-run and long-run impact of the fiscal variables. The results indicate that fiscal deficit adversely affect growth both in short-run and long-run. In the long-run, deficit finance leads to debt accumulation which is also negatively associated with growth. However, panel ARDL results show that ...

  17. Poultry Production and Marketing in Nepal : with Comparison to Other South Asian Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    杉山, 道夫; 小栗, 克之; BHATTARAI, Til Chandra; スギヤマ, ミチオ; オグリ, カツユキ; SUGIYAMA, Michio; OGURI, Katsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the present situation of the Nepalese poultry industry and its comparison to other South Asian Countries with the help of survey and available secondary data. There were about 15.9 million poultry producing 10,962 Mt meat and 421,460 thousands of eggs including commercial and backyard poultry in the year 1996/97. The commercial poultry produced 269 eggs in 48 weeks of production with feed conversion ratio 2.9. The per Kg production cost of eggs was ab...

  18. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  19. The Impact of Revenue Diversification on Bank Profitability and Stability: Empirical Evidence from South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Nisar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the benefits and drawbacks of bank revenue diversification. Revenue diversification may benefit banks if diversified activities are inherently less risky and possess high returns, while it may hurt banks if diversified activities are more risky and have low returns. Analyzing a panel dataset of 200 commercial banks from all South Asian countries, we found that overall revenue diversification into non-interest income has a positive impact on the profitability and stability of South Asian commercial banks. We further observed that different types of non-interest income-generating activities have different impacts on bank performance and stability. While fees and commission incomes have a negative impact on the profitability and stability of South Asian commercial banks, other non-interest income has a positive impact. Our results imply that banks can benefit from revenue diversification if they diversify into specific types of non-interest income-generating activities. Our findings are robust and relevant to the use of alternative measures of revenue diversification, profitability and stability.

  20. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Dalen, Jan Van; Van Der Vleuten, Cees Pm

    2011-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30 internal medicine residents with 7-10 patients each in the internal medicine outpatient clinics. The patients were categorized into a group with a high and a group with a low educational level. We ranked the data into 41 RIAS utterances and RIAS-based composite categories in order of observed frequency during consultations. The residents invariantly used a paternalistic style irrespective of patients' educational background. The RIAS utterances and the composite categories show no significant relationship between communication style and patients' educational level. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country use a paternalistic communication style during consultations, regardless of patients' educational background. To approach a more partnership doctor-patient communication, culture and clinical environment concern of Southeast Asian should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy.

  2. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putthasri Weerasak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission

  3. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  4. Present state of research and development of atomic energy in five Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The survey group for Asian atomic energy cooperation was dispatched by the Japanese government, and toured Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Bangladesh from September 7 to 19, 1980. The present state of atomic energy development and the energy situation in respective countries were surveyed through the exchange of opinion and the inspection of related facilities. The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology was concluded in June, 1972, and 12 countries have participated in it. It was impressive that respective countries have the peculiar energy policies corresponding to their objective conditions. They regard atomic energy as the important substitute energy for petroleum, but the fear about the safety of atomic energy and the movement against nuclear power generation have been growing considerably. The research and development on atomic energy are carried out very actively in respective countries, and the construction of large-scale research centers was commenced in Indonesia, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Research reactors have been operated in Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand since about 20 years ago, and the utilization of radioisotopes and radiation has been studied. The cooperation of Japan with these countries is far behind that of other advanced countries.

  5. Mathematics Research in Association of Southeast Asian Nations Countries: A Scientometric Analysis of Patterns and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao P. Ho-Le

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at mapping the trend and impact of mathematics research originated from Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries by using a scientometric approach. We extracted the Web of Science’s article-level data of all publications concerning mathematics research during the period of 2006–2015 for ASEAN countries. The impact of research was assessed in terms of citation, and the pattern of international collaboration was mapped by the presence of coauthorship and international affiliations. During the coverage period, ASEAN countries had published 9,890 papers in mathematics, accounting for 3.8% of total ISI-indexed publications from the region. Almost 95% of the mathematics publication was from Singapore (4,107 papers, Vietnam (2,046, Malaysia (1,927, and Thailand (1,317. Approximately 54% of mathematics papers from ASEAN countries had international coauthorship, and these papers had greater yearly citation rate than those without international collaboration. With the exception of Singapore, the citation rate for other ASEAN countries was below the world average by 8–30%. The most important predictor of citations was journal impact factor, which accounted for 5.2% of total variation in citations between papers. These findings suggest that the contribution of ASEAN countries as a group to mathematics research worldwide is modest in terms of research output and impact.

  6. Analysis of the features of the entrepreneurship and leadership in the Asian and Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.

  7. Liberalising trade in health services: constraints and prospects for South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Fahmida; Ahamad, Mazbahul

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the prospects and challenges associated with liberalising trade in health services in five South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Country-specific secondary information, a brief literature review of empirical studies and debriefing sessions with key stakeholders are employed to explore the issues related to liberalising health services trade. The health sectors in India, Nepal and Pakistan are scheduled under General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) classification, whereas those in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are not. In Bangladesh, there is opportunity for investment in joint venture hospitals under Mode 3. Nonetheless, India is the largest trader in health services under all four modes. In Sri Lanka, cross-border trade in healthcare services is found to be insignificant. Moreover, expertise in eye treatment in Nepal could also attract foreign investment in medical services under Mode 3. In contrast, Pakistan exhibits no potential under Mode 4, because of a lack of healthcare professionals. In this view, the prospects of trade in health services within the South Asian region under the four GATS modes are constrained by infrastructural, regulatory, perception-related, logistical and cultural problems. Considering the level of development and commercial opportunities, regional integration in the health sector could be explored in such areas as telemedicine, medical tourism, cross-border investment and capacity building of health personnel. These developments call for stronger and pro-active government-to-government collaboration in the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region in a transparent and accountable manner. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Is There a Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission in South Asian Countries with Hyperendemic Dengue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2013-01-01

    The fact that yellow fever (YF) has never occurred in Asia remains an “unsolved mystery” in global health. Most countries in Asia with high Aedes aegypti mosquito density are considered “receptive” for YF transmission. Recently, health officials in Sri Lanka issued a public health alert on the potential spread of YF from a migrant group from West Africa. We performed an extensive review of literature pertaining to the risk of YF in Sri Lanka/South Asian region to understand the probability of actual risk and assist health authorities to form evidence informed public health policies/practices. Published data from epidemiological, historical, biological, molecular, and mathematical models were harnessed to assess the risk of YF in Asia. Using this data we examine a number of theories proposed to explain lack of YF in Asia. Considering the evidence available, we conclude that the probable risk of local transmission of YF is extremely low in Sri Lanka and for other South Asian countries despite a high Aedes aegypti density and associated dengue burden. This does not however exclude the future possibility of transmission in Asia, especially considering the rapid influx travelers from endemic areas, as we report, arriving in Sri Lanka. PMID:24367789

  9. Financial development, income inequality, and CO2 emissions in Asian countries using STIRPAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Saleem, Naima; Fatima, Syeda Tamkeen

    2018-03-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to find the effects of financial development, income inequality, energy usage, and per capita GDP on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions as well the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for the three developing Asian countries-Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Panel data during the period 1980-2014 and the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology model with fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) are employed for empirical investigation. The results show that financial development has a significant negative relationship with CO 2 emission in the three selected Asian countries with the exception of India. The results further reveal that income inequality in Pakistan and India reduce CO 2 emission, while the result for Bangladesh is opposite. Likewise, energy usage has a significant positive effect on CO 2 emission in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India. Our empirical analysis based on long-run and short-run elasticity appraisal suggests the validation of the EKC in Pakistan and India. The study findings recommend an important policy insinuation. The study suggests introducing a motivational campaign for the inhabitant towards utilization of high-efficiency electrical appliances, constructing mutual cooperation for economic development rather involve in winning development race, and introducing effective pollution absorption measures along with big projects.

  10. Palliative Care Physicians' Attitudes Toward Patient Autonomy and a Good Death in East Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Shirado, Akemi; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-08-01

    Clarification of the potential differences in end-of-life care among East Asian countries is necessary to provide palliative care that is individualized for each patient. The aim was to explore the differences in attitude toward patient autonomy and a good death among East Asian palliative care physicians. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. Physicians' attitudes toward patient autonomy and physician-perceived good death were assessed. A total of 505, 207, and 211 responses were obtained from Japanese, Taiwanese, and Korean physicians, respectively. Japanese (82%) and Taiwanese (93%) physicians were significantly more likely to agree that the patient should be informed first of a serious medical condition than Korean physicians (74%). Moreover, 41% and 49% of Korean and Taiwanese physicians agreed that the family should be told first, respectively; whereas 7.4% of Japanese physicians agreed. Physicians' attitudes with respect to patient autonomy were significantly correlated with the country (Japan), male sex, physician specialties of surgery and oncology, longer clinical experience, and physicians having no religion but a specific philosophy. In all 12 components of a good death, there were significant differences by country. Japanese physicians regarded physical comfort and autonomy as significantly more important and regarded preparation, religion, not being a burden to others, receiving maximum treatment, and dying at home as less important. Taiwanese physicians regarded life completion and being free from tubes and machines as significantly more important. Korean physicians regarded being cognitively intact as significantly more important. There are considerable intercountry differences in physicians' attitudes toward autonomy and physician-perceived good death. East Asia is not culturally the same; thus, palliative care should be provided in a culturally acceptable manner for each country

  11. Midwifery education, regulation and association in six South Asian countries--a descriptive report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogren, Malin Upper; Wiseman, Anita; Berg, Marie

    2012-06-01

    To describe the situation of midwifery education, regulation and association in six South Asian countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Data were collected via three questionnaires, constructed by the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Investing in Midwives Programme, used at a regional workshop in Bangladesh, 2010. Selected for the purpose of this study were 55 out of 134 questions of which two were open-ended. The answers from structured closed-ended questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the open ended answers with a qualitative content analysis. There was a variation in midwifery education across South Asia, in terms of entry level, competencies and requirements for teachers. None of the countries had national legislation that recognized midwifery as an autonomous profession. Four of the countries had a midwifery association. Two countries had a curriculum based on ICM's essential competences for basic midwifery practice. Main recommendations for improving formal midwifery education across the countries were development of legislation, strengthened formal midwifery education, strengthened professional value, and an improved learning environment. The findings might benefit the future midwifery profession in South Asia and is an important step in addressing the MDGs to reduce maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in the region. With assistance, the area of South Asia will be able to create autonomous midwives that comply with ICM's global standards for midwifery education and regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Outline of energy (electricity) supply and demand outlook in Asian APEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujime, Kazuya

    1995-01-01

    Oil: Japan's oil demand is projected to be on a gradual decline in the future due to implementation of policy measures aimed at achieving that objective, while consumption of oil in three areas - China, NIES and six ASEAN countries -- is projected to increase to reach a level nearly three times as large as Japan's demand by 2010. Supply of oil in the region is projected to level off, making it necessary for the region to increase its reliance on other areas for additional volumes of oil supply. Coal: Demand for coal is projected to grow against a background of expansion of coal-fired power generation. Coal demand in China, in particular, is projected to grow to such an extent that China may become a net coal importer, thus having a great impact on coal supply and demand in Asian countries. Natural gas: Demand for natural gas is projected to grow in the region, centering on NIES and ASEAN countries. Although production in ASEAN countries is expected to increase, the region is anticipated to increase its reliance on other areas for natural gas supply from medium - and long term perspectives. Oil products: Demand for oil products is projected to grow due to stepped-up industrialization and motorization in China, NIES and ASEAN countries. From medium - and long-term perspectives, considerable volumes of additional oil product supply will become necessary, unless large-scale refineries are newly built or expanded within the region centering on China. (author)

  13. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  14. Macroeconomic Stabilization and Monetary Policyof Four Asian CountriesJapan, Korea, Indonesia, and the Philippines- Targets, Effectiveness and Results - (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Masaaki Kuroyanagi; Junji Yano; Yasuo Nakanishi; Masaaki Komatsu; Hidehiko Futamura; Tsuyoshi Mihira

    1996-01-01

    The rapid, stable economic development of Asian countries has been an important topic of empirical study in recent years. The remarkable results of this steady economic development have been called a "miracle" in the recent literature of development economics. This cross-country study attempts to investigate the roots of the rapid, sustained economic growth of East Asian countries. In "The East Asian Miracle" (The World Bank, 1993), rapid growth of human capital, productivity improvement and ...

  15. Consumer willingness-to-pay for packaging and contents in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Risa; Ishikawa, Masanobu

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted using a hedonic pricing model to evaluate consumer preference for packaging and contents in five Asian countries: Japan, Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan, and China. Results revealed that the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) of packaging for contents differs significantly among countries: 17.7 for Singapore, 8.58 for China, 2.71 for Taiwan, 1.65 for Japan and not significant for Indonesia. Share of Willingness-to-pay (WTP) for packaging accounted for 52.8% of the WTP for sales unit of a representative product in Japan and 46.2% in Taiwan, which were significantly higher than the results for Singapore (32.6%) and China (18.2%). Results showed that the higher the share of packaging in the WTP for a product, the higher the relative packaging weight per unit weight of contents. These results suggest that the relative demand for packaging to contents differs among countries. The results underscore the necessity of choosing suitable policy instruments and marketing strategies for different countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases: data from three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Mok, Vincent; Youn, Young Chul; Wong, Adrian; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been suggested to be more common in Asians compared with Caucasians. However, data from population-based studies in Asia are lacking. We report on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of SVD from contemporary studies in three Asian countries using 3-Tesla MRI for the evaluation of SVD. Clinical, cognitive and 3-Tesla brain MRI assessments were performed among participants of three studies from Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea. SVD markers include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) using the modified Fazekas scale, lacunes and microbleeds. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Adjustments were made for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 1797 subjects were available for analysis (mean age: 70.1±6.3 years and 57% women). The prevalence of confluent WMH was 36.6%, lacunes, 24.6% and microbleeds, 26.9%. Presence of all three SVD markers showed a steeper increase with increasing age rising from 1.9% in the lowest to 46.2% in the highest 5-year age strata. The major risk factors for the increased severity of SVD markers were advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, increasing severity of SVD markers was independently associated with worse performance on MMSE and MoCA. Elderly Asians have a high burden of SVD which was associated with cognitive dysfunction. This suggests that SVD markers should be a potential target for treatment in clinical trials so as to delay progression of cerebrovascular disease and potentially cognitive decline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Classification and comparison of niche services for developing strategy of medical tourism in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-chi; Kuo, Hsin-chih; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chang, Sophia; Su, Syi; Yang, Ming-chin

    2010-01-01

    Medical tourism is a new trend in medical service. It is booming not only in Asian countries but also in European and South American countries. Worldwide competition of medical service is expected in the future, and niche service will be a "trademark" for the promotion of global medicine. Niche service also functions for market segmentation. Niche services are usually surgical procedures. A study was carried out to compare different strategies for developing medical tourism in Asian countries. The role of a niche service is evaluated in the initiation and further development of medical tourism for individual countries. From this study, a general classification was proposed in terms of treatment procedures. It can be used as a useful guideline for additional studies in medical tourism. Niche service plays the following roles in the development of medical tourism: (1) It attracts attention in the mass media and helps in subsequent promotion of business, (2) it exerts pressure on the hospital, which must improve the quality of health care provided in treating foreign patients, especially the niche services, and (3) it is a tool for setting up the business model. E-Da Hospital is an example for developing medical tourism in Taiwan. A side effect is that niche service brings additional foreign patients, which will contribute to the benefit of the hospital, but this leaves less room for treating domestic patients. A niche service is a means of introduction for entry into the market of medical tourism. How to create a successful story is important for the development of a niche service. When a good reputation has been established, the information provided on the Internet can last for a long time and can spread internationally to form a distinguished mark for further development. Niche services can be classified into 3 categories: (1) Low-risk procedures with large price differences and long stay after retirement; (2) high-risk procedures with less of a price difference

  18. Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

    2008-01-01

    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.

  19. Financial Development and Output Growth: A Panel Study for Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjoon Jun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between financial markets and output growth for a panel of 27 Asian countries over 1960-2009. It utilizes the recently-developed panel cointegration techniques to test and estimate the long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP and financial development proxies. Real GDP and financial development variables are found to have unit roots and to be cointegrated, based on various panel unit root tests and panel cointegration tests. We find that there is a statistically significant positive bi-directional cointegrating relationship between financial development and output growth by three distinct methods of panel cointegration estimation. Empirical findings suggest that financial market development promotes output growth and in turn output growth stimulates further financial development.

  20. Predicate Offences of Money Laundering and Anti Money Laundering Practices in Bangladesh Among South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main reasons of money laundering in Bangladesh among the twenty seven predicate offences of money laundering prescribed by Bangladesh Bank and position of Bangladesh among South Asian Countries regarding anti-money laundering practices. Besides, an anti-money laundering model has been developed to combat against money laundering as 14 percent bankers think that only existing know your customer form and transaction profile of banking sector are not enough to detect money laundering. To conduct the study, 91 bankers have been surveyed to take response through structured questionnaire regarding their opinion about the predicate offences of money laundering and sufficiency of existing KYC form of banking sector to detect money laundering. From the responses, factor analysis, test of hypothesis, correlation and regression analysis have been conducted using SPSS software. The study identifies that predicate offences of money laundering can be minimized mainly through scrutinizing the activities of local criminals with foreign network and strict anti-corruption measures through automation in National Board of Revenue, strict policy adoption of criminal detection and support from foreign experts. Besides, regression model shows that only six predicate offences of money laundering explains 87.2 percent of money laundering that should get more emphasize to combat against money laundering. From the comparative analysis, it has been found that Bangladesh in holding better position just after India among six South Asian Countries according to Basel AML Index score. This study provides a complete understanding of the position of Bangladesh in case of money laundering and anti-money laundering practices. The integration of four domains, i.e. AML model development, factor analysis, econometric analysis and comparative analysis of AML index will provide insights to managers and policy makers about the money laundering

  1. Violence against women during pregnancy in some Asian countries: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobina Kashif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Violence against women is a recognized violation of human rights and an important public health concern. Violence during pregnancy is a risk to both the woman and her baby. Aims: The aim of this review was to identify what the literature reveals about violence during pregnancy in Asian countries.

    Methods: A systematic, integrated review was conducted of peer-reviewed literature published 1995-2009. Four databases were searched using the terms ‘intimate partner violence’, ‘domestic violence’, ‘pregnancy’, ‘Asia’, and ‘developing countries’. Reported results were compared within identified themes: prevalence, associated factors, interaction of violence and pregnancy, impact on women’s health, and the cultural role of children.

    Results: Twenty three eligible papers were found; 14 reported quantitative methods, 3 reported qualitative methods, and 6 reported both. Research was conducted in Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, China, Thailand, and Iran. The prevalence of violence during pregnancy ranged from 4.3% to 48%. Adverse effects of violence were evident on women’s physical and mental health and on their babies. Variables found to interact with violence were unintended pregnancy, woman’s age, partner’s education, social support, previous history of family violence, and the cultural value of children. The existing pattern and intensity of violence in the relationship were not found to change consistently with the woman’s pregnancy.

    Conclusions: The limited literature suggests that violence during pregnancy is a problem in at least some Asian countries as throughout the world. Further research is needed to increase knowledge of this important matter of significance both to women’s health and well-being and to social coherence.

  2. Medical tourism’s impact for health systems: A study from three Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala`a Nimer AbuKhalifeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism’s growth for health systems, illustration on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three provincial centres for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growing of the medical tourist industry.

  3. Integrative review of cervical cancer screening in Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhailah; Skirton, Heather; Clark, Maria T; Donaldson, Craig

    2017-12-01

    Population-based screening programs have resulted in minimizing mortality and morbidity from cervical cancer. The aim of this integrative review was to explore the factors influencing access of women from Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries to cervical cancer screening. A systematic search for studies conducted in Arab countries in those regions, and published in English between January 2002 and January 2017, was undertaken. Thirteen papers were selected and subjected to quality appraisal. A three step analysis was used, which involved a summary of the evidence, analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, and integration of the results in narrative form. Few population-based cervical cancer screening programs had been implemented in the relevant countries, with low knowledge of, and perceptions about, cervical screening among Arab women, the majority of whom are Muslim. Factors affecting the uptake of cervical cancer screening practices were the absence of organized, systematic programs, low screening knowledge among women, healthcare professionals' attitudes toward screening, pain and embarrassment, stigma, and sociocultural beliefs. Policy changes are urgently needed to promote population-based screening programs. Future research should address the promotion of culturally-sensitive strategies to enable better access of Arab Muslim women to cervical cancer screening. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Analysis of Trend of Malaria Prevalence in the Ten Asian Countries from 2006 to 2011: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shongkour Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To control the malaria mortality, the global and national communities have worked together and produced impressive results in the world. Some of the Asian counties’ malaria mortality rate is more compared to countries with high health facilities around the world. This paper’s main aim is to describe trend of malaria cases and mortality in 10 Asian countries using the World Health Organization data. Methods. Malaria mortality data was collected systematically from WHO and UN database for the period 2006–2011. We estimated malaria mortality by age and countries. We also explored the dynamic relationships among malaria death rate, total populations, and geographical region using a map. During 2006–2011, the average malaria death per 10,000 population of all ages was 0.239 (95% CI 0.104 to 0.373, of children aged less than 5 year 1.143 (0.598 to 1.687, and of age greater than 5 years 0.089 (0.043 to 0.137 in Asian countries. Malaria prevalence per 10,000 populations steadily decreased from 486.7 in 2006 to 298.9 in 2011. Conclusion. The findings show that malaria mortality is higher for children aged less than 5 years compared with with adults selected in Asian countries except Sri Lanka.

  5. ICCS 2009 Asian Report: Civic Knowledge and Attitudes among Lower-Secondary Students in Five Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2012-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Asian regional module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). ICCS studied the ways in which young people in lower-secondary schools are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens.…

  6. The Main Features of and Response to The Current Asian Security Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    I.The Main Features of the Current Asian Security Situation The strategic game between China and the United States becomes the most powerful driving force to change the Asian traditional security situation.The United States has tried its best to delay China’s rising pace or"to standardize"China’s rising path by using its huge military advantage and forward military deployment and strengthening its security network of alliance and friends,so as to maintain its dominant position in

  7. The present status of international training and education in nuclear field held in Japan for Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report summarizes the training and educational courses for Asian countries carried out in Japan by the related institutions. The 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on 27 and 28 of November 2000, based on FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) organized by the Nuclear Energy Commission, and then the following day ''The Present Status of the International Training and Education in Japan for Asian Countries'' was reported for Asian participants on 29, November. This report is the Japanese edition of the handout distributed at the meeting. I believe it can be helpful for the related institutions in Japan to support the human resources development in the nuclear field efficiently and effectively in future. (author)

  8. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N E; Sion, H C

    2014-01-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined

  9. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  10. Cross-Cultural Validation of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale in Three Asian Countries: Test of Measurement Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiening; Nie, Youyan; Hong, Ji; Monobe, Gumiko; Zheng, Guomin; Kambara, Hitomi; You, Sula

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the widely adopted Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) for the East Asian context. The researchers seek to find out whether TSES holds validity and reliability and is appropriate for use to measure teacher efficacy in China, Korea, and Japan. 489 teachers from the three countries participated in the…

  11. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  13. The Intersections of the CEDAW and CRPD: Putting Women's Rights and Disability Rights into Action in Four Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Rangita de Silva

    2010-01-01

    This report examines a new model built on advancing an intersectional human rights platform of action. The four country project in the Asian region provided a powerful locus for an innovative human rights praxis which integrated a dialectical interaction between different social movements, analytical insights and concrete political strategies and…

  14. Body mass index and self-rated health in East Asian countries : Comparison among South Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Yang, Youngmi; Park, Jumin; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    There have been conflicting findings regarding the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and SRH by comparing its relationship in four East Asian countries: South Korea, China, Japan, and

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study on Behaviors When Death Is Approaching in East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, “bad things happen after you say them out loud” and “a bad life is better than a good death” were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when

  16. Assessing the costs of municipal solid waste treatment technologies in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the main costs incurred by local authorities in developing countries. According to some estimates, these costs can account for up to 50% of city government budgets. It is therefore of importance that policymakers, urban planners and practitioners have an adequate understanding of what these costs consist of, from collection to final waste disposal. This article focuses on a specific stage of the MSW value chain, the treatment of waste, and it aims to identify cost patterns associated with the implementation and operation of waste treatment approaches in developing Asian countries. An analysis of the capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) of a number of facilities located in countries of the region was conducted based on a database gathering nearly 100 projects and which served as basis for assessing four technology categories: composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal treatment, and the production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Among these, it was found that the least costly to invest, asa function of the capacity to process waste, are composting facilities, with an average CAPEX per ton of 21,493 USD 2015 /ton. Conversely, at the upper end featured incineration plants, with an average CAPEX of 81,880 USD 2015 /ton, with this treatment approach ranking by and large as the most capital intensive of the four categories assessed. OPEX figures of the plants, normalized and analyzed in the form of OPEX/ton, were also found to be higher for incineration than for biological treatment methods, although on this component differences amongst the technology groups were less pronounced than those observed for CAPEX. While the results indicated the existence of distinct cost implications for available treatment approaches in the developing Asian context, the analysis also underscored the importance of understanding the local context asa means to properly identify the cost structure of each specific plant

  17. Construction of Electronics Database for East Asian Countries and Empirical Analysis of International Competitiveness of Japanese Companies (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The international competitiveness of Japanese electronics firms is fading as firms in East Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Taiwan catch up. In this paper, we have constructed an electronics industry database from 1996 to 2005 for China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. It covers industrial statistics in these countries including trade and overseas production statistics, which makes it possible to control for global production activities of electronics firms. We have also...

  18. Influence of age of child on differencesinlife satisfaction ofmalesand females: A comparative study among East Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eiji Yamamura; Antonio Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...

  19. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic re...

  20. Progress Toward Universal Health Coverage: A Comparative Analysis in 5 South Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Karan, Anup; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Parsons, Alexander; Abe, Sarah Krull; Bilano, Ver; Awan, Rabia; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Achieving universal health coverage is one of the key targets in the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. To investigate progress toward universal health coverage in 5 South Asian countries and assess inequalities in health services and financial risk protection indicators. In a population-based study, nationally representative household (335 373 households) survey data from Afghanistan (2014 and 2015), Bangladesh (2010 and 2014), India (2012 and 2014), Nepal (2014 and 2015), and Pakistan (2014) were used to calculate relative indices of health coverage, financial risk protection, and inequality in coverage among wealth quintiles. The study was conducted from June 2012 to February 2016. Three dimensions of universal health coverage were assessed: access to basic services, financial risk protection, and equity. Composite and indicator-specific coverage rates, stratified by wealth quintiles, were then estimated. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to assess inequalities in service and financial indicators. Access to basic care varied substantially across all South Asian countries, with mean rates of overall prevention coverage and treatment coverage of 53.0% (95% CI, 42.2%-63.6%) and 51.2% (95% CI, 45.2%-57.1%) in Afghanistan, 76.5% (95% CI, 61.0%-89.0%) and 44.8% (95% CI, 37.1%-52.5%) in Bangladesh, 74.2% (95% CI, 57.0%-88.1%) and 83.5% (95% CI, 54.4%-99.1%) in India, 76.8% (95% CI, 66.5%-85.7%) and 57.8% (95% CI, 50.1%-65.4%) in Nepal, and 69.8% (95% CI, 58.3%-80.2%) and 50.4% (95% CI, 37.1%-63.6%) in Pakistan. Financial risk protection was generally low, with 15.3% (95% CI, 14.7%-16.0%) of respondents in Afghanistan, 15.8% (95% CI, 14.9%-16.8%) in Bangladesh, 17.9% (95% CI, 17.7%-18.2%) in India, 11.8% (95% CI, 11.8%-11.9%) in Nepal, and 4.4% (95% CI, 4.0%-4.9%) in Pakistan reporting incurred catastrophic payments due to health care costs. Access to at least 4 antenatal care visits, institutional delivery, and presence

  1. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO 2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO 2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO 2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  2. Using Facebook for Sexual Health Social Marketing in Conservative Asian Countries: A Systematic Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Zain-Ul-Abdin; Ali, Khudejah Iqbal; Khan, Shanze

    2017-02-01

    Social marketing related to sexual health is a problematic task, especially in religiously and/or culturally conservative countries. Social media presents a possible alternative channel for sexual health efforts to disseminate information and engage new users. In an effort to understand how well sexual health campaigns and organizations have leveraged this opportunity, this study presents a systematic examination of ongoing Facebook-based sexual health efforts in conservative Asian countries. It was discovered that out of hundreds of sexual health organizations identified in the region, less than half had created a Facebook page. Of those that had, only 31 were found to have posted sexual health-relevant content at least once a month. Many of these 31 organizations were also unsuccessful in maintaining regular official and user activity on their page. In order to assess the quality of the Facebook pages as Web-based information resources, the sexual health-related official activity on each page was analyzed for information (a) value, (b) reliability, (c) currency, and (d) system accessibility. User responsiveness to official posts on the pages was also used to discuss the potential of Facebook as a sexual health information delivery platform.

