WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian countries current

  1. Current state of ESCO activities in Asia: ESCO industry development programs and future tasks in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Chiharu; Nakagami, Hidetoshi (Jyukankyo Research Inst. (Japan))

    2009-07-01

    In Japan and other Asian countries, ESCO markets are under formation. Introduction of ESCOs to Asia took place in the 1990s. A vigorous ESCO market is already forming in Japan, South Korea, China, and Thailand. Also, in Malaysia, and the Philippines, ESCO market development is proceeding. How did these countries introduce ESCO industries? What kind of activities are being carried out, and what are future tasks? As a first step in implementing ESCO development programs, developed countries have used government support, while emerging countries have co-operated with international organisations. By classifying the types of programs and examining activities currently under way, we can understand necessary conditions for developing an ESCO industry. When we classify programs of various countries, we see that most countries implement the same kinds of measures. However, the results vary. Some countries are progressing with market development, while others have not reached the point of market formation. Analysis of factors leading to these variations is important to the future development of ESCO industries. In this paper, we describe the current state of ESCO activities in Japan and emerging countries, and we examine ESCO development programs of each country. In particular, by comparing measures taken in countries with successful ESCO market development, such as Japan, China, Thailand and India with those still trying to develop ESCO markets, such as Malaysia, and the Philippines, we analyse factors leading to success, and we illuminate future tasks for each country.

  2. Report of the Asian Forum of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative (AFCKDI) 2007. "Current status and perspective of CKD in Asia": diversity and specificity among Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Wang, HaiYan; Becker, Gavin; Chen, Hung-Chun; Han, Dae-Suk; Harris, David; Imai, Enyu; Jha, Vivekanand; Li, Philip K T; Lee, Evan J C; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Tungsanga, Kriang; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Hishida, Akira

    2009-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nephrology (JSN) sponsored the Asian Forum of CKD Initiative (AFCKDI) 2007 with the support of the International Society of Nephrology-Commission for Global Advancement in Nephrology (ISN-COMGAN), Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology (APSN), the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) and other national societies of nephrology in the Asian Pacific region on 27-28 May 2007 in Hamamatsu City, Japan. An international organising committee was established by leading experts of the CKD initiative. The main objective of this forum was to clarify the current status and perspectives of CKD and to promote coordination, collaboration and integration of initiatives in the Asian Pacific region. The forum received 56 papers from 16 countries; it began with the symposium "A Challenge to CKD in the world" and was followed by the ISN-COMGAN affiliated workshop "Current status and perspective of CKD in Asia". The second day was dedicated to discussion on the evaluation, surveillance and intervention in CKD in this area. At the end of the forum, we decided on the future plan as follows: (1) The AFCKDI will provide opportunities annually or biannually for every person who promotes CKD initiatives in the Asian Pacific region to join together and build consensus for action; (2) the second forum will be held in Kuala Lumpur on 4 May 2008 at the time of the 11th Asian Pacific Congress of Nephrology (APCN). Zaki Morad, President of the 11th APCN, will host the second forum; (3) the International Organising Committee (IOC) of the 1st AFCKDI will continue its function by adding other experts, including the organisers of the APCN; (4) the AFCKDI is not an organisation by itself, nor does it belong to any society, but is organised by each host national society of nephrology. The IOC will assist the domestic committee for the success of the forum and will assure the continuation of the mission; (5) in order to organise the forum and promote CKD initiatives in the

  3. How current Clinical Practice Guidelines for low back pain reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: a systematic review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and systematic reviews.

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    Hyun-Woo Cho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. METHODS: We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. RESULTS: Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54% mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure. However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure. Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (subacute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (subacute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system.

  4. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  5. Impact of remittance in developing countries South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Bishow

    2015-01-01

    There are various examinations of the impact of remittance on poverty, education, governance, human development index, economic growth among several factors in developing countries with scattered result using the panel data of developing countries. This study aims to examine the direct impact of remittance on economic growth and the other development indicator and the long term impact of the remittance in the five south Asian developing countries. The result finds the positi...

  6. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  7. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviours on individuals’ lives in Western and East Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Kim, J.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.; Hofmann, S.G.; Chen, J.; Oh, K.Y.; Bögels, S.M.; Arman, S.; Heinrichs, N.; Alden, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical

  8. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

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    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  9. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  10. The Chinese Economy and Income Inequality among East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sumie Sato; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2010-01-01

    Using the Atkinson inequality measure of income distribution, we analyze the impact of China as a single country and examine the effect of its domestic income inequality on total income inequality among East Asian countries. First, we find that China's domestic income inequality exacerbated income inequality among East Asian countries from the 1980s, and this effect became even more pronounced from 1990. Second, the growth of China's per capita GDP had an equalizing effect on income distribut...

  11. Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean:Present situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. The infection is widely seen in tropical Latin and South American countries and results in several problems in that area. In addition, the previous big outbreak in many island countries in Pacific region brings attention to the further expansion of the infection worldwide. The specific situation of the infection in island countries is very interesting. Here, the current situation (in 2016) of Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean is summarized and presented. Although there is still no current problem in the Asian island countries in Indian Ocean, the appearance of infection in the sea resorts of countries lining Indian Ocean is a big concern. Due to the high volume of traveler to sea resorts, emergence of the new disease in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean can be expected.

  12. Educational inequalities and success in Asian countries in PISA 2009

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    Alba Castejón Company

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of PISA 2009 from seven Asian countries. The analysis focuses on three hubs of educational inequality: academic inequalities, inequalities by gender and social in- equalities. The main conclusion drawn from the results of this work is that is not possible to affirm that Asian education systems constitute a homogeneous educational model.

  13. Consensus on Current Injectable Treatment Strategies in the Asian Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Woffles T L; Liew, Steven; Chan, Henry H; Ho, Wilson W S; Supapannachart, Nantapat; Lee, Hong-Ki; Prasetyo, Adri; Yu, Jonathan Nevin; Rogers, John D

    2016-04-01

    The desire for and use of nonsurgical injectable esthetic facial treatments are increasing in Asia. The structural and anatomical features specific to the Asian face, and differences from Western populations in facial aging, necessitate unique esthetic treatment strategies, but published recommendations and clinical evidence for injectable treatments in Asians are scarce. The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to discuss current practices and consensus opinions on the cosmetic use of botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers, alone and in combination, for facial applications in Southeastern and Eastern Asians. Consensus opinions and statements on treatment aims and current practice were developed following discussions regarding pre-meeting and meeting survey outcomes, peer-reviewed literature, and the experts' clinical experience. The indications and patterns of use of injectable treatments vary among patients of different ages, and among Asian countries. The combination use of botulinum toxin and fillers increases as patients age. Treatment aims in Asians and current practice regarding the use of botulinum toxin and HA fillers in the upper, middle, and lower face of patients aged 18 to >55 years are presented. In younger Asian patients, addressing proportion and structural features and deficiencies are important to achieve desired esthetic outcomes. In older patients, maintaining facial structure and volume and addressing lines and folds are essential to reduce the appearance of aging. This paper provides guidance on treatment strategies to address the complex esthetic requirements in Asian patients of all ages. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  14. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  15. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  16. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviors on individuals' lives in Western and East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Kim, Jinkwan; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Xinghua; Hofmann, Stefan G; Chen, Junwen; Oh, Kyung Ya; Bögels, Susan M; Arman, Soroor; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn E

    2011-09-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical vignettes describing socially withdrawn and shy behaviors versus socially outgoing and confident behaviors. Participants then answered questions following each vignette indicating the extent to which they would expect the subject of the vignette to be socially liked and to succeed in their career. Participants also completed measures of their own social anxiety and quality of life. The results indicated significant vignette-by-country interactions in that the difference in perceived social and career impact between shy and outgoing vignettes was smaller among participants from East Asian countries than from Western countries. In addition, significant negative correlations were shown between personal level of shyness and experienced quality of life for participants from both groups of countries, but the size of this relationship was greater for participants from Western than East Asian countries. The results point to the more negative impact of withdrawn and socially reticent behaviors for people from Western countries relative to those from East Asia. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Policy Instruments for Eco-Innovation in Asian Countries

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    Eun Kyung Jang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-innovation globally emerged as an effort to implement sustainable development. States and firms established and implemented policies and strategies for eco-innovation as one route to achieving sustainable development. Eco-innovation has been facilitated in developed countries, specifically OECD members and European countries, through action plans. Recently, eco-innovation policies have emerged in developing countries. Thus, this study analyzes eco-innovation policies in Asian countries. Policies related to eco-innovation in 17 Asian countries were investigated using policy instrument categories. National policies for eco-innovation were interpreted and compared with development stage classifications. The results indicate that there are similar and different policy approaches to eco-innovation in Asian countries. Given the balance between a technology push (supply side and a market pull (demand side in policy instruments for eco-innovation, 17 countries were identified by four categories: leaders, followers, loungers, and laggards. The results provide insight for designing national strategies for eco-innovation in Asia’s developing countries. Therefore, this research contributes to facilitating and diffusing eco-innovation toward sustainability in Asia.

  18. Web Portal Analysis of Asian Region Countries

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    Subhash Chander

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of online services provided by Government and private sectors is increasing these days. On the same pattern various countries have their own portals to provide basic services to the citizens and other people of the world. Analysis of portals in Asia is the main theme of the paper. There are various indicators or attributes necessary for the implementation of e-services .Some of the indicators may be frequency of use of services, number of users, visitors, site hits, searchable option, accessibility, language option, performance, functionality, broken links, traffic analysis, and feedback. Out of these metrics taken into consideration here are Traffic analysis, feedback, accessibility, security and language option. The countries taken into consideration are India, China and Pakistan. Web portals of these countries will be analyzed in detail.

  19. Transformative Learning Experiences of International Graduate Students from Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; James, Waynne

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the transformative learning experiences of international graduate students from Asian countries. Data collection consisted of quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants included international graduate students from Asia, in the Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Engineering. Overall, 82.3% of the participants…

  20. Capturing volatility and its spillover in South Asian countries

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    Ruchika Gahlota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study volatility and its spillover among South Asian Countries through use of Granger causality test. Using the daily closing prices of major index of each country in South Asia, the Granger causality and C GARCH M models asses the impact of recession on the nature of volatility by decomposing the long period into two sub periods. The study finds significant bidirectional causality between Stock market of U.S. and India for both short terms as well as for long term which is not disturbed by recession. But the recession has changed causal relation among other countries. The recession has created higher shock impact on the permanent component of the volatility of stock market of all South Asian countries. It is also observed that volatility of all South Asian countries is of long term nature. In addition, the observed spillover effects are unstable over time in the sense that the spillover changed its nature after beginning of recession.

  1. European Union Trading Bloc: Motivation for East Asian Countries

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    Muhammad Imran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union is extremely integrated market with more than 500 million consumers searching for quality goods. EU trading bloc is largest exporter to more than 80 countries and 71 per cent imports enter in EU region at reduced or sometimes at zero tariffs. Still EU has having motivated agenda with other world for a number of trade agreements in the pipeline. Basic idea behind this research study is, whether EU trading bloc has improved the performance of member countries or not? Research study finds that EU trading bloc has increased the production and welfare of the peoples in EU region. Now, it is suggestion for East Asian countries to make East Asian Trading Bloc (EATB for improved performance and better wellbeing of the people in near future.

  2. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.……

  3. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.

  4. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

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    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  5. Defense, Education and Health Expenditures in Selected Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hirnissa, M.T; Habibullah, M.S.; Baharom, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the inter-relationship between military expenditure, education expenditure and health expenditure in eight selected Asian countries namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and South Korea. Autoregressive Distributed Lag-Restricted Error Correction Model (ARDL-RECM) procedure was utilized in the analysis. The empirical results suggest that, except for the case of Malaysia and Sri Lanka, whereby no meaningful interrelationship was det...

  6. Differences in the public medical insurance systems for inflammatory bowel disease treatment in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The cost of caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high. Without government support, the cost burden will unavoidably rest on the patients and their family. However, the government providing full support will place a large financial burden on the health-care systems of a country. The aim of this study is to understand the current status of public medical insurance systems in caring for IBD patients among Asian countries. Methods Questionnaires inquiring about the availability of public health systems; medical, diagnostic, and endoscopy costs; and coverage rate of biologics use were designed and sent to IBD experts in each of the Asian countries studied. The results were summarized according to the feedback from the responders. Results The public health insurance coverage rate is high in Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, and Singapore; but low in Malaysia and India. This probably affected the use of expensive medications mostly, such as biologics, as we found that the percentage of Crohn's disease (CD) treated with biologics were as high as 30%–40% in Japan, where the government covers all expenses for IBD patients. In India, the percentage maybe as low as 1% for CD patients, most of whom need to pay for the biologics themselves. Conclusions There were differences in the public health insurance systems among the Asian countries studied. This reportprovidesthe background information to understand the differences in the treatment of IBD patients among Asian countries. PMID:27433143

  7. Climacteric and menopause in seven South-east Asian countries.

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    Boulet, M J; Oddens, B J; Lehert, P; Vemer, H M; Visser, A

    1994-10-01

    The menopause is universal, but what about the climacteric? In an attempt to answer this question, a study was conducted in seven south-east Asian countries, namely, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Samples of approximately 400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics. Special care was taken to overcome linguistic and cultural problems, and the data collected were kept as objective as possible. From the results obtained we were able to show that the climacteric was indeed experienced in south-east Asian countries, although in a mild form. The prevalence of hot flushes and of sweating was lower than in western countries, but was nevertheless not negligible. The percentages of women who reported the more psychological types of complaint were similar to those in western countries. The occurrence of climacteric complaints affected perceived health status. A physician was consulted for climacteric complaints by 20% of the respondents, although this was most frequently associated with the occurrence of psychological complaints and less so with that of hot flushes and sweating. The median age at menopause (51.09) appeared to be within the ranges observed in western countries. Ethnic background and age at menarche were found to have a significant influence on age at menopause. The study clearly demonstrated that climacteric complaints occur in south-east Asia. The findings suggest, however, that vasomotor-complaint-related distress might be 'translated' into psychological complaints, which are more frequently considered to warrant consulting a physician.

  8. Is health care a necessary or luxury product for Asian countries? An answer using panel approach.

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    Abdullah, S M; Siddiqua, Salina; Huque, Rumana

    2017-12-01

    A number of studies have estimated the income elasticity of health care expenditure to identify whether health care is a necessary or luxury product. However, the issue has received less attention in developing countries, especially in Asian economies. The current study for the first time has used the panel data covering 36 Asian countries for the period 1995-2013 for revealing the nature of health care as a product. Along with conventional econometric techniques we have addressed the issue of cross section dependence and used Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration test which is robust against cross section dependence and heterogeneity for detecting the presence of panel cointegration. By applying Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) and Dynamic OLS (DOLS) it was found that the long run elasticity of Health Care Expenditure (HCE) with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is less than unit implying that the health care can be regarded as necessary in nature for these countries.

  9. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

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    B Balali-Mood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous (OP pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the pastdecades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticidesresidue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health.Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning. The well-known mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase,resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they arealso called anticholinesterase agents. Determination of blood acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase activities remains a mainstay for the rapid initial screening of OP pesticides. Quantitative analysis of OP and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods is a more specific method, but is expensive and limited to specialized laboratories. Therefore, history of OP pesticides exposure and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome is sufficient for management of the exposed patients. However, electrophysiological tests may be requiredfor the diagnosis of delayed neuropathy of OP poisoning. The standard management of OP poisoning includes decontamination,atropine sulphate with an oxime. Recent advances focus on blood alkalinisation and magnesium sulphate as promising adjunctive therapies. Preventive measures in OP exposure are of great importance in human health in developing countries. Therefore, regulations and controls on safe use of OP particularly in Asian countries are recommended.

  10. Sourcing Solutions to Oil Shortage Challenge in Asian Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao

    2001-01-01

    @@ 21st century is an era with many development opportunities for Asia. It's time for Asia, particularly for developing countries in this region to be away from poverty, backwardness for rapid economic taking-off. According to the predictions of authoritative agencies,Asia will remain as one of the fastest growing regions in the world. Both China and India's economic growth rate will be over 6%. The rapid economic growth of the two largest population nations will not only drive the prosperity of Asian economy, but also bring tremendous impact on the world market.

  11. Profiles of phytoestrogens in human urine from several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Aldous, Kenneth M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-09-08

    Intake of a diet rich in phytoestrogens has been associated with a decreased risk for hormone-dependent cancers in humans. Biomonitoring of phytoestrogens in human urine has been used to assess the intake of phytoestrogens. Although studies have reported phytoestrogen levels in urine specimens from the United States and Japan, little is known of human intake of phytoestrogens in other Asian countries. In this study we determined the concentrations of seven phytoestrogens, namely, enterolactone, enterodiol, daidzein, equol, O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), genistein, and coumestrol, in 199 human urine samples from three Asian countries, Vietnam (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh), Cambodia (Phnom Penh), and India (Chennai and Kolkata), using a simple, sensitive, and reliable liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method. The residue levels of phytoestrogens in urine samples from the three Asian countries were compared with the concentrations in 26 urine samples from Japan (Ehime) and 16 urine samples from the United States (Albany), analyzed in this study. Among the phytoestrogens analyzed, isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein were predominant in urine samples from Vietnam; samples from Cambodia and India contained higher concentrations of enterolactone than isoflavones. Urinary concentrations of isoflavones in samples from Hanoi, Vietnam, were notably higher than the concentrations in samples from Cambodia, India, and the United States and similar to the concentrations in samples from Japan. The lowest concentrations of daidzein and the highest concentrations of enterolactone were found in urine samples from India. Concentrations of equol and O-DMA, which are microbial transformation products of daidzein (produced by gut microflora), were notably high in urine samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. The ratios of the concentration of equol or O-DMA to that of daidzein were significantly higher in samples from Hanoi than from Japan, indicating high

  12. Droughts in Asian Least Developed Countries: Vulnerability and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimullah Miyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Droughts occur both in developed and developing countries with significant impacts and are exacerbating in frequency, severity and duration. Over exploitation of water resources, weather variability and climate change are mostly responsible for such exacerbation. The impacts of droughts encompass the global ecosystem as a whole but vary from region to region. Least developed countries (LDCs are becoming the worst sufferer of the impacts due to physical, social and economic as well as knowledge and skills differences. The increasing biophysical vulnerability contexts and intensity in the Asian LDCs causing adverse effects on food security, human health, biodiversity, water resources, hydroelectric power generation, streams, perennial springs, and livelihood. Drought is also responsible for increasing pollution, pests and diseases and forced migration and famine. Information indicates monsoon has become erratic contributing to up-scaling of droughts. South and Southeast Asian LDCs like Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia and Lao PDR under the monsoon climatic zone have also been suffering from increasing droughts arising out of delayed and changing distribution patterns of precipitation. Prolong dry spells increase the frequencies of wildfire in grasslands, forests, and range-lands. The rain-fed crops of the plains are facing challenges from soil-moisture stress with projected droughts. Droughts causing migration of fishes, and marine anadromus species are having adverse impacts on spawning habitats. Reduction in annual surface runoff is decreasing the ground and surface water with negative effect on agriculture and water supply for industrial and domestic sectors. As droughts are exacerbating the consequences are accelerating. However, traditionally people are adapting with the changing situations applying indigenous knowledge and practices for sustainable living. This paper reflects on prevalence and impacts of droughts, existing coping

  13. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.

  14. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  15. Current status of cholesterol goal attainment after statin therapy among patients with hypercholesterolemia in Asian countries and region: the Return on Expenditure Achieved for Lipid Therapy in Asia (REALITY-Asia) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Soo; Wu, Yangfeng; Lin, Shing-Jong; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Zambahari, Robaayah; Zhao, Liancheng; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Yan, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Data on achieving National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) goals in Asia are limited. To examine treatment patterns, goal attainment, and factors influencing treatment among patients in 6 Asian countries who were taking statins. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, where 437 physicians (41% cardiologists) recruited adults with hypercholesterolemia newly initiated on statin monotherapy. Of 2622 patients meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, approximately 66% had coronary heart disease (CHD)/diabetes mellitus, 24% had no CHD but > or =2 risk factors, and 10% had no CHD and or =2 risk factors (goal: <130 mg/dL), and 81% of those without CHD and <2 risk factors (goal: <160 mg/dL). Most patients who achieved goals did so within the first 3 months. Increasing age (odds ratio (OR)=1.015 per 1-year increment; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.005-1.206; p=0.0038) and initial statin potency (OR=2.253; 95% CI=1.364-3.722; p=0.0015) were directly associated with goal attainment, whereas increased cardiovascular risk (OR=0.085; 95% CI=0.053-0.134; p<0.0001 for CHD/diabetes mellitus at baseline compared with <2 risk factors,) and baseline LDL-C (OR=0.990; 95% CI=0.987-0.993); p<0.0001 per 1-mg/dL increment) were inversely associated with LDL-C goal achievement. Limitations of this study include potential differences in treatment settings and cardiovascular risk factors between different countries and centers. In addition, the effects on cholesterol goal achievement of concomitant changes in lifestyle were not assessed. LDL-C goal attainment is low in Asians, particularly those with CHD/diabetes. More effective patient monitoring, treatments, including combining regimens and dose titration, and adherence to these treatments along with therapeutic lifestyle counseling may facilitate goal attainment.

  16. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  17. The Impact of Financial Crises and Economic Growth of East Asian Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shabbir MS; Rehman AK

    2016-01-01

    In last quarter of 1997, the economic crises came in the East Asian countries. However, the countries those are affected by these crises are Malaysia, South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Philippians, Thailand and Taiwan...

  18. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Uyen Nguyen; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  19. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  20. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  1. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  2. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Waqas, Yahya; Hashmi, Shujahat Haider; Nazir, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio inve...

  3. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  4. Language policy and science: Could some African countries learn from some Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.

  5. Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56, birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08. There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65. Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

  6. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  7. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Naramura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods: A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD, the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent. The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results: In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse' principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates.

  8. Variation of English business e-mails in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Carrió-Pastor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to detect whether there is language variation in a setting such as international business communication, in which interaction is expected to be precise and concise. In order to achieve this, the research aims of this paper are, first, to detect whether there is variation in the internal organization of e-mails; second, to analyse the moves and steps in the e-mails (Swales, 1990; Bhatia, 1993 and the changes in the organization patterns; and, third, to establish whether the variation in the internal organization and the moves of the e-mails interfered with the exchange of ideas. The corpus used in this study was made up of authentic texts, consisting of one hundred e-mails, written by business managers from India and China, who communicate in English with their counterparts in order to report business issues at their offices, which are subsidiaries of an international company specialising in the manufacture of machinery. Firstly, we analysed the moves of the corpus taking into consideration the standard structure of e-mails, following the proposal made by Bhatia (1993. Secondly, we detailed the steps used in Moves 5 and 6 as the non-native speakers of English varied the structure of these moves. Thirdly, we contrasted the results obtained in the analysis of the moves and steps in the e-mails and discussed whether move variation in international business communication is due to the influence of the cultural or linguistic background of the writer. The conclusions show that the influence of the mother tongue of the speakers of English as an international language is changing the use of English in Asian countries.

  9. Maritime archaeology of Kalinga and the contact with southeast Asian countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    During the last five thousand years in the maritime history of India, Kaling played an important role in diffusing the Indian culture in Southeast Asian countries. Archaeological exploration and excavations, epigraphical evidences and literary...

  10. Breeding Management of Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) in Range Countries and Zoos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatchote THITARAM

    2012-01-01

    .... The low birth and high mortality rate cause the captive population to decline rapidly. Captive breeding programs in Asian elephants range countries and zoos have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining...

  11. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  12. Consensus of the Present and Prospects on Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment in East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kamiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. New diagnostic or therapeutic methods in endoscopy have been used. Current clinical application of these procedures is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the present situation on endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in East Asian countries. Method. A representative member from the International Gastrointestinal Consensus Symposium Committee provided a questionnaire to physicians in China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Results. In total, 514 physicians including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and general practitioners enrolled. The most frequently occurring disorder as the origin of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastric ulcer. Capsule endoscopy is selected as the first choice for the diagnosis of small intestine bleeding. The second choice was double-balloon endoscopy or angiography. For patients with gastric adenoma, the number of physicians who choose endoscopic mucosal resection is larger than those selecting endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD in China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. ESD is chosen first in Japan and Korea. Conclusion. New instruments or techniques on endoscopy have not come into wide use yet, and there is diversity in the situation on it in Asian countries. We should unify the endoscopic diagnostic criteria or treated strategy in patients with GI disease.

  13. Experience and Enlightenment of the Fishery Mutual Insurance System in Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Asia is the major producing area of aquatic products.In order to maintain the stability of fishery,some Asian countries have established a mutual insurance system,which,however,shows distinctive features in different countries as a result of their different historical,economic and social conditions.This paper introduced the development status and characteristics of the fishery mutual insurance system in some Asian countries,such as Japan,South Korea,India,etc.,and then summarized their experiences and what we can learn from their experiences from the perspectives of legislation,governmental support,mutual insurance associations,and credit.

  14. The Contents of Physics in the National Curricula of East Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young-Joon; Song, Jinwoong

    2001-01-01

    Describes the different social and cultural structures in East Asian countries compared to western countries. Discusses the ineffectiveness of imported educational theories in local practice. Compares the content of physics at the secondary school level in Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan. (Author/YDS)

  15. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries: focus on South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2014-01-01

    With improvement in the economic situation, an increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is seen in developing countries in South Asia. Particularly vulnerable population groups include women and children, and intra-country and inter-country migrants. The main causes are increasing urbanization, nutrition transition, reduced physical activity, and genetic predisposition. Some evidence suggests that widely prevalent perinatal undernutrition and childhood 'catch-up' obesity may play a role in adult-onset metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Data show that atherogenic dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, thrombotic tendency, subclinical inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are higher in South Asians than white Caucasians. Many of these manifestations are more severe even at an early age in South Asians than white Caucasians. Metabolic and cardiovascular risks in South Asians are also heightened by their higher body fat, truncal subcutaneous fat, intra-abdominal fat, and ectopic fat deposition (liver fat, muscle fat, etc.). Further, cardiovascular risk cluster manifests at a lower level of adiposity and abdominal obesity. The cutoffs of body mass index and waist circumference for defining obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively, have been lowered for Asians, and same has been endorsed for South Asians in the UK. The economic cost of obesity and related diseases in developing countries, having meager health budget, is enormous. Increasing awareness of these noncommunicable diseases and how to prevent them should be focus of population-wide prevention strategies in South Asian developing countries. Community intervention programs focusing on increased physical activity and healthier food options for schoolchildren are urgently required. Data from such a major intervention program conducted by us on adolescent urban schoolchildren in north India (project MARG) have shown encouraging results and could serve as a model for initiating such

  16. E-waste: a problem or an opportunity? Review of issues, challenges and solutions in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herat, Sunil; Agamuthu, P

    2012-11-01

    Safe management of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste/WEEE) is becoming a major problem for many countries around the world. In particular, developing countries face a number of issues with the generation, transboundary movement and management of e-waste. It is estimated that the world generates around 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste annually, most of it from Asian countries. Improper handling of e-waste can cause harm to the environment and human health because of its toxic components. Several countries around the world are now struggling to deal with this emerging threat. Although the current emphasis is on end-of-life management of e-waste activities, such as reuse, servicing, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal, upstream reduction of e-waste generation through green design and cleaner production is gaining much attention. Environmentally sound management (ESM) of e-waste in developing countries is absent or very limited. Transboundary movement of e-waste is a major issue throughout the region. Dealing with the informal recycling sector is a complex social and environmental issue. There are significant numbers of such challenges faced by these countries in achieving ESM of e-waste. This article aims to present a review of challenges and issues faced by Asian countries in managing their e-waste in a sustainable way.

  17. Challenges in Higher Education: Special reference to Pakistan and South Asian Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Haider

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher education has great importance in the development of a country. But unfortunately, its importance is yet to be realized in South Asian developing countries. For over a decade, countries have been working to uplift their educational standard by providing quality higher education to their citizens but there are many obstacles and hurdles that are emerging. These challenges (quantity, equity, quality, etc are very common in nature but require proper procedure to address in the best manner.

  18. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio investment, GARCH (1,1 is used because shocks are responded quickly by this model. The results reveal that there exists significant relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility. Thus, less volatility in international portfolio flows is associated with high interest rate, currency depreciation, foreign direct investment, lower inflation, and higher GDP growth rate of the host country. Thus findings of this study suggest that foreign portfolio investors focus on stable macroeconomic environment of country.

  19. European Union Trading Bloc: Motivation for East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran

    2016-01-01

    European Union is extremely integrated market with more than 500 million consumers searching for quality goods. EU trading bloc is largest exporter to more than 80 countries and 71 per cent imports enter in EU region at reduced or sometimes at zero tariffs. Still EU has having motivated agenda with other world for a number of trade agreements in the pipeline. Basic idea behind this research study is, whether EU trading bloc has improved the performance of member countries or not? Research stu...

  20. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

  1. Comparative Studies on Vehicle Related Policies for Air Pollution Reduction in Ten Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hirota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries are facing major air pollution problems due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and motorization. Mortality and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution are believed to be endemic in major cities of these countries. Regulations and standards are the first requirement for reducing emissions from both fixed and mobile sources. This paper emphasizes monitoring problems such as vehicle registration systems, inspection and maintenance (I/M systems and fuel quality monitoring systems for vehicles in use. Monitoring problems in developing countries share similar characteristics such as a weakness in government initiatives and inadequate operation of government agencies, which results from a lack of human resources and availability of adequate facilities. Finally, this paper proposes a method to assure air quality improvements under the different shares of emission regulations in these Asian countries and introduces an example of an evaluation method based on a policy survey to improve air quality.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in foodstuffs from Asian and oceanic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Tanabe, S; Giesy, J P; Tatsukawa, R

    1997-01-01

    Public concern about the adverse environmental and human health impacts of organochlorine contaminants led to strict regulations on their use in developed nations two decades ago. Nevertheless, DDT and several other organochlorine insecticides are still being used for agriculture and public health programs in developing countries in Asia and the South Pacific. As a consequence, humans in this region are exposed to greater dietary levels of organochlorines. In this review, published information on organochlorine concentrations in foodstuffs from South and Southeast Asia and Oceanic countries has been compiled. Foodstuffs that contribute to human exposures and dietary intakes of organochlorines were examined, and the data compared with those reported from more developed nations. Among various developing countries in Asia, considerable information on organochlorines in foodstuffs has been available from India since the late 1960s. DDT and HCH were the major insecticides in Indian foodstuffs. Concentrations of these insecticides have declined more than two orders of magnitude in farm products, such as food grains and vegetables, in two decades. Milk and milk products are the major sources of dietary exposure to DDT and HCH in India. The residues of these insecticides in dairy products were close to or above the MRLs of the FAO/WHO. Dietary intake of DDT and HCH by Indians was > 100 fold that in more developed nations. Sporadic incidences of greater concentrations (> 1 microgram/g) of aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlor have been measured in Indian vegetables. Untreated surface waters could be a potential source of DDT and HCH exposure. In most Southeast Asian countries DDT was the common contaminant in animal origin foodstuffs. The higher percentage of p,p'-DDT in meat and fish from Southeast Asian countries, except Japan and Korea, indicated the recent use of DDt in vector control operations. Dietary intakes of DDt and HCH in Southeast Asia were an order of magnitude

  3. Rehabilitation Services and Education in Four Asian Countries: Thailand, South Korea, Singapore, and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Roy K.; Jo, Song-Jae; Ong, Lee Za; Kotbungkair, Wilaiporn

    2007-01-01

    Booming economic prosperity, the restoration of sociopolitical stability, and the rise of disability rights have given Asian countries both impetus and resources to improve quality of life among their citizens with disabilities. This article provides an overview of rehabilitation services and training pertaining to (a) rehabilitation-related laws…

  4. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  5. 1996 hazardous waste management survey in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.; Christie, K.; Tao, Hong-lei [EnviroSearch International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report documents the results of a 42-question survey submitted to countries in Asia concerning their hazardous waste management programs and other issues. The same survey questions were distributed in 1992. This report compares the 1992 and 1996 responses. The respondents were Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, People`s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. 7 figs.

  6. The Effect of Ethnocentrism and Image of Asian Industrialised Countries on Perceived Relative Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulhaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of consumer ethnocentrism and country image on perceived relative quality. The respondents of the study were consumers at a shopping mall in Mataram, Indonesia. They compared the quality of televisions from three industrialised Asian countries, i.e. Japan, South Korea and China, to those from Indonesia. The result of the study was that image of those countries has a significant effect on perceived relative quality. Indonesian consumers perceived televisions from those countries to be more favourable in terms of quality compared to Indonesian televisions. Indonesian consumers have a similar perception on the quality of televisions made in those main Asian countries relative to those of Indonesia. The image of those countries is favourable leading to a better perception on quality of televisions made in the countries relative to domestically made. Domestic consumers view that those countries have better capabilities in producing higher quality televisions. However, consumer ethnocentrism do not lead them to negatively perceive the quality of imported televisions. Indeed, the image of those countries has a greater role in Indonesian consumers’ quality evaluation. The result calls for a substantial improvement in quality of domestically made televisions.

  7. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China.

  8. The Impact of Financial Crises and Economic Growth of East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir MS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In last quarter of 1997, the economic crises came in the East Asian countries. However, the countries those are affected by these crises are Malaysia, South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Philippians, Thailand and Taiwan. The reason behind these crises were due to miss management of economic system and bankruptcy because mostly bank became corrupt during these crises and real GDP effected by these crises, whereas GDP in some countries are less effected as compared by the remaining countries after the crises in 2000. But the investment ration fell during that period, whereas, a comparative analysis are done in this paper that showed the investment ratio decreased during the period but slightly recovered after the crises. We explored the growth of the Asian economy and determinants of the economic growth before and after the crises. In the first part of the paper, we review the East Asian economy before 1997 while in second part we discuss the crises development of East Asia countries after the crises. The crisis resulted in the stock market values have failed to pre-crisis values retain is supported by the result. A picture of currency and banking crises exhibited a slightly different image study in the result.

  9. The Performance and Efficiency of Islamic Banking in South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad IRFAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to estimate and analyze the Islamic banks efficiency in South Asian Countries. The study sample consists of four countries i.e. Pakistan, Iran, Brunei and Bangladesh for being similar legal, social and economic framework for Islamic banking systems. Stochastic frontier approach is used to estimate the performance through input and output method for the period of 2004 to 2011. Results demonstrate that Islamic banking is efficient about 98.19% with respect to return on asset ratio; with respect to return on equity ratio is about 91.4% and 77.03% with respect to net profit ratio. As per the efficiency-ranking measurement, Brunei stands at top followed by Pakistan, Iran and Bangladesh among the South Asian countries.

  10. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  11. ARE THE REAL GDP SERIES IN ASIAN COUNTRIES NONSTATIONARY OR NONLINEAR STATIONARY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurun Nahar Jannati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper checks whether per capita real gross domestic product (GDP series in 16 Asian countries are nonstationary or nonlinear and globally stationary during the period from 1970 to 2009, by applying the nonlinear unit root tests developed by Kapitanios, Shin and Snell (2003. In five out of the sixteen countries that is approximately one-third of the countries, the series are found to be stationary with asymmetric or nonlinear mean reversion. Analyses depict that nonlinear unit root test are suitable for some cases compare to the commonly used unit root test, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Dickey-Fuller Generalized Least Square (DF-GLS tests.

  12. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  13. Etiology of Obesity Over the Life Span: Ecological and Genetic Highlights from Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pei Nee; Teh, Christinal Pey Wen; Poh, Bee Koon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, and the prevalence rate has doubled since the 1980s. Asian countries are also experiencing the global epidemic of obesity with its related health consequences. The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate across all age groups in Asia. These increases are mainly attributed to rapid economic growth, which leads to socio-economic, nutrition and lifestyle transitions, resulting in a positive energy balance. In addition, fat mass and obesity-associated gene variants, copy number variants in chromosomes and epigenetic modifications have shown positive associations with the risk of obesity among Asians. In this review highlights of prevalence and related ecological and genetic factors that could influence the rapid rise in obesity among Asian populations are discussed.

  14. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between Asian aves. Among

  15. Quantifying the digital divide: a scientific overview of network connectivity and grid infrastructure in South Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. M.; Cottrell, R. L.; Kalim, U.; Ali, A.

    2008-07-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices.

  16. Quantifying the Digital Divide: A Scientific Overview of Network Connectivity and Grid Infrastructure in South Asian Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shahryar Muhammad; /SLAC /NUST, Rawalpindi; Cottrell, R.Les; /SLAC; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2007-10-30

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices.

  17. Good countries or good projects ? comparing macro and micro correlates of World Bank and Asian Development Bank project performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, David; Kolkma,Walter; Kraay, Aart

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the micro and macro correlates of aid project outcomes in a sample of 3,821 World Bank projects and 1,342 Asian Development Bank projects. Project outcomes vary much more within countries than between countries: country-level characteristics explain only 10–25 percent of project outcomes. Among macro variables, country growth and the policy environment are significantl...

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae "putative serotype 6E" isolates from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jin Yang; Park, In Ho; So, Thomas Man-kit; Lalitha, M K; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Yasin, Rohani Md; Carlos, Celia C; Perera, Jennifer; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Van, Pham Hung; Shibl, Atef M; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae “putative serotype 6E” isolates from Asian countries were investigated. A total of 244 S. pneumoniae serogroup 6 isolates obtained from 11 Asian countries were included in this study. Of the 244 serogroup 6 isolates, 101 (41.4%) were typed as "putative serotype 6E," followed by serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D (27.0, 20.1, 5.7, and 5.7%, respectively). Multilocus sequence typing revealed that clonal complex (CC) 90, including ST90 and its variants, was the most prevalent clonal group of "putative serotype 6E" isolates (n = 63; 62.4%). CC146 and CC315 were also found frequently in some of the countries. Most of the "putative serotype 6E" isolates showed very high resistance rates against cefuroxime, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, probably due to their highly resistant to antimicrobials clone, CC90. Our results indicate that “putative serotype 6E” is prevalent in Asian countries. The clonal dissemination of "putative serotype 6E" isolates was also identified.

