... Breadcrumb Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...
Lau, Allison S M; Lum, Sharilyn K; Chronister, Krista M; Forrest, Linda
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of values acculturation and the influence of media on Asian American college women's overall body image. A sample of 59 Asian American women from two large universities completed self-report surveys, which included questions regarding values acculturation, media internalization, and overall body satisfaction. Results showed that Asian American women who identified more strongly with traditional Asian values reported higher levels of body image dissatisfaction. Further, Asian American women who reported higher internalization of media portrayals of beauty ideals reported higher body image dissatisfaction. Research and clinical recommendations are made to enhance psychologists' understanding of Asian American women's body image and acculturation.
Andrew Thomas Reyes
Full Text Available Asian American women face unique stressors that threaten their overall health and well-being. However, resilience is a phenomenon that allows individuals to develop positive adaptation despite adversities and challenges. This integrative review is conducted in order to explore the current state of knowledge regarding the resilience of Asian American women. Twelve databases were used to identify related articles: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, ERIC, Ethnic NewsWatch, GenderWatch, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, ProQuest Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, SAGE (Psychology and Sociology collections, Scopus, and Web of Science. Twenty-one research studies met the inclusion criteria of the integrative review. Five common themes emerged from the analysis of the studies: (a resilience as conceptualized as a coping strategy, (b resilience as related to social support and network, (c resilience as an enduring phenomenon, (d resilience as connected to bicultural identity, and (e resilience as an emancipatory perspective and experience. These themes imply that resilience is a developmental process, culture has a significant influence on resilience, and Asian American women are a vulnerable and marginalized group. Further recommendations for nursing practice and research are discussed as related to these implications.
Kim, Janna L.
This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…
Yoshioka, Robert B.; And Others
The first of the three parts of this article provides a brief outline of the stereotypes applied to Asian American Women and a useful backdrop on the other two parts. The second part on Chinese immigrants focuses on the strong family ties of tgis ethnic group. The third and last part concerns the quietness and modesty of the Issei--equated with…
Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle
Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…
Liang, Jia; Peters-Hawkins, April L.
Purpose: Little research exists that examines the leadership experiences of Asian American women in public schools. This study sought to understand the meanings Asian American women school administrators have constructed out of their professional lives given the intersection of gender, race-ethnicity, and leadership. Research Method/Approach: Data…
Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S
California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.
Perkins, A C; Cheng, C E; Hillebrand, G G; Miyamoto, K; Kimball, A B
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease with a large quality of life impact, characterized by comedones, inflammatory lesions, secondary dyspigmentation and scarring. There are few large objective studies comparing acne epidemiology between racial and ethnic groups. This study aimed to define the prevalence and subtypes of acne in women of different racial groups from four ethnicities. The sample consisted of 2895 (384 African American, 520 Asian, 1295 Caucasian, 258 Hispanic and 438 Continental Indian) women ranging in age from 10 to 70 years. Photographs of subjects were graded for acne lesions, scars, dyspigmentation, and measurements taken of sebum excretion and pore size. Clinical acne was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic women (37%, 32% respectively) than in Continental Indian, Caucasian and Asian (23%, 24%, 30% respectively) women. All racial groups displayed equal prevalence of both subtypes of acne with the exception of Asians, for whom inflammatory acne was more prevalent than comedonal (20% vs. 10%) acne, and in Caucasians, for whom comedonal acne was more prevalent than inflammatory (14% vs. 10%) acne. Hyperpigmentation was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic (65%, 48% respectively) than in Asian, Continental Indian and Caucasian (18%, 10%, 25% respectively) women. Dyspigmentation and atrophic scarring were more common in African American and Hispanic women than in all other ethnicities. There was a negative correlation between pore size and skin lightness for all ethnicities. Sebum production was positively correlated with acne severity in African American, Asian and Hispanic women, and pore size was positively correlated with acne in African American, Asian and Continental Indian women, (for all above results, PAcne was evaluated only on the left side of the face and the two-dimensional nature of photography may not capture all skin surface changes. Acne prevalence and sequelae were more common in those with darker skin types
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju
Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.
Social science literature on stereotypes is reviewed. Negative stereotypes of Asian Americans are examined and their relationship to Asian American political and economic status and self image is discussed. Specific actions to counter these stereotypes are advocated. (GC)
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin
Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women.