  3. Comparison of effects of {sup 131}I treatment for Graves' diseases in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Mami; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kanaya, Kazuko; Kanaya, Shinichi; Noguchi, Yasushi; Maki, Masako [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan); Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Yamazaki, Toshiro

    2001-06-01

    For the purpose to establish the standard therapy regimen of Graves' disease, an autoimmune hyperthyroidism, IAEA, since 1994, has been conducting a study on its treatment with {sup 131}I with certain conditions in 10 Asian countries to examine the effect, its dose dependency and area difference. The condition involves, in randomized patients, a low (50-60 Gy) and high (80-90 Gy) dose dependency. This report describes results (summarized in Japan) until the end of March 2000, of 573 patients receiving the treatment for more than 15 months in 9 countries. The {sup 131}I dose (Gy) is calculated by the Quimby equation: 14.7 x EHL (day) x U (%) x Dose (MBq)/W (g) x 3.7 x 100, where W is the thyroid weight determined by thyroid scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate; U, 24 hr iodine uptake by the organ determined by a tracer amount of {sup 131}I; and EHL, effective half life. Evaluation is done on clinical symptoms and thyroid hormones. There is no clear significant difference in doses at present; however, it is considered for the low dose to be suitable in China, India and Japan and for the high dose, in Bangladesh, Singapore and Thailand. (K.H.)

  4. The Effect of Ethnocentrism and Image of Asian Industrialised Countries on Perceived Relative Quality (P.165-177

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulhaini Sulhaini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of consumer ethnocentrism and country image on perceived relative quality. The respondents of the study were consumers at a shopping mall in Mataram, Indonesia.  They compared the quality of televisions from three industrialised Asian countries, i.e. Japan, South Korea and China, to those from Indonesia. The result of the study was that image of those countries has a significant effect on perceived relative quality. Indonesian consumers perceived televisions from those countries to be more favourable in terms of quality compared to Indonesian televisions. Indonesian consumers have a similar perception on the quality of televisions made in those main Asian countries relative to those of Indonesia. The image of those countries is favourable leading to a better perception on quality of televisions made in the countries relative to domestically made. Domestic consumers view that those countries have better capabilities in producing higher quality televisions. However, consumer ethnocentrism do not lead them to negatively perceive the quality of imported televisions. Indeed, the image of those countries has a greater role in Indonesian consumers’ quality evaluation. The result calls for a substantial improvement in quality of domestically made televisions.Keywords: country image, consumer ethnocentrism, relative product quality perception 

  5. Comparison of emergency medical services systems across Pan-Asian countries: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Do; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Alsakaf, Omer; Karim, Sarah Abdul; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Lin, Chih-Hao; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Tham, Lai Peng; Cone, David C

    2012-01-01

    There are great variations in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival outcomes among different countries and different emergency medical services (EMS) systems. The impact of different systems and their contribution to enhanced survival are poorly understood. This paper compares the EMS systems of several Asian sites making up the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) network. Some preliminary cardiac arrest outcomes are also reported. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey study addressing population demographics, service levels, provider characteristics, system operations, budget and finance, medical direction (leadership), and oversight. Most of the systems are single-tiered. Fire-based EMS systems are predominant. Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur have hospital-based systems. Service level is relatively low, from basic to intermediate in most of the communities. Korea, Japan, Singapore, and Bangkok have intermediate emergency medical technician (EMT) service levels, while Taiwan and Dubai have paramedic service levels. Medical direction and oversight have not been systemically established, except in some communities. Systems are mostly dependent on public funding. We found variations in available resources in terms of ambulances and providers. The number of ambulances is 0.3 to 3.2 per 100,000 population, and most ambulances are basic life support (BLS) vehicles. The number of human resources ranges from 4.0 per 100,000 population in Singapore to 55.7 per 100,000 population in Taipei. Average response times vary between 5.1 minutes (Tainan) and 22.5 minutes (Kuala Lumpur). We found substantial variation in 11 communities across the PAROS EMS systems. This study will provide the foundation for understanding subsequent studies arising from the PAROS effort.

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Multiethnic Asian Country: Enrollment and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Ruth; Ng, Hsuen-Nin; Loo, Germaine; Ooi, Lean-See; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Wong, Raymond; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2015-09-01

    To determine the enrollment or barriers to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) among Asian patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prospective observational study. Department of cardiology at a university hospital. Patients (N=795) who underwent PCI between January 2012 and December 2013 at a tertiary medical institution. Not applicable. Data on enrollment in phase 2 CR and its barriers were collected by dedicated CR nurses. Of 795 patients, 351 patients (44.2%) were ineligible for CR because of residual coronary stenosis, while 30 patients (3.8%) were not screened because of either early discharge or death. Of the remaining 416 patients (90.8% men; mean age, 55 y), 365 (87.7%) declined CR participation and 51 (12.3%) agreed to participate. Of these 51 patients, 20 (39%) did not proceed to enroll and 4 (8%) dropped out, leaving 27 patients (53%) who completed at least 6 sessions of the CR program. The top 3 reasons provided by patients who declined to participate in CR were (1) busy work schedules (37.5%), (2) no specific reason (26.7%), and (3) preference for self-exercise (20.1%). Nonsmokers were more likely to participate in CR (P=.001). CR participation of Asian patients after PCI was found to be lower than that reported in Western countries. The exclusion criteria used in the institution under study differed from those provided by international associations. A busy work schedule was the most common reason for declining CR after PCI. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  8. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D, number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers, citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. RESULTS: The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. CONCLUSION: The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  9. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Memon, Almas Naeem; Zaidi, Syed Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  10. Explaining the role of proximate determinants on fertility decline among poor and non-poor in Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Majumder

    Full Text Available We examined the overall contributions of the poor and non-poor in fertility decline across the Asian countries. Further, we analyzed the direct and indirect factors that determine the reproductive behaviour of two distinct population sub-groups.Data from several new rounds of DHS surveys are available over the past few years. The DHS provides cross-nationally comparable and useful data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health along with the other information. Six selected Asian countries namely: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, and Vietnam are considered for the purpose of the study. Three rounds of DHS surveys for each country (except Vietnam are considered in the present study.Economic status is measured by computing a "wealth index", i.e. a composite indicator constructed by aggregating data on asset ownership and housing characteristics using principal components analysis (PCA. Computed household wealth index has been broken into three equal parts (33.3 percent each and the lowest and the highest 33.3 percent is considered as poor and non-poor respectively. The Bongaarts model was employed to quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility among poor and non-poor women.Fertility reduction across all population subgroups is now an established fact despite the diversity in the level of socio-economic development in Asian countries. It is clear from the analysis that fertility has declined irrespective of economic status at varying degrees within and across the countries which can be attributed to the increasing level of contraceptive use especially among poor women. Over the period of time changing marriage pattern and induced abortion are playing an important role in reducing fertility among poor women.Fertility decline among majority of the poor women across the Asian countries is accompanied by high prevalence of contraceptive use followed by changing marriage pattern and induced

  11. Lung cancer in patients younger than 40 years in a multiracial Asian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam, C K; Lim, K H; Wong, C M

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the clinicopathological features of lung cancer in patients younger than 40 years differ from that of older patients in an Asian country. We undertook a review of the clinicopathological data of all patients with confirmed primary lung cancer at the Department of Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from October 1991 to September 1999. Of the 580 patients with lung cancer, 36 (6.2%; 23 males, 13 females) were 21-39 years old at diagnosis. The percentage of people who had never smoked was higher among the younger patients (58.3% vs 19.1%, P < 0.001). Although adenocarcinoma was the most common cell type in both groups, its incidence was higher in the younger patients (24/36 (66.7%) vs 228/544 (41.9%), P = 0.007). The mean World Health Organization performance status at presentation was worse in the younger patients (2.4 vs 2, P = 0.007). In the case of non-small cell lung cancer, all the younger patients presented with either stage IIIb or metastatic disease compared to 77.2% of the older patients (P < 0.001). Younger lung cancer patients were more likely than older patients to have never smoked, to have adenocarcinoma, and to present with poorer performance status and with more advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

  12. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheau-Jane Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. Methods. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984–2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Findings. Taiwan’s food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Conclusion. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization.

  13. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheau-Jane; Lin, Cheng-Yao; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984-2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Taiwan's food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization.

  14. Strangers in strange lands: a metasynthesis of lived experiences of immigrant asian nurses working in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Nurses from Asian countries make up the majority of immigrant nurses globally. Although there are a limited number of studies on the lived experiences of Asian nurses working in Western countries, the development of nursing science will be impeded if the rich understanding gleaned from these studies is not synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's (Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage; 1988) procedures, a metasynthesis was conducted on 14 studies that met preset selection criteria. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) communication as a daunting challenge; (b) differences in nursing practice; (c) marginalization, discrimination, and exploitation; and (d) cultural differences. Based on the metasynthesis, a large narrative and expanded interpretation was constructed and implications for nursing knowledge development, clinical practice, and policy making are elaborated.

  15. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A

    2014-03-01

    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Revisiting Classroom Practices in East Asian Countries: Examination of Within-Country Variations and Effects of Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjeon

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: East Asian schools receive much attention for the comparatively high achievement of their students. To account for this success, scholars and commentators advance broad claims about the rote character of instruction or the complexity of classroom practice, typically generalizing to an entire nation. Yet little is known about…

  17. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona; CUC Sunhilde; YALDIZ Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was ...

  18. GRS current activities in East-European countries overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, H.; Janke, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the following items: agreement between the Federal Government and Utility Companies about the future utilization of the existing nuclear power plants in Germany, June 2001; GRS current activities in the Eastern European countries; science-technical co-operation with Russia; assessment of safety significance of the events for German NPP; Leningrad in-depth safety assessment, co-operation SEC NRS and GRS

  19. Review of insulin-associated hypoglycemia and its impact on the management of diabetes in Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Su-Yen; Hussein, Zanariah; Rudijanto, Achmad

    2017-09-01

    Although the incidence of diabetes is rising in Southeast Asia, there is limited information regarding the incidence and manifestation of insulin-associated hypoglycemia. The aim of the present review was to discuss what is currently known regarding insulin-associated hypoglycemia in Southeast Asia, including its known incidence and impact in the region, and how the Southeast Asian population with diabetes differs from other populations. We found a paucity of data regarding the incidence of hypoglycemia in Southeast Asia, which has contributed to the adoption of Western guidelines. This might not be appropriate, as Southeast Asians have a range of etiological, educational and cultural differences from Western populations with diabetes that might place them at greater risk of hypoglycemia if not managed optimally. For example, Southeast Asians with type 2 diabetes tend to be younger, with lower body mass indexes than their Western counterparts, and the management of type 2 diabetes with premixed insulin preparations is more common in Southeast Asia. Both of these factors might result in higher rates of hypoglycemia. In addition, Southeast Asians are often poorly educated about hypoglycemia and its management, including during Ramadan fasting. We conclude there is a need for more information about Southeast Asian populations with diabetes to assist with the construction of more appropriate national and regional guidelines for the management of hypoglycemia, more closely aligned to patient demographics, behaviors and treatment practices. Such bespoke guidelines might result in a greater degree of implementation and adherence within clinical practice in Southeast Asian nations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: Comparative study among East Asian countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how the age of children influences life satisfaction for males and females in East Asian countries. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. There is also a gender d...

  1. South Asians and risk of cardiovascular disease: current insights and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalmurti, Sandeep S; Paley, Ari; Gany, Francesca; Fisher, Edward A; Hochman, Judith S

    2010-01-01

    Patients from the Indian subcontinent have a distinct cardiovascular risk profile with profound health consequences. South Asians tend to develop more severe coronary artery disease at a younger age, and may also suffer from earlier myocardial infarction and heart failure. The genesis of this risk is multi-factorial. One important culprit is increased insulin resistance, possibly due to recently identified genetic polymorphisms. Another possible explanation is subclinical inflammation and a prothrombotic environment, as evidenced by increased levels of homocysteine, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and fibrinogen. The lipid profile of South Asians may play a role, as this population is known to have elevated levels of lipoprotein (a), as well as lower levels of HDL. In addition, this HDL may be dysfunctional, as this population may have a higher prevalence of low levels of HDL2b, as well as an increased preponderance of smaller HDL. Current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention have not reflected our growing insight into the unique characteristics of the South Asian population, and may need to evolve to reflect our knowledge.

  2. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndr...

  3. High Prevalence of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Young Female Breast Cancer in an East Asian Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin

    Full Text Available A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians.Female healthy volunteers (n = 307, patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692 and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189 were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs.Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort. In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14% in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71 in the consecutive cohort.BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians.

  4. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  5. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  6. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  7. Betel-quid dependence and oral potentially malignant disorders in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chu, Koung-Shing; Gao, Yi-Jun; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Sunarjo; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Patrick, Walter K; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is scant. To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions. The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. 'Time spent chewing' and 'craving' were the central dependence domains endorsed by the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas the Nepalese samples endorsed 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal'. Dependency was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking, tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the six Asian populations. By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian communities.

  8. The Asian methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  9. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: a multicultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to "Traditional", "Universal", and "Personal" life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values.

  10. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  11. Road Safety Risk Assessment: An Analysis of Transport Policy and Management for Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road safety assessment has played a crucial role in the theory and practice of transport management systems. This paper focuses on risk evaluation in the Asian region by exploring the interaction between road safety risk and influencing factors. In the first stage, a data envelopment analysis (DEA method is applied to calculate and rank the road safety risk levels of Asian countries. In the second stage, a structural equation model (SEM with latent variables is applied to analyze the interaction between the road safety risk level and the latent variables, measured by six observed performance indicators, i.e., financial impact, institutional framework, infrastructure and mobility, legislation and policy, vehicular road users, and trauma management. Finally, this paper illustrates the applicability of this DEA-SEM approach for road safety performance analysis.

  12. Causal relationship between trade openness, economic growth and energy consumption: A panel data analysis of Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, Samia; Anwar, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between economic growth, trade openness and energy consumption using data of 15 Asian countries. The study covers the period of 1980–2011. We have applied panel cointegration and causality approaches to examine the long-run and causal relationship between variables. Empirical results confirm the presence of cointegration between variables. The impact of economic growth and trade openness on energy consumption is found to be positive. The panel Granger causality analysis reveals the bidirectional causality between economic growth and energy consumption, trade openness and energy consumption. - Highlights: • This study analyzes causality between energy, growth and trade in the Asian region. • Empirical results supported cointegrating relationship between variables. • Positive impact of growth and trade openness on energy usage is found in the long run. • Bidirectional Granger causality is observed between selected variables in the long run

  13. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  14. Comparison of problems and unmet needs of patients with advanced cancer in a European country and an asian country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effendy, C.; Vissers, K.; Osse, B.H.; Tejawinata, S.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Engels, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer experience problems and unmet needs. However, we assume that patients with advanced cancer will have more problems and unmet needs in a country with a lower economic status than in an economically stronger country. We studied whether patients with advanced

  15. Air particulate pollution studies in Asian countries using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Air particulate pollution is regarded as critical in Asian cities. The levels of suspended particulate matter in major Asian cities far exceed the WHO's guideline. Nuclear analytical techniques have been widely used in the studies of air particulate pollution to provide aerosol elemental compositions for the purpose of deriving the structure of emission sources. This paper presents some preliminary observations and findings based on publications in scientific literatures. Data on PM-10 levels and socio-economic indicators are used for searching a relationship between air quality and the level of development across Asia. An inverse linear relationship between PM-10 levels and logarithm of per capita GDP appears to exist, although there are large fluctuations of data caused by the very different climatic and geographical conditions of cities studied. Soil dust is generally a major, or even predominant aerosol source in Asian cities. Other common sources include vehicular emissions, coal and oil combustion, burning of refuse (in open) and biomass (including forest fires). The relevance and the trends of these sources in Asian context are discussed. Multivariate receptor modelling techniques applied in source characterization are illustrated through the cases of Lahore and Hochiminh City. Although having limitations in dealing with mixing and overlapping sources, receptor modelling based on principal component factor analysis has been proven to be uncomplicated and sufficiently reliable for characterising aerosol sources in urban areas. (author)

  16. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Dalen, J.V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). METHODS: We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30

  17. English Learning Styles of Students from East Asian Countries: A Focus on Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been done to investigate the influence of cultural differences on students' second/foreign language learning styles, with a focus on comparing between East and West classroom cultures. This study investigates the differences that East Asian students may encounter when studying in the English-medium academic environment. By…

  18. Fractional resurfacing in the Asian patient: Current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Chan, Henry Hin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Fractionated photothermolysis (FP) has revolutionized modern laser technology. By creating selective columns of microthermal damage, fractionated devices allows for greater treatment depths to be achieved without the prolonged downtime and risk of complications seen in traditional fully ablative laser resurfacing. Fractional resurfacing is a proven method to treat a variety of cutaneous conditions. In the Caucasian patient, a wide range of devices and treatment settings can be utilized safely and effectively. However, ethnic skin requires special consideration due to its unique pigmentary characteristics and clinical presentations. In this review article, we detail the current indications and strategies to optimize results and mitigate complications when utilizing fractional resurfacing for the Asian patient. A review of the MEDLINE English literature was conducted on fractionated laser devices studied in the Asian population. Articles included describe non-ablative devices including fractionated erbium glass, thulium fiber, diode, and radiofrequency devices; and ablative devices including fractionated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser, erbium yttrium aluminum garnet and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (YSGG) laser. These data were integrated with the expert opinion of the authors. Taking into account the unique characteristics and cosmetic concerns of the Asian population, fractional resurfacing can be considered a safe and effective option for the treatment of atrophic and hypertrophic scarring, and photorejuvenation in ethnic skin types. Select cases of melasma may be treated with fractionated non-ablative devices, but utilized with caution. The predominant complication associated with fractional resurfacing for these conditions is post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and rebound worsening of melasma. A greater number of treatments at lower density settings and wider treatment intervals typically produce the lowest risks of PIH without compromising treatment

  19. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyatilaka, Indu; Lanerolle, Pulani; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Atukorala, Sunethra; Somasundaram, Noel; de Silva, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment), and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. 2800 urban women (30-45 years) were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week) and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week) for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week) was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  20. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Waidyatilaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment, and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. METHODS: 2800 urban women (30-45 years were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  1. NEW AREAS OF COOPERATION OF CHINA AND CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES IN THE FIRST DECADE OF THE 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: At the end of 2000-s, regional relations between China and Central Asian states was under threat of the current World Financial Crisis. But it also provided the impetus to search for new mechanisms, forms and directions of the regional cooperation. It marks China’s new development plan for Xinjiang after ten years of Western Development Strategy of the central government.

  2. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali; Sin, Shwe

    2014-01-01

    In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response "yes" to one or more of three questions, such as "Do you currently smoke cigarettes?" Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by 'svy' command. Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts.

  3. The relationship between energy intensity and income levels: Forecasting long term energy demand in Asian emerging countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, R.; Univ. della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes long-term trends in energy intensity for ten Asian emerging countries to test for a non-monotonic relationship between energy intensity and income in the author's sample. Energy demand functions are estimated during 1973--1990 using a quadratic function of log income. The long-run coefficient on squared income is found to be negative and significant, indicating a change in trend of energy intensity. The estimates are then used to evaluate a medium-term forecast of energy demand in the Asian countries, using both a log-linear and a quadratic model. It is found that in medium to high income countries the quadratic model performs better than the log-linear, with an average error of 9% against 43% in 1995. For the region as a whole, the quadratic model appears more adequate with a forecast error of 16% against 28% in 1995. These results are consistent with a process of dematerialization, which occurs as a result of a reduction of resource use per unit of GDP once an economy passes some threshold level of GDP per capita

  4. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  5. Application of SAR remote sensing and crop modeling for operational rice crop monitoring in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Holecz, F.; Khan, N. I.; Barbieri, M.; Maunahan, A. A.; Gatti, L.; Quicho, E. D.; Pazhanivelan, S.; Campos-Taberner, M.; Collivignarelli, F.; Haro, J. G.; Intrman, A.; Phuong, D.; Boschetti, M.; Prasadini, P.; Busetto, L.; Minh, V. Q.; Tuan, V. Q.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses multi-temporal SAR imagery, automated image processing, rule-based classification and field observations to classify rice in multiple locations in South and South Asian countries and assimilate the information into ORYZA Crop Growth Simulation Model (CGSM) to monitor rice yield. The study demonstrates examples of operational application of this rice monitoring system in: (1) detecting drought impact on rice planting in Central Thailand and Tamil Nadu, India, (2) mapping heat stress impact on rice yield in Andhra Pradesh, India, and (3) generating historical rice yield data for districts in Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  6. Nuclear power in the OECD countries results and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity on a commercial scale occurred in the United Kingdom in 1956. Today, 13 OECD countries have 318 nuclear units in operation and 66 more in construction or on order. This outstanding achievement is the result of the successful organization, start up, and operation of an industry to design, build, equip, fuel, and maintain these facilites. Nuclear power, however, is currently troubled by a number of issues that may impair its ability to reach its full potential. The industry has acknowledged problems that can be and are being managed. But the industry also has a number of political difficulties that could be beyond its ability to resolve with its own resources. These are issues common to the introduction of new technologies into a complex world. Nevertheless, nuclear power continues to be the means by which we can provide the electric power needed to raise the living standard of everyone on the globe

  7. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”), Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm”) or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. PMID:28615981

  8. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  9. Colorectal cancer incidence in 5 Asian countries by subsite: An analysis of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1998-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Jung, Sun Jae; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hai-Rim; Shin, Aesun

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Asia. However, the trends in colorectal cancer incidence by subsite have not been analyzed across Asian countries. We used the most recent, high quality data from 6 cancer registries for two 5-year periods, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents to estimate colorectal cancer incidence by subsite in 5 Asian countries. Cases with overlapping lesions or otherwise unspecified colon cancer were re-distributed as proximal or distal colon cancer. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population and incidence rate ratios from 1998 to 2002 to 2003-2007 were calculated for each subsite. For 2003-2007, men in Miyagi, Japan, had the highest ASR for cancer in the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum. Men of Jewish ancestry in Israel had a high ASR for proximal and distal colon cancer, but the lowest ASR for rectal cancer. The proportion of rectal cancer was highest among Korean men (51.39%) and lowest among Israeli women (26.6%). From 1998-2002 to 2003-2007, rectal cancer incidence did not significantly change in most registries, except for men in Miyagi, Japan, and both sexes in Korea. However, during the same period cancer incidence in the proximal and distal colon increased in most registries. In conclusion, there was substantial variation in subsite distributions of colorectal cancer in Asian registries and increases in overall incidence of colorectal cancer could be attributed to increases in colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of horticultural export performance of Asian developing countries: aspects of quality, competitiveness and sustainability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.

    1994-01-01

    Many developing countries in Asia have a comparative advantage in the production of horticultural commodities. Drawing from the widely diverging experiences of six countries, it is concluded that government policies significantly influence horticultural export performance. In order to meet strict

  11. Analysis of most popular and/or consumed fish species by neutron activation analysis in six Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Ni, B.F.; Theresia, R.M.; Salim, N.A. Abd.; Arporn, B.; Vu, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, collaborative studies for applying NAA have been performed through the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) sponsored by the Japanese Government. Fish were selected as a common target sample for a collaborative study in 2011. Six Asian countries, China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, are greatly concerned about the composition of arsenic, heavy metals, and essential trace elements and took part in this work. Fish samples were purchased from commercial markets and prepared by following a protocol that had been proposed for this study. Samples were analyzed by their own NAA systems. Each country has determined toxic and/or essential elements. These data will be very helpful in the monitoring of the levels of food contamination and to evaluate the nutritional status for people living in Asia. (author)

  12. The relationship between dietary patterns and overweight and obesity in children of Asian developing countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare; Siew Swee, Chee Winnie

    2012-01-01

    of the heterogeneity of studies in terms of methodology, statistical analyses and outcomes. A narrative summary of results is provided. Fifteen studies were included in the review. The prevalence rates of childhood overweight and obesity in Asian developing countries ranged from 5.1% to 19.9% with no specific trend in age or gender. Several significant but inconsistent statistical associations between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents were found [high energy diet (OR: 1.80 95%CI 1.10 to 2.90, p0.05), low intake of fruit and vegetables (OR: 2.34 95%CI 1.04 to 5.24, p0.05; 0.70 95%CI 0.50 to 1.00, p>0.05), high meat consumption (RR: 2.40 95%CI 1.00 to 5.60, p0.05), eating out (OR: 12.0 95%CI 7.7 to 18.7, p0.05), fast food intake (OR: 1.50 95%CI 1.12 to 2.02, p0.05)]. The key limitation was the heterogeneity of studies in terms of measures of dietary patterns and obesity standards. The prevalence rates of childhood overweight and obesity in Asian developing countries ranged from 5.1% to 19.9% with no specific trend in age or gender. From the practice perspective, several significant yet inconsistent statistical associations between dietary patterns and childhood overweight/obesity in children and adolescents were found.This review highlights the need for clinicians to monitor the effects of dietary change on the weight and health status of children in Asian countries.There is a need for valid measures of dietary intake and use of standardised international cut-offs for overweight and obesity, and for future researchers to conduct prospective studies to determine the causal relationship between Asian children's dietary pattern and their weight status.

  13. The contribution of international trade to economic growth through human capital accumulation: Evidence from nine Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to test the hypothesis “international trade contributes to economic growth through its effects on human capital accumulation.” To assess the hypothesis empirically, we employed the extended Neo-Classical growth model that reflects some features of the endogenous growth models. We thus ended up with a model in which the change in human capital is sensitive to change in trade policies. Unlike conventional approaches, the model serves to assess and determine the impact of international trade on the accumulation of human capital. The empirical analysis estimates dynamic panel growth equations by using a data-set of nine Asian countries, over the period 1972–2012. The overall evidence substantiates the fact that in countries under consideration, international trade enhances the accumulation of human capital and contributes to economic growth positively through human capital accumulation.

  14. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae colonizing the intestinal tract of healthy chinese and overseas chinese adults in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi-Tsung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capsular serotypes K1 and K2 of Klebsiella pneumoniae are thought to the major virulence determinants responsible for liver abscess. The intestine is one of the major reservoirs of K. pneumoniae, and epidemiological studies have suggested that the majority of K. pneumoniae infections are preceded by colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. The possibility of fecal-oral transmission in liver abscess has been raised on the basis of molecular typing of isolates. Data on the serotype distribution of K. pneumoniae in stool samples from healthy individuals has not been previously reported. This study investigated the seroepidemiology of K. pneumoniae isolates from the intestinal tract of healthy Chinese in Asian countries. Stool specimens from healthy adult Chinese residents of Taiwan, Japan, Hong Kong, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam were collected from August 2004 to August 2010 for analysis. Results Serotypes K1/K2 accounted for 9.8% of all K. pneumoniae isolates from stools in all countries. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of K1/K2 isolates among the countries excluding Thailand and Vietnam. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was nearly the same in K. pneumoniae isolates. The result of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed no major clonal cluster of serotype K1 isolates. Conclusions The result showed that Chinese ethnicity itself might be a major factor predisposing to intestinal colonization by serotype K1/K2 K. pneumoniae isolates. The prevalent serotype K1/K2 isolates may partially correspond to the prevalence of K. pneumoniae liver abscess in Asian countries.

  16. Experience of International Education of East Asian Students in English-speaking Countries: A four-dimensional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Martinez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global participation in international education in the last two decades has increased exponentially. International students face difficulties in adjusting to the culture of their host country due to their unique needs (Bertram, Poulakis, Elsasser & Kumar, 2014. This article presents themes comprising the international education phenomenon involving the experiences of East Asian international students in English-speaking countries. The literature reviewed for this article pertains to many aspects of international education, covering the factors that influence the decision to embark on the international education journey to the adjustment experienced by students to the host culture. The authors suggest that the international education experience is comprised of four dimensions: structural, linguistic, internal, and external. We also posit that Confucianism, which many East Asian students follow, influences not only the psycho-social dimension of the international education experience but also their instructional preferences within the structural dimension. We further contend that students’ actual and perceived proficiency (or the lack thereof in the host country’s language greatly shapes all aspects of the student’s international education experience, which then determines the degree of acculturative stress involved and plays a key role in each of the three dimensions. Because of the anticipated continued growth in the number of international students from East Asia attending higher education institutions in English-speaking countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, and parts of Africa, it is important to examine how each of the dimensions proposed impact each other. Approaching the study of the international education experience one dimension at a time, as many scholars have done, does not completely address all of the unique needs of international students. We suggest that research in this area be conducted holistically by

  17. Development courses and the choice of energy-environment policy instruments for fast-developing Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    In the first part, a contextual grid is built which aims at presenting the main impacts of development in developing countries. Some development trends, like energy consumption growth, environmental courses, economic growth and demographic development are analyzed. Then, a global modeling analysis of Kuznets' environmental curves and of development prospect is presented. The second part presents different types of policy instruments for environment protection, and the theoretical challenges and experience feedback of their implementation in OECD countries, in particular in the energy sector. It treats also of the energy-environment policy practices and of their environmental impacts on the economy, of the role of institutional factors in the environmental management in the fast developing Asian countries. The environmental management priorities in an integrated approach in these countries are presented and compared with environmental management experiences in the OECD countries. In the third part, the case study of the power industry sector in Vietnam aims at making an inventory of the emissions in a rapidly developing sector with important atmospheric emissions and at making a critical status of the evaluation instruments of environmental policies by comparing approaches based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' models. Finally, a model and a set of scenarios allowing to evaluate the economical and environmental consequences of the setting up of a sectoral policy in a transition economy context are presented. (J.S.)