  19. Funded Social Security System: A Review of Issues in Four East Asian Countries Funded Social Security System: A Review of Issues in Four East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ribe

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the structure and economic effects of the fullyfunded centralized public pension programs in several East Asian countries. The major weaknesses of these programs are variable and often inadequate replacement rates as well as poor population coverage. Aside from encouraging development of financial markets, their chief virtue is their avoidance of economic distortions associated with the alternative pay-as-you-go approach. Growth-modeling exercises surveyed in the paper suggest that such distortions are the main way in which social security affects aggregate welfare in the long run. The paper therefore argues that expected pay-as-you-go based reforms should involve introduction of minimal flatrate schemes as supplements to the existing systems. This paper reviews the structure and economic effects of the fullyfunded centralized public pension programs in several East Asian countries. The major weaknesses of these programs are variable and often inadequate replacement rates as well as poor population coverage. Aside from encouraging development of financial markets, their chief virtue is their avoidance of economic distortions associated with the alternative pay-as-you-go approach. Growth-modeling exercises surveyed in the paper suggest that such distortions are the main way in which social security affects aggregate welfare in the long run. The paper therefore argues that expected pay-as-you-go based reforms should involve introduction of minimal flatrate schemes as supplements to the existing systems.

  20. URBAN TRANSPORT AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ASIAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira MORITA

    2004-01-01

    This paper comprises a GIS-based land use analysis on the relationship between urbanization and transport infrastructure development, b GPS-based travel behavior survey, and c interview survey on residents' satisfaction with transport infrastructures and services. It was shown that the current land use patterns largely differ depending on the existence of agricultural infrastructure development in the pre-urbanized stage. It was also confirmed by a GPS-based travel survey that travel behavior patterns in scattered development areas are significantly different from those in orderly development areas. The former areas lack not only road space but also a structured hierarchy of networks, resulting in inefficient travel behaviors with low speed and detours. The GPS survey gave clearer pictures to grasp the relationship between travel patterns of residents and their demand for the improvement of local transport services. It was indicated that local governments who are responsible for these demands often fail to meet them due to financial and institutional limitations of the current system.

  1. Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - Challenges and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet “globalized” and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further

  2. A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz von Seidlein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia.Over 600,000 persons of all ages residing in Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand were included in the surveillance. Shigella was isolated from 2,927 (5% of 56,958 diarrhoea episodes detected between 2000 and 2004. The overall incidence of treated shigellosis was 2.1 episodes per 1,000 residents per year in all ages and 13.2/1,000/y in children under 60 months old. Shigellosis incidence increased after age 40 years. S. flexneri was the most frequently isolated Shigella species (1,976/2,927 [68%] in all sites except in Thailand, where S. sonnei was most frequently detected (124/146 [85%]. S. flexneri serotypes were highly heterogeneous in their distribution from site to site, and even from year to year. PCR detected ipaH, the gene encoding invasion plasmid antigen H in 33% of a sample of culture-negative stool specimens. The majority of S. flexneri isolates in each site were resistant to amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. flexneri isolates were identified in China (18/305 [6%], Pakistan (8/242 [3%], and Vietnam (5/282 [2%].Shigella appears to be more ubiquitous in Asian impoverished populations than previously thought, and antibiotic-resistant strains of different species and serotypes have emerged. Focusing on prevention of shigellosis could exert an immediate benefit first by substantially reducing the overall diarrhoea burden in the region and second by preventing the spread of panresistant Shigella strains. The

  3. Free Trade Agreements in East Asian Countries: What Has Been Done and What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JungTaik Hyun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trIn this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trade agreements (FTAs and suggest future steps of action. The FTAs of three Northeast Asian countries and five ASEAN countries are examined. We find that the concluded and currently negotiated FTAs of East Asia have produced a fairly limited impact on trade and welfare. The limitation came from the fact that the selection of FTA partners was not based on economic gains but on an ad hoc basis or a defensive purpose. Therefore, we suggest that East Asian countries concentrate FTA activities on trade partners with large trade volumes. In this regard, the successful conclusion of the ongoing Korea-Japan FTA negotiation is crucial, and the two governments need to dissociate social and historical concerns with economic considerations. The FTAs between China, Korea, Japan and the U.S. should immediately follow the Korea-Japan FTA to realize the potentials and to prevent biased specialization. The FTAs of East Asia allowed a wide range of exemptions to protect inefficient sectors such as agriculture. The proper approach, we suggest, is not to avoid the problem but to proceed with comprehensive agreements and thus maximize the gains of FTAs. Restructuring industries and reallocating resources to the sectors with comparative advantage, while providing adequate assistance programs, is required. We also note that East Asian countries should utilize existing unilateral, regional and multilateral methods of liberalization as well as bilateral FTAs.

  4. Transnational corporations from Asian developing countries: The internationalisation characteristics and business strategies of Sime Darby Berhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited empirical research on the internationalisation processes, strategies and operations of Asian multinational corporations (MNCs, particularly MNC’s based in Malaysia. The emergence and development of an MNC from this developing country represents a significant addition to the literature on this topic which augments and supplements the information already available with regard to nascent MNCs from Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NIC’s. Drawing on primary data from in-depth interviews with 12 key executives from Sime Darby Berhad (SDB, a developing Malaysian-based MNC, this paper will examine and investigate the firm’s internationalisation process, its characteristics and strategies, including motivations, patterns, and sources of competitive advantage. The empirical findings, limitations and areas for further research are discussed.

  5. Implementing ERP Systems Globally: Challenges and Lessons Learned for Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hawking

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved communication technology has seen growth in a convergence of global corporate activities. In an effort to improve their global operations many companies are implementing global information systems in particular Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. Companies are faced with a number of complexities when implementing these systems in a single country and considerable research has been conducted on the critical success factors associated with ERP implementations. However very little research has been conducted on the issues associated with global implementations of ERP systems and in particular implementations within the Asian region. This research utilises industry presentations to identify challenges and best practice for global implementations from the Asian region. The challenges have been classified as either technological or cultural pertaining to particular countries. The identified factors provide a foundation for further investigation.

  6. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  7. CAUSALITY AND DYNAMICS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND OUTPUT: EVIDENCE FROM NON-OECD ASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    RUHUL A. SALIM; Shuddhasattwa Rafiq; A. F. M. KAMRUL HASSAN

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the short-run and long-run causal relationship between energy consumption and output in six non-OECD Asian developing countries. Standard time series econometrics is used for this purpose. Based on cointegration and vector error correction modeling, the empirical result shows a bi-directional causality between energy consumption and income in Malaysia, while a unidirectional causality from output to energy consumption in China and Thailand and energy consumption to outpu...

  8. Drought risk management for increased cereal production in Asian Least Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rezaul Karim; Mohammed Ataur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is a serious abiotic factor inhibiting nutrient acquisition by roots and limiting cereal crop production in Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Many studies revealed that balanced fertilization can improve photosynthetic activity by stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, improve proline, abscisic acid (ABA) and make the crop drought tolerant with efficient root system and finally improve crop yield. To mitigate drought stress, along with the usage of resistant and...

  9. Levels, temporal trends, and tissue distribution of perfluorinated surfactants in freshwater fish from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Adachi, Nozomi; Saha, Mahua; Morita, Chiaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2011-11-01

    Perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in Asian freshwater fish species were analyzed to investigate tissue distribution, temporal trends, extent of pollution, and level of PFS exposure through food intake. Freshwater fish species, namely carp, snakehead, and catfish, were collected in Japan, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, and Thailand, and 10 PFSs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate, were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PFSs in carp in Tokyo were more concentrated in kidneys (Σ10 PFSs = 257 ± 95 ng/g wet weight [ww]) and livers (119 ± 36 ng/g ww) than in ovaries (43 ± 2 ng/g ww) and muscles (24 ± 17 ng/g ww). Concentrations of PFOS and its precursor, perfluorooctane sulfonamide, in livers of carp and in waters in Tokyo showed a dramatic decrease during the last decade, probably because of 3 M's phasing-out of the manufacture of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-fluoride-based products in 2000. In contrast, continuing contamination by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) with ≥ 9 fluorinated carbons was seen in multiple media, suggesting that these compounds continue to be emitted. PFS concentrations in freshwater fish species in tropical Asian countries were generally lower than those in developed countries, such as Japan, e.g., for PFOS in muscle, Vietnam Asian developing countries.

  10. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Frerichs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.

  11. Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2007-08-01

    In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison.

  12. Availability and variability in guidelines on diabetic retinopathy screening in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louis Zizhao; Cheung, Carol Y; Tapp, Robyn J; Hamzah, Haslina; Tan, Gavin; Ting, Daniel; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a blinding yet treatable complication of diabetes. DR screening is highly cost-effective at reducing blindness. Amidst the rapidly growing diabetic population in Asia, the prevalence of DR in the region is relatively less well known. To review existing national DR screening guidelines of 50 countries in Asia, compare them against the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) guideline, and summarise the prevalence rates of DR and sight-threatening DR (STDR) in these countries. We systematically searched for published guidelines from the National Guideline Clearinghouse and other databases, and contacted local diabetic and ophthalmological associations of all 50 Asian countries. Eleven Asian countries have published relevant guidelines, nine of which pertain to general diabetes care and two are DR-specific, covering less than half of Asia's population. The median DR prevalence among patients with diabetes is 30.5% (IQR: 23.2%-36.8%), similar to the USA and the UK. However, rates of STDR are consistently higher. All guidelines from the 11 Asian countries fulfil the ICO standard on when to start and repeat screening, except for screening interval for pregnant patients. However, only 2 of the 11 guidelines fulfil the ICO referral criteria and 6 partially fulfil. A third of the recommendations on screening process, equipment and personnel is either unavailable or incomplete. Countries in Asia need to establish more comprehensive and evidence-based DR screening guidelines to facilitate the execution of robust screening programmes that could help reduce DR-related blindness, improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Changes in the Food Situation in Asian Emerging Countries and a Direction for Japanese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kunio, TSUBOTA

    2009-01-01

    Recent price hikes in the world food market have renewed the food security concerns of many Japanese who had long been anxious about the country's falling food self-sufficiency rates and the declining domestic agricultural sector. This paper first reviews recent turmoil in the world food market and shows that neither rising food demand in Asian emerging countries nor low levels of world food stocks were the main cause, but the biofuel policies undertaken by the EU and the US, coupled with the...

  14. The Impact of Patent Applications Filed on Sustainable Development of Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Saini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity underpins economic productivity and growth. Countries that generate innovation, create new technologies, and encourage adoption of these new technologies grow faster than those that do not. In some industries patenting is identified as the most important means of protecting IP and is increasingly used as a strategic asset by companies to create sustainable competitive advantage – although, in others, secrecy is used to safeguard proprietary knowledge. The basic purpose of this paper is to see the impact of patent filing on economic growth of the country leading to sustainable development of the economy. For this, the paper analyzed and tested the data of 9 countries for the period of 10 years (2000-2009. The results concluded that it was a mixed result in case of Asian countries. Only, technology based countries’ economies were affected by patent applications filed.

  15. Asian Mussel Watch Program: contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorines in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ueno, Daisuke; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Takada, Hideshige; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Viet, Pham Hung; Prudente, Maricar; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-07-01

    Mussel samples were used in this study to measure the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (OCs) in the coastal waters of Asian countries like Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. PBDEs were detected in all the samples analyzed, and the concentrations ranged from 0.66 to 440 ng/g lipid wt. Apparently higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in mussels from the coastal waters of Korea, Hong Kong, China, and the Philippines, which suggests that significant sources of these chemicals exist in and around this region. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100 were the dominant congeners in most of the samples. Among the OCs analyzed, concentrations of DDTs were the highest followed by PCBs > CHLs > HCHs > HCB. Total concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, CHLs, and HCHs in mussel samples ranged from 21 to 58 000, 3.8 to 2000, 0.93 to 900, and 0.90 to 230 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. High levels of DDTs were found in mussels from Hong Kong, Vietnam, and China; PCBs were found in Japan, Hong Kong, and industrialized/urbanized locations in Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, and India; CHLs were found in Japan and Hong Kong; HCHs were found in India and China. These countries seem to play a role as probable emission sources of corresponding contaminants in Asia and, in turn, may influence their global distribution.

  16. International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The world will never better develop and attain a global peace state, if it does not exist a world-wide cooperation, union of interests among all countries on planet Earth, respecting and understanding each other culture differences. So, if the countries interested in space science want to create or better develop this field, they need to firstly construct peace states and social cooperation, while scientific and technological cooperation will develop -among them. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations (UN)' Agenda 21 (UN UNCED, 1992), I propose four points that can lead to a practical and solid international cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, based on ground studies, with sustainable space programs in countries with social necessities, and to the construction of an avenue of peace states in those areas and in the world, 1) The creation of LINKS among the "developing" countries, among the "developed" ones and between them -with scientists, engineers, educators and administrative personnel. This can catalyze a self-sustainable scientific and technological production in the "developing" countries. Financial matters could be done through the World Bank in coopera-tion with UNESCO. 2) The administration of this difficult enterprise of international coopera-tion. With the increasing complexity of relationships among the aerospace-interested countries, it will be necessary the creation of a center capable to serve as an INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATOR CENTER FOR AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES. 3) CULTURE: in Western Asian countries there is a cultural habit that when somebody gives something valuable to a person, this person should give something back. Thus, the Western Asian countries receiving infor-mation on basic aerospace science and technology from the "developed" ones, those countries would probably feel they should give something in return. Western Asian countries could trans-mit their costumes, thinking ways, habits, persons' worries

  17. Height of south Asian children in the Netherlands aged 0–20 years : secular trends and comparisons with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Buuren, S. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People from Asian populations are generally shorter than other ethnic groups. It is unknown if current universal height references are suitable for affluent South Asian children in the Netherlands. Aims: To develop height-for-age charts for contemporary South Asian children aged 0–20 yea

  18. Human development and South East Asian countries: Special emphasis on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpa

    2013-08-31

    'Development' is to improve the quality of people's lives by creating an environment for them to engage in a wide range of activities, to be healthy and well nourished, to be knowledgeable and to be able to participate in the community life. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a multi-dimensional index of development as it is the combination of three development indices- health index, education index and income index. This article attempts to compare the HDI and its components between various South East Asian countries. Secondary data is used. India's position on the HDI scale is equivalent to the South East Asian average and rank 134 out of more than 190 countries. In South East Asia, India stood fifth in HDI, behind Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives and Indonesia. Country has launched several schemes and programs to improve the health indicators, to provide elementary education to every child and to alleviate poverty. India's HDI value has improved with time but still country has a long way to go in achieving an acceptable HDI. Need is to strengthen the existing schemes and programs.

  19. First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langlands Robyn L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a range of Asian countries. Methods A Delphi consensus study was carried out with a panel of 28 Asian mental health clinicians drawn from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The panel was given a 211 item questionnaire about possible first aid actions and asked to rate whether they thought these should be included in guidelines. Panel members were invited to propose additional items. Results After three Delphi rounds, there were 128 items that were rated as "essential" or "important" by 80% or more of the panel members. These items covered: recognition of psychosis, encouraging and assisting the person to seek help, how to interact with the person, responding to acute psychosis, responding to aggression, and what to do if the person refuses to get professional help. Conclusion Despite the diversity of the countries involved, there was consensus on a core set of first aid items that were considered as suitable for assisting a psychotic person. Future work is needed to develop guidelines for specific countries.

  20. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  1. Summary of current research on Central Asian vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mei YANG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian vortex (CAV is an important synoptic-scale system that causes rainstorms, short-term heavy precipitation, hail, and sustained low temperatures in Xinjiang. This paper summarizes the current research conducted on the CAV since the 1960s. The objective definition of the CAV has been revised and a deep and shallow CAV classification proposed. Two high-frequency areas of deep CAV activity are the Kazakhstan hills (Sayan mountains and the eastern area of the Aral Sea (Tashkent; events mostly occur in summer and 40% cause strong rainfall. In addition, two high-frequency activity areas of the shallow CAV are located in the west and south of the Pamirs Plateau and mostly occur in spring; 23.2% of occurrences cause strong rainfall. The western and eastern water vapor transport relates to westerlies and a strong low-level easterly jet stream (LLEJ extending from Gansu to Xinjiang, respectively, and water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau transports even more northwards and enters Xinjiang. The deep CAV has an obvious cold core structure down to 300 hPa. The conversion terms from eddy available potential energy (AE to eddy kinetic energy (KE and eddy kinetic energy inflow (BKE from the open atmospheric region boundaries are the main sources of KE which cause rapid development of the CAV. The anomalous anti-cyclone center over the northeast Atlantic is the fountain of Rossby wave energy dispersion; Rossby waves propagate from the northeast Atlantic to eastern Europe (Urals (EEU, and then continuously propagate to Central Asia causing development of the CAV. The CAV requires further study to characterize the meso-scale system structure and evolution characteristics. In addition, physical modeling of the severe convective weather occurring under the CAV is required to determine the critical impacts of this severe convective weather and enable forecasting and early-warning indexes.

  2. Oil price and exchange rate co-movements in Asian countries: Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Bashir, Usman; Donghong, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Most empirical literature investigates the relation between oil prices and exchange rate through different models. These models measure this relationship on two time scales (long and short terms), and often fail to observe the co-movement of these variables at different time scales. We apply a detrended cross-correlation approach (DCCA) to investigate the co-movements of the oil price and exchange rate in 12 Asian countries. This model determines the co-movements of oil price and exchange rate at different time scale. The exchange rate and oil price time series indicate unit root problem. Their correlation and cross-correlation are very difficult to measure. The result becomes spurious when periodic trend or unit root problem occurs in these time series. This approach measures the possible cross-correlation at different time scale and controlling the unit root problem. Our empirical results support the co-movements of oil prices and exchange rate. Our results support a weak negative cross-correlation between oil price and exchange rate for most Asian countries included in our sample. The results have important monetary, fiscal, inflationary, and trade policy implications for these countries.

  3. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

  4. Development of satellite-based drought monitoring and warning system in Asian Pacific countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, W.; Oyoshi, K.; Muraki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on a development of satellite-based drought monitoring warning system in Asian Pacific countries. Drought condition of cropland is evaluated by using Keeth-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) computed from rainfall measurements with GSMaP product, land surface temperature by MTSAT product and vegetation phenology by MODIS NDVI product at daily basis. The derived information is disseminated as a system for an application of space based technology (SBT) in the implementation of the Core Agriculture Support Program. The benefit of this system are to develop satellite-based drought monitoring and early warning system (DMEWS) for Asian Pacific counties using freely available data, and to develop capacity of policy makers in those countries to apply the developed system in policy making. A series of training program has been carried out in 2013 to officers and researchers of ministry of agriculture and relevant agencies in Greater Mekong Subregion countries including Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. This system is running as fully operational and can be accessed at http://webgms.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/DMEWS/.

  5. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Suwonsichon, Suntaree; Chitra, Uma; Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries. PMID:28234307

  6. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  7. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  8. Poultry Production and Marketing in Nepal : with Comparison to Other South Asian Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the present situation of the Nepalese poultry industry and its comparison to other South Asian Countries with the help of survey and available secondary data. There were about 15.9 million poultry producing 10,962 Mt meat and 421,460 thousands of eggs including commercial and backyard poultry in the year 1996/97. The commercial poultry produced 269 eggs in 48 weeks of production with feed conversion ratio 2.9. The per Kg production cost of eggs was ab...

  9. The Causal Relationship between Trade and FDI : Implication for India and East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to find the causal relationship between bilateral trade and FDI in India and East Asian countries using macroeconomic data and derive policy implications for regional integration. Since the late 2000s, Korea, Japan and Singapore’s trade and FDI with India have been rapidly increasing, but the causal relationship between trade and FDI could not be found, contrary to expectations. The relationship between trade and FDI in the US, the UK and Germany with India showed one-way o...

  10. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005, Paris (France); Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between < LOD (limit of detection) to 14,000,000 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), < LOD to 790,000 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), < LOD to 12,000 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), < LOD to 29,000 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), < LOD to 47,000 for chlordanes (CHLs) and < LOD to 4600 for total cyclodienes. Further, ranges (ng/g LW) of 1.1 to 150,000 for Co-PCBs; < LOD to 27 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); < LOD to 45 for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 0.02 to 73 for PCDD/DFs have been reported in Asian aves

  11. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putthasri Weerasak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission

  12. Analysis of the features of the entrepreneurship and leadership in the Asian and Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.

  13. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy.

  14. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  15. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lyn N; Tulloch, Jim

    2008-09-15

    This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies--such as incentives--for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce. Decision-making factors and

  16. A comparative study on orographic and latitudinal features of global atmospheric electrical parameters over different places at three Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Singh, D.

    2014-03-01

    Some global atmospheric electrical parameters like atmospheric conductivity, air-earth current density, electric field, atmospheric potential, etc. have been estimated over different places of India, China and Korea of Asian continent. These calculations have been made by assuming fair weather conditions and taking into account the small scale (0.5° grid in latitude and longitude) orographic and latitudinal effects. Mean values of conductivity and air-earth current density over various places of India, China and Korea have been found to be 5.97 × 10-14, 5.46 × 10-14, 2.82 × 10-14 S m-1 and 6.58 × 10-12, 6.04 × 10-12, 3.16 × 10-12 A m-2, respectively whereas average electric field and atmospheric potential over these places are 110.9, 110.81, 112.08 V m-1 and 269.52, 272.90, 286.64 kV, respectively. It has been found from the results that latitudinal variation is very much smaller than orographic variation over these three countries of Asian region.

  17. Public spending efficiency and political and economic factors: Evidence from selected East Asian countries

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    Chan Sok-Gee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses public spending efficiency and the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency in East Asian countries for the period 2000-2007. In the first stage, the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach is used to estimate public spending efficiency scores. In the second stage, the Tobit regression model is then used to determine the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency. Results of the study show that China is relatively efficient in public spending on education, health, and maintaining economic performance and stability, Japan on infrastructure, and Singapore on promoting public services. In addition, countries in East Asia are relatively less efficient in public spending for promoting equal income distribution. The results also indicate that political stability and financial freedom have a positive effect on public spending efficiency. However, voice, accountability, and civil liberties have a negative effect on public spending efficiency.

  18. PKI Implementation Issues: A Comparative Study of Pakistan with some Asian Countries

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    Nasir Mahmood Malik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes Public Key Infrastructure (PKI, its need and requirements and introduction of some renowned PKI products. However, the major thrust of this work is that how PKI can enhance security of various systems. The paper is intended to serve as a guide on how to adequately prepare for some of the challenges that may be encountered especially in developing countries like Pakistan. The detail of PKI implementation issues is also included in the paper along with future challenges regarding implementation of PKI. Furthermore, paper includes technical issues hindering the implementation of PKI through comparison of PKI issues in Pakistan and some of Asian countries mainly Taiwan, Japan and Singapore. The paper also highlights the PKI issues and learnt lessons regarding PKI implementation and can act as a comprehensive guide for successful future PKI deployments.

  19. THE MIDDLE-INCOME TRAP: IS THERE A WAY OUT FOR ASIAN COUNTRIES?

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    Raisal Fahrozi Lubis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the phenomena of the middle-income trap found in developing Asian countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. The effects of some of the determinant variables of per capita income, such as government expenditure, investment expenditure, high technology exports, factors of human capital (enrollment rates in secondary and tertiary education, and the dependency ratio are analyzed by using a factor analysis and regression analysis. The factor analysis is used to reduce the variable of the publics’ enrollment rate in secondary and tertiary education into the variable of the human capital factor. The findings of the study reveal that some variables, namely government expenditure, investment expenditure, high technology exports, and the factors of human capital, have positive effects in increasing the per capita income of a country. The variable of the dependency ratio, on the other hand, has a negative effect on a country’s per capita income.

  20. Unemployment and Economic Growth of Developing Asian Countries: A Panel Data Analysis

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    Muhammad Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the new regression estimates of the relationship between unemployment and economic growth for 12 selected Asian countries over the period 1982-2011. Fixed effect and Pooled OLS techniques are used to analyze the panel data for measuring individual country effects, group effects and time effects while exploring the relationship between Unemployment rate and the Economic Growth. The results showed that higher unemployment rate has significant negative impact on GDP per capita growth (a proxy for economic growth. The results also investigated that economic growth seems to be significantly affected by traditional determinants such as Inflation (consumer price index, Population growth, Gross Capital Formation, Trade openness etc. Based on our results the author has concluded that reduction in unemployment rate would be a better option for more and sustained economic growth and also improving the welfare of the people.

  1. INTENSITY OF USE HYPOTHESIS: ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES WITH STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES

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    Ismail Oladimeji Soile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been made to estimate the relationship between intensity of metal use and per capita income at different levels with results supporting the hypothesis that metal consumption per unit of GDP initially increases, peak and later decline with rising income per head. This paper estimates the intensity of copper use curves for three Asian countries with different economic structure to show that the I-U hypothesis significantly underplay the influence of economic structure and other technological innovations by its exclusive emphasis on per capital income. The results are in general conformity with the notion that the intensity of material use (I-U is higher for industrial and very low for service based economies. Though the finding is mixed in the agrarian country considered, the paper suggests the need for further research to corroborate this outcome.

  2. Liberalising trade in health services: constraints and prospects for South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Fahmida; Ahamad, Mazbahul

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the prospects and challenges associated with liberalising trade in health services in five South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Country-specific secondary information, a brief literature review of empirical studies and debriefing sessions with key stakeholders are employed to explore the issues related to liberalising health services trade. The health sectors in India, Nepal and Pakistan are scheduled under General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) classification, whereas those in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are not. In Bangladesh, there is opportunity for investment in joint venture hospitals under Mode 3. Nonetheless, India is the largest trader in health services under all four modes. In Sri Lanka, cross-border trade in healthcare services is found to be insignificant. Moreover, expertise in eye treatment in Nepal could also attract foreign investment in medical services under Mode 3. In contrast, Pakistan exhibits no potential under Mode 4, because of a lack of healthcare professionals. In this view, the prospects of trade in health services within the South Asian region under the four GATS modes are constrained by infrastructural, regulatory, perception-related, logistical and cultural problems. Considering the level of development and commercial opportunities, regional integration in the health sector could be explored in such areas as telemedicine, medical tourism, cross-border investment and capacity building of health personnel. These developments call for stronger and pro-active government-to-government collaboration in the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region in a transparent and accountable manner.

  3. Factors Affecting Performance of Stock Market: Evidence from South Asian Countries

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    Aurangzeb

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the factor affecting performance of stock market in South Asia. The data used in this study were collected from the period of 1997 to 2010 of 3 South Asian countries namely, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka. Regression results indicate that foreign direct investment and exchange rate have significant positive impact on performance of stock market in South Asian countries while; interest rate has negative and significant impact on performance of stock market in South Asia. Results also indicate the negative but insignificant impact of inflation on stock market performance in South Asia. It is recommended that in order to take the full advantage of stock market and carry on with the international markets well managed macroeconomic policies are necessary in which interest rates and inflation rate are thoroughly monitor and try to reduce the value as much possible. It gives the confidence to the investors as well as the industries. It is also recommended that some extra benefits were given to the foreign investors because we observed that the influence of foreign investors is strong in this region.

  4. The impact of trade openness on the incomes of four South East Asian countries before and after the Asian financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Vatthanamixay Chansomphou; Masaru Ichihashi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a robust estimation of trade openness in four South East Asian countries—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand—before and after the Asian financial crisis, using time series analysis. We use the co-integration technique with a structural break developed by Carrion-i-Silvestre and Sanso (2006) to estimate the elasticity of trade openness that affects GDP per capita in the long run. The results show that the trade openness of Thailand per...

  5. A Test for the Pollution Haven Effect in the Selected EU-Asian Countries

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    Maryam Asghari

    2012-01-01

    industry in the selected EU-Asian countries.

  6. The relationships between electricity consumption and GDP in Asian countries, using hierarchical structure methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2013-11-01

    This study uses hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)) to examine the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 30 Asian countries covering the period 1971-2008. These countries are categorized into four panels based on the World Bank income classification, namely high, upper middle, lower middle, and low income. In particular, we use the data of electricity consumption and real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita to detect the topological properties of the countries. We show a relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth by using the MST and HT. We also use the bootstrap technique to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MST. Finally, we use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure. The results of the structural topologies of these trees are as follows: (i) we identified different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic growth, (ii) we found a strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study and (iii) the results are in good agreement with the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth.

  7. School-based "Shokuiku" program in Japan: application to nutrition education in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Miki; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the overview of "Shokuiku" in Japan, and discusses the future perspective on application of its concepts to nutrition education in other Asian countries. In Japan, there has been a growing concern on increase of obesity and the metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men. Additionally, child obesity has also become one of the important health problems. The increased obesity among them is possibly associated with inappropriate dietary habits (eg skipping breakfast, excessive fat intake and insufficient vegetable). Under this circumstance, the "Basic Law on Shokuiku" was enacted in 2005, which was the first law that regulates one's diets and eating habits. For effective implementation of Shokuiku program, dietitians and registered dietitians would play important roles in various settings. Japan has a long history of dietitian system as well as school-lunch programs. Later, in order to further enhance the school-based Shokuiku programs, the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System was established in April 2007. From an international point of view, "nutrition education" programs aim to improve dietary practices so as to ensure adequate energy or nutrient intake and also to reduce obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, whereas the concepts of Shokuiku have very wide approaches. Shokuiku's efforts expand to support food culture, especially through school-based programs, as well as to improve food environment by providing information on appropriate diets. These approaches can be introduced in nutrition education in other Asian countries, not only to improve one's health and nutritional status but also to secure food culture and food safety in each country.

  8. Convergence of Real Per Capita GDP within East Asian and Middle East Countries: Panel Unit Root Evidence

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    Abbas Aminifard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines convergence of real GDP per capita in the selected East Asian countries and this relationship with selected Middle East countries during the period 1950-2009. The reason behind this refers to the fact that East Asia countries (including China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and South Korea have been involved in achieving success arising from regional cooperation. On the other hand, the Middle East region has been well-known in producing and exporting oil (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. However, these countries have had strong relationship whit East Asian countries through trade and investment relations. Overall, the question is whether such strong relationship has led to a reduction in the real per capita gap between the selected countries of the both regions. To find the answer, income departures across countries are evaluated from several panel data unit root tests. We and no evidence supporting the existence of convergence process for the income in the East Asian and Middle East countries. But in each region, convergence within countries can not reject.

  9. Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases: data from three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Mok, Vincent; Youn, Young Chul; Wong, Adrian; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been suggested to be more common in Asians compared with Caucasians. However, data from population-based studies in Asia are lacking. We report on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of SVD from contemporary studies in three Asian countries using 3-Tesla MRI for the evaluation of SVD. Clinical, cognitive and 3-Tesla brain MRI assessments were performed among participants of three studies from Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea. SVD markers include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) using the modified Fazekas scale, lacunes and microbleeds. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Adjustments were made for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 1797 subjects were available for analysis (mean age: 70.1±6.3 years and 57% women). The prevalence of confluent WMH was 36.6%, lacunes, 24.6% and microbleeds, 26.9%. Presence of all three SVD markers showed a steeper increase with increasing age rising from 1.9% in the lowest to 46.2% in the highest 5-year age strata. The major risk factors for the increased severity of SVD markers were advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, increasing severity of SVD markers was independently associated with worse performance on MMSE and MoCA. Elderly Asians have a high burden of SVD which was associated with cognitive dysfunction. This suggests that SVD markers should be a potential target for treatment in clinical trials so as to delay progression of cerebrovascular disease and potentially cognitive decline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. The Magnitude and Trends of Under—and Over—Nutrition in Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GEKE-YOU; FUDA-WEI

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the magnitude and trends of both under-and over-nutrition problems in Asian countries,we reviewed data available in a number of selected countries.In general,the prevalence of under-nutrition is declining in this region but is still heavy in many countries.The trends varied with complexity of individual countries,In China,the prevalence of underweight,stunting and wasting was 21.6%,30.5%and 2.6% in children of 0-4 years old (90,662 subjects,1987),Another large-scale survey in 1992(176,976 subjects)presented a prevalence of 17.1% 33.5% and 4.5%,respectively.Recent studies showed a remarkable improvement in both underweight and stunting.The National Student Survey in 1995,however,showed that the prevalence of under-nutrition was 26.9% for schoolboys and 38.3% for schoolgirls(7-18yr),There was an increase of 4.7% and 3.5%,respectively,compared with the results of a similar survey conducted in 1985.The proportion of malnutrition in chinese adults(BMI25) was increased form 9.7%to 14.9% for urban areas and from 6.15% to 8.4% for rural areas in a 10-year period(1982-1992),and the prevalence of overweight jumped from 3.38% and 2.75% in 1985 to 7.18% and 8.65% in 1995for schoolboys and schoolgirls.In India,the increase of overweight and obesity in female adults was 5.0 Percentage points from 1989to 1994,The prevalence of overweight was 24.5% for male and 21.4% for female in Japan(1995),and 28.7% and 26.0% in Malaysis(1990).These results indicate that over nutrition is a growing problem in this region.Many Asian Countries are facing double challenges.They have to deal with both under-nutrition and over-nutrition problems .Among many possible interventions,the further strengthening mass education on healthy diet practice should be emphasized.

  11. Classification and comparison of niche services for developing strategy of medical tourism in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-chi; Kuo, Hsin-chih; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chang, Sophia; Su, Syi; Yang, Ming-chin

    2010-01-01

    Medical tourism is a new trend in medical service. It is booming not only in Asian countries but also in European and South American countries. Worldwide competition of medical service is expected in the future, and niche service will be a "trademark" for the promotion of global medicine. Niche service also functions for market segmentation. Niche services are usually surgical procedures. A study was carried out to compare different strategies for developing medical tourism in Asian countries. The role of a niche service is evaluated in the initiation and further development of medical tourism for individual countries. From this study, a general classification was proposed in terms of treatment procedures. It can be used as a useful guideline for additional studies in medical tourism. Niche service plays the following roles in the development of medical tourism: (1) It attracts attention in the mass media and helps in subsequent promotion of business, (2) it exerts pressure on the hospital, which must improve the quality of health care provided in treating foreign patients, especially the niche services, and (3) it is a tool for setting up the business model. E-Da Hospital is an example for developing medical tourism in Taiwan. A side effect is that niche service brings additional foreign patients, which will contribute to the benefit of the hospital, but this leaves less room for treating domestic patients. A niche service is a means of introduction for entry into the market of medical tourism. How to create a successful story is important for the development of a niche service. When a good reputation has been established, the information provided on the Internet can last for a long time and can spread internationally to form a distinguished mark for further development. Niche services can be classified into 3 categories: (1) Low-risk procedures with large price differences and long stay after retirement; (2) high-risk procedures with less of a price difference

  12. Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

    2008-01-01

    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.

  13. Financial Development and Output Growth: A Panel Study for Asian Countries

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    Sangjoon Jun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between financial markets and output growth for a panel of 27 Asian countries over 1960-2009. It utilizes the recently-developed panel cointegration techniques to test and estimate the long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP and financial development proxies. Real GDP and financial development variables are found to have unit roots and to be cointegrated, based on various panel unit root tests and panel cointegration tests. We find that there is a statistically significant positive bi-directional cointegrating relationship between financial development and output growth by three distinct methods of panel cointegration estimation. Empirical findings suggest that financial market development promotes output growth and in turn output growth stimulates further financial development.

  14. Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in human breast milk from several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Muto, Mamoru; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Malarvannan, Govindan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Prudente, Maricar; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 10 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in 89 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the targeted PFRs, tris(2-chloroexyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the predominant compounds and were detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The concentrations of PFRs in human breast milk were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Philippines (median 70 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) than those in Japan (median 22 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) and Vietnam (median 10 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). The present results suggest that the usage of products containing PFRs in the Philippines is higher than those of Japan and Vietnam. Comparing with a previous literature survey in Sweden, the levels of PFRs in human breast milk from the Philippines were 1.5-2 times higher, whereas levels in Japan and Vietnam were 4-20 times lower, suggesting that these differences might be due to their variation in the usage of flame-retarded products utilized in each country. When daily intake of PFRs to infants via human breast milk was estimated, some individuals accumulated tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and TCEP were close to reference dose (RfD). This is the first report to identify PFRs in human breast milk samples from Asian countries.

  15. Injury and Social Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

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    Supa Pengpid

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of injury among adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Cross-sectional national data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS included 9,333 students at the ages from 13 to 15 years inclusive from Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand is chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The percentage of adolescents reporting one or more serious injuries within the past 12 months was 42.2% for all countries, ranging from 27.0% in Myanmar to 46.8% in Thailand. By major activity, “fall” (14.6% was the leading external cause of injury, followed by playing or training for a sport (9.9% and vehicle accident (6.1%. In multivariate regression analysis Thailand and Indonesia, being male, substance use (smoking and drinking alcohol and psychological distress were associated with annual injury prevalence. Risk factors of substance use and psychological distress should be considered in an integrated approach to injury etiology in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among school children.