  18. Characteristic mutations found in the ML0411 gene of Mycobacterium leprae isolated in Northeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, M; Nakata, N; Matsuoka, M; Sekizuka, T; Kuroda, M; Makino, M

    2013-10-01

    Genome analysis of Mycobacterium leprae strain Kyoto-2 in this study revealed characteristic nucleotide substitutions in gene ML0411, compared to the reference genome M. leprae strain TN. The ML0411 gene of Kyoto-2 had six SNPs compared to that of TN. All SNPs in ML0411 were non-synonymous mutations that result in amino acid replacements. In addition, a seventh SNP was found 41 bp upstream of the start codon in the regulatory region. The seven SNP sites in the ML0411 region were investigated by sequencing in 36 M. leprae isolates from the Leprosy Research Center in Japan. The SNP pattern in 14 of the 36 isolates showed similarity to that of Kyoto-2. Determination of the standard SNP types within the 36 stocked isolates revealed that almost all of the Japanese strains belonged to SNP type III, with nucleotide substitutions at position 14676, 164275, and 2935685 of the M. leprae TN genome. The geographical distribution pattern of east Asian M. leprae isolates by discrimination of ML0411 SNPs was investigated and interestingly turned out to be similar to that of tandem repeat numbers of GACATC in the rpoT gene (3 copies or 4 copies), which has been established as a tool for M. leprae genotyping. All seven Korean M. leprae isolates examined in this study, as well as those derived from Honshu Island of Japan, showed 4 copies of the 6-base tandem repeat plus the ML0411 SNPs observed in M. leprae Kyoto-2. They are termed Northeast Asian (NA) strain of M. leprae. On the other hand, many of isolates derived from the Okinawa Islands of Japan and from the Philippines showed 3 copies of the 6-base tandem repeat in addition to the M. leprae TN ML0411 type of SNPs. These results demonstrate the existence of M. leprae strains in Northeast Asian region having characteristic SNP patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Report on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Current statuses of Asian countries; 'Kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Asia shokoku no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Information systems, mainly aided by computers, are becoming increasingly important, contributing to development of wide areas of societies and economics, to begin with. However, few developing countries have established sufficient information systems, in spite of their strong desires to do so, which will further widen the gap between them and advanced countries, where these systems are acceleratedly advancing. Given these situations, Center of International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) has been implementing various projects for providing assistance to and cooperation with oversea countries which are trying to develop information systems. This report summarizes the project, which CICC has been commissioned by NEDO as part of the cooperation programs, for manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation. It outlines the research cooperation memoranda NEDO has concluded with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and the authorities of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  20. Ulcerative colitis in a multiracial Asian country: racial differences and clinical presentation among Malaysian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yan-Mei; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2005-10-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease appears to be uncommon among Asians. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) in Malaysian patients and to establish the spectrum of the disease seen in Malaysian patients. Three major Asian races: Malay, Chinese, and Indian co-exist in Malaysia and we sought to determine if there were any racial differences in the prevalence and presentation of disease. Racial differences for several other gastrointestinal diseases have previously been observed and found to be extremely interesting. Data were obtained retrospectively from a review of the medical records of in- and out-patients with a diagnosis of UC at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between 1985 and 1998. There were 45 confirmed cases of UC of which 3 were foreigners, who were excluded from analysis. Thirty new cases of UC were diagnosed during the study period. Their mean age at presentation was 33.0+/-10.0 years. The highest prevalence of UC was 17.9/100 000 hospital admissions in the Indians, followed by 11.2/100 000 hospital admissions in the Chinese. The lowest prevalence was 3.7/100 000 hospital admissions in the Malays. The prevalence of UC was significantly higher in the Indians and the Chinese when compared with the Malays with an OR of 4.89 (CI = 2.02-12.24; chi2 = 15.45, PMalaysia, but racial differences exist. The Indians had the highest prevalence of UC with the Chinese demonstrating the least extensive disease.

  1. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Coman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  3. Does low fertility call for new policies in some Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, A

    1994-06-01

    Over the past 2 decades, Japan, China, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea have completed a demographic transition from high birth and death rates and runaway population growth to reduced fertility and mortality and population growth approaching replacement levels. Among the outcomes of fertility decline, 3 have particularly far reaching effects: 1) Changes in family types and structures. Marriage and family formation are postponed, childbearing is compressed into a narrow reproductive span that begins later and ends earlier, and higher-order births become rare. Large families are replaced by small ones, and joint and extended families tend to be replaced by nuclear families. 2) Shifts in the proportions of young and old. Declining fertility means that the population as a whole becomes older. Decreases in the proportion of children provides an opportunity to increase the coverage of education. Increases in the proportion of the elderly means higher medical costs and social and economic problems about care of the aged. 3) Changes in the work force. There is concern that low fertility and shortages of workers will cause investment labor-intensive industries to shift to countries with labor surpluses. Another outcome may be an increase in female participation in the work force. The potential consequences of rapid fertility decline have sparked debate among population experts and policy makers throughout Asia. Current family planning programs will emphasize: 1) offering a choice of methods to fit individual preferences; 2) strengthening programs for sexually active unmarried people; 3) encouraging child spacing and reproductive choice rather than simply limiting the number of births; 4) making information available on the side effects of various family planning methods; 5) providing special information and services to introduce new methods; and 6) promoting the maternal and child health benefits of breast feeding and birth spacing.

  4. Patterns and Trends of Liver Cancer Incidence Rates in Eastern and Southeastern Asian Countries (1983-2007) and Predictions to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yang, Shigui; Xu, Kaijin; Ding, Cheng; Zhou, Yuqing; Fu, Xiaofang; Li, Yiping; Deng, Min; Wang, Chencheng; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-05-01

    We examined temporal trends in liver cancer incidence rates overall and by histological type from 1983 through 2007. We predict trends in liver cancer incidence rates through 2030 for selected Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries. Data on yearly liver cancer incident cases by age group and sex were drawn from 6 major selected Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries or regions with cancer registries available in the CI5plus database, including China, Japan, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. We also analyzed data for the United States and Australia for comparative purposes. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated and plotted from 1983 through 2007. Numbers of new cases and incidence rates were predicted through 2030 by fitting and extrapolating age-period-cohort models. The incidence rates of liver cancer have been decreasing, and decreases will continue in all selected Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries, except for Thailand, whose liver cancer incidence rate will increase due to the increasing incidence rate of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Even though the incidence rates of liver cancer are predicted to decrease in most Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries, the burden, in terms of new cases, will continue to increase because of population growth and aging. Based on an analysis of data from cancer registries from Asian countries, incidence rates of liver cancer are expected to decrease through 2030 in most Eastern and Southeastern Asian countries. However, in Thailand, the incidence rate of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas is predicted to increase, so health education programs are necessary. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contraceptive issues of youth and adolescents in developing countries: highlights from the Philippines and other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesna-Llanto, Emma; Raymundo, Corazon M

    2005-10-01

    This article highlights contraceptive issues in Asia, home to some 700 million adolescents. It starts with a description of the socio-cultural milieu of adolescents in South and Southeast Asia, their knowledge and use of contraceptives, the myriad barriers to access, and the many innovative programs to broaden contraceptive availability. The reproductive health needs of adolescents in poor countries cannot be solved by merely supplying them with contraceptives--these needs can only be fully addressed in the context of gender equality, poverty alleviation and the conviction that investing in the reproductive health of adolescents is a most urgent priority. Investing in the reproductive health of adolescents will have an impact not only on birth and abortion rates, maternal health, and the spread of STI/HIV but also on the demographics and economic development of the region--and beyond.

  6. Adaptation in families of children with Down syndrome in East Asian countries: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunkyung; Van Riper, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to understand the experiences of East Asian families of children with Down syndrome and identify factors affecting their adaptation in the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation. Socio-cultural factors influence how well families adapt following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Existing literature in this area has focused primarily on families from Western cultures. This is problematic because nurses care for families from all over the world. Therefore, the focus of this review is on families of children with Down syndrome living in East Asia, where Confucianism is dominant. Integrative literature review. Online databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and a public search engine (i.e. Google Scholar) were used along with manual searches of reference lists and major journals. Studies were limited to original publications written in English and published between 1990-2014. Two authors independently performed integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Like families in Western cultures, some East Asian families of children with Down syndrome adapted well and even thrived while others struggled. Various socio-cultural factors, including some associated with Confucianism, played a role in how individuals, dyads and families adapted. An understanding of socio-cultural influences can help nurses implement culturally sensitive family-centred interventions with families of children with Down syndrome. It may also facilitate policy changes concerning resources for these families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  8. Suicidal behaviors and associated factors among university students in six countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Yi, Siyan; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-04-01

    A large data gap remains on suicidal behaviors among youth in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, despite the increasing rates of suicide in Asian cultures that may be related to rapid economic changes and the loss of social stability. This study was therefore conducted to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among university students in six ASEAN member states. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 4675 undergraduate university students, mean age 20.6 years (SD=2.7), range of 18-30 years, from Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The overall prevalence of ever suicidal ideation and ever suicide attempt among students in this study was 11.7% and 2.4%, respectively. Different rates of these suicidal behaviors were observed across the countries. In multivariable logistic regression models, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with psychosocial factors including childhood sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, involvement in physical fights, and poor academic performance as well as socio-environmental factors including living with parents or guardians and low involvement in organized religious activity. Suicide attempt was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, low involvement in organized religious activity and being underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that individual-level strategies for suicide prevention should be targeted toward students with poor academic performance, mental health problems and a history of adverse childhood experiences. Particular attention should be paid to the role of families that could be a potential stressor in the lives of university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in psychiatric symptoms among Asian patients with depression: a multi-country cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ahmad H; Bautista, Dianne; Liu, Chia-Yih; Udomratn, Pichet; Bae, Jae Nam; Fang, Yiru; Chua, Hong C; Liu, Shen-Ing; George, Tom; Chan, Edwin; Tian-mei, Si; Hong, Jin Pyo; Srisurapanont, Manit; Rush, A John

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the symptomatic and clinical features of depression among five groups of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) living in China, Korea, Malaysia/Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Consecutive consenting adults (aged 18-65) who met DSM-IV criteria for non-psychotic MDD – based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview – and who were free of psychotropic medication were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the 10-item Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 13-item depression subscale of the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). In addition, the 10-item SCL-90-R Anxiety Subscale was completed. ancova were conducted, adjusting for confounders: age, completion of secondary education, marital status, work status, religion, index episode duration, and depressive severity. For the magnitude of differences, a threshold of 0.10 was taken as the minimum effect size representing clinical significance, and an effect size of 0.25 was considered moderate. Four MADRS symptoms differentiated these five groups, the most prominent being ‘lassitude’ and ‘inner tension’. Nine SCL-90-R depression items also differentiated the groups, as did eight SCL-90-R Anxiety Subscale items. The MADRS lassitude item had the largest effect size (0.131). The rest of those statistically significant differences did not exceed 0.10. MDD is more similar than different among outpatients in these diverse Asian countries. The between-country differences, while present and not due to chance, are small enough to enable the use of common clinician and self-report rating scales in studies involving Asians with MDD from various ethnic backgrounds.

  10. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  11. Input-Output Analysis for Sustainability by Using DEA Method: A Comparison Study between European and Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Tsai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers around the world are confronted with the challenge of balancing between economic development and environmental friendliness, which entails a robust set of measures in energy efficiency and environmental protection. The increasing complexity of these issues has imposed pressure on the Asian countries that have been acting as global factories. This paper proposes a meta-frontier slacks-based measure (SBM data envelopment analysis (DEA model, with the hope that policymakers clarify the relationship between labor force, energy consumption, government expenditures, GDP, and CO2 emissions. Clarification of the causal relationship can serve as a template for policy decisions and ease concerns regarding the potential adverse effects of carbon reduction and energy efficiency on the economy. The results show: (1 Developing countries should establish their own climate change governance and policy frameworks; (2 Developed economies should seek to lower carbon emissions; (3 Energy policies play a pivotal role in energy efficiency improvement; (4 Top-down efforts are critical for the success of carbon reduction policies; (5 Learning from the success of developed countries helps to improve the effectiveness of energy policies; (6 Environmental policies should be formulated, and new production technologies, pollution prevention measures, and treatment methods should be introduced; (7 Governments are suggested to build long-term independent management institutions to promote energy cooperation and exchange.

  12. Current situation in the Arab countries and the AAEA Role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, Salaheddin

    2013-01-01

    Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA) is one of the organizations of the League of Arab States (LAS). AAEA is working within the framework of the LAS to coordinate the scientific efforts of the Arab Countries in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. So, AAEA works hard to enhance the socio-economical development in Arab countries by promoting the peaceful applications of atomic energy in many aspects of life. The Arab Authority contributes for the implementation of training programs for Arab staff in the field of parameters mentioned above through the implementation of training courses, workshops and expert meetings in addition to scientific visits exchanged between the researchers and Arabs scientists and translation of books from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the Arabic language and circulated to the Arab countries. At Arab Summits (Riyadh - 2007 - Damascus and Doha 2008 - 2009), AAEA elaborates 12 projects on the Arab strategy for the peaceful uses of atomic energy until 2020 and planed all applications of atomic energy. Integration of radioisotopes production in the Arab countries is among these projects. This project aims to unify efforts and coordinate cooperation between the Arab countries together to develop the human potential and benefit from the expertise available in some Arab countries in the production of radioisotopes to insure the integration between Arab countries. Nuclear and radioactive facilities in Arab countries are:- Research reactors (RRs) that can produce isotopes (Egypt -2, -2 Algeria, Libya -1) and (-1 Morocco, Syria -1).- Ions accelerators (cyclotron) for isotope production (Morocco, Algeria, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt).- Ions accelerators (VDG) for research and analysis (Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria and Jordan).- Electron accelerator (LINAC) for research and industry applications (Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, UAE and Kuwait).- Electron accelerators (LINAC) for nuclear medicine therapy

  13. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”, Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm” or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”. Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. Keywords: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, cysticercosis, zoonotic disease, neglected tropical diseases

  14. Sectoral energy demand studies: Application of the end-use approach to Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Events since August 1990 have shown that the world is still dependent on oil despite efforts to decrease that dependency since the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Thirteen countries participated in the REDP (UNDP-funded Regional Energy Development Programme) energy planning activities called ''Sectoral energy demand studies'' in which country teams benefited from training in energy data analysis, sectoral accounting of energy demand, and forecasting with the use of MEDEE-S model. This publication documents the training materials on sectoral energy demand series. It includes eight chapters which were indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Pathogenic waterborne free-living amoebae: An update from selected Southeast Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Mahboob, Tooba; Mong, Brandon G. J.; Jaturas, Narong; Richard, Reena Leeba; Tian-Chye, Tan; Phimphila, Anusorn; Mahaphonh, Panomphanh; Aye, Kyaw Nyein; Aung, Wai Lynn; Chuah, Joon; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yasiri, Atipat; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2017-01-01

    Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature. Morphological identification was conducted for both trophozoites and cysts via microscopic stains (Giemsa and immunofluorescence). The presence of Naegleria-like structures was the most frequently encountered in both treated and untreated water samples, followed by Acanthamoeba-like and Vermamoeba-like features. To identify the pathogenic isolates, species-specific primer sets were applied for molecular identification of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba. The pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba lenticulata and A. triangularis were detected from untreated water samples, while Vermamoeba vermiformis was found in both treated and untreated water samples. Our results suggested that poor water quality as well as inadequate maintenance and treatment might be the cause of this alarming problem since chlorine disinfection is ineffective in eradicating these amoebas in treated water samples. Regular monitoring and examination of water qualities are necessary in order to control the growth, hence, further preventing the widespread of FLA infections among the public. PMID:28212409

  16. Indicators of financial crises do work! : an early-warning system for six Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, [No Value; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2003-01-01

    Indicators of financial crisis generally do not have a good track record. This paper presents an early warning system for six countries in Asia, in which indicators do work.We distinguish three types of financial crises, currency crises, banking crises and debt crises, and extract four groups of

  17. Role of income in intergenerational co-residence: Evidence from selected African and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nusrate; Hossain, Belayet; Emran, Masum

    2018-06-01

    The study investigates the macroeconomic determinants of co-residing arrangement between generations in selected developing countries with a focus on examining the effect of changing income level of the working generation. A reduced form model is specified for co-residence between the older generation and altruistic working generation. The fixed- and random-effects models are applied in two waves of data for 22 countries. Estimated results indicate that the income of the altruistic working generation has a negative effect on co-residence, suggesting that if the income of the working generation increases, co-residence decreases. This decrease is greater for older men compared with their female counterparts. Life expectancy, literacy and culture also have significant influences on co-residence. Co-residence is expected to fall in developing countries with economic growth over time. Consequently, a higher proportion of older citizens will be vulnerable in the future. Hence, governments of developing countries will face increasing pressure from their older people to provide appropriate planning and strategy to face this challenge. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  18. What Should Educational Reform in Indonesia Look Like?--Learning from the PISA Science Scores of East-Asian Countries and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Nadi

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia always continually failed international assessments even though many efforts have been made. The results of PISA 2012 put Indonesian students in the worst position. In contrast, East Asian countries' performance well in mathematics, reading, and science. Indeed, Singapore has the best performance in the Southeast Asia region even in the…

  19. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: A comparative study among East Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji; Rodriguez Andres, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...

  20. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations......, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical...

  1. Socioeconomic impact of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the ACTION study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Monaghan, Helen; Sokha, Eav; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Bounxouei, Bounthaphany; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Khin, Myo; Cristal-Luna, Gloria; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Hung, Nguyen Chan; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.

  2. Does planning of births affect childhood undernutrition? Evidence from demographic and health surveys of selected South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of child undernutrition in South Asia is high, as is also the unmet need for family planning. In previous literature, the biodemographic relationship of family planning, particularly birth order and birth spacing, and nutritional status of children have been assessed separately. The aim of this study was to work on the hypothesis that the planning of births comprising timing, spacing, and number of births improves child undernutrition, especially in the areas with high prevalence of stunting and underweight. We used recent Demographic and Health Survey data from four selected South Asian countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted percentage of stunting and underweight by identified independent factors. Findings suggested that after controlling for other socioeconomic factors, children in the first birth order with >24 mo of interval between marriage and first birth have a lower risk for stunting (20%; p planning of births. The probability of child undernutrition is lower among children born with >24 mo of birth spacing than its counterpart in all birth orders, but the significance of birth spacing reduces with increasing birth orders. Appropriate planning of births using family planning methods in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce childhood undernutrition. Thus, the planning of births emerges as an important biodemographic approach to eradicate childhood undernutrition especially in developing regions like South Asia and thereby to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic restrictions, and unequal educational and cultural treatment. According to Malaysia census data and natural population growth rate, this paper made estimation that by 201 0 a total of 1.13 million ethnic Chinese had migrated out of Malaysia. After deducting the number of ethnic Chinese moving to Malaysia, the Malaysian Chinese migrating abroad reached 1.05 million. Malaysian Chinese left Malaysia in the manner of permanent residents and short-term migrants. Permanent residents include those in the skill stream, family stream and those with special eligibility. Short-term migrants refer to visiting scholars, foreign students, guest labor, business expatriates and expatriate professionals. As a matter of fact, there has been a serious brain drain through Chinese remigration from Malaysia.

  4. PKI Implementation Issues: A Comparative Study of Pakistan with some Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Nasir Mahmood; Khalil, Tehmina; Khalid, Samina; Malik, Faisal Munir

    2009-01-01

    The paper includes Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), its need and requirements and introduction of some renowned PKI products. However, the major thrust of this work is that how PKI can enhance security of various systems. The paper is intended to serve as a guide on how to adequately prepare for some of the challenges that may be encountered especially in developing countries like Pakistan. The detail of PKI implementation issues is also included in the paper along with future challenges rega...

  5. Trade Openness and its Effects on Economic Growth in selected Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ganbold, Delgermaa

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines the effect of international trade on economic growth in China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The determinants of international trade and their impact on economic development are reviewed in the Theoretical background. Subsequently, the countries' major trading factors and trade strategies which contribute to their economic growth are also analysed in this thesis. The main aim - the quantification of relationship between international trade and economic growth is appli...

  6. Medical tourism's impact for health systems: A study from three Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ala`a Nimer AbuKhalifeh; Erwin Martinez Faller

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism’s growth for health systems, illustration ...

  7. Gender's Effects to the Early Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease in 5 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Han; Meguro, Kenichi; Dominguez, Jacqueline; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Wang, Huali; Ong, Paulus Anam

    2017-06-01

    Asia has the greatest population and more patients with dementia in the world. Early recognition of clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial for dementia care. In order to foster collaboration in AD care, a uniformed manner to report the early clinical symptoms of AD is necessary. We have recruited clinically diagnosed patients with AD at their very mild stage with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5 in Taiwan, Japan, China, Philippines, and Singapore. Demographic characteristics and psychometrics including Ascertain of Dementia-8 (AD8) questionnaire were administrated to collect and report the clinical presentation in these countries. In total, 713 clinically diagnosed patients with AD at very mild stage, CDR 0.5, have been recruited from these 5 countries. "Repeats questions, stories, or statements" were consistently the frequently reported symptom across these countries. Taiwan, China, and Singapore have the higher AD8 total score compared to that in Japan and Philippines. Japan and Philippines have the gender-related differences in clinical presentation of early AD. Difficulties in using small trouble appliance and in handling complicated financial affairs were frequently reported in Japan female, compared to male, patients with AD. Identifying the clinical symptom of AD and the gender-related issues would be crucial in the dementia care in Asia.

  8. The burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Norman, Rosana; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent data on cancer rates and the burden of cancer in the ASEAN region. Epidemiological data were sourced from GLOBOCAN 2008 and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost were estimated using the standard methodology developed within the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease study. Overall, it was estimated there were over 700,000 new cases of cancer and 500,000 cancer deaths in ASEAN in the year 2008, leading to approximately 7.5 million DALYs lost in one year. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (98,143), breast (86,842) and liver cancers (74,777). The most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (85,772), liver cancer (69,115) and colorectal cancer (44,280). The burden of cancer in terms of DALYs lost was highest in Laos, Viet Nam and Myanmar and lowest in Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines. Significant differences in the patterns of cancer from country to country were observed. Another key finding was the major impact played by population age distribution on cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer rates in ASEAN are expected to increase with ageing of populations and changes in lifestyles associated with economic development. Therefore, ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place cancer-control health care policies, focussed on strengthening the health systems to cope with projected increases in cancer prevention, treatment and management needs.

  9. Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in

  10. Burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina, Susi Ari; Endarti, Dwi; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is an increasing problem in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancers. Evidence on burden of cancer attributable to tobacco is essential to raise public and political awareness of the negative effects of tobacco on cancer and to be used to stimulate political action aims at reducing smoking prevalence in ASEAN member countries. The objective of this study was to estimate burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in ASEAN, 2012. In this study, smoking prevalence was combined with Relative Risks (RRs) of cancer to obtain Smoking Attributable Fractions (SAFs). Cancer incidence and mortality data among individuals aged 15 years and older were derived from GLOBOCAN 2012. Fourteen types of cancer were included in the analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the impact of the use of alternative RRs and the use of alternative prevalence of smoking in some countries. The findings showed that tobacco smoking was responsible for 131,502 cancer incidence and 105,830 cancer mortality in ASEAN countries in 2012. In other words, tobacco smoking was accounted for 28.4% (43.3% in male and 8.5% in female) of cancer incidence and 30.5% (44.2% in male and 9.4% in female) of cancer mortality in ASEAN. When looking at the types of cancer, lung cancer showed the strongest association with tobacco smoking. Incidence of cancer and cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking varied by countries due to the differences in size of population, background risk of cancer, and prevalence of smoking in each country. According to the sensitivity analyses, RRs of lung cancer, pharynx cancer, and larynx cancer used in the estimates have significant impact on the estimates. As about one-third of cancer incidence and mortality in ASEAN are attributable to tobacco smoking ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place stronger tobacco control policies and to strengthen the

  11. Sovereignty: analysis of its current issues in certain countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Koščo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The purpose of my article work is analyzing of the issue of sovereignty in international law. Originality of my article is that events described in the text are for people little known. Method: In the text I used to describe the method. Result: I evaluated the most important facts and influences for States Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Tibet and South Sudan. Society: The lives of people in the above countries, the history and present. Limitation: I clarified the important facts and dates, also bring comparison between past and the future.

  12. Tobacco industry interference: A review of three South East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Ritthiphakdee, Bungon; Soerojo, Widyastuti; Cho, May Myat; Jirathanapiwat, Worrawan

    2017-09-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 requires governments to protect tobacco control policies from the commercial interest of the tobacco industry (TI). TI interference is the biggest barrier to implementing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper reviews the extent of the TI's interference in tobacco control policy development in three countries, Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia, and the governments' efforts to protect these policies. The paper draws on incidents of TI interference reported in the 2016 Tobacco Industry Interference Index: ASEAN Report on Implementation of the WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Base data were obtained through a questionnaire on twenty most commonly reported incidents of interference from the FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines recommendations. A scoring system was developed. All three countries faced varying levels of TI interference. Thailand, though known for its stringent tobacco control measures, still faced interference while Myanmar remains vulnerable. Indonesia faced the highest industry interference which may explain why it is lagging behind in tobacco control and remains a nonparty to the WHO FCTC. The TI gains access to government officials through offers of technical assistance and its corporate social responsibility activities. Transparency in dealing with the TI is needed in all three countries. Most governments have not set up disclosure procedures when dealing with the TI. Outside the Department/Ministry of Health, other departments remain unaware of Article 5.3, not utilizing its strength to regulate the TI. More concerted effort is needed to implement Article 5.3 to achieve greater success in tobacco control.

  13. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Surface Soils across Five Asian Countries: Levels, Spatial Distribution, and Source Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Ma, Wan-Li; Jia, Hong-Liang; Hong, Wen-Jun; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Chi, Kai Hsien; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sverko, Ed; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-12-06

    A total of 23 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured in soil samples collected in areas with no known point source [urban/rural/background (U/R/B) sites] and in areas with known point source [brominated flame retardant (BFR)-related industrial sites (F sites) and e-waste recycling sites (E sites)] across five Asian countries. The highest PBDE concentrations were found in BFR-related industrial and e-waste recycling sites. The concentrations of PBDEs in U/R/B sites decreased in the following order: urban > rural > background sites. Total PBDE concentrations were dominated by BDE-209, while BDE-17, -85, -138, -191, -204, and -205 were the least abundant compounds. In both urban sites and rural sites, the mean concentrations of total PBDEs (∑ 23 BDEs) in soils decreased in the following order: Japan > China > South Korea > India > Vietnam. The concentrations of PBDEs in soils were comparable with those reported in other studies. Among the three commercial PBDE mixtures, relatively large contributions of commercial penta-BDE were observed in Vietnam, whereas deca-BDE was the dominant form in mixtures contributing from 55.8 ± 2.5 to 100.0 ± 1.2% of the total PBDEs in soils collected from other four countries. Regression analysis suggested that local population density (PD) is a good indicator of PBDEs in soils of each country. Significant and positive correlation between soil organic content and PBDE level was observed in Chinese soil for most nondeca-BDE homologues with their usage stopped 10 years ago, indicating its important role in controlling the revolatilization of PBDEs from soil and changing the spatial trend of PBDE in soil from the primary distribution pattern to the secondary distribution pattern, especially when primary emission is ceased.

  14. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  15. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  16. Riding the Asian Wave....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses strategies U.S. universities are using to deal with declining enrollments by Asian students, brought on by the Asian financial crisis. Strategies include recruiting students from other countries. (Author/VWL)

  17. [Current Situation and Prospects of Emergency Medical Equipment in Our Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lijing; Cheng, Feng

    2016-03-01

    This article analyzes the new demand of emergency medical equipment in the current development trend based on the analysis of the development and current situation of emergency medicine in our country. At the same time it introduces the current industrial characteristics of our country. Finally it analyzes the development trend of this kind of equipment in the new emergency medicine field.

  18. Historic and current hepatitis B viral DNA and quantitative HBsAg level are not associated with cirrhosis in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkisoen, S.; Arends, J. E.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; Whelan, J.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Boland, G. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2014-01-01

    Some studies done in Asian patients have shown that serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA predict the development of cirrhosis. However, it is unclear whether this also applies for non-Asian patients. This study investigated historic and current HBV DNA and quantitative hepatitis B surface

  19. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  20. The effects of globalization on firm’s stock in the selected Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Haghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to survey the effects of economic globalization on the firm’s stock that is measured by the index of the stock market by using panel data in selected countries in Asia (Iran, Saudi Arabia, India, China, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, South Korea, Russia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka during 1997- 2013. Unit root tests indicate that the variables are stationary on the level. The results of F-test, Breusch-Pagan and Hausman tests show that the unilateral fixed effects must be applied. The results show that the economic globalization significantly improves stock market index. Moreover the positive and significant effect on the firm’s stock depend on political globalization and dummy variable, however the negative and significant effect is related to the growth rate of government expenditure, the exchange rate and the interaction effects of economy.

  1. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.

  2. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  3. Trade Balances of the Asian Countries under Crisis: Forecast and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the financial crisis, we need to do some reform, such as to change the governmental and non-governmental structure, make sure the policy to be transparent, and remove restrictions, etc. All these measures can restore the confidence of foreign investors towards Korea. But to make balance of the trade surplus and keep foreign exchange reserve at a reasonable level, ensure foreign exchange and the security of financial department is one of the most urgent topics. Since the deep relationship of economy among countries in North-East Asia, financial crisis is not only the problem in Korea. It is already expended to the whole North-East Asia. This thesis shows the idea that we can forecast surplus in the trade balance scale, enlarge the trade balance of South Korea and activate export. It also shows that instead of the increase of export, the surplus is caused by the decrease of import. At this point of view, the number of surplus is not true. If the investment keeps decreasing like this, the foundation of Korean Economy will collapse.

  4. An Investigation on Attributes of Ambient Temperature and Diurnal Temperature Range on Mortality in Five East-Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whan-Hee; Lim, Youn-Hee; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Jang, Hye-Min; Kim, Ho

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the health effects of extremely low/high ambient temperature and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) on mortality as representative indices of temperature variability is growing. Although numerous studies have reported on these indices independently, few studies have provided the attributes of ambient temperature and DTR related to mortality, concurrently. In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare the mortality risk attributable to ambient temperature and DTR. The study included data of 63 cities in five East-Asian countries/regions during various periods between 1972 and 2013. The attributable risk of non-accidental death to ambient temperature was 9.36% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.98-9.69%) and to DTR was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.53-0.65%). The attributable cardiovascular mortality risks to ambient temperature (15.63%) and DTR (0.75%) are higher than the risks to non-accidental/respiratory-related mortality. We verified that ambient temperature plays a larger role in temperature-associated mortality, and cardiovascular mortality is susceptible to ambient temperature and DTR.

  5. Quality of omeprazole purchased via the Internet and personally imported into Japan: comparison with products sampled in other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Sofiqur; Yoshida, Naoko; Sugiura, Sakura; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Keila, Tep; Kiet, Heng Bun; Zin, Theingi; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kazuko

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of omeprazole personally imported into Japan via the Internet and to compare the quality of these samples with previously collected samples from two other Asian countries. The samples were evaluated by observation, authenticity investigation and pharmacopoeial quality analysis. Quality comparison of some selected samples was carried out by dissolution profiling, Raman spectroscopy and principle component analysis (PCA). Observation of the Internet sites and samples revealed some discrepancies including the delivery of a wrong sample and the selling of omeprazole without a prescription, although it is a prescription medicine. Among the 28 samples analysed, all passed the identification test, 26 (93%) passed the quantity and content uniformity tests and all passed the dissolution test. Dissolution profiling confirmed that all the personally imported omeprazole samples remained intact in the acid medium. On the other hand, six samples from two of the same manufacturers, previously collected during surveys in Cambodia and Myanmar, frequently showed premature omeprazole release in acid. Raman spectroscopy and PCA showed significant variation between omeprazole formulations in personally imported samples and the samples from Cambodia and Myanmar. Our results indicate that the pharmaceutical quality of omeprazole purchased through the Internet was sufficient, as determined by pharmacopeial tests. However, omeprazole formulations distributed in different market segments by the same manufacturers were of diverse quality. Measures are needed to ensure consistent quality of products and to prevent entry of substandard products into the legitimate supply chain. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A regional cooperative clinical study of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in east and south-east Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo; Cao, Jianping; Zhou Juying; Susworo, Raden; Supriana, Nana; Sato, Shinichiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Suto, Hisao; Nakamura, Yuzuru; Cho, Chul-Koo; Ismail, Fuad B.; Calaguas, Miriam J.C.; Reyes, Rey H. de los; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Thephamongkhol, Kullathom; Nguyen Ba Duc; To Anh Dung; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia

  7. A Country-Specific Water Consumption Inventory Considering International Trade in Asian Countries Using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Ono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the impacts of water use in the life cycle of products and services are increasing among various stakeholders. The water footprint is a tool to identify critical and effective points for reducing the impact of water use through the entire life cycle of products, services, and organizations. The purpose of this study was to develop a water consumption inventory database that focused on identifying of Asian water consumption using an input-output (IO framework. An Asia International Input-Output table (AIIO was applied in this study. The amount of water consumption required for agricultural products was estimated by modeling; for other sectors it was estimated from statistical reports. The intensities of direct water consumption in each sector were calculated by dividing the amount of water consumption by the domestic production. Based on the IO analysis using Leontief’s inverse matrix, the intensities of water consumption from cradle to gate were estimated for all goods and services. There was high intensity of water consumption in the primary industry sectors, together with a high dependency on rainwater as an input water source. The water consumption intensities generally showed a larger reduction in secondary sectors, in comparison with the tertiary sectors, due to the use of recycled water. There were differences between this study and previous studies due to the use of site-specific production data and the temporal resolution of crop production. By considering site-specific conditions, it is expected that the dataset developed here can be used for estimating the water footprint of products, services, and organizations in nine countries (Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and USA.

  8. Current status of nutrition labelling and claims in the South-East Asian region: are we in harmony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-Siong; Tamin, Suryani; Ilyas, Rosmulyati; Ramos, Adelisa; Tan, Wei-Ling; Lai, Darwin Kah-Soon; Kongchuntuk, Hataya

    2002-01-01

    the region to enact regulations on nutrition claims. Recently enacted regulations or amendments to existing regulations of almost all the countries reviewed have included provisions for nutrition claims. Malaysia is in the process of gazetting regulations to clearly stipulate the permitted nutrition claims and the conditions required to make these claims along the guidelines of Codex Alimentarius Commission. Only two countries in the region permit health claims to be made - Indonesia and Philippines. Other countries in the region are following developments in Codex and examining the need for allowing these claims. There are more differences than similarities in the regulations on nutrition labelling and claims among countries in the South-East Asian region as no previous efforts have been made to address these. Hopefully, through this first regional meeting, countries can initiate closer interaction, with a view to working towards greater harmonization of nutrition labelling and health claims in the region.

  9. A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina von Rintelen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the ten member states of the economically and politically diverse regional organization of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN. Southeast Asia comprises four of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots, three of the 17 global megadiverse countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines and the most diverse coral reefs in the world. All member states are Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. We discuss ASEAN-wide joint activities on nature conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity that do not stop at national borders. The Indonesian archipelago comprises two of the world’s biodiversity hotspots (areas with a high degree of endemic species that are highly threatened by loss of habitats: Its insular character and complex geological history led to the evolution of a megadiverse fauna and flora on the global scale. The importance of biodiversity, e.g., in traditional medicine and agriculture, is deep-rooted in Indonesian society. Modern biodiversity pathways include new fields of application in technology, pharmacy and economy along with environmental policies. This development occurred not only in Indonesia but also in other biodiversity-rich tropical countries. This review summarizes and discusses the unique biodiversity of Indonesia from different angles (science, society, environmental policy, and bioeconomy and brings it into context within the ASEAN region. The preconditions of each member state for biodiversity-related activities are rather diverse. Much was done to improve the conditions for biodiversity research and use in several countries, primarily in those with a promising economic development. However, ASEAN as a whole still has further potential for more joint initiatives. Especially Indonesia has the highest biodiversity potential within the ASEAN and beyond, but likewise the highest risk of biodiversity loss. We conclude that Indonesia has not taken full advantage of this

  10. Efficient solar energy conversion in a low cost flat-plate solar cooker fabricated for use in rural areas of the south asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Y.; Raza, M.; Muhammad, N.

    2008-01-01

    Solar flat plate cooker has been designed and fabricated for use in the rural areas of the South Asian countries. Indigenous low cost materials have been utilized for the fabrication of the cooker. The manufacturing cost of the cooker is less than US$ 150. The aim of this work is to utilize direct solar energy for cooking purpose. A flat plate absorber made of copper is used to absorb the heat energy from the sun. The maximum recorded plate temperature of the cooker was 110 degree C at an ambient temperature of 37 degree C. At this temperature sufficient steam is produced which is channeled to the cooking region though copper pipes. The cooker is found to be effective for cooking traditional food items like pulses, vegetables, meat, eggs, etc. It may be used as an alternative of fossil fuels in the rural areas of the South Asian countries, particularly by the rural women. (author)

  11. An overview of food waste management in developing countries: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Ngoc Bao Dung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Food waste (FW) related issues in developing countries is currently considered to be a major threatening factor for sustainable development and FW management systems. Due to incomplete FW management systems, many developing countries are facing challenges, such as environmental and sanitary problems that are caused by FW. The difference in FW generation trends between developing countries and developed countries was reviewed in this work, which demonstrated that the effects of income level, population growth, and public participation in FW management are very important. Thus, this work aimed to provide an overview of recycling activities, related regulations, and current FW treatment technology in developing countries by following some case studies. Taiwan, has been suggested as being a successful case in terms of FW management, and is therefore a typical model for developing countries to follow. Finally, an integrative management system as a suitable model for FW management has been suggested for developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of urban waste management practices in developing Asian countries: A new analytical framework based on waste characteristics and urban dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    This paper characterizes municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in developing Asia, with a focus on low and middle-income countries. The analysis that is conducted supports a proposed framework that maps out the trends observed in the region in relation to two parameters, waste compositions and urban dimension, which was prepared based on a set of national and urban case studies. The management of MSW in developing Asian countries is driven, first and foremost, by a public health imperative: the collection and disposal of waste in order to avoid the spread of disease vectors from uncollected waste. This comes, however, at a high cost, with local government authorities in these countries spending up to 50% of their budgets in the provision of these services. Little or no value is derived from waste, which is typically seen as a liability and not as a resource that can be harnessed. On the other hand, in many cities in developing Asia there is an informal sector that ekes out a living from the recovery of recyclable materials found in waste. Members of this "informal waste sector" are especially active in areas that are not served by formal waste collection systems, such as slums or squatter areas. A distinctive element shared among many cities in developing Asian countries concerns the composition of the municipal solid waste. MSW in those countries tends to be richer in biodegradable organic matter, which usually accounts for more than 50% of the total waste composition, suggesting that biological methods are more appropriate for treating this organic fraction. Conversely, thermal combustion technologies, which are extensively applied in high-income countries, are technically and economically challenging to deploy in light of the lower calorific value of waste streams which are rich in organics and moisture. Specific approaches and methods are therefore required for designing adequate waste management systems in developing Asian countries. In addition

  13. Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ling, Tian-You; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-07-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) contains biologically psychoactive ingredients; however, data are limited concerning the symptoms and syndrome of BQ dependence among chewers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ingredients-associated BQ dependence syndrome and country-specific chewing features and behaviour for BQ dependence among chewers from six Asian communities. An intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study. Six Asian general communities in Taiwan, Mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Six multi-stage random samples of BQ chewers in the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (n = 2078). All chewers were evaluated for BQ dependence using the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 12-month BQ dependence rate was 12.5-92.6% and 47.9-99.3% (P = 0.023) among tobacco-free and tobacco-added BQ chewers across the six Asian communities, with a higher dependence rate in chewers who used tobacco-free BQ with lime added than without (23.3-95.6% versus 4.0%, P ≤ 0.001). Taiwanese and Hunanese BQ chewers both notably endorsed the dependency domain of 'time spent chewing'. 'Tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were the major dependence domains associated with the Nepalese and Indonesian chewers, with high BQ dependence rates. Malaysian and Sri Lankan chewers formed a BQ dependence cluster linked closely to 'craving'. In Sri Lanka, the quantity consumed explained 90.5% (P betel quid users in Asian communities, more so if they use it with tobacco or lime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS): a four-country multistage cluster design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Anne; Deurenberg, Paul; Calame, Wim; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; van Beusekom, Christien; Hautvast, Jo; Sandjaja; Bee Koon, Poh; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Parikh, Panam; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16,744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available.

  15. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: A comparative study among East Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and females in East Asian countries is influenced by the age of their children. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...

  16. The deficit of current account balances and budgetary deficit in countries in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Krtalic; Ines Kersan

    1998-01-01

    In restructuring process of their own economies, countries in transition deal with many common problems. One of the problems that transition brought to those countries is deficit in current account, as well as budget deficit. Deficits represent limit to a healthy and fast economic development and progress. Balance in balance of payments, as well as balanced budget are components of macroeconomic system. The authors will give an review of activities on deficits in countries in transition, and ...

  17. Current R and D Status on High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2008-11-15

    Current R and D status of such countries moving forward as the United States, Sweden, France, Japan and a few other countries for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological formation has been reviewed. Even though no HLW repositories have not practically constructed nor operated yet, lots of related R and D are being proceeded in many countries as well as in Korea. Through this brief review further progress is anticipated in this related R and D area in Korea.

  18. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  19. Comparing the experience of regret and its predictors among smokers in four Asian countries: findings from the ITC surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Lee, Wonkyong B; Laux, Fritz L; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341-S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: "If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking." Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%-90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting.

  20. Impact of technology diffusion on economic growth and international competitiveness. Empirical evidence for four East Asian countries; Gijutsu hakyu no koka to Asia keizai no seichoryoku, yushutsu kyosoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Sakurai, N.

    1999-06-01

    Asian economies hit by the currency crisis in 1997 are still in struggle to recover their growth and to boost again their exports. Although several short-term policy measures to stimulate the demand- side of the economy is certainly necessary, in a longer-term perspective, the key to real recovery would exist in their ability to absorb foreign technologies through trade and/or FDI, as stressed by recent new theories of growth and trade. This paper examines empirically the role of technology diffusion from advanced countries to total factor productivity (TFP) and export competitiveness in four major East-Asian countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, three of which were seriously damaged by the currency crisis. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, we found that technology acquisition from abroad is quite important for TFP growth of most industries in Asia, in particular for two ASEAN countries (Malaysia and Indonesia), while such productivity impact from foreign technology was relatively small for Korea and Singapore. Second, the impact of technology diffusion was much larger in that through trade than in that through foreign direct investment. Some FDI practices to preclude technology access for developing countries might explain such weaker role of FDI on TFP. Third, the nexus between TFP and export competitiveness was surely positive, in particular for industries of high export performance. However, the magnitude of impact was relatively small in Korea, in spite of its overwhelming productivity performance. (author)

  1. Key Drivers for Cooperation toward Sustainable Development and the Management of CO2 Emissions: Comparative Analysis of Six Northeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the key drivers of the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in six Northeast Asian countries (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Russia from 1991 to 2015. We apply a decomposition analysis approach using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index to identify the main contributing factors toward CO2 emission changes. To discuss the decomposition results in more in detail, we explain the energy portfolio change in each country to understand the energy and resource utilization strategy. From the results, we find that the key driving factors of CO2 emissions change and energy portfolio trends are different among Northeast Asian countries, driven by economic growth in China and Korea, reduced by energy efficiency improvements in Russia and the DPRK, while being relatively benign in Japan and Mongolia due to a combination of these factors. This result implies that we can better understand the regional cooperation policy for improving each driving factor to achieve sustainable development and management of CO2 emissions considering the characteristics of each country.

  2. The mediating role of Internet addiction in depression, social anxiety, and psychosocial well-being among adolescents in six Asian countries: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C M; Mak, K K; Watanabe, H; Jeong, J; Kim, D; Bahar, N; Ramos, M; Chen, S H; Cheng, C

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the associations of Internet addiction with social anxiety, depression, and psychosocial well-being among Asian adolescents. A self-medication model conceptualizing Internet addiction as a mediating role in relating depression and social anxiety to negative psychosocial well-being was tested. A cross-sectional survey. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 5366 adolescents aged 12-18 years from six Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Philippines) completed a questionnaire with items of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD), Self-Rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA-SR) in the 2012-2013 school year. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the mediating role of Internet addiction in depression, social anxiety, and subjective psychosocial well-being. Significant differences on the scores of IAT, SAS-A, CESD, and HoNOSCA-SR across the six countries were found. The proposed self-medication model of Internet addiction received satisfactory goodness-of-fit with data of all countries. After the path from social anxiety to Internet addiction had been discarded in the revised model, there was a significant improvement of the goodness-of-fit in the models for Japan, South Korea, and the Philippines. Depression and social anxiety reciprocally influenced, whereas depression associated with poorer psychosocial well-being directly and indirectly through Internet addiction in all six countries. Internet addiction mediated the association between social anxiety and poor psychosocial well-being in China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Government Spending Shocks, the Current Account and the Real Exchange Rate in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of government spending shocks on the current account and the real exchange rate for 20 OECD countries using panel VAR model, in order to provide empirical stylized facts. The countries were grouped based on openness and size, and the influence of openness and size on the effects of government spending shocks. The main findings are as follows. First, in the analysis of all 20 countries, in response to government spending shocks, the worsening of the current account is significant, but real exchange rate appreciation is not significant. Second, real exchange rate appreciation is more significant and worsening of the current account is more temporary in the group of countries with higher openness than in those with low openness. Third, the worsening of the current account is more significant in the group of large countries than in the group of small countries. Although real exchange rate depreciation under fiscal expansion is not consistent with traditional theories, the results are broadly consistent with the existing theories that incorporate openness and the size of the country.

  4. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. © 2013 APJPH.

  5. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  6. Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahara Shu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with cagA-positive, cagA EPIYA motif ABD type, and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotype strains of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response and increased risk of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it is unclear whether the prevalence and virulence factor genotypes found in Southeast Asia are similar to those in Western countries. Here, we examined the cagA status and prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs and vacA genotypes among H. pylori strains found in Southeast Asia and examined their association with gastroduodenal disease. Methods To determine the cagA status, cagA EPIYA motifs, and vacA genotypes of H. pylori, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 previous reports for 1,281 H. pylori strains detected from several Southeast Asian countries. Results The respective frequencies of cagA-positive and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotypes among examined subjects were 93% (1,056/1,133, 98% (1,010/1,033, 58% (581/1,009, and 96% (248/259, respectively. Stratification showed significant variation in the frequencies of cagA status and vacA genotypes among countries and the individual races residing within each respective country. The frequency of the vacA m-region genotype in patients infected with East Asian-type strains differed significantly between the northern and southern areas of Vietnam (p vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (odds ratio: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.12, p = 0.046 and 2.83, 1.50-5.34, p = 0.001, respectively in the examined Southeast Asian populations. Conclusions Both Western- and East Asian-type strains of H. pylori are found in Southeast Asia and are predominantly cagA-positive and vacA s1 type. In Southeast Asia, patients infected with vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains have an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease. Thus, testing for this genotype and the presence of cagA may have clinical usefulness.

  7. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Cummings, K. Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C. K.; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C.; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probabilit...

  8. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.; Tan, E.S.H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In

  9. Reciprocal Relations between Official Development Assistance Recipient and Donor Countries: Case of South Korean Overseas Construction Business and Southeast Asian Countries’ Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, official development assistance (ODA is generally perceived to be an alternative means to develop infrastructure. Donor countries may expect benefits such as increased construction project orders in recipient countries. However, it remains arguable whether ODA contributes to reciprocal relations between recipient and donor countries. The case of South Korea can provide empirical data given that its government has expanded the amount of ODA to encourage overseas construction business while supporting Southeast Asian countries. In this research, gross national income (GNI, gross domestic product (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI, and construction project orders awarded by South Korean construction companies in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are analyzed according to the variation of ODA awarded by South Korea. The analysis results show that the influence of ODA upon economic situation of recipient countries varies according to their economic volume and development policy. From the donor country’s perspective, enhanced performance of construction business can be expected by means of cooperation with local construction business.

  10. Is healthcare a 'Necessity' or 'Luxury'? an empirical evidence from public and private sector analyses of South-East Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir Am; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam

    2015-01-01

    South-East Asian Regional (SEAR) countries range from low- to middle-income countries and have considerable differences in mix of public and private sector expenditure on health. This study intends to estimate the income-elasticities of healthcare expenditure in public and private sectors separately for investigating whether healthcare is a 'necessity' or 'luxury' for citizens of these countries. Panel data from 9 SEAR countries over 16 years (1995-2010) were employed. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate income-elasticity of public, private and total healthcare expenditure. Results showed that one percent point increase in GDP per capita increased private expenditure on healthcare by 1.128%, while public expenditure increased by only 0.412%. Inclusion of three-year lagged variables of GDP per capita in the models did not have remarkable influence on the findings. The citizens of SEAR countries consider healthcare as a necessity while provided through public sector and a luxury when delivered by private sector. By increasing the public provisions of healthcare, more redistribution of healthcare resources can be ensured, which can accelerate the journey of SEAR countries towards universal health coverage.

  11. Current and Future Challenges for Asian Nonproliferation Export Controls: A Regional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    degree of financial interdependence was evidenced by the 1997 financial crisis, which resulted in the Chiang Mai + 3 Initiative.ř Intra-company trade...financial crisis, the finance ministers of ASEAN+3 countries (China, Japan, and South Korea) reached agreement on the " Chiang Mai Initiative," which...stability. The Chiang Mai Initiative has contributed to improving exchange rate stability and in doing so may also have contributed to closer regional

  12. Current Account Balance and Export Performances: Evidence Based on New EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Željko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether the differences in the current account balance and export performances for a new EU countries are a result of exchange rate policies. The analysis shows that countries with a flexible exchange rate have better export performances and the current account balance in the pre-crisis period. The obtained results show that movements in the current account balance are mainly driven by domestic variables. In the countries with a flexible exchange rate, real and nominal depreciation affects export positively although the magnitude of these effects is tiny and limited to the crisis period. These results point to a higher significance of non-price competitiveness on export which should be a future research topic.

  13. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  14. Rationale and design for the Asia BP@Home study on home blood pressure control status in 12 Asian countries and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Buranakitjaroen, Peera; Chen, Chen-Huan; Chia, Yook-Chin; Divinagracia, Romeo; Park, Sungha; Shin, Jinho; Siddique, Saulat; Sison, Jorge; Soenarta, Arieska Ann; Sogunuru, Guru Prasad; Tay, Jam Chin; Turana, Yuda; Wang, Ji-Guang; Wong, Lawrence; Zhang, Yuqing; Wanthong, Sirisawat; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kanegae, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Home blood pressure (BP) monitoring is endorsed in multiple guidelines as a valuable adjunct to office BP measurements for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. In many countries throughout Asia, physicians are yet to appreciate the significant contribution of BP variability to cardiovascular events. Furthermore, data from Japanese cohort studies have shown that there is a strong association between morning BP surge and cardiovascular events, suggesting that Asians in general may benefit from more effective control of morning BP. We designed the Asia BP@Home study to investigate the distribution of hypertension subtypes, including white-coat hypertension, masked morning hypertension, and well-controlled and uncontrolled hypertension. The study will also investigate the determinants of home BP control status evaluated by the same validated home BP monitoring device and the same standardized method of home BP measurement among 1600 or more medicated patients with hypertension from 12 countries/regions across Asia. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Occurrence and Source Effect of Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (NBFRs) in Soils from Five Asian Countries and Their Relationship with PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Jia, Hong-Liang; Ding, Yong-Sheng; Nakata, Haruhiko; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sverko, Ed; Li, Yi-Fan

    2017-10-03

    This paper presents the first comprehensive survey of 19 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in soil samples collected among five Asian countries. High variability in concentrations of all NBFRs was found in soils with the geometric mean (GM) values ranging from 0.50 ng/g dry weight (dw) in Vietnam to 540 ng/g dw in the vicinity of a BFR manufacturer in China. In urban, rural, and background locations, the GM concentrations of ∑ 19 NBFRs decreased in the order of Japan > South Korea > China > India > Vietnam. Correlations among different NBFR compounds were positive and statistically significant (p e-waste sites. For the first time, this study demonstrates a "point source fractionation effect" for NBFRs and PBDEs. The concentrations of all NBFRs and PBDEs were negatively and significantly correlated with the distance from BFR-related industrial and e-waste regions. Positive and significant correlation between population density and NBFR concentrations in soils was identified. Our study revealed that the primary sources effects were stronger than the secondary sources effects in controlling the levels and distribution of NBFRs and PBDEs in soils in these five Asian countries.

  16. Depression, quality of life (QoL) and will to live of community-dwelling postmenopausal women in three Asian countries: Korea, China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Nomura, Hideki; Ishitsuka, Asako; Hirai, Hisako; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of screening-detected depression and the association of depression with QoL in community-dwelling postmenopausal women living in three Asian countries. We examined self-reported questionnaires and conducted the study. A total of 698 community-dwelling postmenopausal women living in three Asian countries participated in this study. The mean age was 59.4±6.6 years (±SD) Depressive symptoms were assessed using a 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15). Using the cut-off of 5/6 for the GDS-15, the percentages of subjects with depression were 39.0% of the Korean subjects, 29.2% of the Chinese subjects, and 33.9% of the Japanese subjects. For the assessment of QoL, we used the EQ-5D of the EuroQoL Group. The following five dimensions were assessed: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. The proportions of subjects reporting problems for each dimension were examined. Subjects with depression had significantly lower levels of some dimensions of QoL than those without depression in all three countries. In all three countries, 29.2-39.0% of community-dwelling postmenopausal women had screening-detected depression, which was significantly associated with a lower level of some dimensions of QoL. These results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to depression in community-dwelling postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  18. Upgrading in the global apparel value chain : an analysis on Asian developing countries' competition with China in exporting apparels

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Ingvild

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how regional suppliers of apparels have performed in the global apparel industry compared to China during the past two decades, and particularly after the phase out of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), which up to 2004 applied quotas to exports of clothing in the largest end markets. The speculation prior to the quota phase out was that large increases of Chinese exports would be at the expense of other Asian suppliers. This thesis effort to trace w...

  19. Forecasting the demand for health tourism in Asian countries using a GM(1,1)-Alpha model

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Ling Huang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose – Accurately forecasting the demand for international health tourism is important to newly-emerging markets in the world. The aim of this study was presents a more suitable and accurate model for forecasting the demand for health tourism that should be more theoretically useful. Design – Applying GM(1,1) with adaptive levels of α (hereafter GM(1,1)-α model) to provide a concise prediction model that will improve the ability to forecast the demand for health tourism in Asian cou...