  16. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  17. The burden of disease from pediatric lead exposure at hazardous waste sites in 7 Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanos, Jack; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Ericson, Bret; Landrigan, Philip J; Fuller, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Identification and systematic assessment of hazardous wastes sites in low and middle-income countries has lagged. Hazardous waste problems are especially severe in lower income Asian countries where environmental regulations are non-existent, nonspecific or poorly enforced. In these countries extensive unregulated industrial development has created waste sites in densely populated urban areas. These sites appear to pose significant risks to public health, and especially to the health of children. To assess potential health risks from chemical contamination at hazardous waste sites in Asia, we assessed 679 sites. A total of 169 sites in 7 countries were classified as contaminated by lead. Eighty-two of these sites contained lead at levels high enough to produce elevated blood lead levels in surrounding populations. To estimate the burden of pediatric lead poisoning associated with exposure to lead in soil and water at these 82 lead-contaminated sites, we used standard toxicokinetic models that relate levels of lead in soil and water to blood lead levels in children. We calculated blood lead levels, and we quantified losses of intelligence (reductions in IQ scores) that were attributable to lead exposure at these sites. We found that 189,725 children in the 7 countries are at risk of diminished intelligence as a consequence of exposure to elevated levels of lead in water and soil at hazardous waste sites. Depending on choice of model, these decrements ranged from 4.94 to 14.96 IQ points. Given the restricted scope of this survey and the conservative estimation procedures employed, this number is almost certainly an underestimate of the full burden of disease. Exposure to toxic chemicals from hazardous waste sites is an important and heretofore insufficiently examined contributor to the Global Burden of Disease.

  18. Violence against women during pregnancy in some Asian countries: a review of the literature

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    Mobina Kashif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Violence against women is a recognized violation of human rights and an important public health concern. Violence during pregnancy is a risk to both the woman and her baby. Aims: The aim of this review was to identify what the literature reveals about violence during pregnancy in Asian countries.

    Methods: A systematic, integrated review was conducted of peer-reviewed literature published 1995-2009. Four databases were searched using the terms ‘intimate partner violence’, ‘domestic violence’, ‘pregnancy’, ‘Asia’, and ‘developing countries’. Reported results were compared within identified themes: prevalence, associated factors, interaction of violence and pregnancy, impact on women’s health, and the cultural role of children.

    Results: Twenty three eligible papers were found; 14 reported quantitative methods, 3 reported qualitative methods, and 6 reported both. Research was conducted in Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, China, Thailand, and Iran. The prevalence of violence during pregnancy ranged from 4.3% to 48%. Adverse effects of violence were evident on women’s physical and mental health and on their babies. Variables found to interact with violence were unintended pregnancy, woman’s age, partner’s education, social support, previous history of family violence, and the cultural value of children. The existing pattern and intensity of violence in the relationship were not found to change consistently with the woman’s pregnancy.

    Conclusions: The limited literature suggests that violence during pregnancy is a problem in at least some Asian countries as throughout the world. Further research is needed to increase knowledge of this important matter of significance both to women’s health and well-being and to social coherence.

  19. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  20. The present status of international training and education in nuclear field held in Japan for Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report summarizes the training and educational courses for Asian countries carried out in Japan by the related institutions. The 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on 27 and 28 of November 2000, based on FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) organized by the Nuclear Energy Commission, and then the following day ''The Present Status of the International Training and Education in Japan for Asian Countries'' was reported for Asian participants on 29, November. This report is the Japanese edition of the handout distributed at the meeting. I believe it can be helpful for the related institutions in Japan to support the human resources development in the nuclear field efficiently and effectively in future. (author)

  1. Educational gradients in five Asian immigrant populations: Do country of origin, duration and generational status moderate the education-health relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Education usually shows a relationship with self-rated health such that those with highest education have the best health and those with lowest education have the worst health. We examine these educational gradients among Asian immigrants and whether they differ by country of origin, duration in the United States, and generational status. Migration theories suggest that recent immigrants from poorer countries should show a weaker relationship between education and health than US-born Whites. Acculturation theory further suggests that differences in gradients across country of origin should diminish for longer-term immigrants and the US-born and that these groups should display gradients similar to US-born Whites. We use the March Current Population Survey (2000 - 2010) to examine educational gradients in self-rated health among recent immigrants (≤ 15 years duration), longer-term immigrants (> 15 years duration), and second generation US-born Asians from China (n = 4473), India (n = 4,307), the Philippines (n = 5746), South Korea (n = 2760), and Japan (n = 1265). We find weak or non-significant educational gradients among recent Asian immigrants across the five countries of origin. There is no indication that longer-term immigrants display significant differences across educational status. Only second generation Chinese and Filipinos show significant differences by educational status. Overall, Asians show an attenuated relationship between education and self-rated health compared to US-Whites that persists over duration in the US and generational status. Our findings show shortcomings in migration and acculturation theories to explain these gradient patterns. Future research could use binational data or explore psychosocial factors to identify potential suppressors of educational gradients.

  2. The Magnitude and Trends of Under- and Over-Nutrition in Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the magnitude and trends of both under-and over-nutrition problems in Asian countries, we reviewed data available in a number of selected countries. In general, the prevalence of under-nutrition is declining in this region but is still heavy in many countries. The trends varied with complexity of individual countries. In China, the prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 21.6%, 30.5% and 2.6% in children of 0-4 years old (90,662 subjects, 1987). Another large-scale survey in 1992(176,976 subjects) presented a prevalence of 17.1%, 33.5% and 4.5%, respectively. Recent studies showed a remarkable improvement in both underweight and stunting. The National Student Survey in 1995, however, showed that the prevalence of under-nutrition was 26.9% for schoolboys and 38.3% for schoolgirls (7-18 yr). There was an increase of 4.7% and 3.5%, respectively, compared with the results of a similar survey conducted in 1985. The proportion of malnutrition in Chinese adults (BMI<18.5) was 11.6% in 1982 and 9.0% in 1992 for urban areas, and 12.9% and 8.0% for rural areas, indicating a descending trend over the 10 years. The prevalence of underweight was the highest, over 50% among children below 6 years old, in both Bangladesh and India, between 50% and 20% in Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and below 20% in Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Fiji. It showed a declining trend from the 1970s to the 1990s with an average annual reduction of 0.8 to 1.9 percentage points in these countries. The problem of over-nutrition is emerging quickly in this region, not only in some better-off countries but also in countries in economy transition. In China, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults (BMI>25) was increased from 9.7% to 14.9% for urban areas and from 6.15% to 8.4% for rural areas in a 10-year period (1982-1992), and the prevalence of overweight jumped from 3.38% and 2.75% in 1985 to 7.18% and 8.65% in 1995 for schoolboys and

  3. ICCS 2009 Asian Report: Civic Knowledge and Attitudes among Lower-Secondary Students in Five Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2012-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Asian regional module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). ICCS studied the ways in which young people in lower-secondary schools are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens.…

  4. The Effect of Ethnocentrism and Image of Asian Industrialised Countries on Perceived Relative Quality (P.165-177

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulhaini Sulhaini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of consumer ethnocentrism and country image on perceived relative quality. The respondents of the study were consumers at a shopping mall in Mataram, Indonesia.  They compared the quality of televisions from three industrialised Asian countries, i.e. Japan, South Korea and China, to those from Indonesia. The result of the study was that image of those countries has a significant effect on perceived relative quality. Indonesian consumers perceived televisions from those countries to be more favourable in terms of quality compared to Indonesian televisions. Indonesian consumers have a similar perception on the quality of televisions made in those main Asian countries relative to those of Indonesia. The image of those countries is favourable leading to a better perception on quality of televisions made in the countries relative to domestically made. Domestic consumers view that those countries have better capabilities in producing higher quality televisions. However, consumer ethnocentrism do not lead them to negatively perceive the quality of imported televisions. Indeed, the image of those countries has a greater role in Indonesian consumers’ quality evaluation. The result calls for a substantial improvement in quality of domestically made televisions.Keywords: country image, consumer ethnocentrism, relative product quality perception 

  5. The Intersections of the CEDAW and CRPD: Putting Women's Rights and Disability Rights into Action in Four Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Rangita de Silva

    2010-01-01

    This report examines a new model built on advancing an intersectional human rights platform of action. The four country project in the Asian region provided a powerful locus for an innovative human rights praxis which integrated a dialectical interaction between different social movements, analytical insights and concrete political strategies and…

  6. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  9. Trends in malaria research in 11 Asian Pacific countries: an analysis of peer-reviewed publications over two decades

    OpenAIRE

    Taleo George; Mendis Kamini; Kusriastuti Rita; Hsiang Michelle S; Qi Gao; Galappaththy Gawrie; Bustos Dorina; Douglas Nick M; Andersen Finn; Whittaker Maxine; Price Ric N; von Seidlein Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantitative data are lacking on published malaria research. The purpose of the study is to characterize trends in malaria-related literature from 1990 to 2009 in 11 Asian-Pacific countries that are committed to malaria elimination as a national goal. Methods A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 in PubMed/MEDLINE using terms for malaria and 11 target countries (Bhutan, China, North Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippin...

  10. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic re...

  11. Assessing the costs of municipal solid waste treatment technologies in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2017-09-06

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the main costs incurred by local authorities in developing countries. According to some estimates, these costs can account for up to 50% of city government budgets. It is therefore of importance that policymakers, urban planners and practitioners have an adequate understanding of what these costs consist of, from collection to final waste disposal. This article focuses on a specific stage of the MSW value chain, the treatment of waste, and it aims to identify cost patterns associated with the implementation and operation of waste treatment approaches in developing Asian countries. An analysis of the capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) of a number of facilities located in countries of the region was conducted based on a database gathering nearly 100 projects and which served as basis for assessing four technology categories: composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal treatment, and the production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Among these, it was found that the least costly to invest, asa function of the capacity to process waste, are composting facilities, with an average CAPEX per ton of 21,493 USD2015/ton. Conversely, at the upper end featured incineration plants, with an average CAPEX of 81,880 USD2015/ton, with this treatment approach ranking by and large as the most capital intensive of the four categories assessed. OPEX figures of the plants, normalized and analyzed in the form of OPEX/ton, were also found to be higher for incineration than for biological treatment methods, although on this component differences amongst the technology groups were less pronounced than those observed for CAPEX. While the results indicated the existence of distinct cost implications for available treatment approaches in the developing Asian context, the analysis also underscored the importance of understanding the local context asa means to properly identify the cost structure of each specific plant

  12. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) status of Asian countries and its implementation in non-clinical safety studies in pharmaceutical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Madoka; Hinotsu, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2009-10-01

    Non-clinical animal studies to assess the safety of compounds under development have to comply with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has established the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) system in OECD member countries for the mutual acceptance of non-clinical safety study data. Since 1997 non-OECD-member countries have also been able to participate in the MAD system, if the country meets the level of standardized compliance with OECD GLP. Thus, several Asian non-OECD countries are trying to develop their GLP standards in order to become official members of the MAD system. Pharmaceutical companies face significant expense in the drug-development process, including the cost of non-clinical safety studies; in response, companies in Asian countries are seeking to establish GLP facilities to provide cost-effective services for drug development. To assess the quality and cost of GLP performance in Asian countries, in this study we approached GLP facilities in a number of Asian countries to obtain price and quality information on a 'virtual compound' to be assessed in non-clinical safety studies. Also, the development status of GLP in Asian countries in terms of policy and infrastructure was analyzed. We found that, among Asian countries, India and Singapore may be candidates for participation in te MAD system in terms of their compliance with GLP, language, and costs. These findings will be beneficial to pharmaceutical companies planning GLP studies in Asian countries.

  13. Using Facebook for Sexual Health Social Marketing in Conservative Asian Countries: A Systematic Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Zain-Ul-Abdin; Ali, Khudejah Iqbal; Khan, Shanze

    2017-02-01

    Social marketing related to sexual health is a problematic task, especially in religiously and/or culturally conservative countries. Social media presents a possible alternative channel for sexual health efforts to disseminate information and engage new users. In an effort to understand how well sexual health campaigns and organizations have leveraged this opportunity, this study presents a systematic examination of ongoing Facebook-based sexual health efforts in conservative Asian countries. It was discovered that out of hundreds of sexual health organizations identified in the region, less than half had created a Facebook page. Of those that had, only 31 were found to have posted sexual health-relevant content at least once a month. Many of these 31 organizations were also unsuccessful in maintaining regular official and user activity on their page. In order to assess the quality of the Facebook pages as Web-based information resources, the sexual health-related official activity on each page was analyzed for information (a) value, (b) reliability, (c) currency, and (d) system accessibility. User responsiveness to official posts on the pages was also used to discuss the potential of Facebook as a sexual health information delivery platform.

  14. Immunological surveys of diphtheric antitoxic antibodies in some African and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, B; Teplý, V; Pecenka, J; Serý, V; Jezek, Z; Bláha, R; Maresková, O

    1980-01-01

    Immunological surveys of diphtheric antitoxic antibodies confirmed the existence of a high circulation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in some African and Asian countries. The high immunity level in early childhood confirms the well known fact that other forms of diphtheria, in particular the cutaneous forms, participate in the formation of antitoxic antibodies. Immunological surveys can determine relatively exactly the extent of risk of infection in the separate age groups and thus delimit the range of the planned vaccination campaigns. Exact determination of the age groups eligible for vaccination makes it possible efficaciously to employ the means allotted for the health services. In some cases, it is possible to dispense with vaccination altogether. However, it should be borne in mind that a change in the socio-economic conditions and increasing urbanization of these countries may induce a radical change in the situation. Children not protected from the cutaneous forms thanks to a better hygienic and social standard, might fall ill with diphtheria of the throat in the future. It is therefore advisable to continue the follow-up of the immune state of the child population at several years time intervals and, in case of necessity, timely to intervene by vaccinating the endangered groups.

  15. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-09-23

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  16. Seasonal Imbalances in Natural Gas Imports in Major Northeast Asian Countries: Variations, Reasons, Outlooks and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Kong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal imbalances and price premiums of natural gas imports (NGIs seriously affect the sustainability of these imports in major Northeast Asian countries, namely, China, Japan, and South Korea. Research on NGI seasonality might provide new insights that may help solve these issues. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, this paper examined the seasonalities of Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean NGIs using the X-12-ARIMA model to analyze monthly and quarterly data. The results suggest that Chinese NGIs lacks identifiable monthly or quarterly seasonality, while South Korea and Japan exhibit clearly identifiable seasonality. In Japan, NGIs exceed their average levels in January, February, July, August, September, and December; that is, Japan imports more natural gas during the winter and summer. In South Korea, NGIs exceed their average levels in January, February, March and December. In other words, South Korea typically imports more natural gas during the winter. The seasonal differences in NGIs among these countries might be explained by differences in natural gas consumption characteristics, domestic natural gas production capacity, NGI capacity, price sensitivity, and means of transportation. Based on seasonal differences and their probable causes, some suggestions are provided to promote the sustainable development of NGI.

  17. Progress Toward Universal Health Coverage: A Comparative Analysis in 5 South Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Karan, Anup; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Parsons, Alexander; Abe, Sarah Krull; Bilano, Ver; Awan, Rabia; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Achieving universal health coverage is one of the key targets in the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. To investigate progress toward universal health coverage in 5 South Asian countries and assess inequalities in health services and financial risk protection indicators. In a population-based study, nationally representative household (335 373 households) survey data from Afghanistan (2014 and 2015), Bangladesh (2010 and 2014), India (2012 and 2014), Nepal (2014 and 2015), and Pakistan (2014) were used to calculate relative indices of health coverage, financial risk protection, and inequality in coverage among wealth quintiles. The study was conducted from June 2012 to February 2016. Three dimensions of universal health coverage were assessed: access to basic services, financial risk protection, and equity. Composite and indicator-specific coverage rates, stratified by wealth quintiles, were then estimated. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to assess inequalities in service and financial indicators. Access to basic care varied substantially across all South Asian countries, with mean rates of overall prevention coverage and treatment coverage of 53.0% (95% CI, 42.2%-63.6%) and 51.2% (95% CI, 45.2%-57.1%) in Afghanistan, 76.5% (95% CI, 61.0%-89.0%) and 44.8% (95% CI, 37.1%-52.5%) in Bangladesh, 74.2% (95% CI, 57.0%-88.1%) and 83.5% (95% CI, 54.4%-99.1%) in India, 76.8% (95% CI, 66.5%-85.7%) and 57.8% (95% CI, 50.1%-65.4%) in Nepal, and 69.8% (95% CI, 58.3%-80.2%) and 50.4% (95% CI, 37.1%-63.6%) in Pakistan. Financial risk protection was generally low, with 15.3% (95% CI, 14.7%-16.0%) of respondents in Afghanistan, 15.8% (95% CI, 14.9%-16.8%) in Bangladesh, 17.9% (95% CI, 17.7%-18.2%) in India, 11.8% (95% CI, 11.8%-11.9%) in Nepal, and 4.4% (95% CI, 4.0%-4.9%) in Pakistan reporting incurred catastrophic payments due to health care costs. Access to at least 4 antenatal care visits, institutional delivery, and presence

  18. Drought risk management for increased cereal production in Asian Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious abiotic factor inhibiting nutrient acquisition by roots and limiting cereal crop production in Asian Least Developed Countries (LDCs. Many studies revealed that balanced fertilization can improve photosynthetic activity by stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, improve proline, abscisic acid (ABA and make the crop drought tolerant with efficient root system and finally improve crop yield. To mitigate drought stress, along with the usage of resistant and efficient genotypes, soil and foliar applications of macro- and micro-nutrients are being used in Asia. According to drought sensitivity index, the efficient genotypes are found more drought-tolerant than the inefficient ones. Studies revealed that irrigation alone is not sufficient to obtain satisfactory grain yield without balanced fertilization. At drought stress, the efficient genotypes accumulate higher quantities of ABA and proline, and exhibit higher activities of SOD, as compared with inefficient genotypes through greater nutrient accumulation by their longer and thinner root systems with high efficiency. Under severe drought with low nutritional status, the rate of photosynthesis, particularly water-use efficiency (WUE increases in the efficient genotypes than in the inefficient ones. Consequently, these physiological and morphological parameters result in better yield performance by efficient use of water. Under drought, soil application of NPK along with foliar application of zinc (Zn, boron (B and manganese (Mn increase grain yield as well as micronutrients concentration of the grain. The rate of photosynthesis, pollen viability, number of fertile spikes, number of grains per spike, and WUE are increased by late foliar application of these micronutrients. This indicates that, by increasing WUE foliar application of Zn, B and Mn at booting to anthesis can reduce the harmful effects of drought that often occur during the late stages of cereal

  19. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information for Asian populations is lacking. We searched four electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov. We reviewed selected manuscripts and extracted the pooled relative risk (RR) from immunogenicity and safety information on HPV vaccination among women in Asian countries. We identified two quadrivalent-vaccine studies and eight bivalent-vaccine studies conducted in Asian countries. Analysis across these studies suggested that the HPV vaccines significantly enhanced HPV16- and HPV18-specific antibody among both uninfected (RR 85.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 31.51-233.04 and 62.77; 95% CI 37.4-105.51) and infected individuals (RR 8.60; 95% CI 6.95-10.64 and RR 8.13; 95% CI 5.96-11.11). Furthermore, HPV vaccination among Asian populations has a favorable safety profile, with only slightly higher risks of local (RR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.65-2.17) and systemic (RR: 1.33; 95% CI 1.18-1.50) adverse events in vaccinated individuals compared with controls. For Asian populations, HPV vaccines enhance the level of HPV16- and HPV18-specific antibodies for both uninfected and infected individuals. Also, the risk of adverse events related to vaccination are acceptable. More data are needed to establish vaccine efficacy with regard to prevention of HPV infection and further outcomes including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer.

  1. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  2. Benzotriazole, benzothiazole, and benzophenone compounds in indoor dust from the United States and East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-05-07

    Organic corrosion inhibitors (OCIs), including ultraviolet light filters, are widely used in plastics, rubbers, colorants, and coatings to increase the performance of products. Derivatives of benzotriazole (BTR), benzothiazole (BTH), and benzophenone (BP) are high-production volume OCIs that have been detected in the environment and human tissues. However, knowledge of their occurrence in indoor environments, as well as human exposure to them, is still lacking. In this study, BTR, BTH, BP and their 12 derivatives were determined in indoor dust for the first time. All three groups of OCIs were found in all 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S. and three East Asian countries (China, Japan, and Korea). The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of six BTRs (GM CΣBTRs) ranged from 20 to 90 ng/g among the four countries studied, with a maximum CΣBTRs of ∼2000 ng/g found in a dust sample from China. Tolyltriazole was the major derivative of BTR measured in dust. GM CΣBTHs in indoor dust from the four countries ranged from 600 to 2000 ng/g. 2-OH-BTH was the predominant BTH in dust from the U.S., Japan, and Korea. GM CΣBPs in dust ranged from 80 to 600 ng/g, with 2-OH-4-MeO-BP and 2,4-2OH-BP, contributing to the majority of ∑BP concentrations. Based on the concentrations of three types of OCIs in indoor dust, human exposure through dust ingestion was calculated. Daily intake of OCIs through dust ingestion was higher for people in the U.S., Japan, and Korea than in China; the residents in urban China are exposed to higher levels of OCIs via dust ingestion than are those in rural China.

  3. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Memon, Almas Naeem; Zaidi, Syed Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  4. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D, number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers, citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. RESULTS: The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. CONCLUSION: The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  5. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheau-Jane Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. Methods. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984–2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Findings. Taiwan’s food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Conclusion. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis among children with diarrhoea in three Asian countries:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baha; Latif; Nurul; Fariza; Rossle

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on studies concerning cryptosporidiosis in three Asian countries.Cryptosporidium spp. infection was investigated in children < 12 years old afflicted with diarrhoea and admitted to the paediatric hospitals in Iraq, Jordan and Malaysia. Most of the patients complained of abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea and mild-to-severe dehydration. Stool samples were collected from children and five methods were used to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. including: direct wet mount, Sheather’s sugar flotation,formalin-ether sedimentation, modified Ziehl–Neelsen and direct fluorescent antibody(DFA). The infection rate was 8.56, 37.3 and 4.6 in Iraq, Jordan and Malaysia, respectively. A combination offormalin ether sedimentation and acid fast stain was used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts in Iraq. The DFA test showed the highest sensitivity for samples of children in Jordan. In Malaysia, direct wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, modified Ziehl–Neelsen and DFA gave the same results(4.62%) while Sheather’s sugar flotation was 3.85%. Source of drinking water appeared to be an important risk factor in transmission of infection. In Jordan, the high rate of infection was recorded in rainy season(January–May).

  7. Cryptosporidiosis among children with diarrhoea in three Asian countries:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baha Latif; Nurul Fariza Rossle

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on studies concerning cryptosporidiosis in three Asian countries. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was investigated in children<12 years old afflicted with diarrhoea and admitted to the paediatric hospitals in Iraq, Jordan and Malaysia. Most of the patients complained of abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea and mild-to-severe dehydration. Stool samples were collected from children and five methods were used to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. including:direct wet mount, Sheather’s sugar flotation, formalin-ether sedimentation, modified Ziehl-Neelsen and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). The infection rate was 8.56, 37.3 and 4.6 in Iraq, Jordan and Malaysia respectively. A combination of formalin ether sedimentation and acid fast stain was used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts in Iraq. The DFA test showed the highest sensitivity for samples of children in Jordan. In Malaysia, direct wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, modified Ziehl-Neelsen and DFA gave the same results (4.62%) while Sheather’s sugar flotation was 3.85%. Source of drinking water appeared to be an important risk factor in transmission of infection. In Jordan, the high rate of infection was recorded in rainy season (January–May).

  8. A systematic review of the use of telehealth in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad; Khoja, Shariq

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the literature on telehealth in Asia. The Medline database was searched, together with three specialist journals, for peer-reviewed articles published in the ten years to June 2007 which were related to any telehealth application involving one or more Asian country. Out of the 1504 abstracts retrieved, 109 articles were selected by two independent reviewers for the final review. The number of published articles on telehealth in Asia increased during the review period. The largest number of studies were conducted in Japan (37%). Most telehealth applications were based on the store-and-forward modality (43%), with 35% using videoconferencing and 15% using a hybrid approach. Most of the studies were descriptive (75%) and only eight included a control group against which telehealth was compared. The most common means of telecommunication was ISDN lines, which were employed in 32% of the studies. Some 40% of the studies mentioned improved quality of health care; about 20% mentioned improved access to health care. Although most studies mentioned cost, only 13 of them assessed resource utilization and cost. The overall findings gave a generally optimistic picture of telehealth in Asia. However, there is a lack of good quality studies.

  9. Early life origins of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in India and other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, C S

    2004-01-01

    There is a rapidly increasing epidemic of type 2 diabetes in India and other Asian countries. The thrifty genotype and the thrifty phenotype are two nonexclusive explanations. People in the Indian subcontinent have faced undernutrition for many generations, and Indian babies are among the smallest in the world. However, the diabetes epidemic is of recent origin, and diabetes is more common among urban than rural Indians despite the higher birth weight of urban babies. This suggests that postnatal factors must also contribute. Thus, a life-course model of evolution of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, incorporating fetal, postnatal and adult components, seems most appropriate. For a given BMI, Indians have a higher percentage of body fat and more visceral fat than members of other populations. This thin-fat phenotype is present at birth. Neonatal size and body composition are influenced by parental size, maternal food intake, physical activity and circulating concentrations of nutrients and metabolites (folate, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol etc.). Maternal insulin resistance promotes transfer of nutrients to the fetus. Accelerated childhood growth is another risk factor for adiposity and insulin resistance, especially in children born small. Childhood growth seems to be more influenced by paternal genetic factors, whereas intrauterine growth is more influenced by maternal factors (intrauterine environment). Urban lifestyles, including poor diet and sedentary habits, promote further obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. These factors may be amenable to correction. Prevention of type 2 diabetes must begin in utero and continue throughout the life course.

  10. European and Asian Countries through the Eyes of Foreigners (in 19th — beginning of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Ushakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the study of a various publications and archive materials that were left in the 19th — beginning of 20th century by representatives of several generations of Russians going out of Russia for a long periods of time to Europe an and Asian contrives, or by Europeans who had been visiting and exploring the Russian Empire. Such materials come in sight of the article’s authors in the process of random selection. These materials varied in form, size and content; they were created in different conditions and for different purposes. They were written by people of different professional, social background, interests, character and life experience. Despite these factors the authors managed to study features of formation and development of the Russia’s image in social thinking of Western Europe on the basis of publications of authors from France and Netherland. Examples of Italian lands descriptions were used for consideration of Russian observers’ approaches to interpretation of the life of Europeans. And the perception of the Asian countries’ life (China and Japan and of their inhabitants that had formed by the beginning of the 19th century was described in the notes and memories of Russians — the participants of the Russian — Japan war. Such different sources served as well as some common and very inportant functions, and the authors of this article identified then. First of all, it was an informational-educational mission. Such functions as goal setting and recording were also important, when authors of the materials identified the most important events, processes and recorded them. The critical approach and function of criticism were also incidental to the authors of many sources. Again, the materials presented in the article showed other provisions of the problem “us vs. them” (“us vs. otters” that is currently being considered in the modern science, and which in general lead to generation of both the

  11. The Influence of Country of Origin and Academic Level on Asian Students' Gains of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The author examines whether gains of learning of Asian students are the same or different if they are from (a) East Asia, (b) South and Central Asia, or (c) Southeast Asia at undergraduate and graduate levels. Results indicated that East Asian students' gains of learning in personal development, science and development, general education,…

  12. PBDEs in leachates from municipal solid waste dumping sites in tropical Asian countries: phase distribution and debromination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Charita S; Takada, Hideshige; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Torii, Maiko; Koike, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Rei; Rinawati; Saha, Mahua; Santiago, Evangeline C

    2013-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are extensively used as flame retardants in many consumer products, and leachates from landfills have been identified as one of the possible sources of PBDEs in the environment. Meanwhile, the unprecedented economic and population growths of some Asian countries over the last decade have led to significant increases in the amount of waste containing PBDEs in that region. This study investigates the status of PBDEs in leachates from municipal solid waste dumping sites (MSWDS) in tropical Asian countries. A total of 46 PBDE congeners were measured, both in the adsorbed (n=24) and dissolved (n=16) phases, in leachate samples collected, from 2002 to 2010, from ten MSWDS distributed among the eight countries of Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Malaysia. PBDEs were predominantly found in the adsorbed phase. Partitioning of PBDEs in the dissolved phase was associated with the presence of dissolved organic matter; the apparent organic carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K'oc) of the BDE congeners were lower by two to four orders of magnitude than the K oc predicted from the octanol-water partition coefficients (K ow). The total PBDE concentrations from mono- to deca-BDEs ranged from 3.7 to 133,000 ng/L, and showed a trend toward higher concentrations in the more populous and industrialized Asian countries. The congener profiles in the leachates basically reflected the composition of PBDE technical mixtures. The occurrence of congeners not contained, or in trace concentrations, in technical products (e.g., BDEs 208, 207, 206, 202, 188, 179, 49, 17/25, 8, 1) was observed in most of the leachate samples, suggesting the debromination of technical mixtures, including BDE-209, in the MSWDS of tropical Asian countries. Moreover, the temporal trend indicated the reduction of BDE-209 over time, with a corresponding increase in and/or emergence of lower brominated PBDE congeners. The results

  13. Impacts Of Globalization On Economic Growth - Evidence From Selected South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maqbool-ur-Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study uses overall index of globalization developed by Dreher (2006 in which all three types of integration were utilized such as political, economic and social integration. The data of three south Asian countries like Pakistan, India and Bangladesh were taken for the period from 1981 to 2011. Initially, stationary properties of selected variables were checked through conventional unit root tests such as Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF and Phillip Perron (PP test followed by ordinary least square (OLS, granger causality is applied and finally long-run relationship among variables were confirm by employing Johansen test of cointegration i.e. trace test and max-Eigen test. The study has very good model explaining variance in GDP growth. Probability value of F-stat is less than 0.05 which recognize that all the independent variables are regarded good to forecast the changing in dependent variable. The outcomes of Durbin Watson tests state that there is no autocorrelation in the chosen variables. Coefficients of independent variables are positive and significant. The outcomes of Johansen test of cointegration established a long-run equilibrium association among economic variables. It is clear that globalization and GDP both influence each other and illustrates bidirectional causality in India while Pakistan and Bangladesh show unidirectional causality between globalization and GDP. It is statistically found that overall index of globalization may affect the rate of growth. It has been recommended that authorities and government should realize the importance of globalization as factor of growth and concentrate on their weak component of globalization besides economic integration.

  14. Trends in malaria research in 11 Asian Pacific countries: an analysis of peer-reviewed publications over two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleo George

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative data are lacking on published malaria research. The purpose of the study is to characterize trends in malaria-related literature from 1990 to 2009 in 11 Asian-Pacific countries that are committed to malaria elimination as a national goal. Methods A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 in PubMed/MEDLINE using terms for malaria and 11 target countries (Bhutan, China, North Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The references were collated and categorized according to subject, Plasmodium species, and whether they contained original or derivative data. Results 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2009 related to malaria in the target countries. The annual output of malaria-related papers increased linearly whereas the overall biomedical output from these countries grew exponentially. The percentage of malaria-related publications was nearly 3% (111/3741 of all biomedical publications in 1992 and decreased to less than 1% (118/12171; p Conclusions The proportion of malaria-related publications out of the overall biomedical output from the 11 target Asian-Pacific countries is decreasing. The discovery and evaluation of new, safe and effective drugs and vaccines is paramount. In addition the elimination of malaria will require operational research to implement and scale up interventions.

  15. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A

    2014-03-01

    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy.

  16. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  17. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  18. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  19. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  20. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  1. A Regional Comparative Study of Distance Learning MBA Programmes in Selected Asian Countries%几个亚洲国家的远程MBA教学项目的区域性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建儒; 赵平

    2002-01-01

    Distance learning MBA programmes have increased tremendously in the past decade in selected Asian countries. This paper uses a stakeholders approach to conduct research on distance learning MBA programmes in Asian. Conclusions of the research are then given.

  2. Indicators of quality use of medicines in South-East Asian countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H. T.; Wirtz, V. J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify indicators of quality use of medicines used in South-East Asian region. Methods A systematic review was conducted searching MEDLINE, Embase and The International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) and The World Health Organization (WHO) website. Original studies or repo

  3. Indicators of quality use of medicines in South-East Asian countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H. T.; Wirtz, V. J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify indicators of quality use of medicines used in South-East Asian region. Methods A systematic review was conducted searching MEDLINE, Embase and The International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) and The World Health Organization (WHO) website. Original studies or

  4. Doctoral Sojourn Experiences of Adapted Physical Education Students from Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explain Asian international doctoral students' sojourn experiences into Adapted Physical Education (APE) programs at two universities. The participants were six doctoral students from Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. This case study was conceptualized within sojourner theory (Siu, 1952). The data…

  5. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Dalen, J.V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). METHODS: We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30

  6. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Dalen, J.V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). METHODS: We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30

  7. English Learning Styles of Students from East Asian Countries: A Focus on Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been done to investigate the influence of cultural differences on students' second/foreign language learning styles, with a focus on comparing between East and West classroom cultures. This study investigates the differences that East Asian students may encounter when studying in the English-medium academic environment. By…

  8. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (

  9. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  10. The contribution of international trade to economic growth through human capital accumulation: Evidence from nine Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to test the hypothesis “international trade contributes to economic growth through its effects on human capital accumulation.” To assess the hypothesis empirically, we employed the extended Neo-Classical growth model that reflects some features of the endogenous growth models. We thus ended up with a model in which the change in human capital is sensitive to change in trade policies. Unlike conventional approaches, the model serves to assess and determine the impact of international trade on the accumulation of human capital. The empirical analysis estimates dynamic panel growth equations by using a data-set of nine Asian countries, over the period 1972–2012. The overall evidence substantiates the fact that in countries under consideration, international trade enhances the accumulation of human capital and contributes to economic growth positively through human capital accumulation.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF TERRORISM: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NASIR; AMANAT ALI; FAIZ UR REHMAN

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of terrorism has riveted world's unwavering attention since 9/11. The underlying study investigates the determinants of terrorism in the South Asian region. Applying negative binomial regression, the study finds that both political structure and economic conditions are responsible for terrorism. On the economic front, relative deprivation represented by income disparity is the major cause of terrorism. On the other hand, deprivation of the people of their political rights and c...

  12. Energy Consumption, Trade and GDP: A Case Study of South Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Majeed, Muhammad Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Using panel co-integration approach over the period 1980-2009 for South Asian economies, this study investigates the dynamic linkages between energy consumption, trade and GDP. The results show that, in the short run, feedback relationship holds between energy consumption and GDP and between energy consumption and exports. In the long run, the feedback relation holds between energy and GDP while unidirectional causality holds from export to energy. Thus, feedback hypothesis between energy and...

  13. Current trends in health insurance systems: OECD countries vs. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients' visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing.

  14. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  15. Mating Type Alleles,Female Fertility and Genetic Diversity of Magnaporthe grisea Populations Pathogenic to Rice from Some Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Joelle Milazzo; YUAN Xiao-ping; Henry Adreit; WANG Yan-li; Jean Loup Notteghem; Didier Tharreau

    2003-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-two isolates of Magnaporthe grisea isolated from rice in 5 Asian countries were characterized for their mating type by crossing them with 4 hermaphroditic isolates (KA3 and TH2: MAT1.1; Guy11 and TH-16: MAT1.2). Among them, 41% were MAT1.1 and 25% were MAT1.2.The remaining 34% did not produce perithecia with any of the 4 hermaphroditic testers. In Bangladesh, India,Nepal, Vietnam and in most provinces of China, both mating types were present. Only one mating type was found in 3 provinces and 1 city of China. Almost all the isolates had very low fertility, as they were in general female sterile and sometimes also male sterile. Hermaphroditic isolates were recovered from the 5 countries. In these countries, they represented between 13% and 75% of the isolates. In Zhejiang, Guizhou, Guangdong,Hunan, Yunnan and H-ubei provinces of China, hermaphroditic isolates represented between 6% and 67%.The genetic diversity of 143 isolates from these countries and provinces, where hermaphroditic isolates had been collected, was analyzed using SCAR markers. Genetic diversity was high and population structure did not resemble classical clonal structure described in most rice growing regions. The existence of sexual reproduction in the field, localization of a center of diversity in China, and migration between countries were discussed in this paper.

  16. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

  17. The Culture and Development Index (CDI: Measuring Values and Attitudes Associated With Development In Selected Asian and Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I. B. Gonzales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing data gathered in five waves in the period 1981–2005 for up to 97 societies (most of which are independent countries, the World Values Survey Organization (WVSO identified two orthogonal factors, Traditional/Secular-Rational Values, and Survival/Self-Expression Values, that account for up to 70 percent of cross-cultural variation worldwide. However, one weakness of the two-factor construct is that it overlooks regional or local patterns in values and attitudes that may be vitally related to development. Alternatively, the Culture and Development Index (CDI and the closely related Culture and Corruption Index (CCI are constructed for selected South and Southeast Asian, Latin American, and East Asian countries to account for cross-cultural variation in terms of a different set of orthogonal factors, some of which are strongly associated with leading measures of development and of corruption. Both CDI and CCI reveal patterns of value and attitudinal change relevant to promoting development and to mitigating corruption.

  18. Phylogeny of gamma-polyglutamic acid-producing Bacillus strains isolated from fermented soybean foods manufactured in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerak, Jomkhwan; Iida, Haruna; Watanabe, Yusuke; Miyashita, Mika; Sato, Hajime; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Tahara, Yasutaka

    2007-12-01

    Natto-like fermented soybean products are manufactured and consumed in many Asian countries. In this study, we isolated thirty-four Bacillus strains capable of producing gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) from natto in mountainous areas of South Asia and Southeast Asia and from soils in Japan. To elucidate the phylogeny of these PGA-producing strains, phylogenetic trees based on sequences of 16S rDNA, housekeeping genes of rpoB (RNA polymerase beta-subunit) and fus (elongation factor G) were constructed. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that twenty-one isolates were clustered in the same group of B. subtilis. The other thirteen isolates were located in the cluster of B. amyloliquefaciens. Phylogenetic trees based on the partial sequences of rpoB and fus genes were similar to the phylogeny based on 16S rDNA sequences. The results of the present study indicate that PGA-producing strains isolated from local natto in Asian countries and soil in Japan can be divided into two species, B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens.