  20. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gravely

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%, Republic of Korea (2010: 79%, United States (2010: 73%, Australia (2013: 66%, Malaysia (2011: 62%, United Kingdom (2010: 54%, Canada (2010: 40%, Brazil (2013: 35%, Mexico (2012: 34%, and China (2009: 31%, in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%, Malaysia (19%, Netherlands (18%, United States (15%, Republic of Korea (11%, United Kingdom (10%, Mexico (4%, Canada (4%, Brazil (3%, and China (2%, and in current use (Malaysia (14%, Republic of Korea (7%, Australia (7%, United States (6%, United Kingdom (4%, Netherlands (3%, Canada (1%, and China (0.05%. Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine, and the survey timing along the trajectory of e

  2. Awareness, trial, and current use of electronic cigarettes in 10 countries: Findings from the ITC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C K; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania; Perez, Cristina; Omar, Maizurah; Hummel, Karin

    2014-11-13

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 37%), Mexico (2012: 34%), and China (2009: 31%)), in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%), Malaysia (19%), Netherlands (18%), United States (15%), Republic of Korea (11%), United Kingdom (10%), Brazil (8%), Mexico (4%), Canada (4%), and China (2%)), and in current use (Malaysia (14%), Republic of Korea (7%), Australia (7%), United States (6%), United Kingdom (4%), Netherlands (3%), Canada (1%), and China (0.05%)) [corrected]. The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine), and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette awareness and trial

  3. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology in Asian countries: Impact of an IAEA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, Madan M.; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Al-Naemi, Huda M.; Al-Suwaidi, Jamila Salem; El-Nachef, Leila; Khosravi, Hamid Reza; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany; Pallewatte, Aruna S.; Juan, Bayani Cruz San; Shaaban, Mohamed; Zaman, Areesha

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the lack of information on image quality and patient doses in most countries in Asia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated a project to assess the status of imaging technology, practice in conventional radiography, mammography, computed tomography (CT) and interventional procedures, and to implement optimisation actions. A total of 20 countries participated. Obsolete practices of use of fluoroscopy for positioning, photofluorography, chest fluoroscopy and conventional tomography were reported by 4 out of 7 countries that provided this information. Low-kV technique for chest radiography is in use in participating countries for 20–85% of cases, and manual processing is in 5–85% of facilities in 5 countries. Instances of the use of adult CT protocol for children in three participating countries were observed in 10–40% of hospitals surveyed. After implementation of a Quality Control programme, the image quality in conventional radiography improved by zero to 13 percentage points in certain countries and dose reduction was from 10% to 85%. In mammography, poor quality, ranging from 10 to 29% of images in different countries was observed. The project increased attention to dose quantities and dose levels in computed tomography, although doses in most cases were not higher than reference levels. In this study 16–19% of patients in interventional cardiology received doses that have potential for either stochastic risk or tissue reaction. This multi-national study is the first of its kind in the Asia, and it provided insight into the situation and opportunities for improvement

  4. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology in Asian countries: Impact of an IAEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, Madan M., E-mail: Madan.rehani@gmail.com [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera, E-mail: ociraj@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Radiation Protection Department, Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Al-Naemi, Huda M., E-mail: Halnaomi@hmc.org.qa [Hamad Medical Corp, Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 1725, Doha (Qatar); Al-Suwaidi, Jamila Salem, E-mail: jsalsuwaidi@dha.gov.ae [Dubai Hospital, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); El-Nachef, Leila, E-mail: nachefl@cnrs.edu.lb [Lebanon Atomic Energy Commission (Lebanon); Khosravi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: hkhosravi@aeoi.org.ir [National Radiation Protection Department, Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kharita, Mohammad Hassan, E-mail: mhkharita@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany, E-mail: mpvany@gmail.com [Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Pallewatte, Aruna S., E-mail: asp31263@hotmail.com [Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children, Dr Danister de Silva Mawatha, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Juan, Bayani Cruz San, E-mail: bayanisjuan@yahoo.com [Center for Device Regulation, Radiation Health, and Research Department of Health, Manila (Philippines); Shaaban, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamedshaabanomer@hotmail.com [Al-Sabah Hospital (Kuwait); Zaman, Areesha, E-mail: areeshazaman@hotmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, PAEC, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2012-10-15

    Recognizing the lack of information on image quality and patient doses in most countries in Asia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated a project to assess the status of imaging technology, practice in conventional radiography, mammography, computed tomography (CT) and interventional procedures, and to implement optimisation actions. A total of 20 countries participated. Obsolete practices of use of fluoroscopy for positioning, photofluorography, chest fluoroscopy and conventional tomography were reported by 4 out of 7 countries that provided this information. Low-kV technique for chest radiography is in use in participating countries for 20–85% of cases, and manual processing is in 5–85% of facilities in 5 countries. Instances of the use of adult CT protocol for children in three participating countries were observed in 10–40% of hospitals surveyed. After implementation of a Quality Control programme, the image quality in conventional radiography improved by zero to 13 percentage points in certain countries and dose reduction was from 10% to 85%. In mammography, poor quality, ranging from 10 to 29% of images in different countries was observed. The project increased attention to dose quantities and dose levels in computed tomography, although doses in most cases were not higher than reference levels. In this study 16–19% of patients in interventional cardiology received doses that have potential for either stochastic risk or tissue reaction. This multi-national study is the first of its kind in the Asia, and it provided insight into the situation and opportunities for improvement.

  5. Current status of education and training in medical physics in developing and developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant resources are allocated for applying Medical Physics to health care. State-of-the-art technological developments have made this discipline valuable in early diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, particularly cancer. The current challenge is the dire need of harmonizing the standards of practice, including equipment, quality assurance, safety, education and training in Medical Physics across various countries. With experiences gained from the successes and failures in this field, standards of practice have evolved in the developed as well as the developing countries, but at different rates. Considerations of cost-benefit and priorities have led to increased gap in these standards of practice. In this presentation, the status of the education and training component of selected countries representing the two domains will be discussed. Possible causes, as well as the means adopted by the national and international organisations to bridge the gaps, will also be a part of the discussion. Suggestions for future improvements will be offered for consideration

  6. Compilation of anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics for a Reference Asian Man. Volume 2: Country reports. Results of a co-ordinated research programme 1988-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man has been conducted as a programme of the IAEA Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and the Pacific. The CRP was conducted to provide data for radiation protection purposes that is relevant to the biokinetic and dosimetric characteristics of the ethnic populations in the Asian region The radiological protection decisions that had to be made in the RCA member States following the Chernobyl accident were a significant motivation for establishing the CRP. Funding for the RCM by the Government of Japan is gratefully acknowledged. The IAEA wishes to thank S. Kobayashi for his efforts in support of the CRP. The IAEA extends its appreciation to the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Sciences for acting as the technical secretariat to co-ordinate the work of data compilation. Specifically, the IAEA acknowledges the contributions of H. Kawamura, G. Tanaka and T. Koyanagi. Appreciation is also extended to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences for the valuable contribution they made to the CRP as hosts for the RCMS. The IAEA officers responsible for this publication were A. Moiseev and R.V. Griffith of the Division of Radiation and Waste Safety. This publication is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains a summary of the data and conclusions from the project and Volume 2 the reports from participating countries

  7. Lupus, still a mystery: A comparison of clinical features of Pakistani population living in suburbs of Karachi with other Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, M.; Nazir, L.; Riaz, A.; Kidwai, S.S.; Haroon, W.; Siddiq, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presenting features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at a private hospital in Karachi, and to compare the features with those of other Asian populations. Methods: The retrospective study comprised records of all lupus cases meeting the revised American Rheumatism Association criteria at the time of presentation at Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi, from May 2008 to June 2011. Demographic and clinical data was analysed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Of the 105 cases in the study, there were 6 (5.7%) males and 99 (94.3%) females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:16 and a mean age of 31.6+-10.5 years. Clinical manifestations included: constitutional symptoms in (n=69; 65.7%), arthropathy (n=81; 77%), cutaneous involvement (n=39; 37%), lupus nephritis (n=24; 22.8%), pleurisy (n=9; 8.6%), Raynaud's phenomenon (n=24; 22.8%), and vasculitis (n=18; 17%). One (0.95%) patient presented with mononeuritis multiplex, and 1 (0.95%) with acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: The diversity in clinical presentation appeared to be a reflection of the great variability that exists among Asian countries with regards to their genetic, environmental and socio-demographic backgrounds. The differences also existed in our own population, suggesting some unknown etiology. (author)

  8. The impact of crude oil price on Islamic stock indices of South East Asian countries: Evidence from MGARCH-DCC and wavelet approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Monir Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt at testing the ‘time-varying’ and ‘time-scale dependent’ volatilities of and correlations between the selected Islamic stock indices of South East Asian countries and selected commodities for enhancing portfolio diversification benefits. Consistent with the results of our VECM, our analysis based on the application of the recent wavelet technique MODWT, indicates that the Singapore Islamic index is leading the other Islamic indices and the commodities. From the point of view of portfolio diversification benefits, based on the extent of dynamic correlations between variables, our results suggest that an investor should be aware that the Philippine Islamic stock index is less correlated with the crude oil in the short run (as evidenced in the continuous wavelet transform analysis and that an investor holding the crude oil can gain by including the Malaysian Islamic stock index in the portfolio (as evidenced in the Dynamic conditional correlation analysis.

  9. Gender based within-household inequality in immunization status of children: some evidence from South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Singh

    2015-01-01

    Using households with a pair of male-female siblings from DHS surveys, this paper estimates gender based within-household inequality in immunization status of children (aged 1-5 years) from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. I find substantial level of gender based within-household inequality in immunization status (with large inter-country variations) in the countries studied. Further, I estimate household fixed-effects models for immunization status and find significant difference betwe...

  10. Physical Health Care for People with Severe Mental Illness: the Attitudes, Practices, and Training Needs of Nurses in Three Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bressington

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People with severe mental illness (SMI have considerable unmet physical health needs and an increased risk of early mortality. This cross-sectional survey utilized the Physical Health Attitude Scale (PHASe to examine the attitudes, practices, and training needs of nurses towards physical health care of people with SMI in three Asian countries (Hong Kong, Japan, Qatar. Cross-country differences were explored and linear regression was used to investigate if nurses’ attitudes and confidence were associated with their level of involvement in physical health care. A total of 481 questionnaires were returned. Hong Kong nurses were less involved in physical health care than those from Japan and Qatar. Nurses’ attitudes and confidence were significant predictors of their participation in managing physical health. Compared with western countries, more nurses in this study felt that mental illness was a barrier to improving physical health. Three-quarters reported that they needed additional training in promoting cardiometabolic health. The perceived need for additional training in physical health care was held by Mental Health Nurses (MHN irrespective of their type of nursing registration and nationality. Nurse educators and service providers should reconsider the physical health care training requirements of nurses working in mental health settings in order to improve the physical health of people with SMI.

  11. STAY HERE, GO FURTHER: The Status of Open and Distance Education in Bangladesh Open University (BOU in comparison to two other South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira JAHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education has emerged out of social compulsion, the dynamics of change and new cultures. It was the failure of traditional systems to be able to meet the demand in countries, where the resources available for tertiary education are limited, which basically gave birth to the new trend of education known as open and distance education. This new and innovative system of education has received a high level of acceptance in different countries as it offers flexible educational opportunities for continuing education to a large segment of their population. The increasing number of older adult learners with varying lifestyles in the population, increasing competitiveness of getting places in tertiary institutions, higher cost of education and a shortage of teachers are the main factors for increasing the popularity of distance education (Duncan, et al., 2003. Bangladesh has also taken the opportunity to provide a uniform and mass oriented universal system of education through open and distance education establishing Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this study are- to assess the overall status of BOU in comparison with the open universities of two neighboring South Asian countries considering the following aspects:•Administrative structural functions, •Courses and instructional strategies, •Learning opportunities, and •Library, laboratory and counselling facilities to explore the potential of improvement for BOU to enable it to meet the challenges of the country’s educational needs in the next millennium.

  12. Physical Health Care for People with Severe Mental Illness: the Attitudes, Practices, and Training Needs of Nurses in Three Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel; Badnapurkar, Ashish; Inoue, Sachiko; Ma, Hin Yeung; Chien, Wai Tong; Nelson, Deborah; Gray, Richard

    2018-02-15

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) have considerable unmet physical health needs and an increased risk of early mortality. This cross-sectional survey utilized the Physical Health Attitude Scale (PHASe) to examine the attitudes, practices, and training needs of nurses towards physical health care of people with SMI in three Asian countries (Hong Kong, Japan, Qatar). Cross-country differences were explored and linear regression was used to investigate if nurses' attitudes and confidence were associated with their level of involvement in physical health care. A total of 481 questionnaires were returned. Hong Kong nurses were less involved in physical health care than those from Japan and Qatar. Nurses' attitudes and confidence were significant predictors of their participation in managing physical health. Compared with western countries, more nurses in this study felt that mental illness was a barrier to improving physical health. Three-quarters reported that they needed additional training in promoting cardiometabolic health. The perceived need for additional training in physical health care was held by Mental Health Nurses (MHN) irrespective of their type of nursing registration and nationality. Nurse educators and service providers should reconsider the physical health care training requirements of nurses working in mental health settings in order to improve the physical health of people with SMI.

  13. Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Shuwen; Ding Yongxia; Niu Yunzhu; Li Yixin; Luo Guanghua

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption and efficiency of energy use in developing countries are far lower than in developed countries; however, the CO 2 emissions per unit of energy use is higher. Although developing countries may reduce their CO 2 emission per unit energy use, total energy consumption will rise rapidly with economic development. Thus, developing countries must determine how to undergo economic growth while conserving energy and reducing emissions. To respond to global climate change, it is necessary to develop innovative technology for energy use, transform the energy structure and conduct the clean development mechanism. - Research highlights: → There is a complex nexus between GDP-energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, the causalities from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions are observed generally, but there are some opposite relationships also. → There are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. → There is a large potential for carbon emission reduction in the developing countries through transforming the energy structure, improving energy utilization efficiency and controlling the total energy. → To respond to global climate change

  14. Comparison of the Physical Properties of Showers that the Satisfaction of Shower Feeling among Users in Three Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Okamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct a scheme that makes it possible to compare the relationship between water usage, satisfaction, and physical properties in three countries. The physical properties of the shower were measured using physical properties testing apparatus of water-saving standard or scheme for showerheads issued in several water-saving countries and data for users satisfaction evaluation was acquired through bathing experiments. In this paper, we analyzed the result from Taiwanese and Vietnamese individuals to compare them to of Japanese subjects analyzed in the previous study. We compared the physical properties of showers assessed low in satisfaction by Taiwanese, Vietnamese and Japanese subjects. It was assumed that spray pattern tends to decrease satisfaction when the water volume ratio within 100 mm and 150 mm of a measuring device is located a 450 mm distance from the showerhead is low, and that, because all three countries showed the same value, it was imagined that there were no differences in the water volume ratio of high-satisfaction showerheads among three countries. On the other hand, the values of Spray Force-per-Hole, Temperature Drop, and Spray Angle were different among three countries. We speculated that these differences are affected respectively by ethnic differences in pain tolerance, thermoregulatory response and bathing habit.

  15. John Wheatley Award Talk: Promoting Under-Represented Physicists in Asian and Arab Countries and Muslim Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2013-04-01

    Physics fascinates people's minds regardless of their geographic location. Often the best students choose the challending profession of physics. Physicists in developing countries in Asia and Arab countries work mostly on their own with limited resources or external collaboration and some do extraordinarily well. However, these dedicated individuals need the support and interactive modalities with their fellow physicists, particularly from developed countries, for coherent and rapid advances in knowledge, discoveries and inventions. My main objective is to promote and motivate physics education and research in developing and Arab countries to a level of excellence commensurate with that at U.S. institutions, and to facilitate connection through the strong network of APS. I have developed a general STEM based program. Another focus of this initiative is the very weak community of Muslim women in science, who have have remained behind owing to surrounding circumstances. To encourage them in scientific professions, and to enable them to nurture their intellectuality, we have formed a network called the International Society of Muslim Women in Science. It now has 85 enthusiastic and aspiring members from 21 countries. I will discuss these and the special needs of the these under-represented scientists, and how APS might lend them its valuable support.

  16. Under-recognized pertussis in adults from Asian countries: a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, M T; Liu, C-S; Chiu, C-H; Boonsawat, W; Watanaveeradej, V; Abdullah, N; Zhang, Xh; Devadiga, R; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance data on the burden of pertussis in Asian adults are limited. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of serologically confirmed pertussis in adults with prolonged cough in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Adults (⩾19 years) with cough lasting for ⩾14 days without other known underlying cause were enrolled from outpatient clinics of seven public and/or private hospitals. Single blood samples for anti-pertussis toxin antibodies (anti-PT IgG) were analysed and economic impact and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) questionnaires assessed. Sixteen (5·13%) of the 312 chronically coughing adults had serological evidence of pertussis infection within the previous 12 months (anti-PT IgG titre ⩾62·5 IU/ml). Three of them were teachers. Longer duration of cough, paroxysms (75% seroconfirmed, 48% non-seroconfirmed) and breathlessness/chest pain (63% seroconfirmed, 36% non-seroconfirmed) were associated with pertussis (P Malaysia, US$83 in Taiwan (n = 1) and US$26 in Thailand. The overall median EQ-5D index score of cases was 0·72 (range 0·42-1·00). Pertussis should be considered in the aetiology of adults with a prolonged or paroxysmal cough, and vaccination programmes considered.

  17. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  18. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  19. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Vine, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms

  20. Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Tanabe, Hiromi; Inagaki, Yusuke; Ishida, Hisahiro; Kato, Osamu; Kurata, Mitsuyuki; Yamachika, Hidehiko

    2002-01-01

    At a time point of 2002, there is no country actually disposing high level radioactive wastes into grounds, but in most of countries legislative preparation and practicing agents are carried out and site selection is promoted together with energetic advancement of its R and Ds. As disposal methods of the high level radioactive wastes, various methods such as space disposal, oceanic bottom disposal, ice bed disposal, ground disposal, and so on have been examined. And, a processing technology called partitioning and transmutation technology separating long-lived radionuclides from liquid high level radioactive waste and transmutation into short-lived or harmless radionuclides has also been studied. Here was introduced their wrestling conditions in Japan and main foreign countries, as a special issue of the Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries'. The high level radioactive wastes (glassification solids or spent nuclear fuels) are wastes always formed by nuclear power generation and establishment of technologies is an important subject for nuclear fuel cycle. (G.K.)

  1. Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, J.; Blomstedt, Y.; Eriksson, M.; Becher, H.; Ramroth, H.; Kinsman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health equity is a global policy priority. To support this policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of

  2. TVET Initiatives in Southeast Asian Countries in Response to Increasing Labour Mobility within the Region and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryono

    2011-01-01

    The International Labour Organisation (ILO) report (2007) highlights that labour productivity, education and migration play important roles in shaping competitiveness, growth and development in Southeast Asia. The statistics also reveal interesting aspects of labour mobility. Thirteen and a half million migrants originate from countries in the…

  3. Experience of International Education of East Asian Students in English-Speaking Countries: A Four-Dimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria L.; Colaner, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    Global participation in international education in the last two decades has increased exponentially. International students face difficulties in adjusting to the culture of their host country due to their unique needs (Bertram, Poulakis, Elsasser & Kumar, 2014). This article presents themes comprising the international education phenomenon…

  4. ACCOUNTING INNOVATION ANALYSIS FOR THE STOCK PRICES AND MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OF FIVE ASEAN COUNTRIES DURING AND POST THE 1997 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwin Surja Atmadja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine some of the dynamic interactions of stock prices and macroeconomic factors in five ASEAN countries, Indonesia; Malaysia; the Philippines; Singapore; and Thailand with particular attention to the 1997 Asian financial crisis and period onwards. Using monthly time series data of the countries, accounting innovation analyses based on vector autoregressive (VAR analytical framework is employed to empirically examine the interaction among the variables. This research reveals that, firstly, a shock to a particular variable in the model results in various contemporaneous reactions by other variables across the countries during the sample period. Secondly, the general forecast error variance decomposition results likely reinforce the outcomes of the general impulse response analyses in most of the countries. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini ditujukan untuk mengkaji berbagai interaksi dinamik yang terjadi antara indeks harga saham dan factor-faktor ekonomi makro di kelima negara-negara ASEAN, yaitu Indonesia; Malaysia; Filipina; Singapura; dan Thailand pada saat dan setelah berlangsungnya krisis keuangan Asia tahun 1997. Dengan menggunakan data time series bulanan dari negara-negara tersebut, accounting innovation analysis yang didasarkan atas kerangka analisa vector autoregressive (VAR diaplikasikan untuk menguji secara empiris interaksi dinamik antara berbagai variabel tersebut. Penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa, pertama, suatu goncangan terhadap suatu variabel tertentu di dalam model menghasilkan berbagai reaksi temporer oleh variabel-variabel lainnya di seluruh negara-negara tersebut selama periode penelitian. Kedua, hasil-hasil analisa general forecast error variance decomposition nampaknya cenderung memperkuat hasil-hasil dari analisa general impulse response di sebagian besar negara-negara ASEAN tersebut. Kata kunci: analisa accounting innovation, krisis keuangan Asia, pasar modal, faktor-faktor ekonomi makro

  5. Sexual behaviour and dysfunction and help-seeking patterns in adults aged 40-80 years in the urban population of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Alfredo; Glasser, Dale B; Kim, Sae C; Marumo, Ken; Laumann, Edward O

    2005-03-01

    To study sexual activity, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and related help-seeking behaviour among middle-aged and elderly people in Asia. A random population survey was carried out in 2001-2002 among urban residents aged 40-80 years in China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and The Philippines, with interviews based on a standardized questionnaire covering demographic details, health, relationships, and sexual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs. An intercept method of sampling was used in all countries except Japan, where questionnaires were mailed to a sample drawn from telephone directories. Sexual dysfunction was defined as persistent sexual problems. The questionnaire was completed by 6700 people (3350 men and 3350 women), giving a response rate of 27%. Across all countries, 82% of men and 64% of women had engaged in sexual intercourse during the year preceding the interview. Most of the respondents considered satisfactory sex an essential means of maintaining a relationship. More than 20% of men and 30% of women complained of having at least one sexual dysfunction, although there were marked variations among the countries. The sexual dysfunctions most frequently reported were early ejaculation (20%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 18-21) and erectile dysfunction (15%, 14-17) among men; and a lack of sexual interest (27%, 25-29), lubrication difficulties (24%, 22-25), and an inability to reach orgasm (23%, 22-25) among women. Of the 948 men and 992 women who were sexually active and reported sexual dysfunctions, 45% did sought no help or advice and only 21% sought medical care. Men and women in Asian countries continue to show sexual interest and activity into middle age and beyond. Although sexual dysfunction is prevalent in this age group, several sociocultural and economic factors appear to be preventing individuals from seeking medical help for these problems.

  6. Practical Problems of Legal Regulation of Customs Duties Developing an International Trade Between the Republic of Lithuania And East Asian Countries

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    Valantiejus Gediminas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than ten years (since 2004 the Republic of Lithuania is a member of the EU and is realizing its economic and trade relations with other foreign countries, and regulating customs duties according to the requirements of the EU Common Commercial Policy. However, in the recent years foreign trade (in particular - exports of goods remained one of the main factors which increased an economic growth (recovery in the Republic of Lithuania after the global economic crisis of the world, which began in 2008. In this context, the search for new markets and expansion of trade relations with new trade partners in Asia became essential in order to diversify the structure of the national economy and avoid dependence on traditional trade partners, such as Russia. Taking into account this strategic goal, the article seeks to answer a question whether an existing foreign trade regulation system ensures the status of Lithuania as an attractive partner of foreign trade with East Asian countries (Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore and what regulatory instruments (customs duty rules and procedures should be used on the national level to ensure cooperation with these countries. In order to answer this problematic question, the first chapter of the article overviews general tendencies in Lithuanian foreign trade with the countries of East Asia, while the second chapter is dedicated to describe regulatory regime for import customs duties on the national level (in line with the major provisions of the EU Common Commercial Policy. The practical problems and obstacles to international trade are presented in the third chapter and are illustrated by the examples of case law, which was formed in disputes relating to the decisions and actions of Lithuanian national customs authorities for the period from 1 May, 2004 (since entry to the EU.

  7. Dietary transition and obesity in selected Arabicspeaking countries: a review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, B H; Bernstein, J; Neary, A C

    2017-01-23

    Escalating obesity rates have become a significant public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and have been associated with shifts towards a westernized diet. This integrative review aimed to examine the current dietary trends and transitions and their association with obesity in Arabic-speaking countries of the MENA region. Relevant databases were searched for studies in MENA countries between 1998 and 2014 that investigated obesity trends and changes in dietary patterns at the regional level in all age groups. A total of 39 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the articles noted that obesity was increasingly prevalent and that there was a significant dietary shift away from traditional dietary patterns; 51% reported a shift towards a westernized diet and half found that the western diet was correlated with increased obesity. Culturally relevant dietary health education and health promotion strategies are warranted to address both the dietary shifts towards the westernized diet and the increasing obesity.

  8. Joint Study on Some Major Developments in Elementary School Curriculum in Asian and Pacific Countries: Research Design. Report of a Regional Workshop (Tokyo, Japan, February 28-March 15, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A basic framework for undertaking a study of elementary curricula in Pacific and Asian countries is presented. The material, which emerged from a regional workshop, is divided into two sections. A chart in section 1 summarizes major features of elementary school curricula in Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand,…

  9. Historic and current hepatitis B viral DNA and quantitative HBsAg level are not associated with cirrhosis in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkisoen, S; Arends, J E; van den Hoek, J A R; Whelan, J; van Erpecum, K J; Boland, G J; Hoepelman, A I M

    2014-12-01

    Some studies done in Asian patients have shown that serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA predict the development of cirrhosis. However, it is unclear whether this also applies for non-Asian patients. This study investigated historic and current HBV DNA and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels as predictors of cirrhosis in non-Asian women with chronic HBV. A retrospective cohort study of non-Asian women with chronic HBV was performed. Among other variables, HBV DNA and quantitative HBsAg levels were measured in stored historic serum samples obtained during pregnancy (period 1990-2004) and current serum samples (period 2011-2012) to determine any association with liver cirrhosis by liver stiffness measurement (LSM). One hundred and nineteen asymptomatic, treatment-naïve non-Asian women were included; the median number of years between the historic sample and the current sample was 17 (interquartile range (IQR) 13-20). The median historic log HBV DNA and quantitative log HBsAg levels were 2.5 (IQR 1.9-3.4) IU/ml and 4.2 (IQR 3.6-4.5) IU/ml, respectively. LSM diagnosed 14 patients (12%) with F3-F4 fibrosis, i.e. stiffness >8.1kPa. No association of cirrhosis was found with historic HBV DNA (relative risk (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-2.44) or with the quantitative HBsAg level (HBsAg level >1000 IU/ml, RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.11-1.11). Multivariable analysis identified alcohol consumption (odds ratio (OR) 6.4, 95% CI 1.3-30.1), aspartate aminotransferase >0.5 times the upper limit of normal (OR 15.4, 95% CI 1.9-122.6), and prothrombin time (OR 12.0, 95% CI 1.2-120.4), but not HBV DNA or quantitative HBsAg level, to be independent predictors of the presence of cirrhosis. Neither historic nor current HBV DNA or the quantitative HBsAg level is associated with the development of HBV-related cirrhosis in non-Asian women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study on Behaviors When Death Is Approaching in East Asian Countries: What Are the Physician-Perceived Common Beliefs and Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, "bad things happen after you say them out loud" and "a bad life is better than a good death" were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when death is

  11. POLITICAL REGIME, COMPETITIVENESS, AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT: AN EVIDENCE OF THE EURO AREAS’ FDI POLICIES TO SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Warokka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory and previous evidences provide conflicting predictions concerning the growth effects of foreign direct investment (FDI. The mainstream ideas support FDI as an engine of employment, technological progress, productivity improvements, and ultimately economic growth. Because of these significant benefits, attracting FDI has become one of the integral parts of economic development strategies in many countries. There are two schools of thought that hypothesize the FDI determinants: economic factors and political factors. For the latter school of thought, the central questions are directed to determine whether political regime affect country’s trade policy or not. In the advanced industrial countries where labour tends to be scarce, are left political regimes more protectionist than right ones, which represent capital owners? Prior evidence had demonstrated an association between the type of political regimes and trade policies (FDI policies.

  12. A Comparison of the IMF Program and Economic Performance among Three Asian Crisis Countries: Thailand, Indonesia, and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The whole international society believes that if Korea and Thailand generally carry out the IMF programs, the fruit of the structure reform will be soon put across. In Indonesia, the way of IMF capital support has been changed from the existing 8.25 stand-by agreement to extended credit agreement, so Indonesia gets more support from the international world. But there is an analysis that there is still a lot of uncertainty in Indonesia. Observing the "economic fruit" which was the result of the IMF programs in the countries mentioned above, the cognition of the international world is more evident. In spite of this, because of the rise of the exchange rate of the three countries above, going by US dollar, the rate of foreign exchange risk which is predicted by the index of foreign exchange rate crisis increased on the contrary with the sharp decrease of state financial resource. This is because the amount of foreign debts the country should reimburse increased accordingly due to the rise of exchange rate of Korea and Thailand in which the stability of the foreign exchange rate market recovered in a short period. This considered, in order to overcome the future foreign exchange crisis and decrease foreign debts, the most important thing is to emphasize the basic economic condition presents in the prediction index of foreign exchange crisis.

  13. Male-female differences in the number of reported incident dengue fever cases in six Asian countries

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    Martha Anker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Demographic factors, such as age and sex, are associated with the likelihood of exposure to Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue. However, dengue date disaggregated by both sex and ageare not routinely reported or analyzed by national surveillance systems. This study analysed the reported number of incident dengue cases by age and sex for six countries in Asia. Methods. Data for the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the Philippines, Singapore and Sri Lanka were obtained from DengueNet; the number of male and female dengue cases was available for four age groups ( 15 years over a cumulative period of six to 10 years. Data for Cambodia (2010 and Malaysia (1997–2008 were obtained from their respective ministries of health. Results. An excess of males was found among reported dengue cases > 15 years of age. This pattern was observed consistently over several years across six culturally and economically diverse countries. Discussion. These data indicated the importance of reporting data stratified by both sex and age since collapsing the data over all ages would have masked some of the observed differences. In order to target preventive measures appropriately, assessment of gender by age is important for dengue because biological or gender-related factors can change over the human lifespan and gender-related factors may differ across countries.

  14. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-09-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour.

  15. THE GRANGER CAUSALITY TESTS FOR THE FIVE ASEAN COUNTRIES STOCK MARKETS AND MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES DURING AND POST THE 1997 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwin Surja Atmadja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine the existence of Granger-causality among stock prices indices and macroeconomic variables in five ASEAN countries, Indonesia; Malaysia; the Philippines; Singapore; and Thailand with particular attention to the 1997 Asian financial crisis and period onwards. Using monthly time series data of the countries, a Granger-causality test based on the vector autoregressive (VAR analytical framework was employed to empirically reveal the causality among the variables. This research finds that there were few Granger causalities found between the country's wtock price index and macroeconomic variables. This indicates that the linkages between domestic stock price movements and macroeconomic factors were very. Due to that, the ASEAN stock markets were crelatively unable to efficiently capture changes in economic fundamentals during the observation period in most of the countries in accordance to the literature in emerging stock markets, and that the influence of specific macroeconomic factors on the domestic economies differ across countries. This also implies that the stock markets do not seem to have played a significant role in most countries' economies, and macroeconomic variables are unlikely to be appropriate indicators to predict not only the future behaviour of other macroeconomic variables, but also that of the stock market price indices. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini mencoba untuk menganalisis keberadaan Granger-causality antara indeks harga saham dan variabel-variabel ekonomi makro di lima negara ASEAN, yaitu Indonesia; Malaysia; Filipina; Singapore; dan Thailand yang berfokus pada periode terjadinya krisis keuangan Asia pada tahun 1997 dan sesudahnya. Dengan mempergunakan data time series bulanan dari setiap negara tersebut, tes Granger-causality yang didasarkan pada kerangka analisa VAR (vector autoregressive diaplikasikan untuk mengungkap secara empiris hubungan kausal antar variabel. Dari hasil tes

  16. Comparability of activity monitors used in Asian and Western-country studies for assessing free-living sedentary behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kurita

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the outputs of the waist-worn Active style Pro HJA-350IT (ASP; used in studies with Asian populations, the waist-worn ActiGragh™GT3X+ using the normal filter (GT3X+ and the thigh-worn activPAL3 (AP in assessing adults' sedentary behaviour (total sedentary time, number of breaks under free-living conditions. Fifty healthy workers wore the three monitors simultaneously during their waking hours on two days, including a work day and a non-work day. Valid data were at least 10 hours of wearing time, and the differences between monitors on the sedentary outputs using the AP as criterion measurement were analyzed by ANOVA. The number of participants who had complete valid data for work day and non-work day was 47 and 44, respectively. Total sedentary time and breaks estimated by the AP were respectively 466.5 ± 146.8 min and 64.3 ± 24.9 times on the work day and 497.7 ± 138.3 min and 44.6 ± 15.4 times on the non-work day. In total sedentary time, the ASP estimated 29.7 min (95%CI = 7.9 to 51.5 significantly shorter than the AP on the work day but showed no significant difference against the AP on the non-work day. The GT3X+ estimated 80.1 min (54.6 to 105.6 and 52.3 (26.4 to 78.2 significantly longer than the AP on the work day and the non-work day, respectively. For the number of breaks from sedentary time, on both days, the ASP and the GT3X+ estimated significantly more than the AP: 14.1 to 15.8 times (6.3 to 22.5 for the ASP and 27.7 to 28.8 times (21.8 to 34.8 for the GT3X+. Compared to the AP as the criterion, the ASP can underestimate total sedentary time and the GT3X+ can overestimate it, and more so at the lower levels of sedentary time. For breaks from sedentary time, compared to the AP, both the GT3X+ the ASP can overestimate.

  17. Comparability of activity monitors used in Asian and Western-country studies for assessing free-living sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Satoshi; Yano, Shohei; Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Yoshio; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Inoue, Shigeru; Tanaka, Shigeho; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the outputs of the waist-worn Active style Pro HJA-350IT (ASP; used in studies with Asian populations), the waist-worn ActiGragh™GT3X+ using the normal filter (GT3X+) and the thigh-worn activPAL3 (AP) in assessing adults' sedentary behaviour (total sedentary time, number of breaks) under free-living conditions. Fifty healthy workers wore the three monitors simultaneously during their waking hours on two days, including a work day and a non-work day. Valid data were at least 10 hours of wearing time, and the differences between monitors on the sedentary outputs using the AP as criterion measurement were analyzed by ANOVA. The number of participants who had complete valid data for work day and non-work day was 47 and 44, respectively. Total sedentary time and breaks estimated by the AP were respectively 466.5 ± 146.8 min and 64.3 ± 24.9 times on the work day and 497.7 ± 138.3 min and 44.6 ± 15.4 times on the non-work day. In total sedentary time, the ASP estimated 29.7 min (95%CI = 7.9 to 51.5) significantly shorter than the AP on the work day but showed no significant difference against the AP on the non-work day. The GT3X+ estimated 80.1 min (54.6 to 105.6) and 52.3 (26.4 to 78.2) significantly longer than the AP on the work day and the non-work day, respectively. For the number of breaks from sedentary time, on both days, the ASP and the GT3X+ estimated significantly more than the AP: 14.1 to 15.8 times (6.3 to 22.5) for the ASP and 27.7 to 28.8 times (21.8 to 34.8) for the GT3X+. Compared to the AP as the criterion, the ASP can underestimate total sedentary time and the GT3X+ can overestimate it, and more so at the lower levels of sedentary time. For breaks from sedentary time, compared to the AP, both the GT3X+ the ASP can overestimate.

  18. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  19. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Qingyan; Orsenigo, Roberto; Wang, Junyi; Griffel, Louis; Brass, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D) and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries). This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025) as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%), and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08). Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had no impact on viral response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

  20. The Issue of Private Tuition: An Analysis of the Practice in Mauritius and Selected South-east Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foondun, A. Raffick

    2002-11-01

    Private tuition is an issue of growing concern and is practised in both developed and developing countries. Although it has certain positive effects, it imposes a considerable financial burden on parents and often gives rise to abuses. The present study, which focuses on the primary level, addresses a number of questions, such as the extent of the practice, its implications, the various forms that it takes, attitudes towards it, why children take private tuition, why teachers provide it, and policies to deal with the issue. The discussion ends with a plea for more research on private tuition in order to provide a basis for policies to address the problem.

  1. Current status of scrap metal recycling and reuse in USA and European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Recycling and reuse of natural resources has become a global issue to be pursued, but less effective without voluntary efforts from the every industries and of the individuals. In Japan, recycling and reuse of the scrap metal from dismantling of the nuclear facilities are currently noticed as a promising option and the responsible government organizations just started activities to develope the system for enabling and encouraging the nuclear facility owners to recycle their waste. Coincidently, there have been many reports published recently, which inform successful results of the method and the activities of the international organizations for the same intention. Taking this opportunity, current trends of scrap metal recycling and reuse in the experienced countries are reviewed and the proposals from IAEA, EC and OECD/NEA on the relating issues are summarized and compared in this paper. (author)

  2. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  3. Knowledge about, attitude toward, and practice of skin lightening products use and its social correlates among university students in five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge about, attitude toward, and use of skin lightening products (SLP) and its social and psychological correlates among university students from five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. In a cross sectional survey, 3259 undergraduate university students (Mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.6) from five ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, poor mental health, and SLP use. Overall, 79.1% of the students were aware that the use of SLP can harm the skin, and 30.1% knew the active ingredients of SLP. Most students had a positive perception of having a lighter skin tone and SLP. Overall, the prevalence of SLP use over the past 12 months was 30.7%, 16.7% of male, and 30.0% of female students, ranging from 13.4% in Myanmar to 69.4% in Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among women, older age, coming from a poorer family, residing in an upper middle income country, awareness of active skin lightening ingredients, and poor mental health were associated with SLP, while among men, not aware of the negative effects of SLP and awareness of active skin lightening ingredients and poor mental health were associated with SLP use. A high prevalence of SLP use was found in a large sample of ASEAN university students, and several social and mental health-related risk factors were found that may help in guiding interventions. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Economic evaluation of Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) in South Asian and African countries: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Asif R; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-05-26

    Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, are the leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality, and impose substantial burdens on the families of pregnant women, their communities, and healthcare systems. The Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial evaluates a package of care applied at both community and primary health centres to reduce maternal and perinatal disabilities and deaths resulting from the failure to identify and manage pre-eclampsia at the community level. Economic evaluation of health interventions can play a pivotal role in priority setting and inform policy decisions for scale-up. At present, there is a paucity of published literature on the methodology of economic evaluation of large, multi-country, community-based interventions in the area of maternal and perinatal health. This study protocol describes the application of methodology for economic evaluation of the CLIP in South Asia and Africa. A mixed-design approach i.e. cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and qualitative thematic analysis will be used alongside the trial to prospectively evaluate the economic impact of CLIP from a societal perspective. Data on health resource utilization, costs, and pregnancy outcomes will be collected through structured questionnaires embedded into the pregnancy surveillance, cross-sectional survey and budgetary reviews. Qualitative data will be collected through focus groups (FGs) with pregnant women, household male-decision makers, care providers, and district level health decision makers. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated for healthcare system and societal perspectives, taking into account the country-specific model inputs (costs and outcome) from the CLIP Trial. Emerging themes from FGs will inform the design of the model, and help to interpret findings of the CEA. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommends cost-effective interventions as a key

  5. The socioeconomic burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)--stakeholder meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Stephen; Kimman, Merel; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.

  6. Exploring Intervening Influence of Interactional Justice between Procedural Justice and Job Performance: Evidence from South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the intervening influence of interactional justice between procedural justice and job performance (task, contextual and adaptive performance of the faculty members of Karachi (Pakistan and Dhaka (Bangladesh based government colleges by using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. Data, for this study, has been collected through pre-designed close-ended questionnaire. The intervening variable fully mediated the relationship between procedural justice and job performance. The result of this study indicates that the performance of government college faculty members can be improved by ensuring fair procedures and dignified treatment of faculty members in the working environment. It can be concluded that teachers can accommodate harsh procedures, subject to courteously and fairly communicated. Significance of this study is that it has investigated the least researched areas in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Its findings can be helpful to the government and college administration while making and implementing policies for college education development in both countries

  7. Health impact assessment in Latin American countries: Current practice and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Carlos A.R.; Périssé, André R.S.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Utzinger, Jürg; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the objective to avoid and mitigate potential adverse health impacts of projects, programmes and policies, health impact assessment (HIA) offers an opportunity for disease prevention and health promotion. Although HIA has gained importance over the past two decades, it is unclear whether and to what extent HIA practice has been established and institutionalised in Latin America. To address this issue, the current practice and prospects of HIA in Latin America was assessed in the peer-reviewed literature and existing guidelines. Methodology: The peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched using five electronic databases until February 2016. Studies were included on a set of pre-defined criteria. The search was carried out in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish. Additionally, a search for HIA guidelines used in Latin American countries and territories was performed by means of a Google search and on websites of government departments and institutions that may promote HIA. Results: The search yielded 167 hits in the peer-reviewed literature of which 17 articles met inclusion criteria. Only four peer-reviewed articles described prospective HIAs and four featured a discussion of the HIA approach. The remaining nine articles presented health impact evaluations. Most studies were published only recently, after 2012 (88%). Seven HIA guideline documents were identified, two of which were country-specific (i.e. Brazil and Mexico) and the remaining five addressed HIA at the regional level. Conclusions: This study confirmed the paucity of literature pertaining to HIA implementation, as well as HIA guidelines in Latin America. Mexico, Brazil and Cuba have the longest track record in scientific literature and guidelines on HIA. In order to better understand current barriers and limitations to practice and institutionalisation of HIA in Latin American countries, a broad discussion among policy makers, academic institutions and HIA practitioners is

  8. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  9. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2: Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  10. The Asian Development Bank's past and future involvement in financing gas projects in developing member countries of the Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the Bank's involvement in financing gas projects in its developing member countries (DMC's). The paper highlights the scope of the Bank's past activities in the sector, the DMC's which had received assistance from the Bank, the types of projects financed by the Bank, the benefits expected to be derived from the projects, and the past problems encountered by the Bank. The operational framework under which past Bank lending to the gas sector was conducted is also described. The prospects of natural gas playing a prominent role as an environmentally preferred energy source to oil and coal are outlined. Indications of the direction of the Bank's future efforts to help its gas-resource-rich as well as its gas-resource-poor DMC's to quicken the use of natural gas are given. While emphasizing the Bank's contributions in helping its DMC's to increase gas supply to alleviate energy shortages, the paper stresses the important role the Bank has played and will play in institution-building and sector-development work. The paper explores the possibility for the Bank to expand its operations in the gas sector which will lead to the efficient and accelerated development of a clean energy source that will help its DMC's avoid a third oil crisis and reduce the damaging build-up of a greenhouse gas which now threatens to harm the global environment

  11. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  12. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  13. Global women's health: current clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriel, A; Harb, H M; Williams, H; Lilford, R; Coomarasamy, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are necessary to develop evidence-based approaches to improve women's health. Understanding what research is currently being conducted will allow the identification of research gaps, avoidance of duplication, planning of future studies, collaboration amongst research groups, and geographical targeting for research investments. To provide an overview of active women's health trials in LMICs. The World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform was searched for trials registered between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2014. Selected trials were randomised, conducted in LMICs, active, and with a women's health intervention or a significant outcome for the woman. Two reviewers extracted data. Analysis included geographical spread, speciality areas, pre-enrolment registration, study size, and funders. Of the 8966 records, 509 were eligible for inclusion. Gynaecology trials made up 57% of the research, whereas the remaining 43% of trials were in obstetrics. Research activity focused on fertility (17%), the antenatal period (15%), benign gynaecology (14%), intrapartum care (9%), and pre-invasive disease and cancers (8%). The majority of trials (84%) took place in middle-income countries (MICs). In low-income countries (LICs) 83% of research investigated obstetrics, and in MICs 60% of research investigated gynaecology. Most trials (80%) had a sample size of 500 or fewer participants. The median size of trials in LICs was 815 compared with 128 in MICs. Pre-enrolment registration occurred in 54% of trials. The majority (62%) of trials were funded locally. Many LMICs are active in women's health research. The majority of registered trials are located in MICs; however, the trials in LICs are often larger. The focus of research in MICs may be driven by local priorities and funding, with fertility being highly researched. In LICs, pregnancy is the focus, perhaps reflecting the international

  14. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  15. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  16. Risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asian countries: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, S K; Puthussery, S

    2015-03-01

    To assess and synthesize the published evidence on risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asia. A systematically conducted narrative review. A systematic review was conducted of all primary studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives located through the following data bases: PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BioMed central, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and electronic libraries of the authors' institutions. Data extraction and quality appraisal of included studies was done independently by two authors and findings were synthesized in a narrative manner as meta-analysis was found to be inappropriate due to heterogeneity of the included studies. Eleven primary studies were included in the final review, all of which were conducted in school settings in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Prevalence of overweight and obesity showed wide variations in the included studies. The key individual risk factors with statistically significant associations to overweight and obesity included: lack of physical activities reported in six studies; prolonged TV watching/playing computer games reported in four studies; frequent consumption of fast food/junk food reported in four studies; and frequent consumption of calorie dense food items reported in two studies. Family level risk factors included higher socioeconomic status reported in four studies and family history of obesity reported in three studies. This review provides evidence of key contributors to the increasing burden of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents in South Asia, and demonstrates the nutritional transition that characterizes other developing countries and regions around the world. The findings have implications for policy, practice and the development of interventions at various levels to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children and adolescents in

  17. Mean reversion in the current account of forty-eight african countries: Evidence from the Panel SURADF test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Chang, Tsangyao; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Su, Chi-Wei; Yuan, Young

    2007-10-01

    Here, the Panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey-Fuller test (SURADF) test, first introduced and advanced by Breuer et al. [Misleading inferences from panel unit-root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity, Rev. Int. Econ. 9(3) (2001) 482-493], is used to investigate the mean-reverting behavior of the current account of 48 African countries during the 1980-2004 periods. The empirical results from numerous panel-based unit root tests, conducted earlier, indicated that the current account of each of these countries is stationary; however, when Breuer et al.'s (2001) Panel SURADF test is conducted, it is found that a unit root exists in the current account of 11 of the countries studied. These results have one extremely important policy implication for the 48 African countries studied: the current account deficit of most is sustainable, and thus signifying that those nations should have no incentive to default on their international debt.

  18. Current use of contraceptive method among women in a middle-income developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Tazhmoye V Crawford4, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell5, Cynthia G Francis1, Neva South-Bourne11Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York; 4Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaBackground: Jamaica is a mid-range income developing country with an increasing population and public resource constraints. Therefore, reproductive health issues are of critical importance in Jamaica.Aim: We examined the use of contraceptives among women and the factors that influence these women to use contraceptives.Materials and method: In the current study we utilized the secondary dataset for the Reproductive Health Survey, conducted by the National Family Planning Board. The investigation was carried out with a stratified random sample of 7168 women aged between 15 and 49. The measures included demographic variables, method of contraception used, being in a relationship, number of partners, pregnancy status, and sexual activity status, along with other variables.Results: The majority of participants used some method of contraception (64%. The most popular method of contraception was a condom (32%. Results of a multivariate analysis suggests that the explanatory variables for the method of contraception used are age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99, social class (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95, being in a relationship (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.80–4.02, the rural–urban dichotomy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32, being currently pregnant (OR = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.02, currently having sex (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.95–2.70, number of partners (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.57–2.17, the age at

  19. Asian Radiology Forum 2015 for Building an Asian Friendship: A Step toward the Vigorous Intersociety Collaboration in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2016-01-01

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs. PMID:26957902

  20. Asian radiology forum 2015 for building an Asian friendship: A step toward the vigorous intersociety collaboration in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Jung Ah; Lee, Jong Min

    2016-01-01

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs

  1. Asian radiology forum 2015 for building an Asian friendship: A step toward the vigorous intersociety collaboration in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Sung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs.

  2. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Control and management of congenital Chagas disease in Europe and other non-endemic countries: current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Angheben, Andrea; Serre-Delcor, Nuria; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Jackson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Identifying pregnant women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the major challenges for preventing and controlling Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. The aim of this paper was to perform a policy evaluation of the current practices of congenital Chagas disease (CCD) control in non-endemic countries and to propose specific targets for enhanced interventions to tackle this emerging health problem outside the endemic areas of Latin America. We conducted a mixed method review of CCD policy strategies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) databases using the key terms 'CCD', 'paediatric Chagas disease' and 'non-endemic countries'; as free text and combined as one phrase to increase the search sensitivity. Reviews, recommendations, guidelines and control/surveillance programme reports were included. Of 427 CCD papers identified in non-endemic countries, 44 matched the inclusion. Although local programmes were launched in different countries with large numbers of Latin American immigrants, there were considerable disparities in terms of the programmes' distribution, delivery, integration and appropriated CCD control strategies. Moreover, Catalonia, Spain is the only region/country with an established systematic monitoring of CCD in pregnant women from Latin American countries. Given the worldwide dissemination of CD, the nature of its vertical transmission, and the gaps of the current strategies in non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need to standardise, expand and reinforce the control measures against CCD transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Eating disorders in Asian populations: a critique of current approaches to the study of culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lillian Huang; Simmons, Angela M; Zane, Nolan W S

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that eating disorders are present among ethnically diverse populations, and researchers have suggested that investigations in this area may inform the field's understanding of how sociocultural factors are related to the development of eating disorders. Although it is generally accepted that sociocultural factors are key in eating disorder etiology, knowledge on how best to study these influences in diverse groups is still limited. In this article, the authors review how the research literature has explored relationships among culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders in Asian populations and critically examine strategies that have been used to investigate these issues across 1 ethnic/racial group. The methodological challenges encountered in these approaches are identified and considered in the provision of recommendations for future endeavors to improve the field's understanding of how culture is related to eating disorders.

  5. Ensuring energy security in ASEAN countries: Current trends and major challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderov, Sergey; Vorobev, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the issues of formation of future challenges to energy security of the ASEAN countries in the period up to 2035. The article gives examples of strategic threats to the energy security of Russia. The opportunities to meet future demand for primary energy for individual countries of ASEAN and the whole region are discussed.

  6. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond--Current Trends in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossebro, Jan; Bonfils, Inge S.; Teittinen, Antti; Tideman, Magnus; Traustadottir, Rannveig; Vesala, Hannu T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss recent developments in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Nordic countries. They note that all of the countries saw important reforms during the 1990s, regarding both deinstitutionalization and decentralization. However, they posit that the litmus test of the reforms is not what happens during reform…

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility survey of cooperation in relation to the joint implementation activities in Southeast Asian countries (6 nations); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Tonan Asia chiikikoku (rokkakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the COP3 Conference on Global Warming held in Kyoto in December 1997, the framework on greenhouse gases was agreed in discussions comprehensively made among Japan, the U.S. and the E.U. As a result, it is for 6 gases including CO2 and methane, and total emissions in developed countries are to be reduced 5% at least during 2008-2012 from the 1990 level. Target of each country is determined by gaps, and Japan`s reduction target is 6%. Therefore, to pass the numerical target agreed, it is necessary to take measures such as rationalization of the energy use by energy saving, etc. in the country and also measures such as promotion of the greenhouse gas emission control in developing countries. Accordingly, for the future development of NEDO`s AIJ project, a possibility of cooperation in the joint implementation was surveyed such as the state of greenhouse gas emissions of countries which are objects of GAP in Southeast Asian countries and neighboring countries, policies of the countries after the COP3 agreement, technological transfer for the emission control, etc. Countries for survey are Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Myanmar. 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Integrated Coverage of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Issues in Developing Countries- Lessons Learned and Current Development-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, D.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Lokner, V.

    1999-01-01

    The perception of the sustainable development concept is quite different in countries with a different level of development. Rather limited resources allocated for environmental problems in developing countries should be used in the most pragmatic way. Setting up and operating two separate national systems for management of radioactive and hazardous waste is not the best example to be followed by developing countries with relatively small quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. This paper reviews existing practice of radioactive and hazardous waste management in Croatia and discusses advantages of joint waste management system

  9. The Asian petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwa, Christopher.

    1996-03-01

    The Asian Petrochemical Industry brings you up to date with the latest developments in this dynamic region and covers all the key issues, giving detailed analysis and comment on: the general economic outlook; demand and production trends for basic petrochemicals and specialities in individual countries; political stability and how with affects growth and investment opportunities; security of supply; the import of petrochemicals and the aim of the region to become a net exporter by 2000; capacity increases - the relative merits of new plant construction versus expanding existing plants; the financing of petrochemical projects; the use of appropriate projects; the use of appropriate technology and patent provision in the Gatt treaty; increasing environmental concerns and the 'responsible care' initiative. The Asian Petrochemical Industry presents an overview of each Asian player in the petrochemical and associated industries, comparing and contrasting the countries within the region. (Author)

  10. Radiocarbon analysis of BC and OC in PM10 aerosols at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan, during long-range transport events from East Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Daishi; Nakajima, Hitomi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Masao

    2010-01-01

    We determined the 14 C/ 12 C ratio and concentrations of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter 10 ) collected in Okinawa, Japan, between March and June 2008. During Asian dust events in March and April, APM and OC concentrations in PM 10 aerosols were approximately threefold and twofold higher than those during the non-Asian-dust period in June. 'Refractory' BC concentrations (i.e., because of refraction, 10 aerosols collected during the Asian dust events (mean = 41.5% and 62.3%, respectively) than for those collected in the non-Asian-dust period (mean = 67.2% and 93.8%, respectively), indicating a strong influence of fossil-fuel-derived carbon during Asian dust events. One sample showed high OC concentration but relatively low BC concentration, suggesting formation during the long-range transport of biogenic organic compounds. The results suggest that not only fossil-fuel-derived air pollutants but also organic compounds derived from biomass in Asia should be considered to better characterize long-range transported aerosols.

  11. [The current situation of acupuncture definition in international organizations and legislation of some countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Baoyan; He, Liyun; Wu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jia

    2017-12-12

    Acupuncture is developing rapidly in the world, and more attention is paid on acupuncture in various countries. Because of the cultural differences, there are different views on acupuncture between China and the west, which has brought influence and challenge to the development of acupuncture in the world. Acupuncture-related research is becoming increasingly extensive and complex, but the definition of acupuncture is lack of unified standards. The definition of acupuncture is in urgent need. Based on the analysis of acupuncture definition in the 201 international organizations of 48 countries on five continents and legislation of representative countries, this paper summarized the development status of acupuncture in foreign countries, and put forward that the definition of acupuncture should adopt the model of small connotation and large extension, integrate discipline superiority, expand the scope of acupuncture, and focus on the overall situation.

  12. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  13. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  15. The current mexican outlook of scientific cooperation with selected countries inside APEC: China, South Korea, Latin America and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico the Law on International Cooperation for Development came into force in 2011. The main objective of this instrument was to create a legal framework for all the cooperation activities in Mexico, such as International Scientific Cooperation. In order to understand this emerging process, it is necessary to analyze the current status of Scientific Cooperation between Mexico and other countries and regions in the world. Mexico has cooperation agreements and contracts at bilateral, trilateral and multilateral levels, which also include the subject Research & Development (R & D –a key indicator of the economic competitiveness of a country–. The analysis includes relevant countries for Mexico, such as China, South Korea and other countries within Apec, Latin America and the European Union. We therefore try to give an overview of the current situation and of potential medium- term prospects.

  16. An Asian perspective on GMO and biotechnology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Paul P S

    2008-01-01

    Of the 102 million hectares that made up the global area of biotech crops in 2006, less than 8% (7.6 million ha) were in Asia. Three biotech crops are currently planted in significant areas in four Asian countries with government regulatory approval; namely, cotton, corn (maize), and canola. However, the amount of GM crop material imported into the Asian region for processing into food and animal feed is very substantial, and almost every country imports GM food. The issues which concern Asian scientists, regulators, and the lay public resemble those of other regions - biosafety, food safety, ethics and social justice, competitiveness, and the "EU" trade question. Most Asian countries now have regulatory systems for approving the commercialization of GM crops, and for approving food safety of GM crops. In Asia, because of the varied cultures, issues concerning the use of genes derived from animals arouse much emotion for religious and diet choice reasons. Because many Asian producers and farmers are small-scale, there is also concern about technology dependency and to whom the benefits accrue. All consumers surveyed have expressed concern about potential allergenic and long-term toxic effects, neither of which is grounded on scientific facts. Because of Asia's growing demand for high volumes of quality food, it is likely that GM crops will become an increasing feature of our diet.

  17. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Mingshan; Moritz Sabina; Lorenzetti Diane; Sykes Lindsay; Straus Sharon; Quan Hude

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing interve...

  18. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  19. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B.

    2007-06-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized

  20. Current and future economic performance of first and second generation biofuels in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297954296; Batidzirai, Batidzirai|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341355909; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Net Present Value (NPV) and total production cost calculations aremade for first and second generation biofuels in 74 settings, covering 5 fuel output types, 8 feedstock types, 12 countries and 8 combinations of agricultural management systems between 2010 and 2030. Yields are assumed to increase

  1. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  2. Patterns in current perioperative practice: survey of colorectal surgeons in five northern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, K; Hannemann, P; Ljungqvist, O

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for optimal perioperative care in colorectal surgery is abundant. By avoiding fasting, intravenous fluid overload, and activation of the neuroendocrine stress response, postoperative catabolism is reduced and recovery enhanced. The specific measures that can be used routinely include...... in colorectal cancer surgery in five northern European countries: Scotland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway....

  3. CURRENT STATE AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF FERROUS METALLURGY IN THE EAEU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dragun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern status and tendencies of development of ferrous metallurgy in the countries of the EAEU is described in the article. On the basis of the conducted analysis are revealed the identified systemic problems of metallurgy and the conclusions on possible ways of their solution using the potential of integration are given.