  19. Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

  20. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  1. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Waidyatilaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment, and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. METHODS: 2800 urban women (30-45 years were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  2. Prevalence of Hypertension in Member Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Sharma, Rajan;

    2014-01-01

    included in the synthesis and meta-analyses. Hypertension is defined when an individual had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, was taking antihypertensive drugs, or had previously been diagnosed as hypertensive by health care professionals......Hypertension is a leading attributable risk factor for mortality in South Asia. However, a systematic review on prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not carried out before.The study was conducted according...... to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Guideline. A literature search was performed with a combination of medical subject headings terms, "hypertension" and "Epidemiology/EP". The search was supplemented by cross-references. Thirty-three publications that met the inclusion criteria were...

  3. Adaptation in families of children with Down syndrome in East Asian countries: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunkyung; Van Riper, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to understand the experiences of East Asian families of children with Down syndrome and identify factors affecting their adaptation in the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation. Socio-cultural factors influence how well families adapt following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Existing literature in this area has focused primarily on families from Western cultures. This is problematic because nurses care for families from all over the world. Therefore, the focus of this review is on families of children with Down syndrome living in East Asia, where Confucianism is dominant. Integrative literature review. Online databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and a public search engine (i.e. Google Scholar) were used along with manual searches of reference lists and major journals. Studies were limited to original publications written in English and published between 1990-2014. Two authors independently performed integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Like families in Western cultures, some East Asian families of children with Down syndrome adapted well and even thrived while others struggled. Various socio-cultural factors, including some associated with Confucianism, played a role in how individuals, dyads and families adapted. An understanding of socio-cultural influences can help nurses implement culturally sensitive family-centred interventions with families of children with Down syndrome. It may also facilitate policy changes concerning resources for these families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genetic relationships and reproductive-isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia (Java) and other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djong, Tjong Hon; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Nishioka, Midori; Matsui, Masafumi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Khan, Md Mukhlesur Rahman; Alam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Anslem, De Silva; Khonsue, Wichase; Sumida, Masayuki

    2007-04-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic relationships and reproductive-isolation mechanisms among the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Indonesia and other Asian countries, allozyme analyses and crossing experiments were carried out using 208 individuals from 21 localities in eight Asian countries. The allozyme analyses revealed that 17 enzymes examined were controlled by genes at 27 loci, and that 7.9 phenotypes were produced by 5.2 alleles on average. The two species recognized in F. limnocharis sensu lato from Southeast Asia (i.e., F. limnocharis sensu stricto and F. iskandari) were found to occur sympatrically at three localities (Bogor, Cianjur and Malingping), all on Java, Indonesia. Fejervaya iskandari was dominant at each of these localities and showed substantial geographic genetic variation. Laboratory-produced hybrids between F. limnocharis and F. iskandari from Java became underdeveloped and died at the tadpole stage, suggesting that these species are completely isolated by hybrid inviability. Hybrids between topotypic F. limnocharis and the Malaysian and Japanese conspecific populations developed normally to metamorphosis. Likewise, hybrids between topotypic F. iskandari and the Thailand and Bangladesh conspecific populations also showed normal viability throughout larval development. The present allozyme analyses and crossing experiments strongly suggested the presence of two distinct forms, the large type and the small type, in the F. limnocharis complex from Asia, and further subdivision of the large type into the F. limnocharis assemblage and the F. iskandari assemblage. The small type was found in samples from India, Thailand, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and included at least three different species. The sample from Pilok, Thailand, was considered to represent an undescribed species.

  5. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  6. Asian Heroes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China,South Korea and Japan keep Olympic flag flying Atotal of 19 countries and regions of Asia competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, winning 86 gold, 54 silver and 72 bronze medals. Their gold medal haul accounted for 28.5 percent of the total 302 gold medals awarded. Of the Asian medal winners, China, Japan and South Korea were the top three accounting for 73 gold medals, and 84.9 percent of all medals won by Asian countries.

  7. 国家风险与重新安排债务的概率--亚洲5国的实证研究%Country Risks and Possibility of Debt Rearrangement:the Experimental Analysis of 5 Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连秀花; 张金水

    2005-01-01

    Using probit analyses, this paper identifies those risk factors that have an influence on the occurrence of debt rescheduling for five Asian countries that were badly hit by the Asian financial crisis of 1997 ~1998. Our results indicate that the real growth of GDP,the ratio of public debt to GDP, the amortization rate and changes in the real exchange rate were among the important factors that characterize the probability of debt rescheduling in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand for 1980~2001. Our investigation also reveals the limitations of using probit analyses to study country risk.

  8. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

  9. Indicators of financial crises do work! : an early-warning system for six Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, [No Value; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2003-01-01

    Indicators of financial crisis generally do not have a good track record. This paper presents an early warning system for six countries in Asia, in which indicators do work.We distinguish three types of financial crises, currency crises, banking crises and debt crises, and extract four groups of ind

  10. Pathogenic waterborne free-living amoebae: An update from selected Southeast Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Mahboob, Tooba; Mong, Brandon G. J.; Jaturas, Narong; Richard, Reena Leeba; Tian-Chye, Tan; Phimphila, Anusorn; Mahaphonh, Panomphanh; Aye, Kyaw Nyein; Aung, Wai Lynn; Chuah, Joon; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yasiri, Atipat; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2017-01-01

    Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature. Morphological identification was conducted for both trophozoites and cysts via microscopic stains (Giemsa and immunofluorescence). The presence of Naegleria-like structures was the most frequently encountered in both treated and untreated water samples, followed by Acanthamoeba-like and Vermamoeba-like features. To identify the pathogenic isolates, species-specific primer sets were applied for molecular identification of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba. The pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba lenticulata and A. triangularis were detected from untreated water samples, while Vermamoeba vermiformis was found in both treated and untreated water samples. Our results suggested that poor water quality as well as inadequate maintenance and treatment might be the cause of this alarming problem since chlorine disinfection is ineffective in eradicating these amoebas in treated water samples. Regular monitoring and examination of water qualities are necessary in order to control the growth, hence, further preventing the widespread of FLA infections among the public. PMID:28212409

  11. 浅谈中亚文献在国外的分布情况%Talking about the Distribution of Central Asian Literature in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞娥; 张沛黎

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, along with the rise of Central Asian countries' international strategic position, domestic scholars have intensified the research on political, historical, economic, cultural and other fields of Central Asian countries. Scholars have also paid more and more attention to Central Asian literature. They have the same important guiding significance to understand the distribution and collection status of Central Asian literature in China and to understand the distribution status of Central Asian literature in foreign countries. This paper introduces the distribution of Central Asian literature in foreign countries from two aspects od geographical area and collection system in order to provide a reference for vast scholars' research in this filed.%近年来,随着中亚国家国际战略地位的提升,国内加大了对中亚国家政治、历史、经济、文化等领域的研究力度,学者们对中亚文献的重视程度亦与日俱增,在了解国内中亚文献分布和收藏情况的同时,从宏观上了解中亚文献信息资源在国外的分布情况,同样具有重要的指导意义. 从地理区域和收藏系统两方面介绍了国外中亚文献的分布情况,以期为广大学者在该领域的研究提供参考.

  12. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”, Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm” or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”. Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. Keywords: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, cysticercosis, zoonotic disease, neglected tropical diseases

  13. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  14. What Should Educational Reform in Indonesia Look Like?--Learning from the PISA Science Scores of East-Asian Countries and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Nadi

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia always continually failed international assessments even though many efforts have been made. The results of PISA 2012 put Indonesian students in the worst position. In contrast, East Asian countries' performance well in mathematics, reading, and science. Indeed, Singapore has the best performance in the Southeast Asia region even in the…

  15. A stochastic risk assessment for Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries for earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Schaefer, Andreas; Toro, Joaquin; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Simpson, Alanna; Saito, Keiko; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    This systematic assessment of earthquake risk for 33 countries in the ECA region was motivated by the interest of the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) in supporting Disaster Risk Management (DRM) efforts. They envisaged an exposure-based analysis that looked at the potential economic and/or social exposure of the populations of various countries to earthquake risk. Using a stochastic earthquake hazard model and historical catalogues, a unified earthquake catalogue was created for the 33 countries. A combined fault and background source model was created using data from many authors. The maximum magnitude and seismotectonic source zone discretization was undertaken using logic tree approaches. Site effects were taken into account on the basis of local topography and tectonic regime. Two approaches were used to calculate local ground motion - intensity prediction equations for MMI and a combination of GMPEs for stable and active settings. A 1km grid was used for analysis with aggregations of exposure quantified in terms of GDP and capital stock using disaggregated provincial analysis from CATDAT, as well as population data from Deltares. Vulnerability functions were calculated using socio-economic empirical functions derived by Daniell (2014) for the countries taking into account historical losses, seismic resistant code implementation and building typologies in each country. PML curves were created for each province in the 33 nations, through 3 methods; the 1st using direct historical values via the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database; the 2nd using normalization procedures in order to provide a quick estimate of the historical record quantified in today's terms filling in gaps; and the 3rd being a traditional stochastic modelling approach over a period of 10,000 years taking all uncertainties into account. SSP projections of growth from the OECD were used to quantify the risk in 2010, 2030 and 2080 in order to examine

  16. Socioeconomic impact of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the ACTION study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Monaghan, Helen; Sokha, Eav; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Bounxouei, Bounthaphany; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Khin, Myo; Cristal-Luna, Gloria; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Hung, Nguyen Chan; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.

  17. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic restrictions, and unequal educational and cultural treatment. According to Malaysia census data and natural population growth rate, this paper made estimation that by 201 0 a total of 1.13 million ethnic Chinese had migrated out of Malaysia. After deducting the number of ethnic Chinese moving to Malaysia, the Malaysian Chinese migrating abroad reached 1.05 million. Malaysian Chinese left Malaysia in the manner of permanent residents and short-term migrants. Permanent residents include those in the skill stream, family stream and those with special eligibility. Short-term migrants refer to visiting scholars, foreign students, guest labor, business expatriates and expatriate professionals. As a matter of fact, there has been a serious brain drain through Chinese remigration from Malaysia.

  18. Inter-rater agreement in the assessment of abnormal chest X-ray findings for tuberculosis between two Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurada Shinsaku

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-rater agreement in the interpretation of chest X-ray (CXR films is crucial for clinical and epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. We compared the readings of CXR films used for a survey of tuberculosis between raters from two Asian countries. Methods Of the 11,624 people enrolled in a prevalence survey in Hanoi, Viet Nam, in 2003, we studied 258 individuals whose CXR films did not exclude the possibility of active tuberculosis. Follow-up films obtained from accessible individuals in 2006 were also analyzed. Two Japanese and two Vietnamese raters read the CXR films based on a coding system proposed by Den Boon et al. and another system newly developed in this study. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Marginal homogeneity was evaluated by the generalized estimating equation (GEE. Results CXR findings suspected of tuberculosis differed between the four raters. The frequencies of infiltrates and fibrosis/scarring detected on the films significantly differed between the raters from the two countries (P P = 0.0082, respectively, by GEE. The definition of findings such as primary cavity, used in the coding systems also affected the degree of agreement. Conclusions CXR findings were inconsistent between the raters with different backgrounds. High inter-rater agreement is a component necessary for an optimal CXR coding system, particularly in international studies. An analysis of reading results and a thorough discussion to achieve a consensus would be necessary to achieve further consistency and high quality of reading.

  19. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC-MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake.

  20. Food Labeling Regulations in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC Countries: Benefits, Challenges and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Naim Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food labels describe the content of a food and are intended to guide the consumer in food selection. The nutrition information provided must be in consistency with legal requirements and dietary recommendations. Selection of the specific nutrients or food components to be listed should further take into account label space, the analytical feasibility of measuring the particular nutritional component within the food matrix, and the relative costs of such analyses. Information provided on labels should be truthful and not mislead consumers. At the same time, labeling regulations should provide incentives to manufacturers to develop products that promote public health and assist consumers in following dietary recommendations. In some countries some segments of the population benefit from information about the composition of foods. In such cases, countries should consider the need to provide for appropriate labeling and its presentation relative to existing regulations. Different approaches and legal requirements have been established. These create difficulties in developing and harmonizing labels, which have broad international applications. For these reasons, the Codex Guidelines on food labeling play an important role to provide guidance to member countries when they want to develop or update their national regulations and to encourage harmonization of national with international standards. These Guidelines are based on the principle that no food should be described or presented in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive. Exchange of information at the regional and sub-regional level is important, as each country can learn from the experience of others and regional co-ordination and co-operation can be developed.

  1. The burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Norman, Rosana; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent data on cancer rates and the burden of cancer in the ASEAN region. Epidemiological data were sourced from GLOBOCAN 2008 and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost were estimated using the standard methodology developed within the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease study. Overall, it was estimated there were over 700,000 new cases of cancer and 500,000 cancer deaths in ASEAN in the year 2008, leading to approximately 7.5 million DALYs lost in one year. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (98,143), breast (86,842) and liver cancers (74,777). The most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (85,772), liver cancer (69,115) and colorectal cancer (44,280). The burden of cancer in terms of DALYs lost was highest in Laos, Viet Nam and Myanmar and lowest in Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines. Significant differences in the patterns of cancer from country to country were observed. Another key finding was the major impact played by population age distribution on cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer rates in ASEAN are expected to increase with ageing of populations and changes in lifestyles associated with economic development. Therefore, ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place cancer-control health care policies, focussed on strengthening the health systems to cope with projected increases in cancer prevention, treatment and management needs.

  2. Lipoprotein abnormalities in South Asians and its association with cardiovascular disease:Current state and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozlem Bilen; Ayeesha Kamal; Salim S Virani

    2016-01-01

    South Asians have a high prevalence of coronary heart disease(CHD) and suffer from early-onset CHD compared to other ethnic groups. Conventional risk factors may not fully explain this increased CHD risk in this population. Indeed, South Asians have a unique lipid profile which may predispose them to premature CHD. Dyslipidemia in this patient population seems to be an important contributor to the high incidence of coronary atherosclerosis. The dyslipidemia in South Asians is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol, elevated lipoprotein(a) levels, and a higher atherogenic particle burden despite comparable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with other ethnic subgroups. HDL particles also appear to be smaller, dysfunctional, and proatherogenic in South Asians. Despite the rapid expansion of the current literature with better understanding of the specific lipid abnormalities in this patient population, studies with adequate sample sizes are needed to assess the significance and contribution of a given lipid parameter on overall cardiovascular risk in this population. Specific management goals and treatment thresholds do not exist for South Asians because of paucity of data. Current treatment recommendations are mostly extrapolated from Western guidelines. Lastly, large, prospective studies with outcomes data are needed to assess cardiovascular benefit associated with various lipid-lowering therapies(including combination therapy) in this patient population.

  3. Prevalence of incidental prostate cancer in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy:data from China and other Asian countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ping Zhu; Ding-Wei Ye; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Yi-Jun Shen; Yao Zhu; Guo-Hai Shi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency of prostate cancer (Pea) discovered incidentally in radical eystoprostatectomy specimens in Asia and to determine the feasibility of prostate-sparing cystectomy (PSC) for Asian patients.Ninety-two male bladder cancer patients who underwent radical eystoprostatectomy at our center between January 2003 and January 2008 were included in this study.The mean age of patients was 67.1 years (range:32-75 years).Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and digital rectal examination (DRE) results before surgery were obtained retrospectively.Prostates of all patients were embedded and sectioned at 5-mm intervals.The same pathologist examined the prostatic tissues from radical cystoprostatectomy specimens.Finally,a structured literature review was performed using MEDLINE and PUBMED to estimate the occurrence of incidental Pea in Asia.Of the 92 patients,3 (3.3%) were found to have Pea;in one out of three (33.3%) patients the disease was clinically significant due to a Gleason grade 4 carcinoma.Eight articles were included in our review.The overall incidence of Pea discovered incidentally in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens in Asia was 9.9% (64/642).When age was restricted to<60 years,only 7 out of 222 (3.2%)patients were found to have synchronous Pea,and none of the cases was clinically significant.The occurrence of Pea in radical eystoprostatectomy specimens in Asia is much lower than that in Western countries.PSC might be feasible for Asian patients under a strict preoperative selection.

  4. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  5. Organoleptic qualities and acceptability of fortified rice in two Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh Van, Tran; Burja, Kurt; Thuy Nga, Tran; Kong, Kannitha; Berger, Jacques; Gardner, Michelle; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Hop, Le Thi; Tuyen, Le Danh; Wieringa, Frank T

    2014-09-01

    Fortified rice has the potential to improve the micronutrients status of vulnerable populations. However, fortified rice has to have acceptable organoleptic--the sensory properties of a particular food--qualities. Few data exist on the acceptability of fortified rice in Asia. To assess the acceptability of two types of fortified rice (cold and hot extruded) in Vietnam and Cambodia, triangle tests were conducted in Vietnam (53 women) and Cambodia (258 adults), testing fortified rice against conventional rice, with participants being asked to score the organoleptic qualities. In addition, Cambodian schoolchildren (n = 1700) were given conventional rice and two types of fortified rice for two week periods as part of a World Food Program school meal program, with intake monitored. Fortified rice differed significantly in organoleptic qualities from conventional rice, with most subjects correctly identifying fortified rice (P rice was found to be highly acceptable in both countries. In Cambodia, schoolchildren consuming fortified rice had higher intakes than when consuming conventional rice (176 g/child/day and 168 g/child/day, respectively; P rice is acceptable in two countries in Southeast Asia. However, specific information is needed to explain the organoleptic qualities of fortified rice as perceived by end-users.

  6. The prospects and requirements for increasing private sector investments in the mineral sector of the countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handelsman, S.D. [Ridgewood Partners Ltd., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established at the Dhaka summit, Dec 1985, to foster better understanding and economic development through mutual cooperation. The economies of the SAARC countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives) are at different stages of liberalization and economic reforms with the objective to increase economic development in these countries. To mobilize the financing and transfer of the technology and know-how required for such increased economic development, more emphasis is being given to the role and contribution of the private sector. A summary is presented of a study commissioned by the Asian Development Bank: to review the present status of the mineral sector in the SAARC countries; to identify its potential for further development; and the steps that need to be taken by the governments to promote such development. 171 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Factors influencing diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis after a fragility fracture among postmenopausal women in Asian countries: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Annie W; Fan, Tao; Xu, Ling; Xia, Wei B; Park, Il Hyung; Kim, Hak Sun; Chan, Siew Pheng; Lee, Joon Kiong; Koh, Leonard; Soong, Yung Kuei; Soontrapa, Suppasin; Songpatanasilp, Thawee; Turajane, Thana; Yates, Marc; Sen, Shuvayu

    2013-02-14

    A vast amount of literature describes the incidence of fracture as a risk for recurrent osteoporotic fractures in western and Asian countries. Osteoporosis evaluation and treatment after a low-trauma fracture, however, has not been well characterized in postmenopausal women in Asia. The purpose of this study was to characterize patient and health system characteristics associated with the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women hospitalized with a fragility fracture in Asia. Patient surveys and medical charts of postmenopausal women (N=1,122) discharged after a fragility hip fracture from treatment centers in mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007 were reviewed for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, osteoporosis diagnosis, and osteoporosis treatment. The mean (SD) age was 72.9 (11.5) years. A BMD measurement was reported by 28.2% of patients, 51.5% were informed that they had osteoporosis, and 33.0% received prescription medications for osteoporosis in the 6 months after discharge. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, prior history of fracture decreased the odds of a BMD measurement (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.88). Having a BMD measurement increased the odds of osteoporosis diagnosis (OR 10.1, 95% CI 6.36-16.0), as did having health insurance (OR 4.95, 95% CI 1.51-16.21 for private insurance with partial self-payment relative to 100% self-payment). A history of fracture was not independently associated with an osteoporosis diagnosis (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56-1.15). Younger age reduced the odds of receiving medication for osteoporosis (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96 relative to age ≥65), while having a BMD measurement increased the odds (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.23-2.61). Osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment in Asian countries were driven by BMD measurement but not by fracture history. Future efforts should emphasize education of general practitioners and

  8. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations......, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical...

  9. The effects of globalization on firm’s stock in the selected Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Haghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to survey the effects of economic globalization on the firm’s stock that is measured by the index of the stock market by using panel data in selected countries in Asia (Iran, Saudi Arabia, India, China, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, South Korea, Russia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka during 1997- 2013. Unit root tests indicate that the variables are stationary on the level. The results of F-test, Breusch-Pagan and Hausman tests show that the unilateral fixed effects must be applied. The results show that the economic globalization significantly improves stock market index. Moreover the positive and significant effect on the firm’s stock depend on political globalization and dummy variable, however the negative and significant effect is related to the growth rate of government expenditure, the exchange rate and the interaction effects of economy.

  10. Current status and countermeasures of Central Asian Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) conservation and research%四爪陆龟保护研究现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志国

    2016-01-01

    四爪陆龟(Testudo horsfieldii)栖居于半荒漠草原地带,属国家Ⅰ级重点保护物种,IUCN将其列为易危(VU)等级。目前仅分布于新疆霍城县天山支脉阿克拉斯山山前四爪陆龟自然保护区范围内。由于农牧业活动加剧和偷猎捕杀,四爪陆龟种群数量锐减,分布区范围日益缩小。为加强该物种的保护与管理,国内外学者开展了大量的研究工作。本文通过对四爪陆龟保护研究现状及胁迫因子分析,探讨生物多样性保护的有效途径与对策,为今后更好地对四爪陆龟进行保护提供科学依据。%Central Asian Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) is inhabiting in the semi-desert grasslands areas,ranked as a grade Ⅰ key protected wildlife species in China and defined as Vulnerable (VU)in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Central asian tortoiseis endemic to Huocheng Central asian tortoise National Nature Reserve,Xinjiang Uygur Au-tonomous Region.During the last several decades,the distribution area and number of Central Asian Tortoise have de-clined drastically,and this species has disappeared in many parts of its former vast natural habitat due to the land-use changes,negative impact of land privatization,over-hunting and poaching.Scientists from different countries have con-ducted numerous researches and published a lot of papers devoted to Central Asian Tortoise’s distribution,population number,diet,habitat selection,reproduction ecology and behavior.The present paper briefly reviews the current status of Central Asian Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) conservation and researches,analyzes the main threats,and introduces the achievements obtained in conservation and researches in China.Protection countermeasures for this endangered species have been given in this paper.

  11. Trade Balances of the Asian Countries under Crisis: Forecast and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the financial crisis, we need to do some reform, such as to change the governmental and non-governmental structure, make sure the policy to be transparent, and remove restrictions, etc. All these measures can restore the confidence of foreign investors towards Korea. But to make balance of the trade surplus and keep foreign exchange reserve at a reasonable level, ensure foreign exchange and the security of financial department is one of the most urgent topics. Since the deep relationship of economy among countries in North-East Asia, financial crisis is not only the problem in Korea. It is already expended to the whole North-East Asia. This thesis shows the idea that we can forecast surplus in the trade balance scale, enlarge the trade balance of South Korea and activate export. It also shows that instead of the increase of export, the surplus is caused by the decrease of import. At this point of view, the number of surplus is not true. If the investment keeps decreasing like this, the foundation of Korean Economy will collapse.

  12. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Colour Stability of Nano Hybrid Composite Resin in Commonly Used Food Colourants in Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjan, Girija S; Varma Kanumuri, Madhu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in colour stability of aesthetic restorations. So far few studies have been reported. Aim This study was designed to investigate the effects of different common food colourants i.e., Turmeric and Carmoisine (orange red dye) consumed by patients in Asian countries on a recent nano hybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods A total of sixty disk shaped specimens measuring 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared. The samples were divided into two groups {Z 100 (Dental restorative composite) Filtek Z 250 XT (Nano hybrid universal restorative)}. Baseline colour measurement of all specimens were made using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIE L*a*b* system. Specimens were immersed in artificial saliva and different experimental solutions containing food colourants (carmoisine solution and turmeric solution) for three hours per day at 37°C. Colour measurements were made after 15 days. Colour difference (ΔE*) was calculated. Mean values were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multiple range test by Tukey Post-hoc test procedure was employed to identify the significant groups at 5% level. Results Z 100 showed minimum staining capacity when compared to Z 250 XT in both the colourant solutions. Conclusion The nanohybrid composite resin containing TEGDMA showed significant colour change when compared to that of microhybrid composite resin as a result of staining in turmeric and carmoisine solution. PMID:28274047

  13. Population and development beyond the first demographic transition: a focus on the experience of east and southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin W. Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers a wide scope, focusing on some trends in East and Southeast Asia that may be of interest to Latin America. The first demographic transition has essentially been completed in both regions. The issue is what should now be the focus of our consideration of population and development? East Asian countries are now stressing issues of ultra-low fertility, and policies to raise fertility. They are not comfortable with the prospect of making up future deficits through international migration. The paper also deals briefly with studies of dynamics of change in mega-urban regions, and argues that comparative studies on Latin America and Asia could be valuable. Issues of poverty, development, and equity are then addressed, with particular emphasis on the role of education as a key to equality and development. One dilemma is that in East Asia, the generally commendable obsession with education is one factor making for very low levels of fertility. Finally, the paper touches on population and environmental issues.

  14. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Clausen, Preben

    indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently...... needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway....

  15. A Country-Specific Water Consumption Inventory Considering International Trade in Asian Countries Using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Ono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the impacts of water use in the life cycle of products and services are increasing among various stakeholders. The water footprint is a tool to identify critical and effective points for reducing the impact of water use through the entire life cycle of products, services, and organizations. The purpose of this study was to develop a water consumption inventory database that focused on identifying of Asian water consumption using an input-output (IO framework. An Asia International Input-Output table (AIIO was applied in this study. The amount of water consumption required for agricultural products was estimated by modeling; for other sectors it was estimated from statistical reports. The intensities of direct water consumption in each sector were calculated by dividing the amount of water consumption by the domestic production. Based on the IO analysis using Leontief’s inverse matrix, the intensities of water consumption from cradle to gate were estimated for all goods and services. There was high intensity of water consumption in the primary industry sectors, together with a high dependency on rainwater as an input water source. The water consumption intensities generally showed a larger reduction in secondary sectors, in comparison with the tertiary sectors, due to the use of recycled water. There were differences between this study and previous studies due to the use of site-specific production data and the temporal resolution of crop production. By considering site-specific conditions, it is expected that the dataset developed here can be used for estimating the water footprint of products, services, and organizations in nine countries (Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and USA.

  16. After the demographic transition: policy responses to low fertility in four Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, A

    1994-09-01

    In the low fertility countries of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Thailand, policy-makers are concerned about the consequences of low growth. In South Korea, a family planning (FP) program was instituted in the early 1960s, and fertility declined to 1.6 by 1987. Rural fertility is still higher at 1.96, and abortion rates are high. 32.2% of fertility reduction is accomplished through abortion. South Korean population will not stabilize until 2021, at 50.6 million people. The elderly are expected to increase and strain housing, energy, and land resources. Government support for FP is being reduced, while private sector services are being enhanced. Government sterilization programs have been reduced significantly, and revisions in the Medical Insurance Law will cover part of contraceptive cost. Integrated services are being established. Many argue for an emphasis on birth spacing, child and family development, sex education, and care of the elderly. In Taiwan, replacement level fertility was reached in 1983. Policy in 1992 recommended increasing fertility from 1.6 to 2.1. The aim was to stabilize population without pronatalist interventions. Regardless of policy decisions, population growth will continue over the next 40 years, and the extent of aging will increase. In Singapore since the 1960s, the national government focused on encouraging small families through fertility incentives, mass media campaigns, and easy access to FP services. Fertility declined to 1.4 in 1988. Since 1983, government has established a variety of pronatalist incentives. In 1989, fertility increased to 1.8. The pronatalist shift is viewed as not likely to succeed in dealing with the concern for an adequate work force to support the elderly and economic development. In Thailand, fertility declined the fastest to 2.4 in 1993. The key factors were rapid economic and social development, a supportive cultural setting, strong demand for fertility control, and a successful FP program. The goal

  17. A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina von Rintelen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the ten member states of the economically and politically diverse regional organization of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN. Southeast Asia comprises four of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots, three of the 17 global megadiverse countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines and the most diverse coral reefs in the world. All member states are Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. We discuss ASEAN-wide joint activities on nature conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity that do not stop at national borders. The Indonesian archipelago comprises two of the world’s biodiversity hotspots (areas with a high degree of endemic species that are highly threatened by loss of habitats: Its insular character and complex geological history led to the evolution of a megadiverse fauna and flora on the global scale. The importance of biodiversity, e.g., in traditional medicine and agriculture, is deep-rooted in Indonesian society. Modern biodiversity pathways include new fields of application in technology, pharmacy and economy along with environmental policies. This development occurred not only in Indonesia but also in other biodiversity-rich tropical countries. This review summarizes and discusses the unique biodiversity of Indonesia from different angles (science, society, environmental policy, and bioeconomy and brings it into context within the ASEAN region. The preconditions of each member state for biodiversity-related activities are rather diverse. Much was done to improve the conditions for biodiversity research and use in several countries, primarily in those with a promising economic development. However, ASEAN as a whole still has further potential for more joint initiatives. Especially Indonesia has the highest biodiversity potential within the ASEAN and beyond, but likewise the highest risk of biodiversity loss. We conclude that Indonesia has not taken full advantage of this

  18. Characterization of urban waste management practices in developing Asian countries: A new analytical framework based on waste characteristics and urban dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    This paper characterizes municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in developing Asia, with a focus on low and middle-income countries. The analysis that is conducted supports a proposed framework that maps out the trends observed in the region in relation to two parameters, waste compositions and urban dimension, which was prepared based on a set of national and urban case studies. The management of MSW in developing Asian countries is driven, first and foremost, by a public health imperative: the collection and disposal of waste in order to avoid the spread of disease vectors from uncollected waste. This comes, however, at a high cost, with local government authorities in these countries spending up to 50% of their budgets in the provision of these services. Little or no value is derived from waste, which is typically seen as a liability and not as a resource that can be harnessed. On the other hand, in many cities in developing Asia there is an informal sector that ekes out a living from the recovery of recyclable materials found in waste. Members of this "informal waste sector" are especially active in areas that are not served by formal waste collection systems, such as slums or squatter areas. A distinctive element shared among many cities in developing Asian countries concerns the composition of the municipal solid waste. MSW in those countries tends to be richer in biodegradable organic matter, which usually accounts for more than 50% of the total waste composition, suggesting that biological methods are more appropriate for treating this organic fraction. Conversely, thermal combustion technologies, which are extensively applied in high-income countries, are technically and economically challenging to deploy in light of the lower calorific value of waste streams which are rich in organics and moisture. Specific approaches and methods are therefore required for designing adequate waste management systems in developing Asian countries. In addition

  19. Diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis: a global overview with special focus on the situation in Asian countries with high TB-DM burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunlan; Hu, Minhui; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The double burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is hitting certain Asian countries harder than other areas. In a global estimate, 15% of all TB cases could be attributable to DM, with 40% of those cases coming from India and China. Many other countries of South, East, and South-East Asia are of particular concern given their TB burdens, large projected increases in DM prevalence, and population size. Objective: In this narrative review, we aimed to: (i) give an overall insight into the evidence on TB-DM epidemiology from high double burden Asian countries, (ii) present the evidence on bi-directional screening implementation in this region, (iii) discuss possible factors related to higher TB susceptibility of Asian diabetic patients, and (iv) identify TB-DM comorbidity treatment challenges. Methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for all studies addressing DM/TB epidemiology, bi-directional screening and management in South, East and South-East Asia. Results: We identified the DM prevalences among TB patients as ranging from approximately 5% to more than 50%, whereas TB prevalences among diabetic patients were 1.8–9.5 times higher than in the general population in developing Asian countries. Evidence from studies designed to address diagnosis and treatment of the dual disease in these critical regions is scarce as well as the evidence related to possible DM patients’ genetic and acquired predisposition for TB. Conclusion: More prospective studies specifically designed to address adequate screening techniques, identify patients at risk, and define an adequate treatment of dual disease in this region are needed without delay. PMID:28245710

  20. Asian Agricultural Research is indexed by CABI,CSA Illumina,AGE and other famous databases in many countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Through the joint efforts of editorial staff and multitudinous readers, Asian Agricultural Research eventually passes the extremely strict appraisal, to be indexed by CABI’s full text repository. CABI is globally acclaimed as one of the most author-itative and prestigious abstract data bases concerning agriculture and forestry. Since inception of publication, Asian Agri-cultural Research has also been indexed by AGE Database, Naresuan University Library, Rural Development Foundation of India, Royal Tropical Institute and CSA Illumina.

  1. Asian Agricultural Research is indexed by CABI, CSA Illumina, AGE and other famous databases in many countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Through the joint efforts of editorial staff and multitudinous readers, Asian Agricultural Research eventually passes the extremely strict appraisal, to be indexed by CABI’s full text repository. CABI is globally acclaimed as one of the most authoritative and prestigious abstract data bases concerning agriculture and forestry. Since inception of publication, Asian Agricultural Research has also been indexed by AGE Database, Naresuan University Library, Rural Development Foundation of India, Royal Tropical Institute and CSA lllumina.

  2. Clustering asian and north african countries according to trend of colon and rectum cancer mortality rates: an application of growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, Farid; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death with half a million deaths per year. Incidence and mortality rates have demonstrated notable changes in Asian and African countries during the last few decades. In this study, we first aimed to determine the trend of colorectal cancer mortality rate in each Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) region, and then re-classify them to find more homogenous classes. Our study population consisted of 52 countries of Asia and North Africa in six IHME pre-defined regions for both genders and age-standardized groups from 1990 to 2010.We first applied simple growth models for pre-defined IHME regions to estimate the intercepts and slopes of mortality rate trends. Then, we clustered the 52 described countries using the latent growth mixture modeling approach for classifying them based on their colorectal mortality rates over time. Statistical analysis revealed that males and people in high income Asia pacific and East Asia countries were at greater risk of death from colon and rectum cancer. In addition, South Asia region had the lowest rates of mortality due to this cancer. Simple growth modeling showed that majority of IHME regions had decreasing trend in mortality rate of colorectal cancer. However, re-classification these countries based on their mortality trend using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to colorectal mortality trend. In general, our statistical analyses showed that most Asian and North African countries had upward trend in their colorectal cancer mortality. We therefore urge the health policy makers in these countries to evaluate the causes of growing mortality and study the interventional programs of successful countries in managing the consequences of this cancer.

  3. Current statewide updates regarding the battle of the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious economic disease of citrus, vectored by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP). The disease and its vector have become established in the United States in the last few decades. This submission reviews recent developments for pest control industry professionals. The submissio...

  4. Impact of technology diffusion on economic growth and international competitiveness. Empirical evidence for four East Asian countries; Gijutsu hakyu no koka to Asia keizai no seichoryoku, yushutsu kyosoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Sakurai, N.

    1999-06-01

    Asian economies hit by the currency crisis in 1997 are still in struggle to recover their growth and to boost again their exports. Although several short-term policy measures to stimulate the demand- side of the economy is certainly necessary, in a longer-term perspective, the key to real recovery would exist in their ability to absorb foreign technologies through trade and/or FDI, as stressed by recent new theories of growth and trade. This paper examines empirically the role of technology diffusion from advanced countries to total factor productivity (TFP) and export competitiveness in four major East-Asian countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, three of which were seriously damaged by the currency crisis. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, we found that technology acquisition from abroad is quite important for TFP growth of most industries in Asia, in particular for two ASEAN countries (Malaysia and Indonesia), while such productivity impact from foreign technology was relatively small for Korea and Singapore. Second, the impact of technology diffusion was much larger in that through trade than in that through foreign direct investment. Some FDI practices to preclude technology access for developing countries might explain such weaker role of FDI on TFP. Third, the nexus between TFP and export competitiveness was surely positive, in particular for industries of high export performance. However, the magnitude of impact was relatively small in Korea, in spite of its overwhelming productivity performance. (author)

  5. The mediating role of Internet addiction in depression, social anxiety, and psychosocial well-being among adolescents in six Asian countries: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C M; Mak, K K; Watanabe, H; Jeong, J; Kim, D; Bahar, N; Ramos, M; Chen, S H; Cheng, C

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the associations of Internet addiction with social anxiety, depression, and psychosocial well-being among Asian adolescents. A self-medication model conceptualizing Internet addiction as a mediating role in relating depression and social anxiety to negative psychosocial well-being was tested. A cross-sectional survey. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 5366 adolescents aged 12-18 years from six Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Philippines) completed a questionnaire with items of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD), Self-Rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA-SR) in the 2012-2013 school year. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the mediating role of Internet addiction in depression, social anxiety, and subjective psychosocial well-being. Significant differences on the scores of IAT, SAS-A, CESD, and HoNOSCA-SR across the six countries were found. The proposed self-medication model of Internet addiction received satisfactory goodness-of-fit with data of all countries. After the path from social anxiety to Internet addiction had been discarded in the revised model, there was a significant improvement of the goodness-of-fit in the models for Japan, South Korea, and the Philippines. Depression and social anxiety reciprocally influenced, whereas depression associated with poorer psychosocial well-being directly and indirectly through Internet addiction in all six countries. Internet addiction mediated the association between social anxiety and poor psychosocial well-being in China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  7. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  8. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  9. Asian Agricultural Research is indexed by CABI,CSA Illumina,AGE and other famous databases in many countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Through the joint efforts of editorial staff and multitudinous readers,Asian Agricultural Research eventually passes the extremely strict appraisal,to be indexed by CABI’ s full text repository.CABI is globally acclaimed as one of the most authoritative and prestigious abstract data bases concerning agriculture and forestry.Since inception of publication,Asian Agricultural Research has also been indexed by AGE Database,Naresuan University Library,Rural Development Foundation of India,Royal Tropical Institute and CSA Illumina.Editorial office of Asian Agricultural Research CABI Database CABI Database,one of the most authoritative and prestigious abstract data bases concerning agriculture and forestry,is compiled by Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International.This data base,since 1973,has indexed 5

  10. Government Spending Shocks, the Current Account and the Real Exchange Rate in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of government spending shocks on the current account and the real exchange rate for 20 OECD countries using panel VAR model, in order to provide empirical stylized facts. The countries were grouped based on openness and size, and the influence of openness and size on the effects of government spending shocks. The main findings are as follows. First, in the analysis of all 20 countries, in response to government spending shocks, the worsening of the current account is significant, but real exchange rate appreciation is not significant. Second, real exchange rate appreciation is more significant and worsening of the current account is more temporary in the group of countries with higher openness than in those with low openness. Third, the worsening of the current account is more significant in the group of large countries than in the group of small countries. Although real exchange rate depreciation under fiscal expansion is not consistent with traditional theories, the results are broadly consistent with the existing theories that incorporate openness and the size of the country.