  4. Is There a Role for the BRICS in Asian Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Niu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The BRICS is an important rising force in the current global governance system. Since 2009, the priorities for cooperationamong BRICS members have been reforming the major international financial institutions. In recent years, those prioritieshave extended to include international security and development issues. At the regional level, BRICS leaders have helddialogues with their counterparts in Africa and South America at the Durban and Fortaleza summits respectively. However,the BRICS has not paid much attention to Asian economic issues and security issues in East Asia. This weak and unbalancedagenda towards Asian affairs is unusual considering the importance of Asia to BRICS members and the presence inthe BRICS of of three prominent Asian members with global ambitions. The absence of a strong Asian agenda reflects somedimensions of the BRICS grouping and the region itself. First, the priority of the BRICS countries is to promote their globalstatus, which makes global issues more attractive than regional issues. Second, the Asian members of the BRICS cannotsolve Asian security challenges individually or collectively. Third, as a region, Asia is not a highly integrated similar toAfrica and South America, partly because competitions among major powers including the Asian members of the BRICS.However, the BRICS cannot avoid exploring its influence in shaping Asia’s future considering the region’s rising importanceand challenges. In order to improve their influence in Asia against the background of competing regional institutions andthe renewed interest of the United States in Asia, BRICS countries need to coordinate their individual approaches to Asia,provide more regional public goods by multilateral means, offer either solutions or ideas to regional security issues, and finda more sustainable way to engage with the region.Is There a Role for the BRICS in Asian Affairs

  5. Current situation with the centralized storage facilities for non-power radioactive wastes in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Juan C.; Salgado, Mercedes; Idoyaga Navarro, Maria L.; Escobar, Carolina; Mallaupoma, Mario; Sbriz, Luciano; Moreno, Sandra; Gozalez, Olga; Gomez, Patricia; Mora, Patricia; Miranda, Alberto; Aguilar, Lola; Zarate, Norma; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several Latin American (LA) countries have been firmly committed to the peaceful applications of ionizing radiations in medicine, industry, agriculture and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development in diverse sectors. Consequently the use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. Moreover, such facilities are extremely expensive to develop. It is unlikely that such an option will become available in the foreseeable future for most of these countries, which do not have nuclear industries. Storage has long been incorporated as a step in the management of radioactive wastes. In the recent years, there have been developments that have led some countries to consider whether the roles of storage might be expanded to provide longer-term care of long-live radioactive wastes The aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation with the storage facilities/conditions for the radioactive wastes and disused sealed radioactive sources in Latin-American countries. In some cases a brief description of the existing facilities for certain countries are provided. In other cases, when no centralized facility exists, general information on the radioactive inventories and disused sealed sources is given. (author)

  6. Electricity sector in Tunisia: Current status and challenges - An example for a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Souissi

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, Tunisia evolved in an extremely difficult energy context characterized by the stabilization of the resources in hydrocarbons, the increase of the energy consumption and the increase of the price of oil ($147 the barrel in July, 2008), imposing on it to mobilize more to meet several challenges in terms of outside energetic dependence for the generation of electricity and the reduction of greenhouse gases. This policy allowed the reduction in the rate of growth of energy intensity of the country. This article presents a review about renewable and conventional energy resources, electricity consumption and production and the policy adopted by the country for energy conservation and the promotion of renewable energy. (author)

  7. Farming different species in RAS in Nordic countries: Current status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Lund, Ivar; Thorarinsdottir, Ragnheidur

    2013-01-01

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) have gained increasing interest in recent years as a means to intensify fish production while at the same time minimize the environmental impact. Considerable hands-on experience has accumulated within the Nordic countries over the last 20-30 years in desig...... such as aquaponic systems appear to be feasible primarily when culturing more exotic species targeted for selected customers...

  8. Current use of nitrous oxide in public hospitals in Scandinavian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husum, B; Stenqvist, O; Alahuhta, S; Sigurdsson, G H; Dale, O

    2013-10-01

    The use of nitrous oxide in modern anaesthesia has been questioned. We surveyed changes in use of nitrous oxide in Scandinavia and its justifications during the last two decades. All 191 departments of anaesthesia in the Scandinavian countries were requested by email to answer an electronic survey in SurveyMonkey. One hundred and twenty-five (64%) of the departments responded; four were excluded. The 121 departments provided 807.520 general anaesthetics annually. The usage of nitrous oxide was reported in 11.9% of cases, ranging from 0.6% in Denmark to 38.6% in Iceland while volatile anaesthetics were employed in 48.9%, lowest in Denmark (22.6%) and highest in Iceland (91.9%). Nitrous oxide was co-administered with volatile anaesthetics in 21.5% of general anaesthetics [2.4% (Denmark) -34.5% (Iceland)]. Use of nitrous oxide was unchanged in five departments (4%), decreasing in 75 (62%) and stopped in 41 (34%). Reasons for decreasing or stopping use of nitrous oxide were fairly uniform in the five countries, the most important being that other agents were 'better', whereas few put weight on its potential risk for increasing morbidity. Decision to stop using nitrous oxide was made by the departments except in four cases. Of 87 maternity wards, nitrous oxide was used in 72, whereas this was the case in 42 of 111 day-surgery units. The use of nitrous oxide has decreased in the Scandinavian countries, apparently because many now prefer other agents. Difference in practices between the five countries were unexpected and apparently not justified on anticipated evidence only. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design: Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles. In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results: Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They

  10. Cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants: The current migrant crisis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prnjat Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of mankind, as a result of migration, different cultures came in contact and influenced each other, with different outcomes. In recent years, as a result of more frequent armed conflicts in the world, the influx of migrants to Europe has increased significantly. Even the European Union countries that had traditionally been considered as emigrant, Italy, for example, are becoming immigrant. New situation has influenced the change in attitude of many governments of countries wherein the migrants arrived, and while some still prefer multiculturalism, there is a growing number of those who do not share this position. The aim of this paper is to analyze the cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants which evolved as a result of the current migrant crisis.

  11. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  12. Nuclear medicine in Uzbekistan and current status of radionuclide therapy in the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, N.; Khodjibekova, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The population of Uzbekistan is 26 million and to cater to this population we have only two nuclear medicine departments; one at the Clinical Centre for Surgery and the other at the Institute of Endocrinology, both situated in Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan. Over the years through its own initiatives and through the support provided by several International Organizations including the IAEA, Uzbekistan has been able to marginally improve its nuclear medicine services. SPECT imaging was introduced through generous support from IAEA in the year 2001. As a result of this, the country is now able to provide modern in vivo nuclear medicine service to the population in a limited scale. At the Clinical Centre for Surgery we are able to provide gamma camera and SPECT imaging services to patients suffering from various nephro-urological, cardiac, neuro and oncological disorders. The other nuclear medicine centre at the Institute of Endocrinology does not have any modern imaging system. However it has been engaged in providing radionuclide therapy service for thyroid diseases like thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. From the year 1983 to 1999 the country has reported a total number of 6374 cases of Thyroid Cancer. This number is growing each year, for example the incidence of thyroid cancer in 1989 was 1.95 per 100,000, which has grown to 2.39 per 100,000 in 1999. While the Institute of Endocrinology provides therapeutic service to thyroid diseases, the main role of the Nuclear Medicine Department of Republic Specialized Center of Surgery is in following-up of patients after therapy by performing large dose I-131 whole body imaging, screening for metastases and for assessment of results of radioactive iodine therapy. Besides treating thyroid diseases with I-131 limited services are also available for treatment of polycythemia vera rubra with P-32 and radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone pain. Radionuclide therapy is growing rapidly around the world

  13. BK Virus-Associated Nephropathy: Current Situation in a Resource-Limited Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooprasert, P; Rotjanapan, P

    Data on BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and treatment strategy in a resource-limited country are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiology of BKVAN and its situation in Thailand. A retrospective analysis was conducted among adult kidney transplant recipients at Ramathibodi Hospital from October 2011 to September 2016. Patients' demographic data, information on kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infections, and allograft outcomes were retrieved and analyzed. This study included 623 kidney transplant recipients. Only 327 patients (52.49%) received BK virus infection screening, and 176 of 327 patients had allograft dysfunction as a trigger for screening. BKVAN was identified in 39 of 327 patients (11.93%). Deceased donor transplantation and cytomegalovirus infection were associated with a higher risk of BKVAN (odds ratio = 2.2, P = .024, 95% confidence intervals [1.1, 4.43], and odds ratio = 2.6, P = .006, 95% confidence intervals [1.29, 5.26], respectively). BKVAN patients were at significantly higher risk for allograft rejection (P < .001) and allograft failure (P = .036). At the end of the study, 4 graft losses were documented (12.12%). BKVAN was associated with high rate of allograft rejection and failure. However, surveillance of its complications has been underperformed at our facility. Implementing a formal practice guideline may improve allograft outcome in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The burden of prostate cancer in Asian nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cullen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this review, the International Agency for Research on Cancer′s cancer epidemiology databases were used to examine prostate cancer (PCa age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR in selected Asian nations, including Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5 and GLOBOCAN databases, in an effort to determine whether ASIRs are rising in regions of the world with historically low risk of PCa development. Materials and Methods: Asian nations with adequate data quality were considered for this review. PCa ASIR estimates from CI5 and GLOBOCAN 2008 public use databases were examined in the four eligible countries: China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. Time trends in PCa ASIRs were examined using CI5 Volumes I-IX. Results: While PCa ASIRs remain much lower in the Asian nations examined than in North America, there is a clear trend of increasing PCa ASIRs in the four countries examined. Conclusion: Efforts to systematically collect cancer incidence data in Asian nations must be expanded. Current CI5 data indicate a rise in PCa ASIR in several populous Asian countries. If these rates continue to rise, it is uncertain whether there will be sufficient resources in place, in terms of trained personnel and infrastructure for medical treatment and continuum of care, to handle the increase in PCa patient volume. The recommendation by some experts to initiate PSA screening in Asian nations could compound a resource shortfall. Obtaining accurate estimates of PCa incidence in these countries is critically important for preparing for a potential shift in the public health burden posed by this disease.

  15. FY 1998 annual report on the survey report on possibility of international joint researches for Asian countries. 5; 1998 nendo Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa hokokusho. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are results of surveys on dissemination policies for, and development trends in, energy saving and new energy areas in 6 Asian countries, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, India and China. Possible joint research themes for Indonesia include effective utilization of palm oil residue, modernization of distribution systems, high-efficiency coal-fired thermal power generation techniques, and promotion of dissemination of solar cells. For Malaysia, renewable energies, e.g., photovoltaic power, will be developed to promote electrification for those areas not well electrified. The Philippines is positively receiving technical and financial aids for new energy and energy-saving areas from the advanced countries. India is considering to introduce a number of projects for, e.g., technological optimization of power supply area, decentralized power generation, oil exploitation and extraction techniques, and photovoltaic power generation. China is still in the preliminary stage in its energy research and development, and will need further joint researches in the energy sector. (NEDO)

  16. From an “Internationalist Woman” to “Just another Asian Immigrant”: Transformation of Japanese Women’s Self-Image before and after Permanent Settlement in a Western Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko KAWAKAMI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Young middle class Japanese women who speak English identify themselves as career-oriented “internationalist women.” They hold positive self-images; however, their self-images become convoluted with negative images as they experience changes in their lives. When they marry white males and become permanent residents in Western countries, their self-identities transform into “just another Asian immigrant” out of many. Many Japanese wives of white husbands deny their association with their compatriots when they actually do associate with other Japanese immigrant women. They also deny racial factors in their attraction to their white husbands. I argue that these behaviors are harnessed to redevelop a self-identity by renouncing the stereotypical images of Eurocentric Japanese women. This paper will describe the transformation of Japanese women’s self-images before and after permanent settlement in a Western country and the process of their redevelopment of self-identity.

  17. Core Self-Evaluations, Worry, Life Satisfaction, and Psychological Well-Being: An Investigation in the Asian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neerpal; Lee, Kidong

    2018-01-01

    The concept of core self-evaluations has been extensively investigated in Western and European countries, nonetheless its implications in Asian countries remains relatively unexplored. To void this gap, the current study investigated the association of core self-evaluations with worry, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being among South…

  18. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Q

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qingyan Bo,1 Roberto Orsenigo,2 Junyi Wang,1 Louis Griffel,3 Clifford Brass3 1Beijing Novartis Pharma Co. Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries. This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025 as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%, and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08. Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had

  19. Speaker-Oriented Classroom Acoustics Design Guidelines in the Context of Current Regulations in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Most European countries have regulatory requirements or guidelines for reverberation time in classrooms which have the goal of enhancing speech intelligibility and reducing noise levels in schools. At the same time, school teachers suffer frequently from voice problems due to high vocal load...... experienced at work. With the aim of improving working conditions for teachers, this article presents guidelines for classroom acoustics design that meet simultaneously criteria of vocal comfort and speech intelligibility, which may be of use in future discussions for updating regulatory requirements...... in classroom acoustics. Two room acoustic parameters are shown relevant for a speaker: the voice support, linked to vocal effort, and the decay time derived from an oral-binaural impulse response, linked to vocal comfort. Theoretical prediction models for room-averaged values of these parameters are combined...

  20. Partnering for long-term management of radioactive waste. Evolution and current practice in thirteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent participation. With host community support, they also help ensure the desirable combination of a licensable site and management concept as well as a balance between compensation, local control and development opportunities. This report provides up-to-date information on experience with local partnership arrangements in 13 countries. The characteristics, advantages and aims of community partnerships are also described in addition to the concept's evolution over the past decade. (authors)

  1. Current status of radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masahumi; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kurata, Mitsuyuki; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    Various kinds of wastes are generated from operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities such as a nuclear power plant, a reprocessing plant and so on. These wastes contain radionuclides and are called 'Radioactive Waste'. The radionuclides in the wastes vary considerably in amount from small to large and their half-lives differ in length from short-lived to long-lived. The safety principle for radioactive waste management is to prevent human beings and the environment from receiving radiation exposure over the level which the safety authority in each country approve based on the recommendations by international organizations such as the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). To assure the conformity to this safety principle, each country has examined the safety measures to dispose of radioactive wastes on the basis of their own condition. For example, high-level radioactive waste (H LW) from reprocessing plant or spent fuel designated as waste and intermediate-and low-level long-lived radioactive wastes, which contain large quantity of long-lived radionuclides, will be disposed of into a deep stable geological formation. The intermediate-and low-level short-lived radioactive wastes, which mainly contain short-lived radionuclides with limited quantity of long-lived radionuclides, have been disposed of in a controlled surface disposal facility or in a rock cavern in the depth of 50-100 m. Clearance level has been considered to be applied for the wastes, which contain very small amount of radionuclides and those wastes bellow clearance level will cause negligible hazards only even without taking any radiation control measures. Such wastes could be reused, recycled or disposed of in the same manner as general wastes from the industries, etc. (author)

  2. The History and Current Status of Low Vision Services in Scandinavian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Jorgen; Inde, Krister

    2009-01-01

    To increase understanding of the breadth and depth of services that are currently being provided by the various low vision clinics in Scandinavia, the authors sent questionnaires to the 69 clinics asking for information on the total number of staff members employed in full-time positions and the number of staff members by profession (optometrists;…

  3. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider before using Asian ginseng. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  4. Predictors of intrinsic motivation behind seatbelt use in a country where current use is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Caitlin M; Gupta, Shivam; Ozkan, Türker; Hoe, Connie; Lajunen, Timo

    2013-12-01

    Seatbelt use is a major determinant of a driver's safety on the road. In Turkey and other middle-income countries, seatbelt use is lower than in high-income countries and contributes to the higher burden of road traffic injuries. Assessing factors behind drivers' motivations to wear seatbelts can help determine appropriate interventions for specific subpopulations. To analyze the factors predictive of whether drivers who wear seatbelts in Afyonkarahisar and Ankara, Turkey do so because they believe seatbelts can save their lives. As part of the monitoring and evaluation of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme, 817 drivers were randomly recruited in Afyonkarahisar and Ankara, Turkey, to participate in roadside interviews. Logistic regression was run on data from 408 drivers who claimed they always wore seatbelts. Predictors were driver's city, driver's age group (30 and younger, 31 to 40, and over 40 years), whether at least one passenger was in the car, and an interaction term between age group and whether passengers were in the car. The outcome variable of interest was whether drivers wore seatbelts because they believed seatbelts can save their lives, referred to in this paper as "selection of Reason 3." The odds of selecting Reason 3 were 2.45 (95% CI: 1.40-4.31) times higher in Ankara than in Afyonkarahisar, 2.52 (95% CI: 1.38-4.60) and 3.65 (95% CI: 1.92-6.95) times higher for drivers aged 31-40 and drivers over the age of 40 than for drivers 30 years of age and younger, respectively, and 5.89 (95% CI: 2.02-17.23), 7.22 (95% CI: 1.61-32.42), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.32-2.19) times higher for drivers traveling with passengers who were 30 years of age and younger, between 31 and 40, and over 40 than for drivers traveling without passengers in these age groups, respectively. Drivers with passengers had higher odds of selecting Reason 3, especially younger drivers who are more likely to succumb to peer pressure. Older drivers had higher odds of

  5. DOES COUNTRY CREDIT RATING AFFECT CURRENT DEFICIT ACCOUNT: THE CASE OF TURKEY (1992-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gulmez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the presence and direction of the relationship between the current account deficit and credit rating index for Turkey has been tested using Gregory-Hansen co-integration test, which considers structural breaks and Toda-Yamamoto causality analysis for the period of 1992-2014. Based on the results of empirical applications, it has been concluded that both series are not stable and there is a long-term relationship between the variables. As a result of the Toda-Yamamoto method based on the Granger causality analysis, it has been determined that there is a one-way causal relationship between the variables from current account deficit towards credit rating index.

  6. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Radionuclide monitoring in foodstuff: overview of the current implementation in the EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbala Mate; Katarzyna Sobiech-Matura; Timotheos Altzitzoglou

    2015-01-01

    The Member States (MS) of the European Union (EU) are obliged to monitor the radioactivity in the environment since the signature of the Euratom Treaty (Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community). Numerous secondary legislations derived from the Treaty can be found stating restrictions and maximum permitted levels of radionuclides in foodstuff. But to that purpose, no common integrated measurement methods are used with well-defined measurands. The present work consists of two parts. First, the current European regulations in force were collected, and then the food monitoring results, provided by the MS, were analysed. (author)

  8. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  9. A fundamental shift in the approach to international health by WHO, UNICEF, and the World Bank: instances of the practice of "intellectual fascism" and totalitarianism in some Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, D

    1999-01-01

    Navarro has used the term "intellectual fascism" to depict the intellectual situation in the McCarthy era. Intellectual fascism is now more malignant in the poor countries of the world. The Indian Subcontinent, China, and some other Asian countries provide the context. The struggles of the working class culminated in the Alma-Ata Declaration of self-reliance in health by the peoples of the world. To protect their commercial and political interests, retribution from the rich countries was sharp and swift, they "invented" Selective Primary Health Care and used WHO, UNICEF, the World Bank, and other agencies to let loose on poor countries a barrage of "international initiatives" as global programs on immunization, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These programs were astonishingly defective in concept, design, and implementation. The agencies refused to take note of such criticisms when they were published by others. They have been fascistic, ahistorical, grossly unscientific, and Goebbelsian propagandists. The conscience keepers of public health have mostly kept quiet.

  10. Preventing preterm births: trends and potential reductions with current interventionsin 39 very high human development index countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hannah H.; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y.; Howson, Christopher P.; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M.; Lee, Shoo K.; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C.; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Each year,1.1 million babies die from prematurity, andmany survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are preterm(10,000 births, country-by-country analyses were performed based on target population, incremental coverage increase,and intervention efficacy. Cost savings were estimated based on reported costs for preterm care in the USAadjusted usingWorld Bank purchasing power parity. Findings From 2010, even if all VHHDI countries achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers, (Sweden and Netherlands), 2000-2010 or 2005-2010(Lithuania, Estonia)), rates would experience a relative reduction of<5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries.Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1998-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers includeinductions/cesareandelivery and ART.For all 39 VHHDI countries, five interventionsmodeling at high coveragepredicted 5%preterm birth rate relative reduction from 9.59 to 9.07% of live births:smoking cessation (0.01 rate reduction), decreasing multiple embryo transfers during assisted reproductive technologies (0.06), cervical cerclage (0.15), progesterone supplementation (0.01), and reduction of non-medically indicated labour induction or caesarean delivery (0.29).These translate to 58,000 preterm births averted and total annual economic cost savings of ~US$ 3 billion. Interpretation Even with optimal coverage of current interventions, many being complex to implement, the estimated potential reduction in preterm birth is tiny. Hence we recommenda conservative target of 5% preterm birth rate relative reductionby 2015. Our findings highlight the urgent need for discovery research into underlying mechanisms of preterm birth, and developmentof innovative interventions. Furthermore, the highest preterm birth rates occur in low-income settings where the causes of prematurity may differand have simpler solutions, such as birth spacing and treatment of infections in

  11. Prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berti C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Berti,1 Mieke Faber,2 Cornelius M Smuts11Centre for Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South AfricaAbstract: Despite strategies employed to tackle micronutrient malnutrition, limited progress has been achieved in the developing countries. Of global concern are deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, zinc, folate, and iodine. This review aims to explore up-to-date scientific evidence on the effect of different micronutrient strategies on biomarkers and health outcomes, and for each strategy, to highlight strengths, limitations, and factors contributing to success or failure. PubMed/MEDLINE and EBSCO databases and Google-indexed scientific literature were searched for relevant articles and documents, limited to human studies reported since 2003. Evidence shows that the most cost-effective approaches to address symptoms of micronutrient malnutrition are targeted supplementation and/or fortification with iron, iodine, zinc, folic acid, vitamin A, and multimicronutrients, provided that households have access to primary health care and that there is consistent long-term coverage, monitoring, adequate marketing, and commercial commitment. Dietary diversification/modification interventions are probably the most sustainable strategies to address causes of deficiency, but permanent solutions are still required in controlling micronutrient malnutrition at both research and public health levels. Furthermore, many scientific gaps remain, hindering the development of robust public health guidance. These gaps are due to the paucity of well-designed community-based studies, lack of information on biological mechanisms behind relationships between micronutrients and outcomes, and inconsistent results. Further adequately powered long-term trials are needed to fill these gaps. Lessons learned from large-scale nutritional

  12. Jewish history as a history of immigration: an overview of current historiography in the Scandinavian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christhard Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first critical overview of the historiography of Jewish immigration and integration in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. While the experience of immigration has been crucial for Scandinavian Jewry, scholarly interest in Jewish migration history only emerged during the 1980s in connection with the focus on migration and ethnicity in Swedish research and the adaptation of sociological concepts of migration in general historiography. By analysing key historio-graphical works, focusing on their approaches and main narratives, this article aims at a critical methodological self-reflection. It identifies two major approaches to Jewish immigration history in current Scandinavian historiography: the demographic and social history approach, focusing in particular on the role of Jewish immigrants in the labour market, their settlement and housing conditions and their social mobility; and the cultural history approach, reconstructing and preserving the vanished world of Yiddish immigrant culture.

  13. A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OIL PRICES CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FROM FRAGILE FIVE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel BAYRAKTAR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of oil prices in the Fragile-Five countries (Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, India, and Turkey on current account deficit and growth. In this study, the method of panel data analysis was used and the period of 1980-2014 was examined. The Levin, Lin, & Chu panel; Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat; ADF-Fisher Chi-square; and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests were used to determine the stability of data before panel data analysis. The results of the study can be expressed as follows. i There was a statistically meaningful relationship in oil prices with both GDP and the current account deficit. While there was a positive correlation between oil prices and GDP, there was a negative relationship between oil prices and current account deficit. ii No long-term relationship was found between GDP and oil prices; there was a long-term relationship between current account deficit and oil prices as determined by the cointegration tests. iii Causality test also showed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between GDP and oil prices.  Causality between oil prices and the current account deficit was one-way from the variable of oil price to the variable of current account deficit.

  14. Report of 'Survey on Asian environmental information networks'; 'Asia kankyo joho network chosa' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is implemented to survey the current statuses and future trends of the Asian district environment-related information networks, for the (research cooperation project for development of environmental condition measuring laser radar systems), being promoted by NEDO. First, current statuses of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, major domestic nodes and internationally connected conditions are surveyed mainly for internet-connected networks, for surveying the current statuses and future trends of the research networks in Asian countries. Second, current statuses in Indonesia of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, domestic node sites and managing organizations, charge systems and institutions, types/reliability/ stability of the circuits, and conditions of restriction of use, if any, for surveying the current statuses and future trends in Indonesia. Third, conditions of and needs for network utilization by researchers for Asian district environments. (NEDO)

  15. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  16. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.

  17. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  18. Clinical Epidemiology of Head Injury from Road-Traffic Trauma in a Developing Country in the Current Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos O. Adeleye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesAfrica and other Asian low middle-income countries account for the greatest burden of the global road-traffic injury (RTI-related head injury (HI. This study set out to describe the incidence, causation, and severity of RTI-related HI and associated injuries in a Nigerian academic neurosurgical practice.MethodsThis is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of RTI-related HI from a prospective HI registry in an academic neurosurgery practice in Nigeria.ResultsAll-terrain RTI accounted for 80.6% (833/1,034 of HI over a 7-year study period. All age groups were involved, mean 33.06 years (SD 18.30, mode 21–30, 231/833 (27.7%. The male:female ratio was 631:202, ≈3:1. The road trauma occurred exclusively from motorcycle-and motor-vehicle crash (MCC/MVC, MCC caused 56.8% (473/833 of these; the victims were vulnerable road users (VRU in 74%, and >90% belong in the low socioeconomic class. Using the Glasgow Coma Scale grading, the HI was moderate/severe in 52%; loss of consciousness occurred in 93%, the Abbreviated Injury Severity-head > 3 in 74%, and computed tomography (CT Rotterdam score > 3 in 52%. Significant extracranial injuries occurred in many organ systems, 421/833 (50.5% having Injury Severity Score (ISS > 25. Surgical lesions included extensive brain contusions in 157 (18.8%; acute extradural hematoma in 34 (4.1%; acute subdural hematoma in 32 (3.8%; and traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 27 (3.2%, but only 97 (11.6% received operative care for various logistic reasons. The in-hospital outcome was good in 71.3% and poor in 28.7%; the statistically significant (p < 0.001 determinants of this outcome profile were the severity of the HI, the CT Rotterdam score, and the ISS.ConclusionIn this study from Nigeria, RTI-related HI emanates from significant trauma to vulnerable road users and are caused exclusively by motorcycles and motor vehicles.

  19. Regional Integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community: An Analysis of Malaysia - Association of Southeast Asian Nations Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Irwan Shah Zainal; Haseeb, Muhammad; Islam, Rabiul

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapid growing economy especially in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The exports with ASEAN countries plays vital role in economic growth and development of Malaysia. Additionally, current chairmanship of ASEAN makes Malaysia more prominent in the region. Consequently, exploring the determinants of Malaysia – ASEAN-5 countries, namely Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippine and Vietnam exports performance is a fundamental objective of this study. The...

  20. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  1. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  2. Metabolic syndrome and psoriasis severity in South-East Asian patients: An investigation of potential association using current and chronological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Chaweekulrat, Pichanee

    2016-12-01

    Although studies regarding prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian psoriatic patients are limited and show varying results, a previous report describes a significant increase in prevalence of MS in Thai psoriatic patients, as compared with rates in the general population. However, no significant association between MS and psoriasis severity using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was found, which differs from the findings of Korean and Japanese studies. This study aimed at re-evaluating the association between MS and psoriasis severity in Thai patients using current assessment (PASI) and chronological assessment (historical course and interventions). A total of 273 psoriatic patients were recruited. After controlling for age and sex, 96 patients were assigned to the MS group and 96 patients to the non-MS group. Similar to the previous study, no significant differences were identified between metabolic and non-metabolic patients regarding PASI, age of onset, disease duration and family history of psoriasis. However, the numbers of hospitalizations (P = 0.018) and interventions (P = 0.028) were significantly higher in metabolic patients than in non-metabolic patients. Further, a greater number of metabolic components was significantly associated with a higher number of hospitalizations (P = 0.012), pustular or erythrodermic psoriasis episodes (P = 0.049), and interventions (P = 0.005). Body mass index of 23 kg/m 2 or more, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure were associated with an increased risk of treatment failure. Using chronological assessment, our study supported that MS negatively affects psoriasis severity and treatment outcomes. Screening for MS is highly recommended for psoriatic patients. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Progress in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear programmes in selective developing countries are briefly discussed. The oil rich countries of Iraq, Libya and Iran all have reactors on order. Turkey has decided to purchase a PWR from the USSR and Egypt's programme anticipates a capacity of 6600 MWe by 2000. The current projections for India are 6000 MWe by 1990 and 20,000 MWe by 2000. The progress of Pakistan, South Korea and other Asian countries are discussed. The predicted growth in reactors and population in Latin America is considered - 17 reactors presently planned for a population of 340 million and 18-57 possible additions in 2000 for an estimated population of 600 million. The role of the IAEA and experience of some Western countries in technology transfer is discussed with the ambitious Spanish nuclear power programme and the experience of Argentina in purchasing Candu reactors. (author)

  4. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi Shiu, Chen; Voisin, Dexter R; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Asian Economic Integration Monitor July 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Economic Integration Monitor is a semiannual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers 48 regional member countries of the Asian Development Bank. This issue includes a special section—Regional Integration: A Balanced View.

  6. The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability of Social Comparison Processes over Two Age Cohorts from Western, Asian, and Middle Eastern Islamic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive support for the seemingly paradoxical negative effects of school- and class-average achievement on academic self-concept (ASC)-the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE)--is based largely on secondary students in Western countries or on cross-cultural Program for International Student Assessment studies. There is little research testing the…

  7. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of Persian walnut (Juglans regia) accessions from 14 European, African, and Asian countries using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ebrahimi; Abdolkarim Zarei; Shaneka Lawson; Keith E. Woeste; M. J. M. Smulders

    2016-01-01

    Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the world's most widely grown nut crop, but large-scale assessments and comparisons of the genetic diversity of the crop are notably lacking. To guide the conservation and utilization of Persian walnut genetic resources, genotypes (n = 189) from 25 different regions in 14 countries on...

  8. Institutional Responses on Strengthened Intellectual Property Rights in Agriculture and Needs' Assessment on Intellectual Property Management of Public Research Institutions in Asian Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Jane; Grimes, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are being introduced or strengthened in developing countries as a result of international agreements such as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This study conducted a web-based survey to gain perspective on the impact of IPRs to…

  9. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  10. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Riti; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars) manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks) production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  11. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Management of primary adrenal insufficiency: Review of current clinical practice in a developed and a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI requires lifelong hormone replacement with glucocorticoids (GCs and mineralocorticoids. Impaired quality of life and increased standardized mortality ratio in these patients emphasize the importance of tailoring therapy to individual needs. Role of education is paramount in improving patient compliance and in anticipating and preventing adrenal crises. Although discovery of synthetic GCs was a major breakthrough in treatment of patients with this life-threatening condition, management of PAI continues to be challenging. The obstacles for clinicians appear to vary widely across the globe. While optimization and individualization of therapy after diagnosis of PAI remain the main challenges for clinicians in the developed world, doctors in a developing country face problems at almost every stage from the diagnosis to the treatment and follow-up of these patients; cost of therapy, lack of resources, and funding are the main hindrances. Adherence to therapy and patient education are found to be common issues in most parts of the world. This commentary highlights the challenges from both developed and developing country's perspective in treating PAI; it also provides an update on current management scenario and future treatment options.

  13. Management of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: Review of Current Clinical Practice in a Developed and a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uzma; Lakhani, Om J

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) requires lifelong hormone replacement with glucocorticoids (GCs) and mineralocorticoids. Impaired quality of life and increased standardized mortality ratio in these patients emphasize the importance of tailoring therapy to individual needs. Role of education is paramount in improving patient compliance and in anticipating and preventing adrenal crises. Although discovery of synthetic GCs was a major breakthrough in treatment of patients with this life-threatening condition, management of PAI continues to be challenging. The obstacles for clinicians appear to vary widely across the globe. While optimization and individualization of therapy after diagnosis of PAI remain the main challenges for clinicians in the developed world, doctors in a developing country face problems at almost every stage from the diagnosis to the treatment and follow-up of these patients; cost of therapy, lack of resources, and funding are the main hindrances. Adherence to therapy and patient education are found to be common issues in most parts of the world. This commentary highlights the challenges from both developed and developing country's perspective in treating PAI; it also provides an update on current management scenario and future treatment options.

  14. The Prospect for an Australian–Asian Power Grid: A Critical Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Halawa; Geoffrey James; Xunpeng (Roc) Shi; Novieta H. Sari; Rabindra Nepal

    2018-01-01

    Australia is an energy net self-sufficient country rich in energy resources, from fossil-based to renewable energy. Australia, a huge continent with low population density, has witnessed impressive reduction in energy consumption in various sectors of activity in recent years. Currently, coal and natural gas are two of Australia’s major export earners, yet its abundant renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, and tidal, are still underutilized. The majority of Asian countries, on the o...

  15. Survey report 1998. Survey on actual condition of science parks and similar facilities in Asian countries; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Asia shokoku chiiki ni okeru science park nado no jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Implemented at NEDO, on such technical development issues peculiar to developing nations as are difficult to solve by their research and development ability alone, has been a consistent research cooperation with countries in question, such as installation of plants and research facilities, joint research operation, and training of researchers, while Japanese technological skill and research and development know how are utilized, as the international cooperation projects. In this survey, an actual condition was investigated including potential of science parks and similar facilities in Asian countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and India), for the purpose of unearthing the needs, seeds, etc., of the future international research cooperation projects. The parks and facilities selected for the survey are as follows. The Thai technology/science parks are the Thai Science Park and four other parks; the Indonesian technology parks are Bukit Indah Industrial City and eleven other parks; the major Malaysian technology parks are Technology Park Malaysia and fourteen other parks; the major Indian technology parks are Electronics City and fifteen other parks. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  17. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on best practices of energy conservation for buildings in south-east Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys were performed to provide the ASEAN countries with technical assistance so that smooth promotion will be implemented on the energy conservation awards system for commercial buildings in the countries. This system has been newly established by the ASEAN Center for Energy (ACE) to suppress the energy consumption in commercial buildings, for which 11 candidates were proposed from among six countries. The EGCO Tower in Bangkok, Thailand, and the Revenue House in Singapore were selected. Japan has provided the building energy inspection technologies used in Japan, and performed the surveys on these two buildings. The surveys were performed from December 12 through 14, 2000 on the EGCO Tower, and from January 29 through 31, 2001 on the Revenue House. The surveys included checks on application forms for the buildings, measurement and analysis of energy consumption by using different measuring devices, inspection of the actual energy conservation activities done in the buildings, reports on the survey results, proposals on energy conservation promoting means, and provision of appendix materials for energy conservation. (NEDO)

  18. Optimizing Glycemic Control Through Titration of Insulin Glargine 100 U/mL: A Review of Current and Future Approaches with a Focus on Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Bajpai, Shailendra; Dwipayana, I Made Pande; Hussein, Zanariah; Mabunay, Maria Aileen; Rosales, Reynaldo; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Tsang, Man Wo

    2017-12-01

    Various data have demonstrated inadequate glycemic control amongst Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possibly on account of suboptimal titration of basal insulin-an issue which needs to be further examined. Here we review the available global and Asia-specific data on titration of basal insulin, with a focus on the use of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100). We also discuss clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of titrating Gla-100, different approaches to titration, including some of the latest technological advancements, and guidance on the titration of basal insulin from international and local Asian guidelines. The authors also provide their recommendations for the initiation and titration of basal insulin for Asian populations. Discussion of the data included in this review and in relation to the authors' clinical experience with treating T2DM in Asian patients is also included. Briefly, clinical studies demonstrate the achievement of adequate glycemic control in adults with T2DM through titration of Gla-100. However, studies investigating approaches to titration, specifically in Asian populations, are lacking and need to be conducted. Given that the management of insulin therapy is a multidisciplinary team effort involving endocrinologists, primary care physicians, nurse educators, and patients, greater resources and education targeted at these groups are needed regarding the optimal titration of basal insulin. Technological advancements in the form of mobile or web-based applications for automated dose adjustment can aid different stakeholders in optimizing the dose of basal insulin, enabling a larger number of patients in Asia to reach their target glycemic goals with improved outcomes.

  19. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  20. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  1. Asian students excel in science testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Asian countries claimed four of the five top spots in science achievement for eighth grade students, according to a December 5 report on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study - Repeat (TIMSS-R). The top five are: Chinese Taipei, Singapore, Hungary, Japan, and the Republic of Korea.In mathematics, Asian countries scored a clean sweep. The top five are: Singapore, the Republic of Korea, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong SAR,and Japan.

  2. Present status of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods of basic interest to developing countries, in particular to those in the Asian and Pacific regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Among the irradiated foods, the safety of which has already been unconditionally accepted by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation, are some that, as major items of food, are of considerable interest to the developing countries. There exist, however, technical and economic constraints. The process apparently offers greater promise for certain high-value foods, e.g. frozen sea-foods, spices and tropical fruits for which conventional processing methods fail to yield products that meet hygienic standards, especially of importing nations. The acceptance of such foods from developing countries by the industrialized importing countries could give a boost to food irradiation activities. Most food irradiation applications in practice are likely to be combination processes involving the use of other chemical or physical agents, and the regulatory approach requires rationalization. Wholesomeness of the product subjected to a combination process cannot be inferred merely on the basis of each component of the combination treatment being individually recognized as yielding a wholesome product. Studies on the radiation chemistry of various classes of foods and model systems have served to emphasize their predictive value and have led to the concept of 'chemiclearance' for extrapolating wholesomeness from one food to another in the same general category. It should, however, be emphasized that excessive or undue reliance on the chemical data, coupled with the rigid attitude of some health authorities in respect of the presence of genetic toxicants (zero tolerance), could result in the absurb situation of the chemical approach invalidating the far more relevant animal experimental data on safety

  3. Work-related complaints of arm, neck and shoulder among computer office workers in an Asian country: prevalence and validation of a risk-factor questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayawardana Naveen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complaints of arm, neck and/or shoulders (CANS affects millions of computer office workers. However its prevalence and associated risk factors in developing countries are yet to be investigated, due to non availability of validated assessment tools for these countries. We evaluated the 1-year prevalence of CANS among computer office workers in Sri Lanka and tested the psychometric properties of a translated risk factor questionnaire. Methods Computer office workers at a telecommunication company in Sri Lankan received the Sinhalese version of the validated Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ. The 94 items in the questionnaire covers demographic characteristics, CANS and evaluates potential risk factors for CANS in six domains. Forward and backward translation of the MUEQ was done by two independent bi-lingual translators. One-year prevalence of CANS and psychometric properties of the Sinhalese questionnaire were investigated. Results Response rate was 97.7% (n = 440. Males were 42.7%. Mean age was 38.2 ± 9.5 years. One-year prevalence of CANS was 63.6% (mild-53.7% and severe-10%. The highest incidences were for neck (36.1% and shoulder (34.3% complaints. Two factors for each domain in the scale were identified by exploratory factor analysis (i.e. work-area, computer-position, incorrect body posture, bad-habits, skills and abilities, decision-making, time-management, work-overload, work-breaks, variation in work, work-environment and social-support. Calculation of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.43-0.82 and cross-validation provided evidence of reliability and lack of redundancy of items. Conclusion One year prevalence of CANS in the study population corresponds strongly with prevalence in developed countries. Translated version of the MUEQ has satisfactory psychometric properties for it to be used to assess work-related risk factors for development of CANS among Sri Lankan computer office workers.

  4. Present Status of the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods of Basic Interest to Developing Countries, in Particular to Those in the Asian and Pacific Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyar, A. S. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1981-09-15

    Among the irradiated foods, the safety of which has already been unconditionally accepted by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation, are some that, as major items of food, are of considerable interest to the developing countries. However, the anticipated practical adoption of the technology has not taken place owing to the existence of technical and economic constraints. It would appear that the process offers greater promise for certain high-value items of food, e.g. frozen sea-foods, spices and tropical fruits for which conventional processing methods are inadequate to yield products that meet hygienic standards, especially of importing nations. The acceptance of such foods originating from developing countries by the industrialized importing countries could give a boost to food irradiation activities in the former. Most food irradiation applications in practice are likely to be combination processes involving the use of other chemical or physical agents, and the regulatory philosophy with respect to such treatments requires rationalization. It would be a stupendous task to establish experimentally the safety of the same food product subjected to different combination treatments; wholesomeness of the product subjected to a combination process cannot be inferred merely on the basis of each component of the combination treatment being individually recognized as yielding a wholesome product. Studies on the radiation chemistry of various classes of foods and model systems have served to emphasize their predictive value and have led to the concept of 'chemiclearance' for extrapolating wholesomeness from one food to another in the same general category. It should, however, be emphasized that excessive or undue reliance on the chemical data, coupled with the rigid attitude of some health authorities in respect of the presence of genetic toxicants (zero tolerance), could result in the absurd situation of the chemical approach invalidating the far more relevant

  5. Should I stay or should I go?: consistency and switching of delivery locations among new mothers in 39 Sub-Saharan African and South/Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Radovich, Emma; Lynch, Caroline A; Campbell, Oona M R

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the extent and determinants of switching delivery location between women's first and second deliveries. We used Demographic and Health Survey data from 39 low- and middle-income countries on delivery locations from >30 000 women who had their first two deliveries in the 5-year survey recall period. Each delivery was characterized as occurring at home or in a health facility, facilities were classified as public- or private-sector. The extent of switching was estimated for each country, region and overall. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed determinants of switching (home to facility or facility to home), using four dimensions (perceived/biological need, socioeconomic characteristics, utilization of care and availability of care). Overall, 49.0% of first and 44.5% of second deliveries occurred in health facilities. Among women who had their first delivery at home, 11.8% used a facility for their second (7.0% public-sector and 4.8% private-sector). Among women who had their first delivery in a facility, 21.6% switched to a home location for their second. The extent of switching varied by country; but the overall net effect was either non-existent (n = 20) or away from facilities (n = 17) in all but two countries-Cambodia and Burkina Faso. Four factors were associated with switching to a facility after a home delivery: higher education, urban residence, non-poor household status and multiple gestation. Majority of women consistently used the same delivery location for their first two deliveries. We found some evidence that where switching occurred, women were being lost from facility care during this important transition, and that all four included dimensions were important determinants of women's pattern of delivery care use. The relative importance of these factors should be understood in each specific context to improve retention in and provision of quality intrapartum care for women and their

  6. Assessment of current techniques for reduction of indoor radon concentration in existing and new houses in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, O.; Arvela, H.

    2012-03-01

    Radon control technologies aim at the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing buildings and in new construction through remedial and preventive measures. In recent years, rising ecological awareness and rising energy costs have stimulated the development of low energy and passive houses to save energy. This report contains the analysis and assessment of current techniques and technologies used to achieve the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing and new houses with regard to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption (qualitative analysis). A questionnaire was prepared and sent to all RADPAR partners in 14 different countries in order to gather national information about the current remediation and prevention techniques. Responses with variable amounts of information were obtained. Based on the questionnaire responses, the status of radon remediation and prevention in each country was assessed, in addition to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption of the current remediation and prevention techniques. The number of dwellings with an elevated indoor radon concentration typically ranges from tens of thousands to a million. The percentage of these houses already remediated varies from zero to 15%. Preventive measures in new construction have been taken from a small number of houses to over half a million houses. The research data on the current situation, the number of houses with preventive measures and the efficiency of these measures is currently still quite inadequate. Assessment of the techniques and also the surveys aiming at exploring the impact of remedial and preventive measures is greatly needed in order to promote the work at the national level. The most efficient remediation method is the active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) and the radon well, for which the reduction in the radon concentration is typically 70 - 95%. Other methods, such as sealing entry routes and improving

  7. Biosimilars in Developed and Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries: Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia-Overview, Evolution, and Regulations Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Tomas Gabriel; Oliu Castillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The development of biological products has experienced continuous growth over the past three decades. The expiration of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in many countries around the world. This paper reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs and covers their therapeutic status, clinical trials, approved biosimilars, and regulatory guidelines in Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. The literature suggests that biosimilars are comparable but not identical to the reference product. They are not a generic version of an innovative product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and their marketing approval is also much more complicated. Guidelines for biosimilars were published in Japan in July 2009 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), in South Korea in March 2009 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), and in Malaysia in July 2008 by the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB).

  8. Biosimilars in Developed and Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries: Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia—Overview, Evolution, and Regulations Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gabriel Bas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biological products has experienced continuous growth over the past three decades. The expiration of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in many countries around the world. This paper reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs and covers their therapeutic status, clinical trials, approved biosimilars, and regulatory guidelines in Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. The literature suggests that biosimilars are comparable but not identical to the reference product. They are not a generic version of an innovative product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and their marketing approval is also much more complicated. Guidelines for biosimilars were published in Japan in July 2009 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, in South Korea in March 2009 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS, and in Malaysia in July 2008 by the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB.

  9. Asian and Australian power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a 1995 Summer Meeting panel session summary on infrastructure, interconnections, and electricity exchanges in Asia and Australia. Panelists focused on the present and future state of the electric power sector, future expansion of Asian and Australian power systems, interconnections and power exchanges, cooperation, new capacity, direction of reforming the industry, interstate relations in the fuel and energy complex, and the impact of privatization on electric supply. They addressed electricity and energy issues in both developing and developed Asian countries and in Australia as seen by the United Nations (UN), the World Energy Council (WEC), The World Bank, Japan, Australia, India, China, East Russia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

  10. Rising economy of China and its effects on the industrial technology of Japan and other Asian countries. Chugoku no hatten to henbosuru Asia no sangyo gijutsu chizu (henkaku wo semarareru seisan gijutsu taikoku Nippon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, H [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-05

    Due to the rapid economy growth and industry development in China, the map of industry and economy in Asian countries has been greatly changing. The technology, which has supported Japan's industrial development, is characterized by the improvements of original technologies introduced from Europe and the United States. On the other hand, Korea has problems of creating the original and individual production technology and its basis. The industrial technology in China at present has problems which are accompanied with the conversion from the planned economy system to the market economy system. However, Chinese people having a tradition of 'link of three parts' seem to understand the Japanese style management policy well. Japan has played a role as 'world's center of manufacturing' by using its excellent production technology. In the future, China is considered to play a role as the 'world's center of manufacturing,' due to its huge domestic market, cheap and rich manpower, and excellent potential capacity of industrial technology. In Japan, it is emphasized that an industrial society system should be reconstructed, in which excellent individuality and talent can be made good use of. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Telephone screening tests for functionally impaired hearing: current use in seven countries and development of a US version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles S; Kidd, Gary R; Miller, James D; Smits, Cas; Humes, Larry E

    2012-01-01

    who were volunteers from the regular client population at the Indiana University Hearing Clinic, and 18 who were recruited with a newspaper ad offering a free hearing test. Of the 90 participants, 49 were later determined to have mean pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB hearing level (HL). The primary data analyses were correlations between telephone test thresholds and other measures, including pure-tone thresholds and speech recognition tests, collected for the same participants. The correlation between the telephone test and pure-tone thresholds (r = 0.74) was within the range of correlations observed with successful telephone screening tests in use in other countries. Thresholds based on the average of only 21 trials (trials five through 25 of the 40-trial tracking history) yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 0.80 and 0.83, respectively, using pure-tone average((0.5, 1.0, 2.0 kHz)) >20 dB HL as the criterion measure. This US version of the digits-in-noise telephone screening test is sufficiently valid to be implemented for use by the general public. Its properties are quite similar to those telephone screening tests currently in use in most European countries. Telephone tests provide efficient, easy to use, and valid screening for functional hearing impairment. The results of this test are a reasonable basis for advising those who fail to seek a comprehensive hearing evaluation by an audiologist. American Academy of Audiology.

  12. National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, Holly L; Hutchinson, Jayne; Evans, Charlotte E L; Jewell, Jo; Breda, Joao J; Cade, Janet E

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the coverage of national nutrition surveys in the 53 countries monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and identify gaps in provision, (2) to describe relevant survey attributes and (3) to check whether energy and nutrients are reported with a view to providing information for evidence-based nutrition policy planning. Dietary survey information was gathered using three methods: (1) direct email to survey authors and other relevant contacts, (2) systematic review of literature databases and (3) general web-based searches. Survey characteristics relating to time frame, sampling and dietary methodology and nutrients reported were tabled from all relevant surveys found since 1990. Fifty-three countries of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, which have need for an overview of dietary surveys across the life course. European individuals (adults and children) in national diet surveys. A total of 109 nationally representative dietary surveys undertaken post-1990 were found across 34 countries. Of these, 78 surveys from 33 countries were found post-2000, and of these, 48 surveys from 27 countries included children and 60 surveys from 30 countries included adults. No nationally representative surveys were found for 19 of 53 countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe. Multiple 24hr recall and food diaries were the most common dietary assessment methods. Only 22 countries reported energy and nutrient intakes from post-2000 surveys; macronutrients were more widely reported than micronutrients. Less than two-thirds of WHO Europe countries have nationally representative diet surveys, mainly collected post-2000. The main availability gaps lie in Central and Eastern European countries, where nutrition policies may therefore lack an appropriate evidence base. Dietary methodological differences may limit the scope for inter-country comparisons.

  13. National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were (1 to determine the coverage of national nutrition surveys in the 53 countries monitored by the World Health Organization (WHO Regional Office for Europe and identify gaps in provision, (2 to describe relevant survey attributes and (3 to check whether energy and nutrients are reported with a view to providing information for evidence-based nutrition policy planning. Design: Dietary survey information was gathered using three methods: (1 direct email to survey authors and other relevant contacts, (2 systematic review of literature databases and (3 general web-based searches. Survey characteristics relating to time frame, sampling and dietary methodology and nutrients reported were tabled from all relevant surveys found since 1990. Setting: Fifty-three countries of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, which have need for an overview of dietary surveys across the life course. Subjects: European individuals (adults and children in national diet surveys. Results: A total of 109 nationally representative dietary surveys undertaken post-1990 were found across 34 countries. Of these, 78 surveys from 33 countries were found post-2000, and of these, 48 surveys from 27 countries included children and 60 surveys from 30 countries included adults. No nationally representative surveys were found for 19 of 53 countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe. Multiple 24hr recall and food diaries were the most common dietary assessment methods. Only 22 countries reported energy and nutrient intakes from post-2000 surveys; macronutrients were more widely reported than micronutrients. Conclusions: Less than two-thirds of WHO Europe countries have nationally representative diet surveys, mainly collected post-2000. The main availability gaps lie in Central and Eastern European countries, where nutrition policies may therefore lack an appropriate evidence base. Dietary methodological differences may limit the scope for

  14. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  15. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, F.X.

    2007-01-01

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  16. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  17. Collaborations in gynecologic oncology education and research in low- and middle- income countries: Current status, barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, L; Berek, J; Randall, T; McCormack, M; Schmeler, K; Manchanda, R; Rebbeck, T; Jeng, C J; Pyle, D; Quinn, M; Trimble, E; Naik, R; Lai, C H; Ochiai, K; Denny, L; Bhatla, N

    2018-08-01

    Eighty-five percent of the incidents and deaths from cervical cancer occur in low and middle income countries. In many of these countries, this is the most common cancer in women. The survivals of the women with gynecologic cancers are hampered by the paucity of prevention, screening, treatment facilities and gynecologic oncology providers. Increasing efforts dedicated to improving education and research in these countries have been provided by international organizations. We describe here the existing educational and research programs that are offered by major international organizations, the barriers and opportunities provided by these collaborations and hope to improve the outcomes of cervical cancer through these efforts.

  18. Current and future availability of and need for human resources for sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health in 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Arias, Maria; Nove, Andrea; Michel-Schuldt, Michaela; de Bernis, Luc

    2017-05-03

    The WHO African region, covering the majority of Sub-Saharan Africa, faces the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in the world. This study uses data from the State of the World's Midwifery 2014 survey to cast a spotlight on the WHO African region, highlight the specific characteristics of its sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health (SRMNH) workforce and describe and compare countries' different trajectories in terms of meeting the population need for services. Using data from 41 African countries, this study used a mathematical model to estimate potential met need for SRMNH services, defined as "the percentage of a universal SRMNH package that could potentially be obtained by women and newborns given the composition, competencies and available working time of the SRMNH workforce." The model defined the 46 key interventions included in this universal SRMNH package and allocated them to the available health worker time and skill set in each country to estimate the potential met need. Based on the current and projected potential met need in the future, the countries were grouped into three categories: (1) 'making or maintaining progress' (expected to meet more, or the same level, of the need in the future than currently): 14 countries including Ghana, Senegal and South Africa, (2) 'at risk' (currently performing relatively well but expected to deteriorate due to the health workforce not keeping pace with population growth): 6 countries including Gabon, Rwanda and Zambia, and (3) 'low performing' (not performing well and not expected to improve): 21 countries including Burkina Faso, Eritrea and Sierra Leone. The three groups face different challenges, and policy solutions to increasing met need should be tailored to the specific context of the country. National health workforce accounts should be strengthened so that workforce planning can be evidence-informed.

  19. Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Pradeep, P V; Aggarwal, Vivek; Yip, Cheng-Har; Cheung, Polly S Y

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Asia, and in recent years is emerging as the commonest female malignancy in the developing Asian countries, overtaking cancer of the uterine cervix. There have been no studies objectively comparing data and facts relating to breast cancer in the developed, newly developed, and developing Asian countries thus far. This multi-national collaborative study retrospectively compared the demographic, clinical, pathological and outcomes data in breast cancer patients managed at participating breast cancer centers in India, Malaysia and Hong Kong. Data, including those on the availability of breast screening, treatment facilities and outcomes from other major cancer centers and cancer registries of these countries and from other Asian countries were also reviewed. Despite an increasing trend, the incidence of breast cancer is lower, yet the cause-specific mortality is significantly higher in developing Asian countries compared with developed countries in Asia and the rest of the world. Patients are about one decade younger in developing countries than their counterparts in developed nations. The proportions of young patients (women and the clinical picture are different from those of average patients managed elsewhere in the world. Owing to lack of awareness, lack of funding, lack of infrastructure, and low priority in public health schemes, breast cancer screening and early detection have not caught up in these under-privileged societies. The inadequacies of health care infrastructures and standards, sociocultural barriers, economic realities, illiteracy, and the differences in the clinical and pathological attributes of this disease in Asian women compared with the rest of the world together result in a different spectrum of the disease. Better socioeconomic conditions, health awareness, and availability of breast cancer screening in developed Asian countries seem to be the major causes of a favorable clinical

  20. THE CURRENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL SUPERVISION INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS EFFECTIVENESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA Ovidiu; CAPRARU Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The international financial turmoil rise challenges in evaluating and choosing the optimal financial supervision institutional arrangements in many countries. Our study focuses on the financial supervision institutional architecture and its effectiveness in the European Union during the international financial crisis.We evaluated the effectiveness of the financial supervisory framework by groups of countries, categorised according to the supervisory model. Our analysis demonstrates that the p...

  1. Sustainable aquaculture of Asian arowana--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, S R; Yusoff, F M; Sharifhuddin, N; Shariff, M

    2016-07-01

    Asian arowana, Scleropages formosus is a highly valued aquarium fish in the world, particularly in Asian countries, and has been listed as one of the most highly endangered species. This is a freshwater, carnivorous, fairly large mouth breeding fish belonging to the family Osteoglossidae. Arowana can be found in different colour varieties such as green, red, silver and golden. Among these varieties, Malaysian golden is the most valuable fish and is endemic to the Krian riverine system, Malaysia. However, overexploitation, habitat change and pollution have caused a serious decline of this arowana variety. Recently, arowana aquaculture industry is expanding rapidly in Southeast Asian countries. However, difficulties in an accurate differentiation of sex and strains, causing imbalanced stocking ratios for optimum spawning, remain major obstacles in maximizing arowana production. In addition, problems in sustainable water sources of suitable quality and prevention of diseases need to be addressed. Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and bioremediation are two possible technologies that could be used to minimize pollution and ensure adequate high-quality water for arowana culture. In addition, the application of appropriate molecular markers for sex and strain identification is also an important strategy required for the improvement of captive breeding. This review discusses several issues such as the importance of arowana as an aquarium fish, its market demand, current problems in the arowana aquaculture industry and the possible technologies to enhance reproductive capacity and increase culture production. ?

  2. Management of kidney cancer in Asia: resource-stratified guidelines from the Asian Oncology Summit 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Edmund; Tay, Miah Hiang; Tan, Min Han; Kumar, Santosh; Sim, Hong Gee; Teh, Bin Tean; Umbas, Rainy; Chau, Noan Minh

    2012-11-01

    Treatment of renal-cell carcinoma has progressed over the past decade, in terms of surgical and systemic therapy. Current treatment guidelines are based on clinical evidence, but do not take into account resource limitations among different countries. These limitations, which include financial and logistical challenges and lack of skilled health-care professionals, have the greatest effect in low-income countries. This consolidated statement gives treatment recommendations for renal-cell carcinoma that are based on clinical evidence and stratified according to extent of resource availability. The statement was formulated by a panel of urologists, medical oncologists, and clinical oncologists from Asian countries, at a consensus session on kidney cancer that was held as part of the 2012 Asian Oncology Summit in Singapore. Resource levels are defined according to a four-tier system (basic, limited, enhanced, and maximum), and treatment recommendations are specified based on availability of financial, skill, and logistical resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Asian Shades of Spirituality: Implications for Multicultural School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.; Green, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the current practice of school counseling, little consideration is given to the spiritual background of students of Asian cultures. Although there is a body of literature on Asian culture in counseling, the authors could find remarkably few articles pertaining to counseling students in the context of Asian religious and spiritual traditions. In…

  4. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  5. An overview of current non-nuclear radioactive waste management in the Nordic countries and considerations on possible needs for enhanced inter-Nordic cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brewitz, Erica; Magnússon, Sigurður M.

    -hanced Nordic cooperation within the area. The radiation safety authorities in the Nordic countries were all asked to produce a current status report including thoughts about possible needs for enhanced cooperation. The material was presented and discussed at a meeting in Copenhagen of rep-resentatives of NKS...

  6. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  7. Anthropometric measurements among four Asian countries in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nurul Izzah Abd Rahman

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... ... designing sound work- stations and facilities for the betterment of the industrial environment. .... adopted from the database published b