  11. Age- and Sex-Specific Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to 5 Major and Modifiable Risk Factors in 10 Asian Countries of the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Wang, Xin; Peters, Sanne A E; Mamun, Abdullah; Woodward, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 18 million deaths annually. Much of the burden of CVD resides in lower- and middle-income countries, particularly those Asian countries comprising the Western Pacific Region. Epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that up to 90% of all CVD can be explained by a small number of modifiable risk factors, including blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, total cholesterol and excess body weight. However, the relationship between these risk factors and coronary artery disease and stroke often differ by age and sex, and yet these differences are often overlooked in burden of disease estimations. As such, that can result in either an over- or under-estimation of the disease burden in specific population subgroups, which may affect resource allocation of healthcare. In this review, we derive the most reliable and previously unpublished estimates of the age- and sex-specific burden of vascular disease attributable to the aforementioned risk factors for 10 of the most populous Asian countries in the Western Pacific Region. Understanding how the burden of vascular disease is distributed within and between populations is crucial for developing appropriate health policies and effective treatment strategies, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  12. Is healthcare a 'Necessity' or 'Luxury'? an empirical evidence from public and private sector analyses of South-East Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir Am; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam

    2015-01-01

    South-East Asian Regional (SEAR) countries range from low- to middle-income countries and have considerable differences in mix of public and private sector expenditure on health. This study intends to estimate the income-elasticities of healthcare expenditure in public and private sectors separately for investigating whether healthcare is a 'necessity' or 'luxury' for citizens of these countries. Panel data from 9 SEAR countries over 16 years (1995-2010) were employed. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate income-elasticity of public, private and total healthcare expenditure. Results showed that one percent point increase in GDP per capita increased private expenditure on healthcare by 1.128%, while public expenditure increased by only 0.412%. Inclusion of three-year lagged variables of GDP per capita in the models did not have remarkable influence on the findings. The citizens of SEAR countries consider healthcare as a necessity while provided through public sector and a luxury when delivered by private sector. By increasing the public provisions of healthcare, more redistribution of healthcare resources can be ensured, which can accelerate the journey of SEAR countries towards universal health coverage.

  13. Modulations of aerosol impacts on cloud microphysics induced by the warm Kuroshio Current under the East Asian winter monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M.; Asano, N.; Nakamura, H.; Sakai, S.; Nagao, T. M.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In our previous aircraft observations, the possible influence of high sea surface temperature (SST) along the Kuroshio Current on aerosol-cloud interactions over the western North Pacific was revealed. The cloud droplet number concentration (Nc) was found to increase with decreasing near-surface static stability (NSS), which was evaluated locally as the difference between the SST and surface air temperature (SAT). To explore the spatial and temporal extent to which this warm SST influence can be operative, the present study analyzed Nc values estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite measurements. The comparison of the local Nc values between the high and low SST - SAT days revealed a marked increase in Nc (up to a factor of 1.8) along the Kuroshio Current in the southern East China Sea, where particularly high SST - SAT values (up to 8 K) were observed in winter under monsoonal cold air outflows from the Asian Continent. This cold airflow destabilizes the atmospheric boundary layer, which leads to enhanced updraft velocities within the well-developed mixed layer and thus greater Nc. The monsoonal northwesterlies also bring a large amount of anthropogenic aerosols from the Asian continent that increase Nc in the first place. These results suggest that the same modulations of cloud microphysics can occur over other warm western boundary currents, including the Gulf Stream, under polluted cool continental airflows. Possibilities of influencing the cloud liquid water path are also discussed.

  14. GLOBAL RECESSION AND ASIAN GROWTH: EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, John Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines current macroeconomic developments in industrial countries and explains how slower growth in these economies is being transmitted to developing economies in Asia. The macroeconomic outlook for industrial countries in 2009 is discussed along with the transmission mechanism that has brought the global downturn tothe Asian economies. Monetary and fiscal policy adjustments in Asian economies have been implemented to address the downturn in economic activity and these policies a...

  15. How can countries achieve sustainable food supply in 2050: current knowledge and way forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Jalava, M.; Jägermeyr, J.; Pfister, S.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Varis, O.

    2016-12-01

    Growing population and climate change increase the pressure on already scarce land and water resources. To reach adequate future food supply, without increasing the pressure on these already scarce resources, various measures are suggested, including diet change, food loss reduction and closing the yield gap. Existing studies have highlighted the potential of these measures as solutions for future food security. However, these are either assessed on a global level or if spatially disaggregated, disconnected from each other. These studies illustrate well that the potential of each measure to increase food availability differs widely across the nations. Thus, spatially explicit information on these measures in a combined assessment is urgently needed to understand the leading resource-efficiency opportunities for each geographic area. By using the most recent datasets, we assess how much each country would potentially be able to increase food production with each measure alone and combining them all, at moderate and high levels of implementation. Globally these measures would increase food availability by 90 and 188%, respectively - enough to feed global population in 2050 even with moderate implementation level. Variability among countries is, however, large and several countries in Central America, Africa, Southeast Asian Islands would need high-level of implementation to reach adequate food supply by then and even then, few countries in MENA region would need to increase the trade from today's levels. Our objective was to bring together potential of various measures for increased food production, as shown in different studies. However, dynamic feedbacks between these quantifications were not included in these estimations. For example, the diet change scenarios would result in different production needs, and changes in land use would be required. This, in turn, might influence the potential improvements in food loss reduction and food production. There is thus

  16. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Kartosen; E.S.H. Tan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In concur

  17. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.

  18. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  19. The current status and trend of clinical pharmacology in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several international forums for promoting clinical pharmacology in developing countries have been held since 1980, and several clinical pharmacology programmes targeting developing countries were instituted such that the status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries is not where it was 50 years ago. Therefore, a survey and an appraisal of the literature on the current status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries were undertaken with a hope that it would enable development of appropriate strategies for further promotion of clinical pharmacology in these countries. Methods First, nine determinants (or enabling factors) for running a successful clinical pharmacology programme were identified, i.e., disease burden, drug situation, economic growth, clinical pharmacology activities, recognition, human capital, government support, international collaboration, and support for traditional/alternative medicines. These factors were then evaluated with regard to their current status in the developing countries that responded to an electronic questionnaire, and their historical perspective, using the literature appraisal. From these, a projected trend was constructed with recommendations on the way forward. Results Clinical pharmacology services, research and teaching in developing countries have improved over the past 50 years with over 90% of countries having the appropriate policies for regulation and rational use of medicines in place. Unfortunately, policy implementation remains a challenge, owing to a worsening disease burden and drug situation, versus fewer clinical pharmacologists and other competing priorities for the national budgets. This has led to a preference for training ‘a physician clinical pharmacologist’ in programmes emphasizing local relevancy and for a shorter time, and the training of other professionals in therapeutics for endemic diseases (task shifting), as the most promising strategies of ensuring rational use of

  20. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  1. A Multi-Perspective Reading of Language Policies in the Central Asian Countries%多元视角下中亚国家的语言政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮

    2015-01-01

    苏联解体后中亚各国强行推广主体民族语言,限制包括俄语在内少数民族语言的使用,这给国内民族关系带来了负面影响. 同时,由于中亚各国具有独特的地缘政治特点,其语言政策受到突厥语国家和俄罗斯的影响.%Since the disintegration of the former USSR, the Central Asian countries have made a point of promoting their mainstream n-ative languages while limiting the usage of minority languages including Russia.Such policies have created a negative effect on the rela-tionship between different ethnic groups within those countries.Meanwhile, with special geopolitical characteristics, the language poli-cies of the five countries in Central Asia are subject to influences of Turkic-speaking countries and Russia.

  2. Big Feet: Assessing the Current and Future Impact of Population Size on a Country's Ecological Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, R. S.; Takaro, T.; Miller, C.; Hogg, E.; Anema, A.; Gislason, M.; Parkes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Background: Ecological footprints assess the land and water a population needs to procure its resources and handle its waste. Measures derived from these footprints look at a population's ecological overshoot rather than weighting the population to its footprint. The aim of this study was to examine the latter approach by determining what the current and future weighted world population, by income gradient, would be if everyone lived within the boundary of 1.8 hectares per person. Methods: Country-specific ecological footprints and populations for 2007 were obtained from the Global Footprint Network (www.footprintnetwork.org); and projected populations were collected from US Census Bureau (www.census.gov). Footprint growth to 2050 was based on a business as usual approach developed by Kitzes et al. in Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2008). Weighted population estimates were derived by multiplying actual population by the ratio of the country's footprint to overall boundary of 1.8 hectares per person. Results: The weighted global population increased by 2.4 billion people (37%) in 2007 based on our adjustment. High and middle-income country populations increased, by 242% and 10%, respectively, while low-income country populations decreased by 33%. The weighed global population in 2050 increased by 10.1 billion with the majority of this growth occurring in high-income countries -- 437% versus 67% and 9% respectively for medium and low-income countries. Conclusions: Our study showed that current and future global weighted demographic and ecological impact would be felt mainly in high-income countries even though actual population growth would occur mainly in low and middle-income countries.

  3. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology in Asian countries: Impact of an IAEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, Madan M., E-mail: Madan.rehani@gmail.com [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera, E-mail: ociraj@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Radiation Protection Department, Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Al-Naemi, Huda M., E-mail: Halnaomi@hmc.org.qa [Hamad Medical Corp, Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 1725, Doha (Qatar); Al-Suwaidi, Jamila Salem, E-mail: jsalsuwaidi@dha.gov.ae [Dubai Hospital, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); El-Nachef, Leila, E-mail: nachefl@cnrs.edu.lb [Lebanon Atomic Energy Commission (Lebanon); Khosravi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: hkhosravi@aeoi.org.ir [National Radiation Protection Department, Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kharita, Mohammad Hassan, E-mail: mhkharita@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany, E-mail: mpvany@gmail.com [Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia); Pallewatte, Aruna S., E-mail: asp31263@hotmail.com [Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children, Dr Danister de Silva Mawatha, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Juan, Bayani Cruz San, E-mail: bayanisjuan@yahoo.com [Center for Device Regulation, Radiation Health, and Research Department of Health, Manila (Philippines); Shaaban, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamedshaabanomer@hotmail.com [Al-Sabah Hospital (Kuwait); Zaman, Areesha, E-mail: areeshazaman@hotmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, PAEC, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2012-10-15

    Recognizing the lack of information on image quality and patient doses in most countries in Asia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated a project to assess the status of imaging technology, practice in conventional radiography, mammography, computed tomography (CT) and interventional procedures, and to implement optimisation actions. A total of 20 countries participated. Obsolete practices of use of fluoroscopy for positioning, photofluorography, chest fluoroscopy and conventional tomography were reported by 4 out of 7 countries that provided this information. Low-kV technique for chest radiography is in use in participating countries for 20–85% of cases, and manual processing is in 5–85% of facilities in 5 countries. Instances of the use of adult CT protocol for children in three participating countries were observed in 10–40% of hospitals surveyed. After implementation of a Quality Control programme, the image quality in conventional radiography improved by zero to 13 percentage points in certain countries and dose reduction was from 10% to 85%. In mammography, poor quality, ranging from 10 to 29% of images in different countries was observed. The project increased attention to dose quantities and dose levels in computed tomography, although doses in most cases were not higher than reference levels. In this study 16–19% of patients in interventional cardiology received doses that have potential for either stochastic risk or tissue reaction. This multi-national study is the first of its kind in the Asia, and it provided insight into the situation and opportunities for improvement.

  4. Asian Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, M.

    2011-04-01

    Asian underground facilities are reviewed. The YangYang underground Laboratory in Korea and the Kamioka observatory in Japan are operational and several astrophysical experiments are running. Indian Neutrino Observatory(INO) and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) are under construction and underground experiments are being prepared. Current activities and future prospects at those underground sites are described.

  5. Analysis of Current Development Situation of Asian Athletics from the 16th Asian Games%从16届亚运会看亚洲田径发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李登光; 郑荷花

    2011-01-01

    本文采用文献资料、数理统计和逻辑推理等研究方法,对第16届亚运会田径比赛中获奖国成绩进行整理统计,并与上届亚运会田径赛上各国总排名相对比,从而研究亚洲田径运动的发展现状。研究表明:中日争霸格局瓦解,亚洲田径竞技已是多极化发展方向;中西亚国家外援军突起;各国瓜分奖牌;亚洲田径整体竞技实力低落;我国田径在亚洲的霸主地位受到挑战,伦敦奥运前景堪忧等。另外,通过对上述问题的深入研究,分析我国田径竞技未来发展重点项目,为推动我国田径运动的发展以及在2012年伦敦奥运会取得优异成绩提供一些理论依据和建议。%Adopting the research methodology of literature material,statistics and logic reasoning etc.This paper researches the development status of Asian athletics by analyzing the achievements of medals countries in the track and field of the 16th Asian games,and comparing the national overall ranking with the former Asian games athletics.The research shows the following issues.The Asian track and field athletics is not still just between China and Japan,but the trend toward a multi-polar direction.The Centre Asia and West Asia countries absorb the external athletes.More and more countries share the medals.The overall competitive strength of Asian athletics is weak.It is being challenged of the hegemony of our country in Asia athletics,and we should be worried about the London Olympic Games.In addition,through in-depth study on above issues,this paper analyses the key development projects of track and field athletics in future,to promote the development of athletics and provide some theoretical basis and recommendations in order to achieve outstanding results in London Olympic Games in 2012.

  6. LABOUR FORCE EFFECTS TO CURRENT ACCOUNT MOVEMENT OF ASEAN + 6 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU WIWIN SETYARI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heckscher-Ohlin-Mundell framework suggests that if a country has unexpectedly increased the permanent labour force, there will be a change in the production structure. Increases in the relative proportion of labour-intensive product demand occur and, hence, decrease the need for investment relative to domestic saving, and encourage the current account surplus. This paper tries to fill the empirical studies gap on the effects of the labour force, especially its utilization in the data panel of ASEAN + 6 countries using the generalized method of moments (GMM used to capture the unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity across countries that often arise in a panel data model. The estimation result shows that the labour force has an asymmetric shock and it only affects the country of origin, even when the financial institution deepening as a control variable is included. The analysis also indicates that labour regulations in these countries tend to be rigid because the speed with which the current account adjusts is relatively slow.

  7. Epidemiology and prognostic factors of inpatient mortality of Guillain-Barré syndrome: A nationwide population study over 14years in Asian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Li-Syue; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Yung-Tsan; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Wu, Yung-Fu; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chang, Chih-Ya

    2016-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of inpatient mortality from Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is a rare and potentially life-threatening polyradiculoneuropathy, in an Asian country, as there are few big-data studies regarding this topic. We obtained data regarding patients with GBS from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database admission records. We identified patients with a discharge diagnosis of GBS during 2000-2013 using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code (357.0), and evaluated their baseline characteristics, clinical complications, and risk factors. We identified 5469 patients with GBS, and the crude incidence of GBS was 1.71 per 100,000 person-years. The inpatient mortality rate was 1.61% (88/5469) and 55 deaths (62.5% of all deaths) occurred before day 19 of the hospitalization (mainly during the progressive phase). The predictors of inpatient mortality included older age, a greater comorbidity burden (especially catastrophic illness), endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, cardiac complications, and systemic infection. In contrast, patients who were admitted to a medical center or Neurology Department exhibited a higher survival rate. This 14-year nationwide study included the largest analysis of Asian patients with GBS to date, and identified various prognostic factors that predicted inpatient mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Account Imbalances and Economic Growth: a two-country model with real-financial linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Barbosa de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds a two-country stock-flow consistent model by com- bining a debt-led economy that emits the international reserve currency with an export-led economy. The model has two major implications. First, an initial trade deficit in the debt-led country leads to a perma- nent imbalance in the current account, even when the exchange rate is at parity. Second, different re-balancing mechanisms, namely a currency depreciation or the reduction of the propensity to import in the debt-led c...

  9. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gravely

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%, Republic of Korea (2010: 79%, United States (2010: 73%, Australia (2013: 66%, Malaysia (2011: 62%, United Kingdom (2010: 54%, Canada (2010: 40%, Brazil (2013: 35%, Mexico (2012: 34%, and China (2009: 31%, in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%, Malaysia (19%, Netherlands (18%, United States (15%, Republic of Korea (11%, United Kingdom (10%, Mexico (4%, Canada (4%, Brazil (3%, and China (2%, and in current use (Malaysia (14%, Republic of Korea (7%, Australia (7%, United States (6%, United Kingdom (4%, Netherlands (3%, Canada (1%, and China (0.05%. Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine, and the survey timing along the trajectory of e

  10. Awareness, trial, and current use of electronic cigarettes in 10 countries: Findings from the ITC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C K; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania; Perez, Cristina; Omar, Maizurah; Hummel, Karin

    2014-11-13

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 37%), Mexico (2012: 34%), and China (2009: 31%)), in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%), Malaysia (19%), Netherlands (18%), United States (15%), Republic of Korea (11%), United Kingdom (10%), Brazil (8%), Mexico (4%), Canada (4%), and China (2%)), and in current use (Malaysia (14%), Republic of Korea (7%), Australia (7%), United States (6%), United Kingdom (4%), Netherlands (3%), Canada (1%), and China (0.05%)) [corrected]. The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine), and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette awareness and trial

  11. STAY HERE, GO FURTHER: The Status of Open and Distance Education in Bangladesh Open University (BOU in comparison to two other South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira JAHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education has emerged out of social compulsion, the dynamics of change and new cultures. It was the failure of traditional systems to be able to meet the demand in countries, where the resources available for tertiary education are limited, which basically gave birth to the new trend of education known as open and distance education. This new and innovative system of education has received a high level of acceptance in different countries as it offers flexible educational opportunities for continuing education to a large segment of their population. The increasing number of older adult learners with varying lifestyles in the population, increasing competitiveness of getting places in tertiary institutions, higher cost of education and a shortage of teachers are the main factors for increasing the popularity of distance education (Duncan, et al., 2003. Bangladesh has also taken the opportunity to provide a uniform and mass oriented universal system of education through open and distance education establishing Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this study are- to assess the overall status of BOU in comparison with the open universities of two neighboring South Asian countries considering the following aspects:•Administrative structural functions, •Courses and instructional strategies, •Learning opportunities, and •Library, laboratory and counselling facilities to explore the potential of improvement for BOU to enable it to meet the challenges of the country’s educational needs in the next millennium.

  12. Phylodynamic analysis reveals CRF01_AE dissemination between Japan and neighboring Asian countries and the role of intravenous drug use in transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiichiro Shiino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One major circulating HIV-1 subtype in Southeast Asian countries is CRF01_AE, but little is known about its epidemiology in Japan. We conducted a molecular phylodynamic study of patients newly diagnosed with CRF01_AE from 2003 to 2010. METHODS: Plasma samples from patients registered in Japanese Drug Resistance HIV-1 Surveillance Network were analyzed for protease-reverse transcriptase sequences; all sequences undergo subtyping and phylogenetic analysis using distance-matrix-based, maximum likelihood and Bayesian coalescent Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC phylogenetic inferences. Transmission clusters were identified using interior branch test and depth-first searches for sub-tree partitions. Times of most recent common ancestor (tMRCAs of significant clusters were estimated using Bayesian MCMC analysis. RESULTS: Among 3618 patient registered in our network, 243 were infected with CRF01_AE. The majority of individuals with CRF01_AE were Japanese, predominantly male, and reported heterosexual contact as their risk factor. We found 5 large clusters with ≥5 members and 25 small clusters consisting of pairs of individuals with highly related CRF01_AE strains. The earliest cluster showed a tMRCA of 1996, and consisted of individuals with their known risk as heterosexual contacts. The other four large clusters showed later tMRCAs between 2000 and 2002 with members including intravenous drug users (IVDU and non-Japanese, but not men who have sex with men (MSM. In contrast, small clusters included a high frequency of individuals reporting MSM risk factors. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that some individuals infected with HIV strains spread in East and South-eastern Asian countries. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of CRF01_AE viruses into Japan is estimated to have occurred in the 1990s. CFR01_AE spread via heterosexual behavior, then among persons connected with non-Japanese, IVDU, and MSM. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that some viral

  13. Technology Commercialisation in a Developing Country: Current Condition and Its Challenge in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Dhewanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is considered the main engine of economic growth in both developed and developing countries. Despite the important role of innovation, little has been understood about technology transfer becoming a commercial success in developing countries, especially in the Indonesian context. The purpose of this paper is to identify technology commercialisation activities in Indonesia. Based on secondary data sources, an analysis of the current state regarding the issue is constructed. The findings in this paper suggest that technology commercialisation in Indonesia is initiated at the levels of university, government research institution, and corporate. This study provides insights for policy makers, business leaders, and university administrators into the appropriate roles of institutions and organisations in promoting and assisting technology commercialisation activities of their respective inventors.Key words: Technology commercialisation, developing country, university, government research institution, corporate

  14. Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Shuwen, E-mail: shuwenn@lzu.edu.c [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environment Systems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ding Yongxia; Niu Yunzhu; Li Yixin; Luo Guanghua [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption and efficiency of energy use in developing countries are far lower than in developed countries; however, the CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of energy use is higher. Although developing countries may reduce their CO{sub 2} emission per unit energy use, total energy consumption will rise rapidly with economic development. Thus, developing countries must determine how to undergo economic growth while conserving energy and reducing emissions. To respond to global climate change, it is necessary to develop innovative technology for energy use, transform the energy structure and conduct the clean development mechanism. - Research highlights: {yields} There is a complex nexus between GDP-energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, the causalities from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions are observed generally, but there are some opposite relationships also. {yields} There are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. {yields} There is a large potential for carbon emission reduction in the developing countries through transforming the energy structure, improving energy utilization efficiency and controlling the total energy

  15. Comparison of the Physical Properties of Showers that the Satisfaction of Shower Feeling among Users in Three Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Okamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct a scheme that makes it possible to compare the relationship between water usage, satisfaction, and physical properties in three countries. The physical properties of the shower were measured using physical properties testing apparatus of water-saving standard or scheme for showerheads issued in several water-saving countries and data for users satisfaction evaluation was acquired through bathing experiments. In this paper, we analyzed the result from Taiwanese and Vietnamese individuals to compare them to of Japanese subjects analyzed in the previous study. We compared the physical properties of showers assessed low in satisfaction by Taiwanese, Vietnamese and Japanese subjects. It was assumed that spray pattern tends to decrease satisfaction when the water volume ratio within 100 mm and 150 mm of a measuring device is located a 450 mm distance from the showerhead is low, and that, because all three countries showed the same value, it was imagined that there were no differences in the water volume ratio of high-satisfaction showerheads among three countries. On the other hand, the values of Spray Force-per-Hole, Temperature Drop, and Spray Angle were different among three countries. We speculated that these differences are affected respectively by ethnic differences in pain tolerance, thermoregulatory response and bathing habit.

  16. New horizon in quality care--Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M C

    1997-01-01

    The current status and directions for changes of issues related to quality care in health services in Asian countries--Malaysia, China, Singapore, Japan and Korea are overviewed. In countries with public sector dominated health care systems such as Malaysia. China and Singapore, governmental leadership in quality care is prominent along with legislative backup. Japan and Korea have private sector dominated health care systems and quality care activities are mainly carried out by non-governmental organisations. Hospital accreditation programs are in the developing stages in most countries, although China and Korea started in 1980. Most Asian countries are at the initial stages in quality care activities and focus has been placed on education and training. Asian countries are not exempted from efforts to enhance quality care activities and a new horizon in quality health care is emerging.

  17. The SOOS Asian Workshop:Exploring possibilities for collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastiaan Swart; Jiping Liu; Parli Bhaskar; Louise Newman; Kim Finney; Michael Meredith; Oscar Schoifeld

    2014-01-01

    The ifrst Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) Asian Workshop was successfully held in Shanghai, China in May 2013, attracting over 40 participants from six Asian nations and widening exposure to the objectives and plans of SOOS. The workshop was organized to clarify Asian research activities currently taking place in the Southern Ocean and to discuss, amongst other items, the potential for collaborative efforts with and between Asian countries in SOOS-related activities. The workshop was an important mechanism to initiate discussion, understanding and collaborative avenues in the Asian domain of SOOS beyond current established efforts. Here we present some of the major outcomes of the workshop covering the principle themes of SOOS and attempt to provide a way forward to achieve a more integrated research community, enhance data collection and quality, and guide scientiifc strategy in the Southern Ocean.

  18. TVET Initiatives in Southeast Asian Countries in Response to Increasing Labour Mobility within the Region and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryono

    2011-01-01

    The International Labour Organisation (ILO) report (2007) highlights that labour productivity, education and migration play important roles in shaping competitiveness, growth and development in Southeast Asia. The statistics also reveal interesting aspects of labour mobility. Thirteen and a half million migrants originate from countries in the…

  19. ACCOUNTING INNOVATION ANALYSIS FOR THE STOCK PRICES AND MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OF FIVE ASEAN COUNTRIES DURING AND POST THE 1997 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwin Surja Atmadja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine some of the dynamic interactions of stock prices and macroeconomic factors in five ASEAN countries, Indonesia; Malaysia; the Philippines; Singapore; and Thailand with particular attention to the 1997 Asian financial crisis and period onwards. Using monthly time series data of the countries, accounting innovation analyses based on vector autoregressive (VAR analytical framework is employed to empirically examine the interaction among the variables. This research reveals that, firstly, a shock to a particular variable in the model results in various contemporaneous reactions by other variables across the countries during the sample period. Secondly, the general forecast error variance decomposition results likely reinforce the outcomes of the general impulse response analyses in most of the countries. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini ditujukan untuk mengkaji berbagai interaksi dinamik yang terjadi antara indeks harga saham dan factor-faktor ekonomi makro di kelima negara-negara ASEAN, yaitu Indonesia; Malaysia; Filipina; Singapura; dan Thailand pada saat dan setelah berlangsungnya krisis keuangan Asia tahun 1997. Dengan menggunakan data time series bulanan dari negara-negara tersebut, accounting innovation analysis yang didasarkan atas kerangka analisa vector autoregressive (VAR diaplikasikan untuk menguji secara empiris interaksi dinamik antara berbagai variabel tersebut. Penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa, pertama, suatu goncangan terhadap suatu variabel tertentu di dalam model menghasilkan berbagai reaksi temporer oleh variabel-variabel lainnya di seluruh negara-negara tersebut selama periode penelitian. Kedua, hasil-hasil analisa general forecast error variance decomposition nampaknya cenderung memperkuat hasil-hasil dari analisa general impulse response di sebagian besar negara-negara ASEAN tersebut. Kata kunci: analisa accounting innovation, krisis keuangan Asia, pasar modal, faktor-faktor ekonomi makro

  20. Prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis in people of south Asian ethnicity living in England: the prevalence cannot necessarily be predicted from the prevalence in the country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, G; Shoeb, D; Solaiman, S; Marley, R; Gore, C; Ramsay, M; Harris, R; Ushiro-Lumb, I; Moreea, S; Alam, S; Thomas, H C; Khan, S; Watt, B; Pugh, R N; Ramaiah, S; Jervis, R; Hughes, A; Singhal, S; Cameron, S; Carman, W F; Foster, G R

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in immigrant communities is unknown. Immigrants from south Asia are common in England and elsewhere, and the burden of viral hepatitis in these communities is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of viral hepatitis in immigrants from south Asia living in England, and we therefore undertook a community-based testing project in such people at five sites in England. A total of 4998 people attending community centres were screened for viral hepatitis using oral fluid testing. The overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people of south Asian origin was 1.6% but varied by country of birth being 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.6% and 2.7% in people of this ethnic group born in the UK, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 1.2%-0.2%, 0.1%, 1.5% and 1.8% in people of this ethnic group born in the UK, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, respectively. Analysis of risk factors for HCV infection shows that people from the Pakistani Punjab and those who have immigrated recently are at increased risk of infection. Our study suggests that migrants from Pakistan are at highest risk of viral hepatitis, with those from India at low risk. As prevalence varies both by country and region of origin and over time, the prevalence in migrant communities living in western countries cannot be easily predicted from studies in the country of origin.

  1. Male-female differences in the number of reported incident dengue fever cases in six Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Anker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Demographic factors, such as age and sex, are associated with the likelihood of exposure to Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue. However, dengue date disaggregated by both sex and ageare not routinely reported or analyzed by national surveillance systems. This study analysed the reported number of incident dengue cases by age and sex for six countries in Asia. Methods. Data for the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the Philippines, Singapore and Sri Lanka were obtained from DengueNet; the number of male and female dengue cases was available for four age groups ( 15 years over a cumulative period of six to 10 years. Data for Cambodia (2010 and Malaysia (1997–2008 were obtained from their respective ministries of health. Results. An excess of males was found among reported dengue cases > 15 years of age. This pattern was observed consistently over several years across six culturally and economically diverse countries. Discussion. These data indicated the importance of reporting data stratified by both sex and age since collapsing the data over all ages would have masked some of the observed differences. In order to target preventive measures appropriately, assessment of gender by age is important for dengue because biological or gender-related factors can change over the human lifespan and gender-related factors may differ across countries.

  2. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  3. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  4. THE GRANGER CAUSALITY TESTS FOR THE FIVE ASEAN COUNTRIES STOCK MARKETS AND MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES DURING AND POST THE 1997 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwin Surja Atmadja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine the existence of Granger-causality among stock prices indices and macroeconomic variables in five ASEAN countries, Indonesia; Malaysia; the Philippines; Singapore; and Thailand with particular attention to the 1997 Asian financial crisis and period onwards. Using monthly time series data of the countries, a Granger-causality test based on the vector autoregressive (VAR analytical framework was employed to empirically reveal the causality among the variables. This research finds that there were few Granger causalities found between the country's wtock price index and macroeconomic variables. This indicates that the linkages between domestic stock price movements and macroeconomic factors were very. Due to that, the ASEAN stock markets were crelatively unable to efficiently capture changes in economic fundamentals during the observation period in most of the countries in accordance to the literature in emerging stock markets, and that the influence of specific macroeconomic factors on the domestic economies differ across countries. This also implies that the stock markets do not seem to have played a significant role in most countries' economies, and macroeconomic variables are unlikely to be appropriate indicators to predict not only the future behaviour of other macroeconomic variables, but also that of the stock market price indices. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini mencoba untuk menganalisis keberadaan Granger-causality antara indeks harga saham dan variabel-variabel ekonomi makro di lima negara ASEAN, yaitu Indonesia; Malaysia; Filipina; Singapore; dan Thailand yang berfokus pada periode terjadinya krisis keuangan Asia pada tahun 1997 dan sesudahnya. Dengan mempergunakan data time series bulanan dari setiap negara tersebut, tes Granger-causality yang didasarkan pada kerangka analisa VAR (vector autoregressive diaplikasikan untuk mengungkap secara empiris hubungan kausal antar variabel. Dari hasil tes

  5. Knowledge about, attitude toward, and practice of skin lightening products use and its social correlates among university students in five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge about, attitude toward, and use of skin lightening products (SLP) and its social and psychological correlates among university students from five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. In a cross sectional survey, 3259 undergraduate university students (Mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.6) from five ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, poor mental health, and SLP use. Overall, 79.1% of the students were aware that the use of SLP can harm the skin, and 30.1% knew the active ingredients of SLP. Most students had a positive perception of having a lighter skin tone and SLP. Overall, the prevalence of SLP use over the past 12 months was 30.7%, 16.7% of male, and 30.0% of female students, ranging from 13.4% in Myanmar to 69.4% in Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among women, older age, coming from a poorer family, residing in an upper middle income country, awareness of active skin lightening ingredients, and poor mental health were associated with SLP, while among men, not aware of the negative effects of SLP and awareness of active skin lightening ingredients and poor mental health were associated with SLP use. A high prevalence of SLP use was found in a large sample of ASEAN university students, and several social and mental health-related risk factors were found that may help in guiding interventions. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. The Evaluation of Investment Environment in Banking among Five Central Asian Countries%中亚五国银行业投资环境评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛迪; 宋吟秋

    2015-01-01

    截至2014年末,中国对中亚五国的对外直接投资存量达到100亿美元,双边贸易额约370亿美元。“一带一路”战略的提出,将使未来中国与中亚的经贸合作释放出更大的潜力。随着全球金融格局的不断变化、上合组织框架下的经济金融合作及人民币国际化进程的推进,银行业金融机构在中亚的业务与机构拓展面临着历史性的发展机遇。本文从银行国际化的研究角度出发,通过构建银行业投资环境的评价体系对中亚五国的政治、经济、金融、银行等宏观、中观与微观银行业投资环境分层次对比分析,为金融机构在中亚的国际化发展和布局提供决策依据和建议。%By the end of 2014, China’s stock of foreign direct investment to ifve Central Asian countries had reached US$10 billion and bilateral trade rose to US$37 billion. As the government put forwarded the strategy--“One Belt and One Road”, huge potential will be released for the economic and trade cooperation between China and Central Asia in the future. At the same time, as the profound changes has happened in the global ifnancial structure, the advancement of economical and financial cooperation under the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, as well as the on-going process of RMB internalization, China’s ifnancial institutions now are facing a historical opportunity in deepening the business expansion and institutional development. This paper, from the perspective of research in bank internalization, compares and analyzes banking investment environment among the ifve Central Asian countries through political, economical, banking and other macro level, meso level and micro level separately, by building the evaluation system. Thus to provide some reference for the internalization and development of ifnancial institutions in Central Asia.

  7. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  8. Enhancing Neurosurgical Education in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Current Methods and New Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kevin E; Bernstein, Ilia; Kato, Yoko; Kawase, Takeshi; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2016-11-15

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a critical shortage of basic surgical services. Adequate neurosurgical services can have a far-reaching positive impact on society's health care and, consequently, the economic development in LMICs. Yet surgery, and specifically neurosurgery has been a long neglected sector of global health. This article reviews the current efforts to enhance neurosurgery education in LMICs and outlines ongoing approaches for improvement. In addition, we introduce the concept of a sustainable and cost-effective model to enhance neurosurgical resources in LMICs and describe the process and methods of online curriculum development.

  9. Enhancing Neurosurgical Education in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Current Methods and New Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIANG, Kevin E; BERNSTEIN, Ilia; KATO, Yoko; KAWASE, Takeshi; HODAIE, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a critical shortage of basic surgical services. Adequate neurosurgical services can have a far-reaching positive impact on society’s health care and, consequently, the economic development in LMICs. Yet surgery, and specifically neurosurgery has been a long neglected sector of global health. This article reviews the current efforts to enhance neurosurgery education in LMICs and outlines ongoing approaches for improvement. In addition, we introduce the concept of a sustainable and cost-effective model to enhance neurosurgical resources in LMICs and describe the process and methods of online curriculum development. PMID:27616319

  10. The socioeconomic burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)--stakeholder meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Stephen; Kimman, Merel; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.

  11. Educational Intervention among Barbers to Improve Their Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS: A Pilot Study from a South Asian Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Krishanani, Mukesh; Ali, Faridah Amir; Khuwaja Late, Ali Khan; Qidwai, Waris; Ali, Badar Sabir

    2014-09-01

    One of the Millennium Development Goals is to combat HIV, the burden of which continues to increase in developing countries, like Pakistan. The prevalence is high among the high-risk population, and the use of unsterilized surgical instruments, traditional straight razors, and blades adds to the spread of this disease. This study assesses the effect of an educational intervention on the knowledge of 70 barbers practising in a suburban community in Pakistan regarding HIV and its symptoms and transmission. At baseline, only 10% of the barbers reported that they had ever heard about HIV compared to 49% after the intervention. Similarly, 4% and 6% of them had good knowledge at baseline about symptoms and transmission of the disease, increasing to 39% and 43% respectively, after the intervention (pactivation of mass campaigns to increase public awareness about bloodborne diseases and to educate personnel who might harm the persons in their communities by unsafe practices.

  12. Aspects of the Current Fiscal - Budgetary Situation in Some Euro Area Countries. Implications for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic global crisis has exacerbated some of the imbalances existent in all EU Member States, in particular the fiscal-budgetary imbalances. For some countries whose currency is euro, the fiscal and budgetary challenges seem to threaten even the stability of the euro area. Thus, in the context of financial and economic global crisis, this article aims at identifying a number of negative aspects of the fiscal-budgetary situation of some euro area countries, more seriously affected (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and at revealing a series of possible implications of this phenomenon for Romania, thus giving originality of the conducted analysis. A fulcrum in this approach is the economic literature and the authors’ research work in the field of European integration. Through a comparative approach, the authors have identified some weaknesses of the Romanian economy generated by the current situation of some euro area countries. Given the place of the theme within the frame of present interest researches, the article’s results will be of interest for both academics and practitioners.

  13. Development of Information Literacy through School Libraries in South-East Asian Countries (IFAP Project 461RAS5027)

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO Bangkok, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) and UNESCO co-organized a Regional Workshop on School Library Services in South East Asia. It was followed by a project to examine the current state of information literacy education and recommend action plans to increase school libraries' involvement in the…

  14. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-09-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour.

  15. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Masroor E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS. In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation.

  16. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  17. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2: Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  18. Genetic analysis of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations based on mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene sequences from India and other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Lemtur, Moanaro

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the genetic diversity and demographic history of Bactrocera dorsalis, a destructive and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in diverse geographic regions of India. 19 widely dispersed populations of the fly from India and other Asian countries were analysed using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history in the region. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (H), haloptype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) and average number of nucleotide difference (k)] of populations revealed that B. dorsalis maintains fairly high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Demographic analysis showed significant (negative) Tajimas' D and Fu's F S with non significant sum of squared deviations (SSD) values, which indicate the possibility of recent sudden expansion of species and is further supported through distinctively star-like distribution structure of haplotypes among populations. Thus, the results indicate that both ongoing and historical factors have played important role in determining the genetic structure and diversity of the species in India. Consequently, sterile insect technique (SIT) could be a possible management strategy of species in the regions.

  19. Crop monitoring & yield forecasting system based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and process-based crop growth model: Development and validation in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and timely information on rice crop growth and yield helps governments and other stakeholders adapting their economic policies and enables relief organizations to better anticipate and coordinate relief efforts in the wake of a natural catastrophe. Such delivery of rice growth and yield information is made possible by regular earth observation using space-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology combined with crop modeling approach to estimate yield. Radar-based remote sensing is capable of observing rice vegetation growth irrespective of cloud coverage, an important feature given that in incidences of flooding the sky is often cloud-covered. The system allows rapid damage assessment over the area of interest. Rice yield monitoring is based on a crop growth simulation and SAR-derived key information, particularly start of season and leaf growth rate. Results from pilot study sites in South and South East Asian countries suggest that incorporation of SAR data into crop model improves yield estimation for actual yields. Remote-sensing data assimilation into crop model effectively capture responses of rice crops to environmental conditions over large spatial coverage, which otherwise is practically impossible to achieve. Such improvement of actual yield estimates offers practical application such as in a crop insurance program. Process-based crop simulation model is used in the system to ensure climate information is adequately captured and to enable mid-season yield forecast.

  20. A Correlative Analysis on the Foreign Trade of Xinjiang-Five Central Asian Countries and Economic Growth of Xinjiang%中亚五国对外贸易与新疆经济增长的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骥; 王志远

    2015-01-01

    新疆对中亚五国的外贸在新疆对外贸易中的比重达到70%以上,对新疆经济增长具有重要作用。文章以1999-2013年为样本期,利用统计数据,对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易进行了统计分析,并对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与新疆经济增长的关系进行了实证研究。研究结果显示:新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与经济增长之间存在长期动态均衡关系;新疆对中亚五国的出口是经济增长的Granger因,新疆地区GDP的增长是新疆对中亚五国进口的Granger因。因此,加强中国新疆与中亚五国的双边贸易有益于双方经济增长。%Astract: Foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries accounts for more than 70% of the total volume of foreign trade of Xinjiang, and has played an important role in the economic growth of Xinjiang. This paper analyzes the features of foreign trade of Xinjiang and the relationship of the foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries based on statistics from 1999 to 2013. It shows that there lies the relationship of long-term dynamic equilibrium between the foreign trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries and the economic growth of Xinjiang, export trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is the Granger cause of the economic growth of Xinjiang, and the economic growth of Xinjiang is the Granger cause of import trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries. Therefore, the strengthening bilateral trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is beneficial to the economic growth of both sides.

  1. Japan's Energy Policy in the Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Reiji Takeishi

    2014-01-01

    With encouraged economic activities in the Asian region, energy consumption of Asian countries are substantially increasing. Based on the improved role of Asian countries, the possibility to secure enough energy in the future is becoming a seriously important matter because economic activities basically depend on stable energy supplies.

  2. Risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asian countries: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, S K; Puthussery, S

    2015-03-01

    To assess and synthesize the published evidence on risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asia. A systematically conducted narrative review. A systematic review was conducted of all primary studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives located through the following data bases: PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BioMed central, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and electronic libraries of the authors' institutions. Data extraction and quality appraisal of included studies was done independently by two authors and findings were synthesized in a narrative manner as meta-analysis was found to be inappropriate due to heterogeneity of the included studies. Eleven primary studies were included in the final review, all of which were conducted in school settings in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Prevalence of overweight and obesity showed wide variations in the included studies. The key individual risk factors with statistically significant associations to overweight and obesity included: lack of physical activities reported in six studies; prolonged TV watching/playing computer games reported in four studies; frequent consumption of fast food/junk food reported in four studies; and frequent consumption of calorie dense food items reported in two studies. Family level risk factors included higher socioeconomic status reported in four studies and family history of obesity reported in three studies. This review provides evidence of key contributors to the increasing burden of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents in South Asia, and demonstrates the nutritional transition that characterizes other developing countries and regions around the world. The findings have implications for policy, practice and the development of interventions at various levels to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children and adolescents in

  3. Activities of Asian Students and Young Scientists on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, H.; Lo, C.-Y.; Cho, K.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a history and future prospects of the activities by Asian students and young scientists on photogrammetry and remote sensing. For future growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. In some countries and regions in Asia, local communities are already established by youths and playing important roles of building networks among various schools and institutes. The networks are expected to evolve innovative cooperations after the youths achieve their professions. Although local communities are getting solid growth, Asian youths had had little opportunities to make contacts with youths of other countries and regions. To promote youth activities among Asian regions, in 2007, Asian Association on Remote Sensing (AARS) started a series of programs involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, the Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRS). The programs have provided opportunities and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. As a result of the achievements, the number of youth interested and involved in the programs is on growing. In addition, through the events held in Asian region by ISPRS Student Consortium (ISPRSSC) and WG VI/5, the Asian youths have built friendly partnership with ISPRSSC. Currently, many Asian youth are keeping contacts with ACRS friends via internet even when they are away from ACRS. To keep and expand the network, they are planning to establish an Asian youth organization on remote sensing. This paper describes about the proposals and future prospects on the Asian youth organization.

  4. Magnitude of enterococcal bacteremia in trauma patients admitted for intensive trauma care: A tertiary care experience from South Asian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI and bacteremias due to Enterococcus spp. are increasing worldwide with the current need to understand its causes among hospitalized trauma patients. Hence, the study was conducted. Methodology: A 3-year retrospective laboratory cum clinical based study was performed at a level I trauma center in India. Patients with health care associated enterococcal bacteremia were identified using the hospital database, their episodes of BSI/bacteremia calculated and their clinical records and treatment were noted. Results: A total of 104 nonrepetitive Enterococcus spp. was isolated of which Enterococcus faecium was the most common (52%. High-level resistance to gentamicin high-level aminoglycoside resistance was seen in all the Enterococcus spp. causing bacteremia, whereas a low resistance to vancomycin and teichoplanin was observed. Overall mortality was more in patients infected with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (5/11, 46% compared to those with vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus (9/93, 10%; though no significant association of mortality with Enterococcus spp. bacteremia ( P > 0.05 was seen. The rate of bacteremia due to Enterococcus spp. was 25.4 episodes/1,000 admissions (104/4,094 during the study period. Conclusion: Enterococcal bacteremia is much prevalent in trauma care facilities. Here, a microbiologist can act as a sentinel and help in preventing such infections.

  5. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  6. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  7. Variation of current protocols for managing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in prehospital settings among Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Lin

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: International variation in practices and polices related to OHCAs do exist. Concerns regarding prehospital TOR rules include medical evidence, legal considerations, EMS manpower, public perception, medical oversight, education, EMS characteristics, and cost-effectiveness analysis. Further research is needed to achieve consensus regarding management protocols, especially for EMS that perform resuscitation during transportation of OHCA patients.

  8. Radiocarbon analysis of BC and OC in PM{sub 10} aerosols at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan, during long-range transport events from East Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Daishi [Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); AMS Facility (NIES-TERRA), Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Nakajima, Hitomi [Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Arakaki, Takemitsu, E-mail: arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Kumata, Hidetoshi [School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Shibata, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Masao [AMS Facility (NIES-TERRA), Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    We determined the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio and concentrations of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter <10 mum (PM{sub 10}) collected in Okinawa, Japan, between March and June 2008. During Asian dust events in March and April, APM and OC concentrations in PM{sub 10} aerosols were approximately threefold and twofold higher than those during the non-Asian-dust period in June. 'Refractory' BC concentrations (i.e., because of refraction, <100% of BC was likely recovered) were also higher during Asian dust events than during the non-Asian-dust period. The percentages of modern carbon (pMC) in BC and OC were much smaller for PM{sub 10} aerosols collected during the Asian dust events (mean = 41.5% and 62.3%, respectively) than for those collected in the non-Asian-dust period (mean = 67.2% and 93.8%, respectively), indicating a strong influence of fossil-fuel-derived carbon during Asian dust events. One sample showed high OC concentration but relatively low BC concentration, suggesting formation during the long-range transport of biogenic organic compounds. The results suggest that not only fossil-fuel-derived air pollutants but also organic compounds derived from biomass in Asia should be considered to better characterize long-range transported aerosols.

  9. Current use of contraceptive method among women in a middle-income developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Tazhmoye V Crawford4, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell5, Cynthia G Francis1, Neva South-Bourne11Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York; 4Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaBackground: Jamaica is a mid-range income developing country with an increasing population and public resource constraints. Therefore, reproductive health issues are of critical importance in Jamaica.Aim: We examined the use of contraceptives among women and the factors that influence these women to use contraceptives.Materials and method: In the current study we utilized the secondary dataset for the Reproductive Health Survey, conducted by the National Family Planning Board. The investigation was carried out with a stratified random sample of 7168 women aged between 15 and 49. The measures included demographic variables, method of contraception used, being in a relationship, number of partners, pregnancy status, and sexual activity status, along with other variables.Results: The majority of participants used some method of contraception (64%. The most popular method of contraception was a condom (32%. Results of a multivariate analysis suggests that the explanatory variables for the method of contraception used are age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99, social class (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95, being in a relationship (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.80–4.02, the rural–urban dichotomy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32, being currently pregnant (OR = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.02, currently having sex (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.95–2.70, number of partners (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.57–2.17, the age at

  10. Asian Radiology Forum 2015 for Building an Asian Friendship: A Step toward the Vigorous Intersociety Collaboration in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2016-01-01

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs. PMID:26957902

  11. Asian Radiology Forum 2015 for Building an Asian Friendship: A Step toward the Vigorous Intersociety Collaboration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Jung-Ah; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs.

  12. Asian radiology forum 2015 for building an Asian friendship: A step toward the vigorous intersociety collaboration in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Sung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs.

  13. 我国与中亚五国双边贸易成本的测度与分析%The Measuring and Analyzing of the Bilateral Trade Cost Between China and the Five Mid-Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林; 任媛

    2015-01-01

    中亚五国处于“新丝绸之路经济带”的中心,是我国向西发展区域经贸合作的关键环节。我国虽已成为中亚五国主要的出口市场和进口来源地,但双边贸易呈现贸易总额小,产品单一,主要依赖能源资源、附加价值低的特点。文章采用Novy(2007)提出的改进了的引力方程,测算了2000-2013年我国与中亚各国的双边贸易成本。研究发现:我国与中亚各国双边贸易成本历年来有小幅下降,但仍高于亚洲其他地区,其中,哈萨克斯坦与我国双边贸易成本最低,乌兹别克斯坦最高。%The five Mid‐Asian countries are located in the important position of the “new silk road economic belt” .By using the historical statistic data ,this paper analyzed the bilateral trade between China and the five Mid‐Asian countries .The result shows ,although China has become the main export market and import sources of the five Mid‐Asian countries ,but the total bilateral trade volume is small ,and the main products are energy related .Then ,this paper used the improved gravity equation and calculated the cost of bilateral trade between China and Mid‐Asian countries from 2000 to 2013 .The results show that the cost of bilateral trade between China and Mid‐Asian countries have fallen slightly .

  14. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility survey of cooperation in relation to the joint implementation activities in Southeast Asian countries (6 nations); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Tonan Asia chiikikoku (rokkakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the COP3 Conference on Global Warming held in Kyoto in December 1997, the framework on greenhouse gases was agreed in discussions comprehensively made among Japan, the U.S. and the E.U. As a result, it is for 6 gases including CO2 and methane, and total emissions in developed countries are to be reduced 5% at least during 2008-2012 from the 1990 level. Target of each country is determined by gaps, and Japan`s reduction target is 6%. Therefore, to pass the numerical target agreed, it is necessary to take measures such as rationalization of the energy use by energy saving, etc. in the country and also measures such as promotion of the greenhouse gas emission control in developing countries. Accordingly, for the future development of NEDO`s AIJ project, a possibility of cooperation in the joint implementation was surveyed such as the state of greenhouse gas emissions of countries which are objects of GAP in Southeast Asian countries and neighboring countries, policies of the countries after the COP3 agreement, technological transfer for the emission control, etc. Countries for survey are Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Myanmar. 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. A Strategic Thought on the Relationship between China and Southeast Asian Countries after the Cold War%对冷战后中国与东南亚国家关系的战略思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕艳君

    2004-01-01

    After the Cold War, the international patterns have greatly changed and the globalization of economy has been advanced, thus the importance of the relationship between countries stands out in regional sense. Countries with geographic affinity and international organizations are positively promoting the regional cooperation in seettrity, economy and polities. When this kind of cooperation is mature, those countries will be encouraged to further the integrated cooperation and based on this cooperation form themselves into a regional group. With this as a background, beth China and Southeast Asian countries attach great importance to improving their bilateral relations in diplomacy. China' s diplomacy with them becomes one of the most active and creative rings in its strategy of diplomatic relations.

  16. ASIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH is indexed by CABI,CSA Illumina,AGE and other famous databases,famous research institutes and teaching organizations of many countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Through the joint efforts of personnel in editorial office and multitudinous readers, ASIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH eventually passes the extremely strict appraisal, to be indexed by CABI’s full text repository. CABI is globally acclaimed as

  17. ASIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH is indexed by CABI,CSA Illumina,AGE and other famous databases,famous research institutes and teaching organizations of many countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Through the joint efforts of personnel in editorial office and multitudinous readers, ASIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH eventually passes the extremely strid appraisal, to be indexed by CABI’s full text repository.

  18. Control and management of congenital Chagas disease in Europe and other non-endemic countries: current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Angheben, Andrea; Serre-Delcor, Nuria; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Jackson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Identifying pregnant women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the major challenges for preventing and controlling Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. The aim of this paper was to perform a policy evaluation of the current practices of congenital Chagas disease (CCD) control in non-endemic countries and to propose specific targets for enhanced interventions to tackle this emerging health problem outside the endemic areas of Latin America. We conducted a mixed method review of CCD policy strategies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) databases using the key terms 'CCD', 'paediatric Chagas disease' and 'non-endemic countries'; as free text and combined as one phrase to increase the search sensitivity. Reviews, recommendations, guidelines and control/surveillance programme reports were included. Of 427 CCD papers identified in non-endemic countries, 44 matched the inclusion. Although local programmes were launched in different countries with large numbers of Latin American immigrants, there were considerable disparities in terms of the programmes' distribution, delivery, integration and appropriated CCD control strategies. Moreover, Catalonia, Spain is the only region/country with an established systematic monitoring of CCD in pregnant women from Latin American countries. Given the worldwide dissemination of CD, the nature of its vertical transmission, and the gaps of the current strategies in non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need to standardise, expand and reinforce the control measures against CCD transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: the results of a multinational web-based survey in the 2nd Asian Organization of Crohn's and Colitis (AOCC) meeting in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Bora; Ye, Byoung Duk; Park, Soo Jung; Koo, Hoon Sup; Eun, Chang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management guidelines have been released from Western countries, but no adequate data on the application of these guidelines in Asian countries and no surveys on the treatment of IBD in real practice exist. Since there is a growing need for a customized consensus for IBD treatment in Asian countries, Asian Organization of Crohn's and Colitis performed a multinational survey of medical doctors who treat IBD patients in Asian countries. Methods A questionnaire was developed between August 2013 and November 2013. It was composed of 4 domains: personal information, IBD diagnosis, IBD treatment, and quality of IBD care. Upon completion of the questionnaire, a web-based survey was conducted between 17 March 2014 and 12 May 2014. Results In total, 353 medical doctors treating IBD from ten Asian countries responded to the survey. This survey data suggested a difference in available medical treatments (budesonide, tacrolimus) among Asian countries. Therapeutic strategies regarding refractory IBD (acute severe ulcerative colitis [UC] refractory to intravenous steroids and refractory Crohn's disease [CD]) and active UC were coincident, however, induction therapies for mild to moderate inflammatory small bowel CD are different among Asian countries. Conclusions This survey demonstrated that current therapeutic approaches and clinical management of IBD vary among Asian countries. Based on these results and discussions, we hope that optimal management guidelines for Asian IBD patients will be developed. PMID:27433145

  20. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse...

  2. Evaluation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and risk-prediction models in a typical Asian country (Malaysia) with a relatively low incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirthagiri, E; Lee, S Y; Kang, P; Lee, D S; Toh, G T; Selamat, S; Yoon, S-Y; Taib, N A Mohd; Thong, M K; Yip, C H; Teo, S H

    2008-01-01

    The cost of genetic testing and the limited knowledge about the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in different ethnic groups has limited its availability in medium- and low-resource countries, including Malaysia. In addition, the applicability of many risk-assessment tools, such as the Manchester Scoring System and BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) which were developed based on mutation rates observed primarily in Caucasian populations using data from multiplex families, and in populations where the rate of breast cancer is higher, has not been widely tested in Asia or in Asians living elsewhere. Here, we report the results of genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes in a series of families with breast cancer in the multi-ethnic population (Malay, Chinese and Indian) of Malaysia. A total of 187 breast cancer patients with either early-onset breast cancer (at age

  3. Classification of chronic rhinosinusitis according to a nasal polyp and tissue eosinophilia: limitation of current classification system for Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Lee, Chul Hee

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be classified according to the presence of a nasal polyp (NP): CRS with NP (CRSwNP) and CRS without NP (CRSsNP). CRSwNP has characteristics with high infiltration of tissue eosinophilia with a burst of Th2 inflammatory cytokine. However recent findings in Eastern Asia countries suggest that CRSwNP can be divided according to the presence of tissue eosinophilia. Thus, CRSwNP can be classified into eosinophilic and noneosinophilic. Eosinophilic CRSwNP seems to have different immunological and clinical feature compared to noneosinophilic CRSwNP. From the same point of view, CRSsNP can also be divided according to tissue eosinophilia. However, the meaning of this dichotomous categorization in CRS seems to be not quite clear. This review focus on the limitations in current subclassification of CRS according to the presence of NP and tissue eosinophilia and discuss other factors related to tissue remodeling and NP generation which may provide clues for the further understanding of CRS pathogenesis. PMID:28765816

  4. Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly.

  5. Estimating the size of key populations at higher risk of HIV infection: a summary of experiences and lessons presented during a technical meeting on size estimation among key populations in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongbao; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia; Zhao, Jinkou; Reddy, Amala; Seguy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Size estimates of key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure are recognized as critical for understanding the trajectory of the HIV epidemic and planning and monitoring an effective response, especially for countries with concentrated and low epidemics such as those in Asia. To help countries estimate population sizes of key populations, global guidelines were updated in 2011 to reflect new technical developments and recent field experiences in applying these methods. In September 2013, a meeting of programme managers and experts experienced with population size estimates (PSE) for key populations was held for 13 Asian countries. This article summarizes the key results presented, shares practical lessons learnt and reviews the methodological approaches from implementing PSE in 13 countries. It is important to build capacity to collect, analyse and use PSE data; establish a technical review group; and implement a transparent, well documented process. Countries should adapt global PSE guidelines and maintain operational definitions that are more relevant and useable for country programmes. Development of methods for non-venue-based key populations requires more investment and collaborative efforts between countries and among partners.

  6. Estimating the size of key populations at higher risk of HIV infection: a summary of experiences and lessons presented during a technical meeting on size estimation among key populations in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia; Zhao, Jinkou; Reddy, Amala; Seguy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Problem Size estimates of key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure are recognized as critical for understanding the trajectory of the HIV epidemic and planning and monitoring an effective response, especially for countries with concentrated and low epidemics such as those in Asia. Context To help countries estimate population sizes of key populations, global guidelines were updated in 2011 to reflect new technical developments and recent field experiences in applying these methods. Action In September 2013, a meeting of programme managers and experts experienced with population size estimates (PSE) for key populations was held for 13 Asian countries. This article summarizes the key results presented, shares practical lessons learnt and reviews the methodological approaches from implementing PSE in 13 countries. Lessons learnt It is important to build capacity to collect, analyse and use PSE data; establish a technical review group; and implement a transparent, well documented process. Countries should adapt global PSE guidelines and maintain operational definitions that are more relevant and useable for country programmes. Development of methods for non-venue-based key populations requires more investment and collaborative efforts between countries and among partners. PMID:25320676

  7. Estimating the size of key populations at higher risk of HIV infection: a summary of experiences and lessons presented during a technical meeting on size estimation among key populations in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbao Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Size estimates of key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure are recognized as critical for understanding the trajectory of the HIV epidemic and planning and monitoring an effective response, especially for countries with concentrated and low epidemics such as those in Asia. Context: To help countries estimate population sizes of key populations, global guidelines were updated in 2011 to reflect new technical developments and recent field experiences in applying these methods. Action: In September 2013, a meeting of programme managers and experts experienced with population size estimates (PSE for key populations was held for 13 Asian countries. This article summarizes the key results presented, shares practical lessons learnt and reviews the methodological approaches from implementing PSE in 13 countries. Lessons learnt: It is important to build capacity to collect, analyse and use PSE data; establish a technical review group; and implement a transparent, well-documented process. Countries should adapt global PSE guidelines and maintain operational definitions that are more relevant and useable for country programmes. Development of methods for non-venue-based key populations requires more investment and collaborative efforts between countries and among partners.

  8. 新世纪中亚国家能源地位变化的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis of Energy Status Changes of Central Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴利; 史小康

    2012-01-01

    鉴于中亚国家在世界能源市场中竞争地位的凸显,本文采用聚类分析法,选取了12个主要经济体作为样本,对新世纪中亚国家的能源生产、消费及出口在世界能源市场中的地位予以分析。分析得出:从生产地位来看,中亚国家与世界主要能源生产国同属一类;从消费地位来看,中亚国家不属于世界主要的能源消费国;从出口地位来看,其生产地位和消费地位共同决定了中亚国家在世界能源市场中的出口地位越来越重要;综合能源生产、消费和出口地位来看,中亚国家在世界能源市场中的竞争地位凸显,与美国、俄罗斯、伊朗、埃及和印度同属一类。同时,分析还显示,与拥有丰富能源资源的中亚国家开展合作应该有利于解决我国能源短缺问题。%In view of the highlights of the Central Asian country's competitive position in world energy markets, in this paper, we select Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan which has rich energy resources, such as oil and gas, to he central Asian coun- tries, and choose 12 major economies which be of important position in the world energy production or consumption market, such as US, Venezuela, Russia, Great Britain, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Egypt, China, India and Japan, to be samples cluste- ring of analysis. Firstly, we analyze the energy status changes of Central Asian Countries in the world energy production, con- sumption and export markets in new century; then, based on the economic development speed, we analyze the energy status changes of central Asian countries. In short, to a certain extent, cooperation with Central Asian countries with rich energy re- sources should be conducive to solve energy shortage in China.

  9. Long-term abatement potential and current policy trajectories in Latin American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; McFarland, James; Octaviano, Claudia; van Ruijven, Bas; Beach, Robert; Daenzer, Kathryn; Herreras Martínez, Sara; Lucena, André F. P.; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Loboguerrero Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Mundra, Anupriya; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides perspectives on the role of Latin American and Latin American countries in meeting global abatement goals, based on the scenarios developed through the CLIMACAP-LAMP modeling study.

  10. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there...

  11. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits.

  12. Quaternary clay mineralogy in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146)--Implications for oceanic current transport and East Asian monsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhifei(刘志飞); Alain Trentesaux; Steven C. Clemens; WANG Pinxian(汪品先)

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of clay mineralogy at ODP Site 1146 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) indicates that illite, chlorite, and kaolinite contents increased during glacials and smectite content increased during interglacials. The smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio and the smectite abundance were determined as mineralogical indicators for the East Asian monsoon evolution. At a 10 ka timescale, prevailing southeasterly surface oceanic currents during interglacials transported more smectite from the south and east areas to the north, showing a strengthened summer monsoon circulation, whereas dominated counter-clockwise surface currents during glacials carried more illite and chlorite from Taiwan as well as from the Yangtze River via the Luzon Strait to the northern SCS, indicating a strongly intensified winter monsoon. Based on a 100 ka timescale, a linear correlation between the smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio and the sedimentation rate reflects that the winter monsoon has prevailed in the northern SCS in the intervals 2000-1200 ka and 400-0 ka and the summer monsoon did the same in the interval 1200-400 ka. The evolution of the summer monsoon provides an almost linear response to the summer insolation of Northern Hemisphere, implying an astronomical forcing of the East Asian monsoon evolution.

  13. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  14. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  15. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  16. What is the Asian Consensus Statement on NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN-ACS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-04-01

    Cancer treatment guidelines are compiled on the basis of established evidence. Such evidence is obtained from epidemiological, pathological and pharmacological study and, most importantly of all, the information gained from clinical trials. However, very little of the kind of evidence that is required for the compilation of treatment guidelines is actually obtained from Asian countries. When one considers the ethnic differences and disparities in medical care, coupled with the tremendous cultural diversity that characterize the Asian region, it would be difficult to conclude that there is currently sufficient evidence that could form the basis for the formulation of guidelines that would be relevant and applicable to all Asian countries. An urgent issue that needs to be addressed in order to achieve a breakthrough in this difficult situation is to build up a body of evidence at an advanced level that is specific to the Asian region and Asian ethnicities. For the interim, however, it is also necessary to efficiently incorporate evidence that has been obtained in Western countries. Furthermore, an effective method of utilizing guidelines that have already been compiled in Western countries is considered to be not by simply translating them into local languages, but rather to engage in a process of adaptation, whereby the guidelines are adjusted or modified to match the circumstances of a particular country or region. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines-Asian Consensus Statement (NCCN-ACS) documents have been compiled with this intention in mind, utilizing the NCCN guidelines that are widely used internationally.

  17. Challenges to Quality of English Medium Instruction Degree Programs in Taiwanese Universities and the Role of Local Accreditors: A Perspective of Non-English-Speaking Asian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Angela Yung Chi; Morse, Robert; Chiang, Chung-Lin; Chen, Hui-Jung

    2013-01-01

    As the numbers of international students have grown, higher education institutions in Asia have offered a growing range of English medium instruction (EMI) degree programs. But Asian governments and higher education institutions have not thought deeply about how to ensure quality of English medium instruction degree programs. At the same time,…

  18. Challenges to Quality of English Medium Instruction Degree Programs in Taiwanese Universities and the Role of Local Accreditors: A Perspective of Non-English-Speaking Asian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Angela Yung Chi; Morse, Robert; Chiang, Chung-Lin; Chen, Hui-Jung

    2013-01-01

    As the numbers of international students have grown, higher education institutions in Asia have offered a growing range of English medium instruction (EMI) degree programs. But Asian governments and higher education institutions have not thought deeply about how to ensure quality of English medium instruction degree programs. At the same time,…

  19. ASIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH is indexed by CABI,CSA Illumina,AGE and other famous databases,famous research institutes and teaching organizations of many countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Through the joint efforts of personnel in editorial office and multitudinous readers, ASIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH eventually passes the extremely strict appraisal, to be indexed by CABI’s full text repository. CABI is globally acclaimed as one of the most authoritative and

  20. An Asian perspective on GMO and biotechnology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Paul P S

    2008-01-01

    Of the 102 million hectares that made up the global area of biotech crops in 2006, less than 8% (7.6 million ha) were in Asia. Three biotech crops are currently planted in significant areas in four Asian countries with government regulatory approval; namely, cotton, corn (maize), and canola. However, the amount of GM crop material imported into the Asian region for processing into food and animal feed is very substantial, and almost every country imports GM food. The issues which concern Asian scientists, regulators, and the lay public resemble those of other regions - biosafety, food safety, ethics and social justice, competitiveness, and the "EU" trade question. Most Asian countries now have regulatory systems for approving the commercialization of GM crops, and for approving food safety of GM crops. In Asia, because of the varied cultures, issues concerning the use of genes derived from animals arouse much emotion for religious and diet choice reasons. Because many Asian producers and farmers are small-scale, there is also concern about technology dependency and to whom the benefits accrue. All consumers surveyed have expressed concern about potential allergenic and long-term toxic effects, neither of which is grounded on scientific facts. Because of Asia's growing demand for high volumes of quality food, it is likely that GM crops will become an increasing feature of our diet.

  1. Macroeconomic effects of the current crises in Japan and MENA countries - A model-based assessment of the medium term

    OpenAIRE

    Mönnig, Anke; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Two events currently preoccupy global news: the political unrest in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Both events are very different in its nature and location, but they not only affect economic developments within these countries but also across the world. In the current paper, the macroeconomic effects of both events and of a combination of both crises are analysed by applying a dynamic interindustry model. That not only al...

  2. CMIP5 model-simulated onset, duration and intensity of the Asian summer monsoon in current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangtao; Zhang, H.; Moise, A.; Hanson, L.; Liang, P.; Ye, H.

    2016-01-01

    A number of significant weaknesses existed in our previous analysis of the changes in the Asian monsoon onset/retreat from coupled model intercomparison project phase 3 (CMIP3) models, including a lack of statistical significance tests, a small number of models analysed, and limited understanding of the causes of model uncertainties. Yet, the latest IPCC report acknowledges limited confidence for projected changes in monsoon onset/retreat. In this study we revisit the topic by expanding the analysis to a large number of CMIP5 models over much longer period and with more diagnoses. Daily 850 hPa wind, volumetric atmospheric precipitable water and rainfall data from 26 CMIP5 models over two sets of 50-year periods are used in this study. The overall model skill in reproducing the temporal and spatial patterns of the monsoon development is similar between CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. They are able to show distinct regional characteristics in the evolutions of Indian summer monsoon (ISM), East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and West North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM). Nevertheless, the averaged onset dates vary significantly among the models. Large uncertainty exists in model-simulated changes in onset/retreat dates and the extent of uncertainty is comparable to that in CMIP3 models. Under global warming, a majority of the models tend to suggest delayed onset for the south Asian monsoon in the eastern part of tropical Indian Ocean and Indochina Peninsula and nearby region, primarily due to weakened tropical circulations and eastward shift of the Walker circulation. The earlier onset over the Arabian Sea and part of the Indian subcontinent in a number of the models are related to an enhanced southwesterly flow in the region. Weak changes in other domains are due to the offsetting results among the models, with some models showing earlier onsets but others showing delayed onsets. Different from the analysis of CMIP3 model results, this analysis highlights the importance of SST

  3. 欧亚经济共同体对中亚区域一体化影响的研究%Study of the Influence of Eurasian Economic Community on the Integration of Central Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维然; 赵凤莲

    2012-01-01

    The central Asian countries have taken part in lots of regional economic cooperation organizations since the disintegration of the Soviet Union. It is uncertain whether these organizations, especially the most successful Eurasian Economic Community, have promoted the integration degree of these countries. The research results of this paper indicate that the participation of regional integration is beneficial for the exPort of central Asian countries, but the members of Eurasian Economic Community have not achieved their expected goals. The main cause lies in the fault of industrial structure in these countries. A trade integration network based on marketization has been gradually formed in central Asia, but the government of each country has not recognized its importance and positivity.%自独立以来,中亚国家组织和参加了多个区域经济合作组织。但这些组织.包括其中最为成功的欧亚经济共同体,是否提升了各国一体化水平却尚无定论。通过研究认为参与一体化对中亚国家出口的增长是有利的,但欧亚经济共同体却并未发挥各国预期的作用。产生问题的原因主要是各成员国经济发展水平不一、产业结构的缺陷和市场化程度低下。目前中亚已初步形成了基于市场化的贸易一体化网络并取得了良好的效果,但各国政府尚未认识到其作用和积极性。

  4. Eating disorders in Asian populations: a critique of current approaches to the study of culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lillian Huang; Simmons, Angela M; Zane, Nolan W S

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that eating disorders are present among ethnically diverse populations, and researchers have suggested that investigations in this area may inform the field's understanding of how sociocultural factors are related to the development of eating disorders. Although it is generally accepted that sociocultural factors are key in eating disorder etiology, knowledge on how best to study these influences in diverse groups is still limited. In this article, the authors review how the research literature has explored relationships among culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders in Asian populations and critically examine strategies that have been used to investigate these issues across 1 ethnic/racial group. The methodological challenges encountered in these approaches are identified and considered in the provision of recommendations for future endeavors to improve the field's understanding of how culture is related to eating disorders.

  5. Emerging markets & emerging needs: developing countries vaccine manufacturers' perspective & its current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Suresh S; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil

    2009-06-01

    The success of vaccination has remained an important contribution towards public health in both industrialised and developing countries. However, there are still unmet public health needs in vaccine preventable diseases owing to issues related to affordability, supply, public awareness, research and development, intellectual property, skilled human resource, etc. Various global initiatives are being taken to tackle such issues. DCVMN, Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, is one of such novel initiatives by developing countries, and is playing an important role in facilitating cheaper and quality vaccines to children of the world. DCVMN has become an international body for emerging vaccine manufacturers from the developing world. This manuscript provides an overview of DCVMN with respect to its origin, objectives, achievements, limitations and expectations.

  6. Adherence to cardiovascular medications in the South Asian population:A systematic review of current evidence and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia M Akeroyd; Winston J Chan; Ayeesha K Kamal; Latha Palaniappan; Salim S Virani

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review methods of assessing adherence and strategies to improve adherence to cardiovascular disease(CVD) medications,among South Asian CVD patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English language studies that examined CVD medication adherence in South Asian populations from 1966 to April 1,2015 in SCOPUS and Pub Med. Working in duplicate,we identified 61 studies. After exclusions,26 studies were selected for full text review. Of these,17 studies were included in the final review. We abstracted data on several factors including study design,study population,method of assessing adherence and adherence rate. RESULTS: These studies were conducted in India(n = 11),Pakistan(n = 3),Bangladesh(n = 1),Nepal(n = 1) and Sri Lanka(n = 1). Adherence rates ranged from 32%-95% across studies. Of the 17 total publications included,10 focused on assessing adherence to CVD medications and 7 focused on assessing the impact of interventions on medication adherence. The validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale(MMAS) was used as the primary method of assessing adherence in five studies. Three studies used validated questionnaires similar to the MMAS,and one study utilized Medication Event Monitoring System caps,with the remainder of the studies utilizing pill count and self-report measures. As expected,studies using non-validated self-report measures described higher rates of adherence than studies using validated scale measurements and pill count. The included intervention studies examined the use of polypill therapy,provider education and patient counseling to improve medication adherence. CONCLUSION: The overall medication adherence rates were low in the region,which suggest a growing need for future interventions to improve adherence.

  7. Taking Scholarly Books into Account. Current Developments in Five European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez-Toledo, Elea; Manana-Rodrıguez, Jorge; Engels, Tim C. E.

    2016-01-01

    several European countries to develop custom built information systems for the registration of scholarly books, as well as weighting and funding allocation procedures. For the first time, these systems make the assessment of books as a research output feasible. The present paper summarizes the main...... features of the registration and/or assessment systems developed in five European countries / regions (Spain, Denmark, Flanders, Finland and Norway), focusing on the processes involved in the collection and processing of data on book publications, their weighting, as well as the application in the context...

  8. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  9. Assessing Training Priorities in Developing Countries: Current Practice and Possible Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1984-01-01

    This essay deals with a series of methodological issues involved in assessing training priorities in developing countries. It is argued that the present methods of arriving at these priorities leave much to be desired, and a number of suggestions are made that might lead to more informed policy decisions on education and training. (CT)

  10. Current and future economic performance of first and second generation biofuels in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske; Batidzirai, Batidzirai; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Net Present Value (NPV) and total production cost calculations aremade for first and second generation biofuels in 74 settings, covering 5 fuel output types, 8 feedstock types, 12 countries and 8 combinations of agricultural management systems between 2010 and 2030. Yields are assumed to increase du

  11. Genetically engineered virus-resistant plants in developing countries: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D V R; Sudarshana, M R; Fuchs, M; Rao, N C; Thottappilly, G

    2009-01-01

    Plant viruses cause severe crop losses worldwide. Conventional control strategies, such as cultural methods and biocide applications against arthropod, nematode, and plasmodiophorid vectors, have limited success at mitigating the impact of plant viruses. Planting resistant cultivars is the most effective and economical way to control plant virus diseases. Natural sources of resistance have been exploited extensively to develop virus-resistant plants by conventional breeding. Non-conventional methods have also been used successfully to confer virus resistance by transferring primarily virus-derived genes, including viral coat protein, replicase, movement protein, defective interfering RNA, non-coding RNA sequences, and protease, into susceptible plants. Non-viral genes (R genes, microRNAs, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, dsRNAse, RNA modifying enzymes, and scFvs) have also been used successfully to engineer resistance to viruses in plants. Very few genetically engineered (GE) virus resistant (VR) crops have been released for cultivation and none is available yet in developing countries. However, a number of economically important GEVR crops, transformed with viral genes are of great interest in developing countries. The major issues confronting the production and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries are primarily socio-economic and related to intellectual property rights, biosafety regulatory frameworks, expenditure to generate GE crops and opposition by non-governmental activists. Suggestions for satisfactory resolution of these factors, presumably leading to field tests and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries, are given.

  12. CURRENT STATE AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF FERROUS METALLURGY IN THE EAEU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dragun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern status and tendencies of development of ferrous metallurgy in the countries of the EAEU is described in the article. On the basis of the conducted analysis are revealed the identified systemic problems of metallurgy and the conclusions on possible ways of their solution using the potential of integration are given.

  13. 东南亚国家解决失业问题的方式及对我国的启示%On How Southeast Asian Countries Solve Their Unemployment Problems and on How China Can Benefit from Their Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令国; 徐林清

    2004-01-01

    As developing countries, China and most Southeast Asian countries are facing much the same problems in employment, such as structural unemployment and surplus labor in the countryside. Although not affected seriously by the financial crisis at the end of the last century, China has met unemployment as grave as that in Southeast Asian countries because the reforms in economic system will eliminate lots of surplus labor in the state - owned enterprises and the growing investmentdominated Chinese economy take in less and less work force. Thus, it' s of great significance to investigate the foreign successful experiences in dealing with unemployment in the hope of establishing our strategies concerning employment in the future.

  14. 东亚国家或地区汇率制度的选择与演变%Choice and Evolution of the Exchange Rate System of East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣

    2013-01-01

    Through the analysis of East Asian countries ’ exchange rate regime changes before , during , and af-ter the East Asian financial crisis , discovered that the East Asian countries take “pegged to the dollar” as the main line which is in line with the basic characteristics of their economies.There is contagion effect of exchange rate fluctuations and lack of exchange rate system cooperation.There is a certain degree of floating panic as the choice of the exchange rate system is concerned.Therefore , whether the East Asian countries can resist currency attacks are closely related to the exchange rate system they choose.Exchange rate system in East Asia need to be adjusted according to changes in the economic situation at home and abroad , a pegged exchange rate regime becomes diffi-cult and untimely.%通过分析东亚国家在东亚金融危机前、中、后不同阶段汇率制度选择的变化,发现东亚国家或地区汇率制度以“钉住美元”为主线,基本符合东亚经济特征。汇率波动存在传染效应,汇率制度缺乏合作且存在一定程度的浮动恐慌。东亚汇率制度演变的基本结论是:东亚各国或地区能否抵抗货币攻击,与采取的汇率制度密切相关。东亚各国或地区的汇率制度需要根据内外经济形势变化进行相应调整,单一钉住美元的汇率制度变得困难且不合时宜。

  15. From an “Internationalist Woman” to “Just another Asian Immigrant”: Transformation of Japanese Women’s Self-Image before and after Permanent Settlement in a Western Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko KAWAKAMI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Young middle class Japanese women who speak English identify themselves as career-oriented “internationalist women.” They hold positive self-images; however, their self-images become convoluted with negative images as they experience changes in their lives. When they marry white males and become permanent residents in Western countries, their self-identities transform into “just another Asian immigrant” out of many. Many Japanese wives of white husbands deny their association with their compatriots when they actually do associate with other Japanese immigrant women. They also deny racial factors in their attraction to their white husbands. I argue that these behaviors are harnessed to redevelop a self-identity by renouncing the stereotypical images of Eurocentric Japanese women. This paper will describe the transformation of Japanese women’s self-images before and after permanent settlement in a Western country and the process of their redevelopment of self-identity.

  16. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design: Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles. In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results: Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They

  17. Book Review: Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sandee, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the book Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity edited by Bhattacharyay, Kawai and Nag (2012). This book is the second publication coordinated by the ADB and the ADB Institute focusing on infrastructure and connectivity in Asian countries. This book looks at regional (across border) infrastructure that is needed to facilitate growth and development through better connectivity and integration among countries.

  18. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  19. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Algranti

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there is a clear excess of mesotheliomas linked to amphibole exposure, mainly to crocidolite, there is no evidences that chrysotile is harmless to the pleura. Also, the relationship between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis is not sufficiently understood to defend the concept that there are protective exposure limits to both diseases. "Controlled use" policy may be effective at the occupational level in a select group of companies, representing only a fraction of the exposed population. In developing countries subject to economic pressures, these issues merit proper discussion to avoid unnecessary disease and death.

  20. The sustainability of current account in the presence of endogenous multiple structural breaks: Evidence from developed and developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dülger Fikret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test for the sustainability of current account in 18 developed and 10 developing countries. The stability of the relationship between export (inflows and import (outflows is assessed using the tests proposed by Mohitosh Kejriwal and Pierre Perron (2010. In particular, the nature of the long-run relationship, when multiple regime shifts are identified endogenously, is analyzed using the residual-based test of the null hypothesis of cointegration with multiple breaks proposed by Kejriwal (2008. The results clearly indicate that, for all countries, (i the stability tests reject the null of coefficient stability of the long-run relationship between exports and imports; (ii the cointegration tests that correspond to the number of breaks selected reject the null of cointegration (weak form of sustainability; and (iii the strong form of sustainability hypothesis is not supported by the data for all countries in most regimes but not for 20 of 28 countries especially in the last regime (the post-2000 era. For eight countries (Canada, New Zealand, Spain, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, and Turkey, the findings may be perceived as a warning to creditors and policymakers unless there are policy distortions or permanent productivity shocks to the domestic economies.

  1. The burden of prostate cancer in Asian nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cullen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this review, the International Agency for Research on Cancer′s cancer epidemiology databases were used to examine prostate cancer (PCa age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR in selected Asian nations, including Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5 and GLOBOCAN databases, in an effort to determine whether ASIRs are rising in regions of the world with historically low risk of PCa development. Materials and Methods: Asian nations with adequate data quality were considered for this review. PCa ASIR estimates from CI5 and GLOBOCAN 2008 public use databases were examined in the four eligible countries: China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. Time trends in PCa ASIRs were examined using CI5 Volumes I-IX. Results: While PCa ASIRs remain much lower in the Asian nations examined than in North America, there is a clear trend of increasing PCa ASIRs in the four countries examined. Conclusion: Efforts to systematically collect cancer incidence data in Asian nations must be expanded. Current CI5 data indicate a rise in PCa ASIR in several populous Asian countries. If these rates continue to rise, it is uncertain whether there will be sufficient resources in place, in terms of trained personnel and infrastructure for medical treatment and continuum of care, to handle the increase in PCa patient volume. The recommendation by some experts to initiate PSA screening in Asian nations could compound a resource shortfall. Obtaining accurate estimates of PCa incidence in these countries is critically important for preparing for a potential shift in the public health burden posed by this disease.

  2. The Roles of English Language Education in Asian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2011-01-01

    This study surveys the history of English language and the roles of English language education in Asian context. Through the historical survey on English dispersal in Asian countries, the first section of this study traces the dispersal of English from the 18th century and the development of English in Asian countries. The second section of this…

  3. Progress and Development of Monetary and Financial Cooperation between China and Central Asian Countries%中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作实践与发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩

    2015-01-01

    在推动丝绸之路经济带建设促进货币流通的大背景下,中国与中亚五国间加强货币金融合作日益迫切。基于此,本文分析了中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作的进展,并从经济相互依存角度分析了中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作的瓶颈。由于中国与中亚五国及中亚五国间贸易相互依存度较低,因而,中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作尚处于初级阶段,只有加强彼此之间的经贸合作,才能进一步推进各国间的货币金融合作。最后,文章从区域和中国两个层面就推进货币及金融合作提出了建议。%Under the background of promoting construction in Silk Road Economic Belt and improving monetary circulation .It is increasingly urgent to strengthen monetary and financial cooperation in china and the five Central Asian countries .The paper ana-lyses the achievements of monetary and financial cooperation between China and Central Asian Countries ,and the bottleneck of the cooperation from the perspective of macroeconomic interdependence .Because the trade interdependence between china and the five Central Asian countries is at the low level , it means that the monetary and financial cooperation within the region is still in the primary stage.Its further promotion requires countries within the region to strengthen economic and trade cooperation .Finally, the paper from two aspects -Central Asia and China discusses the mechanisms and policies of promoting monetary and financial cooperation .

  4. Are current debt relief initiatives an option for scaling up health financing in beneficiary countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddar, M; Furrer, E

    2008-11-01

    One central goal of the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the more recent Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) is to free up additional resources for public spending on poverty reduction. The health sector was expected to benefit from a considerable share of these funds. The volume of released resources is important enough in certain countries to make a difference for priority programmes that have been underfunded so far. However, the relevance of these initiatives in terms of boosting health expenditure depends essentially, at the global level, on the compliance of donors with their aid commitments and, at the domestic level, on the success of health officials in advocating for an adequate share of the additional fiscal space. Advocacy efforts are often limited by a state of asymmetric information whereby some ministries are not well aware of the economic consequences of debt relief on public finances and of the management systems in place to deal with savings from debt relief. A thorough comprehension of these issues seems essential for health advocates to increase their bargaining power and for a wider public to readjust expectations of what debt relief can realistically achieve and of what can be measured. This paper intends to narrow the information gap by classifying debt relief savings management systems observed in practice. We illustrate some of the major advantages and stated drawbacks and outline the policy implications for health officials operating in the countries concerned. There should be careful monitoring of fungibility (i.e. where untraceable funds risk substitution) and additionality (i.e. the extent to which new inputs add to existing inputs at national and international level).

  5. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-01-01

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of unde...

  6. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-01-01

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of unde...

  7. [Are clinical features derived from evidences and experiences outside of Japan applicable to clinical practices in Japan? Comparisons of results among studies conducted in US, Europe, Asian Countries and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    2011-03-01

    Levetiracetam is an antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures firstly in the US in 1999. In Japan, levetiracetam was approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures. Accumulated evidences and experiences in US, Europe and Asian counties have indicated clinical features of levetiracetam (i.e., rapid onset of action, high efficacy and tolerability, no drug-drug interactions). One may ask whether the known clinical features are applicable to Japanese epilepsy patients with partial seizures. This article is aimed at answering such questions by reviewing published articles on effects of races onto pharmacokinetics and on efficacy and safety profiles shown in studies conducted in the US, Europe, Taiwan, China, Korea, Asian 6 countries and Japan, which allowed to compare the profiles across the different populations. Pharmacokinetic profiles were not different between Western and Japanese, and between Chinese and Western populations. The values of efficacy variables such as percentage (%) reduction of seizure frequency from baselines, 50% responder rate and seizure free rate at dose range of 1,000 mg-3,000 mg/d were similar across 4 open studies (Korea, 6 Asian countries, US, Europe and other western; % reduction: 43.2-52.3%, 50% responder rate: 43.6-57.9%, Seizure free rate: 16.2-20.2%). In the 6 placebo-controlled double blind studies (US, 2 Europe studies, China, Taiwan and Japan), the values of the efficacy variables of the levetiracetam arms (1,000 mg/d, 2,000 mg/d, 3,000 mg/d, 1,000-2,000 mg/d, 2,000-3,000 mg/d) were at least numerically superior to those of corresponding placebo arms even though the statistical significance was not obtained for all of the variables. The degrees of difference between the values of placebo and levetiracetam arms were within comparable ranges. These comparisons suggested levetiracetam would have similar efficacy and safety profiles in Japanese patients to those in the US, Europe, and

  8. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    Bo Q

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qingyan Bo,1 Roberto Orsenigo,2 Junyi Wang,1 Louis Griffel,3 Clifford Brass3 1Beijing Novartis Pharma Co. Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries. This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025 as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%, and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08. Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had

  9. A fundamental shift in the approach to international health by WHO, UNICEF, and the World Bank: instances of the practice of "intellectual fascism" and totalitarianism in some Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, D

    1999-01-01

    Navarro has used the term "intellectual fascism" to depict the intellectual situation in the McCarthy era. Intellectual fascism is now more malignant in the poor countries of the world. The Indian Subcontinent, China, and some other Asian countries provide the context. The struggles of the working class culminated in the Alma-Ata Declaration of self-reliance in health by the peoples of the world. To protect their commercial and political interests, retribution from the rich countries was sharp and swift, they "invented" Selective Primary Health Care and used WHO, UNICEF, the World Bank, and other agencies to let loose on poor countries a barrage of "international initiatives" as global programs on immunization, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These programs were astonishingly defective in concept, design, and implementation. The agencies refused to take note of such criticisms when they were published by others. They have been fascistic, ahistorical, grossly unscientific, and Goebbelsian propagandists. The conscience keepers of public health have mostly kept quiet.

  10. Preventing preterm births: trends and potential reductions with current interventionsin 39 very high human development index countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hannah H.; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y.; Howson, Christopher P.; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M.; Lee, Shoo K.; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C.; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Each year,1.1 million babies die from prematurity, andmany survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are preterm(human development index (VHHDI) countries if current evidence-based interventions were widely implemented. This analysis is to inform a “Born Too Soon” rate reduction target. Methods Countries were assessed for inclusion based on availability and quality ofpreterm prevalence data (2000-2010), and trend analyses with projections undertaken. We analysed drivers of rate increases in the USA, 1998-2004. For 39 VHHDI countrieswith >10,000 births, country-by-country analyses were performed based on target population, incremental coverage increase,and intervention efficacy. Cost savings were estimated based on reported costs for preterm care in the USAadjusted usingWorld Bank purchasing power parity. Findings From 2010, even if all VHHDI countries achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers, (Sweden and Netherlands), 2000-2010 or 2005-2010(Lithuania, Estonia)), rates would experience a relative reduction of<5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries.Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1998-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers includeinductions/cesareandelivery and ART.For all 39 VHHDI countries, five interventionsmodeling at high coveragepredicted 5%preterm birth rate relative reduction from 9.59 to 9.07% of live births:smoking cessation (0.01 rate reduction), decreasing multiple embryo transfers during assisted reproductive technologies (0.06), cervical cerclage (0.15), progesterone supplementation (0.01), and reduction of non-medically indicated labour induction or caesarean delivery (0.29).These translate to 58,000 preterm births averted and total annual economic cost savings of ~US$ 3 billion. Interpretation Even with optimal coverage of current interventions, many being complex to implement, the estimated potential reduction in preterm birth is tiny. Hence we

  11. Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the Fiscal Variables in EU Countries

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    Iulian Viorel BRAŞOVEANU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to capture the effects of the current economic and financial crisis on fiscal variables, the 27 EU Member States, based on macroeconomic developments until 2010 and projected for 2011. Starting from the economic recession, from the increase of unemployment and the relative stability of prices in the EU overall (macroeconomic developments that characterize the current crisis, we analyze the effects of those developments on the public revenues and expenditures, on the conventional deficit and public debt, which are macroeconomic variables that comprise the pentagon of economic macro stabilization.

  12. 中亚五国的贸易特征及向东发展的障碍%Trade Features of Five Central Asian Countries and Obstacles Developing Eastward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文中

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes foreign trade of five Central Asian countries by employing such three indexes as goods trade com-plementarities, concentration and trade diversification and finds that Central Asian countries rely on external markets heavily, ex-port is not stronly complemented with the rest of the world on the whole, the potential of developing eastward is great.However, their own ability and the reality of tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers of the East Asian and Pacific countries has become the main obstacle of the development of the east.Therefore, under the background of the new strategy in China, in addition to in-creasing the direct investment in infrastructure investment and enterprises, it is also necessary to moderately reduce tariffs and re-duce non-tariff measures to make the silk road economic belt a two-way trade routes.%本文运用商品贸易互补性、贸易集中度和贸易多样化三个指数对中亚五国对外贸易进行分析发现:中亚国家严重依赖于外部市场,出口在整体上与世界各国的互补性不强,向东发展潜力巨大;但其自身能力和东亚及太平洋国家关税壁垒和非关税壁垒的现实成为其向东发展的主要障碍。为此,在我国新的战略背景下,除加大对其基础设施投资和企业直接投资外,还应适度降低关税水平、减少非关税措施,使丝绸之路经济带成为一条双向贸易通道。

  13. Predictors of intrinsic motivation behind seatbelt use in a country where current use is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Caitlin M; Gupta, Shivam; Ozkan, Türker; Hoe, Connie; Lajunen, Timo

    2013-12-01

    Seatbelt use is a major determinant of a driver's safety on the road. In Turkey and other middle-income countries, seatbelt use is lower than in high-income countries and contributes to the higher burden of road traffic injuries. Assessing factors behind drivers' motivations to wear seatbelts can help determine appropriate interventions for specific subpopulations. To analyze the factors predictive of whether drivers who wear seatbelts in Afyonkarahisar and Ankara, Turkey do so because they believe seatbelts can save their lives. As part of the monitoring and evaluation of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme, 817 drivers were randomly recruited in Afyonkarahisar and Ankara, Turkey, to participate in roadside interviews. Logistic regression was run on data from 408 drivers who claimed they always wore seatbelts. Predictors were driver's city, driver's age group (30 and younger, 31 to 40, and over 40 years), whether at least one passenger was in the car, and an interaction term between age group and whether passengers were in the car. The outcome variable of interest was whether drivers wore seatbelts because they believed seatbelts can save their lives, referred to in this paper as "selection of Reason 3." The odds of selecting Reason 3 were 2.45 (95% CI: 1.40-4.31) times higher in Ankara than in Afyonkarahisar, 2.52 (95% CI: 1.38-4.60) and 3.65 (95% CI: 1.92-6.95) times higher for drivers aged 31-40 and drivers over the age of 40 than for drivers 30 years of age and younger, respectively, and 5.89 (95% CI: 2.02-17.23), 7.22 (95% CI: 1.61-32.42), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.32-2.19) times higher for drivers traveling with passengers who were 30 years of age and younger, between 31 and 40, and over 40 than for drivers traveling without passengers in these age groups, respectively. Drivers with passengers had higher odds of selecting Reason 3, especially younger drivers who are more likely to succumb to peer pressure. Older drivers had higher odds of

  14. Safe access to safe water in low income countries: water fetching in current times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B; Morssink, Christiaan; Campos, Paola Abril

    2011-05-01

    A substantial portion of the world's population does not have ready access to safe water. Moreover, obtaining water may involve great expense of time and energy for those who have no water sources in or near home. From an historical perspective, with the invention of piped water, fetching water has only recently become largely irrelevant in many locales. In addition, in most instances, wells and clean surface water were so close by that fetching was not considered a problem. However, population growth, weather fluctuations and social upheavals have made the daily chore of carrying water highly problematic and a public health problem of great magnitude for many, especially women, in the poor regions and classes of the world. In this paper, we consider gender differences in water carrying and summarize data about water access and carrying from 44 countries that participated in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) program. Women and children are the most common water carriers, and they spend considerable time (many trips take more than an hour) supplying water to their households. Time is but one measure of the cost of fetching water; caloric expenditures, particularly during droughts, and other measures that affect health and quality of life must be considered. The full costs of fetching water must be considered when measuring progress toward two Millennium Development Goals--increasing access to safe drinking water and seeking an end to poverty.

  15. Analysis Respiratory Care in Five Regions of the Country: Current Status and Future Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Durán Palomino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyse the respiratory carepractice in five regions f the country, by meansof a descriptive – exploratory research, aimingto review the formation tendencies, the workingconditions, the roles of the practitioners, theprofessional practice dilemmas and the characterizationof the physical therapeutic andrespiratory therapeutic functions.The information was obtained through surveyswith respiratory therapeutics, physical therapeutics,interview with infirmary and medicalprofessionals, who work in third and fourth complexitydegree health institutions in select citiesfor the study.The collected information includes not onlydaily routines but also the knowledge andpreferences regarding the professional practice and their related aspects of labour conditionsand characteristics of the professional exercise.The study allowed to conclude that there isan idealization of the conceptual missing rolesto efficiently carry out the respiratory carewithout and additional formation of graduatelevel or training courses in this area, weaknessof the administrative and investigative functionsof domiciliary attentions and initial evaluationof the environment, lack of positioning of thefunction in front of the interdisciplinary teamand precarious labour conditions.

  16. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-05

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Korean ginseng, Asiatic ginseng, Oriental ginseng Latin Name: Panax ginseng Background Asian ginseng is native to the ... several types of ginseng (another is American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius ). The terms red ginseng and white ginseng ...

  18. Risk assessment and aspirin use in Asian and Western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Runlin; Li, Xiaoying

    2010-10-21

    The aim of this review was to examine aspirin utilization, cardiovascular risk estimation, and clinical evidence for aspirin prophylaxis in Asian versus Western countries. A literature search was performed using PubMed and the key terms "aspirin" and "Asia" or "Western". Despite the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), aspirin is underutilized in high-risk patients in both Asian and Western countries. A number of risk estimation scores are available; however, validation is needed in countries such as Japan, India, and in South Asia. Underutilization of aspirin in Asia may be linked to an overestimation of bleeding risks. It is possible that a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and genetic differences may make Asians more susceptible to gastrointestinal bleeding. Very low aspirin doses and even the wider use of gastroprotective agents may be the optimal approach to high-risk patients in Asia. Based on the current evidence, aspirin should be used for CVD prevention when the risk:benefit ratio is favorable. A number of trials are underway, including the Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol and Japanese Primary Prevention Project, which will provide key data on the benefits of aspirin in Asian patients at risk of CVD, and may improve aspirin utilization and risk estimation.

  19. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  20. Taxonomic status of three types of Fejervarya cancrivora from Indonesia and other Asian countries based on morphological observations and crossing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nia; Djong, Tjong Hon; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Nishizawa, Toshitaka; Belabut, Daicus M; Sen, Yong Hoi; Wanichanon, Ratanasate; Yasir, Inayah; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Although the crab-eating frog Fejervarya cancrivora is one of the most widely distributed species in Asian region, taxonomic relationships among different populations remain unclarified. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the taxonomic status of F. cancrivora from Indonesian and other Asian populations. Five populations of F. cancrivora from Selangor (Malaysia), Cianjur (Java, Indonesia), Trat (Thailand), Khulna (Bangladesh), and Makassar (Sulawesi, Indonesia) were morphologically observed and subjected to crossing experiments. Principal component and clustering analyses revealed that these five populations could be organized into three groups corresponding to three observed morphological types: a Selangor and Cianjur group (large-type), a Trat and Khulna group (mangrove-type), and a Makassar group (Sulawesi-type). The limited crossing experiments revealed that hybrids between Selangor females and Cianjur and Trat males developed normally, whereas hybrids between Selangor females and Khulna males showed incomplete gametic isolation. Histological observations of the testes of mature males revealed the presence of pycnotic nuclei in the hybrids between Selangor females and Khulna males in addition to normal bundles of spermatozoa. In contrast, no pycnotic nuclei were observed in the Selangor controls. Although meiotic metaphases in the controls were normal, those in hybrids showed several abnormalities, such as the appearance of univalents and an increase in rod-shaped bivalents. Based on our findings from the morphological observations and crossing experiments, we conclude that each of three identified types represents a distinct species. We propose that the large-type is F. cancrivora, the mangrove-type is F. moodiei, and the Sulawesi-type represents an undescribed species.

  1. A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OIL PRICES CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FROM FRAGILE FIVE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel BAYRAKTAR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of oil prices in the Fragile-Five countries (Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, India, and Turkey on current account deficit and growth. In this study, the method of panel data analysis was used and the period of 1980-2014 was examined. The Levin, Lin, & Chu panel; Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat; ADF-Fisher Chi-square; and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests were used to determine the stability of data before panel data analysis. The results of the study can be expressed as follows. i There was a statistically meaningful relationship in oil prices with both GDP and the current account deficit. While there was a positive correlation between oil prices and GDP, there was a negative relationship between oil prices and current account deficit. ii No long-term relationship was found between GDP and oil prices; there was a long-term relationship between current account deficit and oil prices as determined by the cointegration tests. iii Causality test also showed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between GDP and oil prices.  Causality between oil prices and the current account deficit was one-way from the variable of oil price to the variable of current account deficit.

  2. Prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: current perspectives

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    Berti C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Berti,1 Mieke Faber,2 Cornelius M Smuts11Centre for Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South AfricaAbstract: Despite strategies employed to tackle micronutrient malnutrition, limited progress has been achieved in the developing countries. Of global concern are deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, zinc, folate, and iodine. This review aims to explore up-to-date scientific evidence on the effect of different micronutrient strategies on biomarkers and health outcomes, and for each strategy, to highlight strengths, limitations, and factors contributing to success or failure. PubMed/MEDLINE and EBSCO databases and Google-indexed scientific literature were searched for relevant articles and documents, limited to human studies reported since 2003. Evidence shows that the most cost-effective approaches to address symptoms of micronutrient malnutrition are targeted supplementation and/or fortification with iron, iodine, zinc, folic acid, vitamin A, and multimicronutrients, provided that households have access to primary health care and that there is consistent long-term coverage, monitoring, adequate marketing, and commercial commitment. Dietary diversification/modification interventions are probably the most sustainable strategies to address causes of deficiency, but permanent solutions are still required in controlling micronutrient malnutrition at both research and public health levels. Furthermore, many scientific gaps remain, hindering the development of robust public health guidance. These gaps are due to the paucity of well-designed community-based studies, lack of information on biological mechanisms behind relationships between micronutrients and outcomes, and inconsistent results. Further adequately powered long-term trials are needed to fill these gaps. Lessons learned from large-scale nutritional

  3. South Asian Cluster

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    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  4. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  5. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily

    2016-04-25

    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.

  6. The current status and future perspectives of organ donation in Japan: learning from the systems in other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The revised Organ Transplant Law came into effect in Japan in July 2010. The law allows for organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent from subjects who had not previously rejected organ donation. Nevertheless, the number of cadaveric organ donations has not increased as expected. The Spanish Model is widely known as the most successful system in the field of organ donation. The system includes an earlier referral of possible donors to the transplant coordination teams, a new family-based approach and care methods, and the development of additional training courses aimed at specific groups of professionals, which are supported by their corresponding societies. South Korea, a country which neighbors Japan, has recently succeeded in increasing the rates of organ donation by introducing several systems, such as incentive programs, an organ procurement organization, a donor registry, and a system to facilitate potential donor referral. In this review, we present the current status of organ donation in Japan and also explore various factors that may help to improve the country's low donation rate based on the experiences of other developed countries.

  7. An Analysis of Trade Structure,Comparative Advantage and Complementarity of Agricultural Products between China and the Main East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; WANG

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of describing trade value and trade structure of agricultural products between China and main countries in East Asia,this paper uses revealed comparative advantage index and trade complementarity index to calculate the comparative advantage and complementarity between China and Japan,Korea and ASEAN countries. The research shows that the trade complementarity of agricultural products between China and Japan & Korea is weak,but the complementarity of some agricultural products between China and Japan is very strong. The trade competitiveness and complementarity of agricultural products between China and ASEAN coexist,and there is strong cooperative potential between China and ASEAN.

  8. Institutional Responses on Strengthened Intellectual Property Rights in Agriculture and Needs' Assessment on Intellectual Property Management of Public Research Institutions in Asian Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Jane; Grimes, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are being introduced or strengthened in developing countries as a result of international agreements such as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This study conducted a web-based survey to gain perspective on the impact of IPRs to…

  9. The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability of Social Comparison Processes over Two Age Cohorts from Western, Asian, and Middle Eastern Islamic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive support for the seemingly paradoxical negative effects of school- and class-average achievement on academic self-concept (ASC)-the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE)--is based largely on secondary students in Western countries or on cross-cultural Program for International Student Assessment studies. There is little research testing the…

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies weighing greater than 1250 grams at birth: Ten year data from a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an important cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. Aim: To report the spectrum of ROP and associated risk factors in babies weighing > 1250 g at birth in a developing country. Setting and Design: Institutional, retrospective, non-randomized, observational clinical case series. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis (10 years of 275 eyes (138 babies with ROP. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data with the Chi-square test. Quantitative data using the unpaired t test or the ANOVA and further tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The mean birth weight was 1533.9 g (range 1251 to 2750 g and the mean period of gestation was 30.9 weeks (range 26 to 35. One hundred and twenty-four of 275 eyes (45.1% had threshold or worse ROP. Risk factors for threshold or worse disease were, ′outborn babies′ ( P < 0.001, respiratory distress syndrome ( P = 0.007 and exchange transfusion ( P = 0.003. The sensitivity of the American and British screening guidelines to pick up threshold or worse ROP in our study group was 82.4% and 77.4% respectively. Conclusions : Severe ROP is often encountered in babies weighing greater than 1250 g at birth in developing countries. Western screening guidelines may require modifications before application in developing countries.

  11. Occurrence and human exposure of p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their hydrolysis products in indoor dust from the United States and three East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Wu, Qian; Guo, Ying; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-11-06

    p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are widely present in personal care products, food packages, and material coatings. Nevertheless, little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, we collected 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S., China, Korea, and Japan and determined the concentrations of 11 target chemicals, viz., six parabens and their common hydrolysis product, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), as well as BADGE and its three hydrolysis products (BADGE·H(2)O, BADGE·2H(2)O, and BADGE·HCl·H(2)O). All of the target compounds were found in dust samples from four countries. Concentrations of sum of six parabens in dust were on the order of several hundred to several thousands of nanogram per gram. Geometric mean concentrations of BADGEs in dust ranged from 1300 to 2890 ng/g among four countries. Methyl paraben (MeP), propyl paraben (PrP), BADGE·2H(2)O, and BADGE·HCl·H(2)O were the predominant compounds found in dust samples. This is the first report of BADGE and its hydrolysis products (BADGEs) in indoor dust samples and of parabens in indoor dust from Asian countries. On the basis of the measured concentrations of target chemicals, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) via dust ingestion. The EDIs of parabens via dust ingestion were 5-10 times higher in children than in adults. Among the four countries studied, the EDIs of parabens (5.4 ng/kg-bw/day) and BADGEs (6.5 ng/kg-bw/day) through dust ingestion were the highest for children in Korea and Japan.

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  13. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; LIU, WILLIAM MING

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found ...

  14. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian Pacific countries, fiscal years 2004 and 2005 (epidemiological approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  15. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian and Pan-Pacific countries, fiscal year 2006 (epidemiological approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2007-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are also limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004; 2006). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  16. Implementation of the 1958 New York Convention in Several Asian Countries: The Refusal of Foreign Arbitral Awards Enforcement on the Grounds of Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Radjagukguk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The national character of public policy indicates that the decision is up to the court of national country concerned. Therefore, each country can rule whether public policy and its related issues are part of the country’s public policy. Courts around the world have recognized that Article V of the Convention is discretionary. The courts of Civil Law countries appear to be interpreting public policy broadly. This is quite evident from decisions made by courts in Indonesia, The People’s Republic of China, Japan and Korea. The Indonesian Court considered Article V (2 (b of the New York Convention which states that the court may deny the enforcement of an arbital award if enforcement would violate public policy of the place of enforcement. In addition, before the enactment of Law No. 30 of 1999 concerning Arbitration and Alternative Disptue Resolution, the Court referred to Indonesian Supreme Court Regulation No. 1 of 1999, which provides that the enforcement of foreign arbital awards in Indonesia imitatively applies to awards which do not violate public policy order in terms of all underlying principles of the Indonesian legal system and society. In Indonesia, Bakrie Brothers v. Trading Corporation of Pakistan Ltd., was the first case in which the Indonesian court rejected the enforcement of foreign arbital awards for the reason of violating public policy.

  17. A Comparative Study of Physical Activities across Asian Countries%亚洲国家不同人群身体活动现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽芳; 曹璐

    2014-01-01

    为了了解亚洲国家人群身体活动的现状及特点;通过google学术、Springer Link全文数据库、中国学术期刊网,以“physical activity,Asian,adult,older,leisure time,adolescents”为关键词单独或组合进行检索相关的文献,并对文献进行整合和数据分析,对亚洲国家不同年龄阶段人群的身体活动状况进行分析,结果显示亚洲国家人群总体呈现身体活动不能达到WHO建议的保持健康的最低标准;在身体活动的不同组成部分中,工作和家务劳动是构成亚洲人身体活动的主要部分,而休闲时间的身体活动呈现明显不足;世界范围内随着年龄的增长身体活动呈下降趋势,而亚洲人群年龄在50~65岁之间老年人的身体活动明显高于这一年龄段的欧美国家的人群;而中青年人的身体活动明显低于世界同等水平.

  18. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  19. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  20. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed.

  1. Policy and Financing – Why is Sea Transport Currently Invisible in the Search for a Low Carbon Future for Pacific Island Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roger Nuttall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of financing and policy in research, development, trialling and introduction of renewable energy technologies in the Pacific maritime sector is considered. Key research and trials of renewable energy technologies for sea transport in the Pacific from the 1980s and the critical role played by agencies such as the United Nations in leveraging support from funders such as the Asian Development Bank and European Union are reviewed. The lack of current policy on potential renewable energy technology use in sea transport at national, regional and development agency levels is discussed with the Asian Development Bank used as a case study. The urgent need for such technology to be commercially trialled as a means of reducing the region’s dependency on fossil fuels given the importance of sea transport to socio-economic development in the Pacific is outlined in light of the proportion of fossil fuel currently used by the maritime sector. The paper concludes that review of current funding strategies and policies to include both sea transport and the potential for use of renewable energy technologies in the maritime sector in the Pacific is a priority and current reliance on the private sector acting alone needs review.

  2. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  3. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  4. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  5. Biosimilars in Developed and Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries: Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia-Overview, Evolution, and Regulations Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Tomas Gabriel; Oliu Castillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The development of biological products has experienced continuous growth over the past three decades. The expiration of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in many countries around the world. This paper reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs and covers their therapeutic status, clinical trials, approved biosimilars, and regulatory guidelines in Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. The literature suggests that biosimilars are comparable but not identical to the reference product. They are not a generic version of an innovative product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and their marketing approval is also much more complicated. Guidelines for biosimilars were published in Japan in July 2009 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), in South Korea in March 2009 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), and in Malaysia in July 2008 by the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB).

  6. Biosimilars in Developed and Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries: Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia—Overview, Evolution, and Regulations Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Tomas Gabriel; Oliu Castillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The development of biological products has experienced continuous growth over the past three decades. The expiration of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in many countries around the world. This paper reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs and covers their therapeutic status, clinical trials, approved biosimilars, and regulatory guidelines in Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. The literature suggests that biosimilars are comparable but not identical to the reference product. They are not a generic version of an innovative product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and their marketing approval is also much more complicated. Guidelines for biosimilars were published in Japan in July 2009 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), in South Korea in March 2009 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), and in Malaysia in July 2008 by the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB). PMID:27213153

  7. Biosimilars in Developed and Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries: Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia—Overview, Evolution, and Regulations Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gabriel Bas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biological products has experienced continuous growth over the past three decades. The expiration of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in many countries around the world. This paper reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs and covers their therapeutic status, clinical trials, approved biosimilars, and regulatory guidelines in Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. The literature suggests that biosimilars are comparable but not identical to the reference product. They are not a generic version of an innovative product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and their marketing approval is also much more complicated. Guidelines for biosimilars were published in Japan in July 2009 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, in South Korea in March 2009 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS, and in Malaysia in July 2008 by the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB.

  8. Educational Planning: The Asian Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Jansen (Karel)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractThis article intends to present a discussion of various approaches to educational planning against the background of the experience of the Asian countries.l It may be, however, that some of our arguments apply to other parts of the Third World as well.

  9. Diagnosis and management of growth disorders in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries: Current procedures and key recommendations for best practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Al Herbish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of growth disorders comprises an important area of pediatric practice. Current procedures in the different stages of the identification, referral, investigation, and treatment of growth disorders in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries have been summarized. Evidence-based procedures, relating specifically to height screening for identification of short stature, auxological criteria for patient referral from primary to secondary pediatric care, and general and endocrine investigations and diagnosis have been discussed and outlined. The management issues related to key disorders that are licensed for growth hormone (hGH therapy, namely GH deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature related to birth size small for gestational age (SGA, and idiopathic short stature are discussed with recommendations described for best practice. Finally, two key components of short stature management, namely transitional care for the transfer of patients from pediatric to adult endocrinology services and adherence to recommended therapy with hGH, have been addressed with current practice outlines and recommendations presented.

  10. The relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength in young healthy adults from sunny climate countries currently living in the northeast of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N A; Gray, S R; Fraser, W D; Fielding, S; Macdonald, H M

    2017-04-01

    The current study examined the relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength in young healthy adults: residents (>6 months) and newcomers (0-3 months), originally from sunny climate countries but currently living in the northeast of Scotland. Our longitudinal data found a positive, albeit small, relationship between vitamin D status and knee extensor isometric strength.

  11. An Insight into the Dress Cultural Features in South-east Asian Countries Based on the Drawing of Tribute to Great Qing Empire%从《皇清职贡图》看东南亚国家的服饰文化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白爱萍

    2011-01-01

    The Drawing of Tribute to Great Qing Empire (Volume I ) records an overview of South-east Asian countries, including the dress cultural features in those countries. The article analyzes dress cultural customs and its causes in South-east Asian countries,and suggests that short clothes,long skirts and shawls,etc.are popular with the people in South-east Asian countries,where ladies like to have their hair done in a bun,while men like to have turban wrapped around their heads.%《皇清职贡图》卷一记载有东南亚各国概况,其中体现东南亚国家服饰文化特征,主要从衣饰、头饰、足饰分析南亚各国服饰文化习俗及其成因。衣饰,喜穿短衣、长裙,喜爱束腰、披肩;头饰,妇人束发椎髻,男子喜缠头巾;足饰,跣足和著履。

  12. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  13. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  14. Analysis on Market Prospect of Potato Export to Central Asian Countries in Northwest Region of China%西北地区马铃薯出口中亚国家的市场前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊霞; 侯军岐

    2016-01-01

    西北地区是我国马铃薯的主产区,马铃薯产业的发展对地区经济及农民增收具有重要意义。中亚国家与我国西北地区毗邻,被称为“第二面包”的马铃薯在中亚国家有较大市场需求,发展潜力巨大。“一带一路”战略为西北地区马铃薯出口中亚国家搭建了较好的平台,西北地区可利用其先天性的地理位置优势、出口成本优势和技术优势等向中亚国家出口马铃薯产品。除了稳定传统鲜薯产品出口优势之外,西北地区还应通过境外投资、技术援助等方式带动马铃薯加工品、种薯及马铃薯附加产品的出口。%The Northwest region is the main producing area of potatoes in China.The potato industry has great significance to local economy and farmers’income.Central Asia countries are closed to this area,and have a large demand on potatoes which are called “the second bread”in these countries.And the potato industry has great mar-ket potential.The “Belt and Road”strategy has built a good platform to export potatoes from the Northwest re-gion of China to Central Asian countries.The region can take the advantage of its congenital geographical location, the low export costs and the technology advantages to export potatoes.Apart from maintaining the traditional ad-vantages,the region should also exploit some other ways such as overseas investment and technical assistance to stimulate the export of processed goods,seeds and augmented products of potatoes.

  15. Physics Teaching in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M A

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the first South-East Asian conference on university physics education held in Penang, Malaysia, May 16-21, 1977, to identify, analyze, and compare physics curricula and to improve physics education in developing countries. (SL)

  16. Antibiotic management of complicated intra-abdominal infections in adults: The Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asok Kurup

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional epidemiological data and resistance profiles are essential for selecting appropriate antibiotic therapy for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs. However, such information may not be readily available in many areas of Asia and current international guidelines on antibiotic therapy for IAIs are for Western countries, with the most recent guidance for the Asian region dating from 2007. Therefore, the Asian Consensus Taskforce on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (ACT-cIAI was convened to develop updated recommendations for antibiotic management of complicated IAIs (cIAIs in Asia. This review article is based on a thorough literature review of Asian and international publications related to clinical management, epidemiology, microbiology, and bacterial resistance patterns in cIAIs, combined with the expert consensus of the Taskforce members. The microbiological profiles of IAIs in the Asian region are outlined and compared with Western data, and the latest available data on antimicrobial resistance in key pathogens causing IAIs in Asia is presented. From this information, antimicrobial therapies suitable for treating cIAIs in patients in Asian settings are proposed in the hope that guidance relevant to Asian practices will prove beneficial to local physicians managing IAIs.

  17. Risk assessment and aspirin use in Asian and Western populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runlin Gao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Runlin Gao1, Xiaoying Li21Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing; 2Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, ChinaObjective: The aim of this review was to examine aspirin utilization, cardiovascular risk ­estimation, and clinical evidence for aspirin prophylaxis in Asian versus Western countries.Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and the key terms "aspirin" and "Asia" or "Western".Results: Despite the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD, aspirin is underutilized in high-risk patients in both Asian and Western countries. A number of risk estimation scores are available; however, validation is needed in countries such as Japan, India, and in South Asia. Underutilization of aspirin in Asia may be linked to an overestimation of bleeding risks. It is possible that a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and genetic differences may make Asians more susceptible to gastrointestinal bleeding. Very low aspirin doses and even the wider use of gastroprotective agents may be the optimal approach to high-risk patients in Asia.Conclusions: Based on the current evidence, aspirin should be used for CVD prevention when the risk:benefit ratio is favorable. A number of trials are underway, including the Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol and Japanese Primary Prevention Project, which will provide key data on the benefits of aspirin in Asian patients at risk of CVD, and may improve aspirin utilization and risk estimation.Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular risk estimation, Asia, Western

  18. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  19. An analysis of the healthcare informatics and systems in Southeast Asia: a current perspective from seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q T; Naguib, R N G; Abd Ghani, M K; Bali, R K; Lee, I M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the healthcare systems in Southeast Asia, with a focus on the healthcare informatics development and deployment in seven countries, namely, Singapore, Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, the Philippines and Vietnam. Brief geographic and demographic information is provided for each country, followed by a historical review of the national strategies for healthcare informatics development. An analysis of the state-of-the-art healthcare infrastructure is also given, along with a critical appraisal of national healthcare provisions.

  20. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  1. PERSPECTIVES ON EAST-ASIAN MONETARY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Masini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trade interdependence among East-Asian countries suggests the urge to design some monetary arrangement to stabilize the macroeconomic framework of an extremely heterogeneously growing area. The paper reviews the literature and analyses several directions of East-Asian integration process, especially in relation to the European model. We argue that a more comprehensive economic and political world-scenario should be considered and a multi-speed policy approach should be implemented in the area. Around the pivotal role of China, a wide agreement should be reached for an Asian single-currency, which might be rapidly issued and provide a reference target for other East-Asian countries.

  2. An overview of current non-nuclear radioactive waste management in the Nordic countries and considerations on possible needs for enhanced inter-Nordic cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brewitz, Erica; Magnússon, Sigurður M.

    This report is the final deliverable of a project commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers for NKS to assess the current situation in the Nordic countries with respect to management of non-nuclear radioactive waste. The ultimate goal was to examine if any needs could be identified for en...

  3. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  4. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  5. Technological demands of meat processing-An Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Naveena, B Maheswarappa; Jo, Cheorun; Sakata, Ryoichi; Zhou, Guanghong; Banerjee, Rituparna; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2017-10-01

    A rapid increase in the economy, population, industrialization, and urbanization of Asian countries has driven the fast development of their meat industries over recent decades. This consistent increase in meat production and consumption in Asia has been the major cause for the development of the global meat industry. Meat production methods and consumption are very diverse across different regions and countries in Asia, and thus, it is impossible to cover the technological demands of all Asian countries in this review. Here, we have mainly highlighted the differences in meat production methods and consumption in Asia during recent decades and the meat technology demands of three east Asian countries, namely China, Korea, and Japan, and one south Asian country, India. A brief introduction of the meat industry, in particular the production and consumption trend in these countries, is provided in this article. The technology demands for fresh and processed meat products are then reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Human Dimensions of Asian Security,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Other Asian countries are also vulnerable in the near future. Coun- tries particularly at risk are those with a tradition of premarital or...in Thailand were 1,000 " screened out" Vietnamese and 7,100 Viet- namese "awaiting decision," for a total of 9,800. Except for the several hundred...thousand refugees from Vietnam who have resettled in China, the Vietnamese in Asia-Pacific refugee camps have now been screened , and 90 percent are

  7. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.

  8. Estimation of the Asian telecommunication technical efficiencies with panel data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-yong; JIA Huai-jing

    2007-01-01

    This article used panel data and the Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model to analyze and compare the technical efficiencies of the telecommunication industry in 28 Asian countries from 1994 to 2003. In conclusion, the technical efficiencies of the Asian countries were found to steadily increase in the past decade. The high-income countries have the highest technical efficiency; however, income is not the only factor that affects the technical efficiency.

  9. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  10. An Asian Regional Architecture for Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Non-traditional security issues such as energy security have been becoming more and more important in Asia and worldwide in recent years.It is increasingly difficult for a single country to guarantee its energy security in the globalized world of today.Asian countries have made some progress in bilateral and multilateral dialogues to promote cooperation and coordination in the energy field.However, they are still far from establishing a regional architecture of energy security.The Asian countries must therefore make greater efforts to realize a regional mechanism of energy cooperation.In the future, there should be a multi-level(regional, sub-regional, and trans-regional, and bilateral),multi-channel, and multi-model Asian regional architecture of energy security.

  11. Current use of ultrasound for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries--a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas C Risom; Rimstad, Ivan Jonassen; Tarpgaard, Mona;

    2015-01-01

    widespread across the Nordic countries. Close to 80% of respondents were using it "almost always" or "frequently" across all paediatric age groups for internal jugular vein cannulation. US was least frequently used when catheterizing the subclavian vein. The two most common reasons given when not using US....... METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was distributed to one anaesthesiologist at every hospital in the Nordic countries; a total of 177 anaesthesiologists were contacted from July till August 2012. RESULTS: The use of US for placing central venous catheters (CVCs) seems......PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) guidance for central vascular access in children has been advocated as a safer approach compared to traditional landmark techniques. We therefore collected data on the current use of US for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries...

  12. Patterns in current anaesthesiological peri-operative practice for colonic resections: a survey in five northern-European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, P; Lassen, K; Hausel, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For colorectal surgery, evidence suggests that optimal management includes: no pre-operative fasting, a thoracic epidural analgesia continued for 2 days post-operatively, and avoidance of fluid overload. In addition, no long-acting benzodiazepines on the day of surgery and use of short...... clear liquids were permitted until 2-3 h before anaesthesia. Solid food was permitted up to 6-8 h prior to anaesthesia. In all countries more than 85% of the responders indicated that epidural anaesthesia was routinely used. Except for Denmark, long-acting benzodiazepines were still widely used. Short......-acting anaesthetics were used in all countries except Scotland where isoflurane is the anaesthetic of choice. With the exception of Denmark, intravenous fluids were used unrestrictedly. CONCLUSION: In northern Europe, most anaesthesiologists adhere to evidence-based optimal management strategies on pre...

  13. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  14. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  15. Are current cost-effectiveness thresholds for low- and middle-income countries useful? Examples from the world of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, A T; Jit, M; Hutubessy, R

    2014-06-01

    The World Health Organization's CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective (WHO-CHOICE) thresholds for averting a disability-adjusted life-year of one to three times per capita income have been widely cited and used as a measure of cost effectiveness in evaluations of vaccination for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These thresholds were based upon criteria set out by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which reflected the potential economic returns of interventions. The CHOICE project sought to evaluate a variety of health interventions at a subregional level and classify them into broad categories to help assist decision makers, but the utility of the thresholds for within-country decision making for individual interventions (given budgetary constraints) has not been adequately explored. To examine whether the 'WHO-CHOICE thresholds' reflect funding decisions, we examined the results of two recent reviews of cost-effectiveness analyses of human papillomavirus and rotavirus vaccination in LMICs, and we assessed whether the results of these studies were reflected in funding decisions for these vaccination programmes. We found that in many cases, programmes that were deemed cost effective were not subsequently implemented in the country. We consider the implications of this finding, the advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods to estimate thresholds, and how cost perspectives and the funders of healthcare may impact on these choices.

  16. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Methods Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed

  17. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease

  18. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests.

  19. THE MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OUR COUNTRY NOT AFFECTED BY THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecturer MARCONI ROBERTO GABRIEL, Phd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period of global crisis the motor activity at the level of the secondary school from our country did not stagnate, on the contrary it achieved a special development due to an increase in the number of stu- dents (pupils eager to practice the motor activity, as a result of the improvement of the material equipment with more than 40 simple and complex stadiums of various gymnastics, judo and karate courts, equipped with minifootball, handball, basketball and volleyabll courts. But the most important thing is to provide professionals belonging to the field of physical education within the Universities of Arad up to the present and also in the future.

  20. Patterns in current anaesthesiological peri-operative practice for colonic resections: a survey in five northern-European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, P; Lassen, K; Hausel, J;

    2006-01-01

    clear liquids were permitted until 2-3 h before anaesthesia. Solid food was permitted up to 6-8 h prior to anaesthesia. In all countries more than 85% of the responders indicated that epidural anaesthesia was routinely used. Except for Denmark, long-acting benzodiazepines were still widely used. Short......-operative fasting, thoracic epidurals and short-acting anaesthetics. However, premedication with longer-acting agents is still common. Avoidance of fluid overload has not yet found its way into daily practice. This may leave patients undergoing elective colonic surgery at risk of oversedation and excessive fluid...

  1. Policy Challenges for Infrastructure Development in Asian LICs: Lessons from the Region

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses policy issues pertaining to infrastructure development in low income countries (LICs) in Asia. Infrastructure challenges in Asian LICs have not been adequately highlighted to date mainly because the international focus has often been on African LICs and because large countries such as China, India, and Indonesia attracted more interest among the developing Asian countries. While Asian LICs have sought to improve their infrastructure over the years, the quality and quantit...

  2. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  3. Resource needs for addressing noncommunicable disease in low- and middle-income countries: current and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Karin; Chisholm, Dan

    2012-03-01

    Low and middle income countries are faced with a range of challenges related to providing efficient and affordable health care. With non-communicable diseases (NCD) on the rise, there is a growing need to be able to estimate resource requirements, costs and expected impact associated with various investment strategies related to prevention and control of NCD. In this article, recently developed costing and health impact models for non-communicable disease are reviewed, with a view to drawing out their main findings as well as methodological limitations. A key shortcoming is that earlier modelling efforts have taken a vertical approach to costing, when in reality a more integrated, horizontal approach is needed in order to effectively plan for scaled-up investment and system development. We subsequently describe how the integration of an NCD module into the joint United Nations OneHealth tool will enable low- and middle-income countries to bring NCD into an integrated process for national strategic health planning. Copyright © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Implications of an ageing population in the Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1999-12-01

    Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.

  5. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Moncayo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Brasília in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering

  6. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naser Z Alsharif; Adnan Dakkuri; Jeanine P Abrons; Dennis Williams; David N Ombengi; HaiAn Zheng; Sara Al-Dahir; Toyin Tofade; Suzanna Gim; Mary Beth O'Connell; Anna Ratka; Emily Dornblaser

    2016-01-01

      International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs...

  7. Education and Recreation Activities of Older Asian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Dattilo, John; Heo, Jinmoo

    2011-01-01

    Older Asian immigrants experience a variety of challenges when attempting to adapt to life in a new society. Adjustment difficulties associated with cultural differences among older Asian immigrants and the host country may result in a certain levels of acculturative stress. This stress is negatively associated with health and quality of life. In…

  8. Are national quality standards for traditional Chinese herbal medicine sufficient? Current governmental regulations for traditional Chinese herbal medicine in certain Western countries and China as the Eastern origin country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, G J; Tan, L; Cohen, M H; McIntyre, M; Bauer, R; Li, X; Bensoussan, A

    2005-09-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal Medicine (TCHM) has been gaining interest and acceptance world wide. TCHM provides on the one side promising perspective of scientific interest and on the other side possible health risks if TCHM drugs are not controlled with respect to quality standards or if practitioners for TCHM are not well trained. This paper outlines an introduction to the scientific aspects and potential risks of TCHM therapy followed by a brief, exploratory overview of the current status of TCHM regulations in certain Western countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and in China as the Eastern origin country of TCHM. Legal foundations to establish quality and safety standards for TCHM crude drugs and ready-made formulas exist in some countries on a local basis but in practice are poorly enforced, where this products have no drug status. In addition practitioners treating patients with TCHM should be well versed in the pharmacology, side effects, and interactions of these substances with Western medicines and should be certified on a regular basis.

  9. Assessment of the Impact of The East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality Over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Ding, Aijun; Safieddine, Sarah; Valks, Pieter; Clerbaux, Cathy; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. In this region, studies showed that the East Asian monsoon plays a significant role in characterizing the temporal variation and spatial patterns of air pollution, since monsoon is a major atmospheric system affecting air mass transport, convection, and precipitation. Knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of Asian monsoon impact on the air quality in China under the background of global climate change. For the first time satellite observations of tropospheric ozone and its precursors will be integrated with the ground-based, aircraft measurements of air pollutants and model simulations to study the impact of the East Asian monsoon on air quality in China. We apply multi-platform satellite observations by the GOME-2, IASI, and MOPITT instruments to analyze tropospheric ozone and CO, precursors of ozone (NO2, HCHO and CHOCHO) and other related trace gases over China. Two years measurements of air pollutants including NO2, HONO, SO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a regional back-ground site in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China will be presented. The potential of using the current generation of satellite instruments, ground-based instruments and aircraft to monitor air quality changes caused by the East Asian monsoon circulation will be presented. Preliminary comparison results between satellite measurement and limited but valuable ground-based and aircraft measurements will also be showed.

  10. A current view of copybooks (the font in the Czech Republic and in selected countries of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Iva Košek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research of mixed design, i.e. qualitative and quantitative nature is to draw a comparison of the most widely used copybooks – textbooks in the Czech Republic based on adapted evaluation criteria originally presented by [1] - content, graphic design, format and adequacy of writing tasks and range etc. and subsequently focus the research on an analysis of similar workbooks – copybooks (including the used font in selected European countries. The proposed research project is a follow-up of a research project realized in 2014 and designed to identify the publishing houses having the greatest numbers of sales of textbooks for 1st -3rd grades of primary schools as well as the reasons for which teachers choose the materials from a particular publishing house in the Czech Republic.

  11. [Current topics of social-psychiatric research in German speaking countries: a content analysis of scientific journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Anita; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2003-11-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating what the actual topics of social-psychiatric research in German speaking countries are. German and international journals covering psychiatry and adjacent disciplines were screened for articles dealing with social-psychiatric topics. All in all, 426 relevant articles were identified and subjected to a content analysis. Almost one third of all articles was dealing with research on mental health services. Another research area that was strongly represented was epidemiology. By contrast, articles devoted to the study of psycho-social causes of mental disorders and psycho-social determinants of its course were rather rare. Possible reasons for the observed trends in social-psychiatric research are discussed. Potential risks for social psychiatry resulting from a too one-sided emphasis on health service research are pointed out.

  12. Exchange rate regimes, saving glut and the Feldstein Horioka puzzle: The East Asian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya-Bahçe, Seçil; Özmen, Erdal

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates whether the recent experience of the emerging East Asian countries with current account surpluses is consistent with the “saving glut” hypothesis and the Feldstein and Horioka puzzle. The evidence suggests that the saving retention coefficients declined substantially in most of the countries after an endogenous break date coinciding with a major exchange rate regime change with the 1997-1998 crisis. Exchange rate flexibility appears to be enhancing financial integration. The results are consistent with an “investment slump” explanation rather than the “saving glut” postulation.

  13. The Establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou; Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Ⅰ.The Background and Status of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang announced the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank(the AIIB)initiative during their respective visits to Southeast Asian countries in October 2013.The AIIB is envisaged to promote interconnectivity and

  14. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  15. Correlation Dynamics in East Asian Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Lestano, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 3, 1994 - September 27, 2013 for six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. We estimate conditional correlations using

  16. Correlation dynamics in East Asian financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, L; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 1994 to September 2013 for six East Asian countries. We use the multivariate GARCH-DCC model in order to disclose the relationship between stock markets and foreign exchange markets

  17. Correlation Dynamics in East Asian Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Lestano, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 3, 1994 - September 27, 2013 for six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. We estimate conditional correlations using

  18. Correlation dynamics in East Asian financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, L; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 1994 to September 2013 for six East Asian countries. We use the multivariate GARCH-DCC model in order to disclose the relationship between stock markets and foreign exchange markets whic

  19. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  20. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  1. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:http://www.ahr-journal.com.

  2. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement.

  3. Community-acquired neonatal and infant sepsis in developing countries: efficacy of WHO's currently recommended antibiotics--systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Lilian; Armiento, Raffaela; Subhi, Rami; Kelly, Julian; Clifford, Vanessa; Duke, Trevor

    2013-02-01

    To review the aetiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired sepsis in developing countries in infants where no clear focus of infection is clinically identified. To estimate the likely efficacy of WHO's recommended treatment for infant sepsis. A systematic review of the literature describing the aetiology of community-acquired neonatal and infant sepsis in developing countries. Using meta-analytical methods, susceptibility was determined to the antibiotic combinations recommended by WHO: (1) benzylpenicillin/ampicillin and gentamicin, (2) chloramphenicol and benzylpenicillin, and (3) third-generation cephalosporins. 19 studies were identified from 13 countries, with over 4000 blood culture isolates. Among neonates, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli accounted for 55% (39-70%) of culture positive sepsis on weighted prevalence. In infants outside the neonatal period, the most prevalent pathogens were S aureus, E coli, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Salmonella spp., which accounted for 59% (26-92%) of culture positive sepsis. For neonates, penicillin/gentamicin had comparable in vitro coverage to third-generation cephalosporins (57% vs. 56%). In older infants (1-12 months), in vitro susceptibility to penicillin/gentamicin, chloramphenicol/penicillin and third-generation cephalosporins was 63%, 47% and 64%, respectively. The high rate of community-acquired resistant sepsis-especially that caused by Klebsiella spp. and S aureus-is a serious global public health concern. In vitro susceptibility data suggest that third-generation cephalosporins are not more effective in treating sepsis than the currently recommended antibiotics, benzylpenicillin and gentamicin; however, with either regimen a significant proportion of bacteraemia is not covered. Revised recommendations for effective second-line antibiotics in neonatal and infant sepsis in developing countries are urgently needed.

  4. Current sedation practice among general dental practitioners and dental specialists in Jordan: an example of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shayyab MH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad H Al-Shayyab,1 Soukaina Ryalat,1 Najla Dar-odeh,1 Firas Alsoleihat21Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Department of Conservative Dentistry and Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, JordanPurpose: The study reported here aimed to identify current sedation practice among general dental practitioners (GDPs and specialist dental practitioners (SDPs in Jordan in 2010.Methods: Questionnaires were sent by email to 1683 GDPs and SDPs who were working in Jordan at the time of the study. The contact details of these dental practitioners were obtained from a Jordan Dental Association list. Details on personal status, use of, and training in, conscious sedation techniques were sought by the questionnaires.Results: A total of 1003 (60% questionnaires were returned, with 748 (86.9% GDPs and 113 (13.1% SDPs responding. Only ten (1.3% GDPs and 63 (55.8% SDPs provided information on the different types of treatments related to their specialties undertaken under some form of sedation performed by specialist and/or assistant anesthetists. Approximately 0.075% of the Jordanian population received some form of sedation during the year 2010, with approximately 0.054% having been treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The main reason for the majority of GDPs (55.0% and many SDPs (40% not to perform sedation was lack of training in this field. While some SDPs (26.0% indicated they did not use sedation because of the inadequacy of sedative facilities.Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the provision of conscious sedation services in general and specialist dental practices in Jordan is inconsistent and inadequate. This stresses the great need to train practitioners and dental assistants in Jordan to enable them to safely and effectively perform all forms of sedation.Keywords: Jordan Dental

  5. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: the results of a multinational web-based survey in the 2nd Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis (AOCC) meeting in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Jun; Lee, Chang-Kyun; Kim, You Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims As the number of Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased recently, there is a growing need to improve IBD care in this region. This study is aimed at determining how Asian countries are currently dealing with their IBD patients in terms of diagnosis. Methods A questionnaire was designed by the organizing committee of Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis, for a multinational web-based survey conducted between March 2014 and May 2014. Results A total of 353 Asian medical doctors treating IBD patients responded to the survey (114 in China, 88 in Japan, 116 in Korea, and 35 in other Asian countries). Most of the respondents were gastroenterologists working in an academic teaching hospital. While most of the doctors from China, Japan, and Korea use their own national guidelines for IBD diagnosis, those from other Asian countries most commonly adopt the European Crohn's Colitis Organisation's guideline. Japanese doctors seldom adopt the Montreal classification for IBD. The most commonly used activity scoring system for ulcerative colitis is the Mayo score in all countries except China, whereas that for Crohn's disease (CD) is the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. The most available tool for small-bowel evaluation in CD patients differs across countries. Many physicians administer empirical anti-tuberculous medications before the diagnosis of CD. Conclusions The results of this survey demonstrate that Asian medical doctors have different diagnostic approaches for IBD. This knowledge would be important in establishing guidelines for improving the care of IBD patients in this region. PMID:27433144

  6. The five species and distribution of Paragonimus in Yunnan Province, China and adjacent Southeast Asian countries%中国云南省与毗邻的部分东南亚国家5种并殖吸虫虫种及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    世淑兰; 李翠英; 王红; 周本江

    2013-01-01

    Objective Yunnan Province and some adjacent Southeast Asian countries share same mountains and rivers while the species of Paragronimus is various and its distribution is widespread,as the result of the multifarious natural conditions,ecological environment and clustering distribution of animals and plants.The species of Paragronimus from these countries is almost identical,and the host and pathogenicity are also the same.Although some Paragronimus have different names,they appear same or similar in morphology and genetic characteristics showing higher homology,and probably synonyms of the species.This article reviewed the five species and distribution of Paragronimus in Yunnan province of China and adjacent Southeast Asian countries.%目的 中国云南与东南亚部分国家的自然条件、动植物群落分布和生态环境具有多样性,并殖吸虫的虫种多、分布广.多年来的研究表明,云南省与周边部分东南亚国家的大多数并殖吸虫虫种是相同的,且宿主性和致病性也相同.有些虫种尽管名称不同,但相互之间在形态或遗传特征方面也相同或相近,显示出较高的同源性,可能存在同物异名现象.该文对中国云南与毗邻的部分东南亚国家并殖吸虫虫种及分布情况进行综述.

  7. Observed trend in Asian dust days in South Korea and its geo-physiographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    South Korea has experienced significant socio-economic damages by Asian dust (also called Yellow sand or Yellow dust). Asian dust is a wind-driven natural phenomenon that carries fine sand particles along with surface pollutants from semi-arid areas in northern China, Inner Mongolia, the Gobi Desert, and the Taklimakan Desert to the East Asia. Its occurrence requires three necessary conditions: dry soil in source areas, strong ascending air current to lift sand particles up, and intense wind speed to transport the particles. Accordingly, the drier source areas are, the larger amount of source materials for Asian dust becomes. Further, regional wind speed and direction are key elements that determine the influencing boundary and level of damage. In this study, we investigate number of Asian dust days over South Korea. We utilize monthly data over 50 years (from 1961 to 2013) recorded at 12 stations, operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration, which are evenly distributed over the country. We find that annual number of Asian dust days in South Korea tends to increase until early 2000s and the increasing trend is ceased since then. Interestingly, this transition time (early 2000s) matches the time when the surface wind speed trend has reversed (Kim and Paik, 2015). Hence, we hypothesize that occurrence of Asian dust in South Korea can be largely captured by surface wind, instead of air circulation at high altitude. We also hypothesize that the transition in the trend around early 2000s is associated with expansion of cold air system during winter over the East Asia. Detailed analysis to support these findings will be presented. Reference Kim, JC., & Paik, K. (2015). Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: A focus on South Korea. Climate Dynamics, (Under review).

  8. Outside Mainstream Electronic Databases: Review of Studies Conducted in the USSR and Post-Soviet Countries on Electric Current-Assisted Consolidation of Powder Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene G. Grigoryev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews research articles published in the former USSR and post-soviet countries on the consolidation of powder materials using electric current that passes through the powder sample and/or a conductive die-punch set-up. Having been published in Russian, many of the reviewed papers are not included in the mainstream electronic databases of the scientific articles and thus are not known to the scientific community. The present review is aimed at filling this information gap. In the paper, the electric current-assisted sintering techniques based on high- and low-voltage approaches are presented. The main results of the theoretical modeling of the processes of electromagnetic field-assisted consolidation of powder materials are discussed. Sintering experiments and related equipment are described and the major experimental results are analyzed. Sintering conditions required to achieve the desired properties of the sintered materials are provided for selected material systems. Tooling materials used in the electric current-assisted consolidation set-ups are also described.

  9. Outside Mainstream Electronic Databases: Review of Studies Conducted in the USSR and Post-Soviet Countries on Electric Current-Assisted Consolidation of Powder Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olevsky, Eugene A.; Aleksandrova, Elena V.; Ilyina, Alexandra M.; Dudina, Dina V.; Novoselov, Alexander N.; Pelve, Kirill Y.; Grigoryev, Eugene G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research articles published in the former USSR and post-soviet countries on the consolidation of powder materials using electric current that passes through the powder sample and/or a conductive die-punch set-up. Having been published in Russian, many of the reviewed papers are not included in the mainstream electronic databases of the scientific articles and thus are not known to the scientific community. The present review is aimed at filling this information gap. In the paper, the electric current-assisted sintering techniques based on high- and low-voltage approaches are presented. The main results of the theoretical modeling of the processes of electromagnetic field-assisted consolidation of powder materials are discussed. Sintering experiments and related equipment are described and the major experimental results are analyzed. Sintering conditions required to achieve the desired properties of the sintered materials are provided for selected material systems. Tooling materials used in the electric current-assisted consolidation set-ups are also described. PMID:28788337

  10. 东南亚陆地国家留学生管理问题思考--基于跨文化视角%On the Managemet Problems of Foreign Students from Southeast Asian Mainland Countries:From the Perspective of Acculturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立伟

    2013-01-01

    Foreign students from Southeast Asian mainland countries account for the majority of the foreign student body in Yunnan tertiary education. Adverse factors against their successful acculturation include younger age, limited acculturative experiences and lack of social support. This paper comes up with a series of countermeasures like“orientation week”,“language partners”,“similar-to-Chinese-student management”, which can be helpf ul to deal with the problems related to Southeast Asian foreign students.%云南省高校留学生主体来自东南亚陆地国家,主要存在年龄偏小、跨文化适应经历缺乏、社会支持缺失等方面的问题。为此,针对性的来取“开学活动周”、“语伴”、“趋同化管理”等一系列举措,为中国高校应对留学生教育管理问题提供了借鉴。

  11. Examining the Level of Career maturity among Foreign Asian Students by measuring Academic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tekke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.  This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, Female= 123 international students studying in various semesters completed the Career Maturity Inventory and it was reported that there were no significant differences between respondents of different academic semesters with regard to level of career maturity, this might reflect an educational level bias in the construction of the career decision-making. The findings of the current study are not consistent with theoretical expectations and prior research that international undergraduate senior students would be having higher career maturity than international undergraduate fresh students. Research emphasizes the reason behind might result from dependent and collectivist Asian culture that leading to fresh international students are higher career maturity compared to senior international students.

  12. Management of hyperglycemia in geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus: South Asian consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Manash P; Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Raza, Syed Abbas; Somasundaram, Noel; John, Mathew; Katulanda, Prasad; Shrestha, Dina; Bantwal, Ganpathy; Sahay, Rakesh; Latt, Tint Swe; Pathan, Faruque

    2011-04-01

    Asia is home to four of the world's five largest diabetic populations, two of them being South Asian nations, namely, India and Pakistan. This problem is compounded by a substantial rise in the elderly population in Asian countries. On the other hand, the heterogeneous health condition and multiple co-morbidities make the care of chronic disease in the elderly a challenging task. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly population. Current Guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. No evidence grading was done for the purpose of this manuscript. The clinical questions of the guidelines, the methodology of literature search, and medical writing strategy were finalized by consultations in person and through mail. The South Asian Consensus guideline emphasizes tailoring of glycemic goals for patients based on age, co-morbid conditions especially that of cardiovascular system, risk of hypoglycemia, and life expectancy. It also recommends cautious use of available pharmacotherapy in geriatric patients with diabetes. The primary principle of diabetes therapy should be to achieve euglycemia, without causing hypoglycemia. Appropriate use of modern insulins and oral drugs, including incretin mimetics will help physicians achieve this aim.

  13. Management of hyperglycemia in geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus: South Asian consensus guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash P Baruah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia is home to four of the world′s five largest diabetic populations, two of them being South Asian nations, namely, India and Pakistan. This problem is compounded by a substantial rise in the elderly population in Asian countries. On the other hand, the heterogeneous health condition and multiple co-morbidities make the care of chronic disease in the elderly a challenging task. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly population. Current Guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. No evidence grading was done for the purpose of this manuscript. The clinical questions of the guidelines, the methodology of literature search, and medical writing strategy were finalized by consultations in person and through mail. The South Asian Consensus guideline emphasizes tailoring of glycemic goals for patients based on age, co-morbid conditions especially that of cardiovascular system, risk of hypoglycemia, and life expectancy. It also recommends cautious use of available pharmacotherapy in geriatric patients with diabetes. The primary principle of diabetes therapy should be to achieve euglycemia, without causing hypoglycemia. Appropriate use of modern insulins and oral drugs, including incretin mimetics will help physicians achieve this aim.

  14. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AMONG ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Tsardanidis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike other communities with a strongpresence in the country (i.e Albanians, Asians seek to differentiate themselves from their welcoming society by emphasising the ethnic nature of their business so as to specifically lend added value to their entrepreneurial practices. This creates new economic structures that have a positive impact on the Greek economy, which is invigorated by an increase in the number of workers, companies and taxpayers, at the same time as it transforms the urban landscape by revitalising (for example some of Athens’ most depressed neighbourhoods. These Asian diasporas, even though they display several common features, also have great differences which determine both their strategies for progressing in the welcoming society and their chances of achieving same. The underlying argument in the analysis is that the presence of the Asian diaspora represents a positive element for the Greek economy, in view of which the government should react by encouraging their integration and maximising their potential.

  15. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  16. A survey of Asian life scientists :the state of biosciences, laboratory biosecurity, and biosafety in Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie

    2006-02-01

    Over 300 Asian life scientists were surveyed to provide insight into work with infectious agents. This report provides the reader with a more complete understanding of the current practices employed to study infectious agents by laboratories located in Asian countries--segmented by level of biotechnology sophistication. The respondents have a variety of research objectives and study over 60 different pathogens and toxins. Many of the respondents indicated that their work was hampered by lack of adequate resources and the difficulty of accessing critical resources. The survey results also demonstrate that there appears to be better awareness of laboratory biosafety issues compared to laboratory biosecurity. Perhaps not surprisingly, many of these researchers work with pathogens and toxins under less stringent laboratory biosafety and biosecurity conditions than would be typical for laboratories in the West.

  17. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  18. The use of an In House Scoring System Scale versus Glasgow Coma Scale in non-traumatic altered states of consciousness patients: can it be used for triaging patients in Southeast Asian developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, M; Adnan, W A W; Ahmad, R; Ab Rahman, N H N; Naing, N N; Abdullah, J

    2007-11-01

    Non-traumatic Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) are a non-specific consequence of various etiologies, and are normally monitored by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS gives varriable results among untrained emergency medicine personel in developing countries where English is not the first language. An In House Scoring System (IHSS) scale was made by the first author for the purpose of triaging so as to quickly asses patients when seen by medical personel. This IHSS scale was compared to the GCS to determine it's specificity and sensitivity in the accident and emergency department (ED) of Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM). All patients with non-traumatic ASC were selected by purposive sampling according to pre-determined criteria. Patients were evaluated by the two systems, IHSS and GCS, by emergency physicians who were on call. Patient demographics, clinical features, investigations, treatment given and outcomes were collected and followed for a period of 14 days. A total of 221 patients with non-traumatic ASC were studied, 54.3% were males. The mean age of the patients was 56 years old. The mean overall GCS score on presentation to the ED was 10.3. The mean duration of ASC was 11.6 hours. One hundred thirty patients (58.8%) experienced ASC secondary to general or focal cerebral disorders. The mortality rate was 40.3% 2 weeks after the ED visit. Fifty-four point three percent of the patients were awake and considered to have good outcomes while 45.7% of the patients had poor outcomes (comatose or dead) 2 weeks after the ED visit. The mean overall GCS score, verbal and motor subscores as well as the IHSS had significantly decreased (worsened) after treatment in the ED. A poor IHSS scale, hypertension, current smoking, abnormal pupillary reflexes and acidosis were associated with a worse 2-week outcome. The mean age and WBC count was lower and the mean overall GCS score and eye, verbal and motor subscores were higher as well as those having a lower IHSS

  19. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  20. Association of periodontal and cardiovascular diseases: South-Asian studies 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of Asian populations have moderate to severe periodontal disease and a substantial number are anticipated to be at high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. This study reviews epidemiology and association of periodontal and CVDs from the South-Asian region. Observational studies and clinical trials published during January 2001–December 2012 focusing association between periodontitis and CVDs in South-Asian countries were retrieved from various databases and studied. Current evidence suggests that both periodontal and CVDs are globally prevalent and show an increasing trend in developing countries. Global data on epidemiology and association of periodontal and CVDs are predominantly from the developed world; whereas Asia with 60% of the world's population lacks substantial scientific data on the link between periodontal and CVDs. During the search period, 14 studies (5 clinical trials, 9 case–controls were reported in literature from South-Asia; 100% of clinical trials and 77% case–control studies have reported a significant association between the oral/periodontal parameters and CVD. Epidemiological and clinical studies from South-Asia validate the global evidence on association of periodontal disease with CVDs. However, there is a need for meticulous research for public health and scientific perspective of the Periodontal and CVDs from South-Asia.

  1. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  2. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  3. Correlates of Physical Activity in Asian Adolescents: A Literature Review

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    Husna Hidayati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important to prevent several chronic diseases in adulthood. Nowadays, young people do not regularly perform physical activity. Several factors may influence their decision. Most of studies were conducted in western countries. However the findings might not be generalized regarding the differences in culture and social condition. Therefore, reviewing the correlates of physical activity among adolescents in Asian countries is essential. Purpose: To update the state of knowledge on factors associated with adolescents’ physical activity in Asian countries. Methods: Literature review on existing articles retrieved from electronic databases was conducted. The review on factors of physical activity was set based on the setting of study, adolescents as participants of the study and the year of publication ranged from 2002-2011. Result: The findings compiled the evidence of relationships between physical activity and several influencing factors. Intrapersonal factors age, gender, socioeconomic status, parental education, and perceptions related to physical activity- perceived self efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, interpersonal factors (family and peer influences and extra-personal factors (school policy and living arrangement were identified. Self efficacy was manifested as the strongest influencing factor in most studies. This review highlighted the cultural issues on physical activities of adolescents in Asian countries. Conclusion: This paper provided comprehensive knowledge related to factors influencing physical activity in Asian adolescents. The issue of cultural sensitivity should be considered in the future intervention program designed to improve physical activity of adolescents. Keyword: adolescent, physical activity, health Promotion, Asian countries

  4. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

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    Lu Mingshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear. 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective

  5. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening

  6. Liminality, the Australian State and Asian Nurse Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Willis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades the flow of Asians to Australia through legitimate immigration programs has accelerated. This is particularly the case for Asian nurses coming from countries that were once subjected to European colonisation. The difficulties encountered by nurses from Asian countries mirror those of earlier waves of migrants. These include navigating the language and differences in cultural mores, values, and beliefs, along with the loneliness that may come from leaving strong family ties at home. While racism has been evident for all earlier waves of migrants, Asians face an additional hurdle linked to the uneasy relationship Australians and the Australian state has with Asia. Australia is geographically in Asia, but culturally Anglo and European.  The impact this might have on the working relationships of Asian and Australian born registered nurses is significant given the nature of their work in caring for the sick and elderly. This liminal relationship between the Australian state and Asians provides a theoretical insight into the particular difficulties experienced by Asian nurses and the integration programs that might assist them and their Australian colleagues to develop cohesive working relationships.

  7. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  8. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  9. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  10. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  11. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  12. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  13. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current buildin