Cummins, Lillian Huang; Lehman, Janice
Eating disorders are one of the most lethal psychiatric illnesses and affect millions of individuals worldwide. While they have been more typically attributed to middle class, Caucasian, adolescent females, current research suggests that there is a similar prevalence of eating disorders and their symptoms, especially body dissatisfaction, among Asian American girls and women. Despite this, very little research has investigated how culture and gender may impact the assessment and treatment of eating disorders for Asian American women. This review examines the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders and negative body image in Asian American women and describes current research on the efficacy of a variety of theoretical approaches for treatment, including psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and feminist perspectives. Recommendations for considering culture and gender when working clinically with Asian American women who experience eating concerns as well as suggestions for future research directions are provided.
Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice "disempowering parenting styles," (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications - Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is
... and diabetes. Asian Americans also have a high prevalence of the following conditions and risk factors: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, smoking, tuberculosis, and liver ...
Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chui-Chen; Twaddle, Nathan C; Doerge, Daniel R
In a case-control study conducted among Asian-American women in Los Angeles County, we reported that the risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in association with soy intake [Wu,A.H., Wan,P., Hankin,J. et al. (2002...
Analyzing interviews with 18 Asian American female undergraduates, this study seeks to understand how participants viewed the sorority system at a predominantly White institution in the Southeastern United States. Drawing from critical race theory, I argue that the ways in which women perceived and experienced both acceptance and marginalization…
Masuda, Akihiko; Goodnight, Bradly L.; Ng, Stacey Y.; Ward Schaefer, L.; Tully, Erin C.; Chan, Wing Yi; Drake, Chad E.
Help-seeking stigma is considered a major obstacle to seeking professional psychological services in Asian American college women. Informed in part by objectification theory and the psychological flexibility model of behavior change, the present cross-sectional study examines the role of disordered eating cognition and psychological inflexibility…
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Gilmore, Amanda K; Blayney, Jessica A; Kaysen, Debra L
The need for trauma research with monoracial groups such as Asian Americans (AA) has recently been emphasized to better understand trauma experiences and inform interventions across populations. Given AA cultural contexts, posttraumatic cognitions and somatization may be key in understanding trauma experiences for this group. AA and White American (WA) trauma-exposed college women completed a survey on sexual trauma history, posttraumatic cognitions, somatic symptoms, and PTSD severity. For the overall sample, higher negative cognitions were associated with higher somatization. Asian race was associated with higher negative cognitions, which then predicted higher PTSD. Unexpectedly, WAs more strongly endorsed somatization than AAs. These findings indicate that posttraumatic cognitions may be helpful in understanding relationships between somatization and PTSD severity among those of Asian backgrounds and that the relationship between somatization and PTSD symptoms is culturally complex.
Every racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Asian Americans.
Ohm, Julie Juhye
The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...
Huang, Bu; Appel, Hoa; Ai, Amy L
There is ample research showing that there are health disparities for minorities with respect to seeking mental health services in the United States. Although there are general barriers for minorities in seeking service health, minority women are more vulnerable due to their negative experiences and lower satisfaction in receiving health care, compared to men. This study utilized the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) data set, which is the first population-based mental health study on Latino and Asian Americans, to give a full description of Latina and Asian American women's experience in mental health service seeking and identifies the opportunities in increasing their satisfaction levels. The results showed that perceived discrimination attributed to gender or race/ethnicity is negatively predicting levels of satisfaction of mental health service seeking. Older age, higher education levels, longer duration in the United States, and better mental health, are positively related to satisfaction levels for Latina and Asian American women.
Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W; Heh, Victor
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly one in every three women over their lifetimes. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy, mediated by condom use and perceived spousal/partner support among Latina and Asian women. Data came from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The analysis was restricted to married or cohabiting female respondents aged 18+ years (n = 1,595). Dependent variables included unintended pregnancy, condom use, and perceived partner support. Independent variables included physical abuse or threats by current partner and primary decision-maker. Weighted least squares was used to fit path models to data comprising dichotomous and ordinal variables. More than 13% of women reported IPV during their relationship with their partner/spouse. Abused women were twice as likely as non-abused women to have had an unintended pregnancy. This association was partially mediated by perceived partner support. Condom use had a positive, but non-significant association with unintended pregnancy, and IPV had a negative, but non-significant association with condom use. Results highlight the importance of IPV screening for minority women. Efforts to combine family planning and violence prevention services may help reduce unintended pregnancy.
Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.
The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…
Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H
With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.
... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asianamericanhealth.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...
Dang, Jeff; Lee, Jessica; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen N; Valdez-Dadia, Annalyn; Thomson, Jasmin; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
We examined whether the impact of medical interpretation services was associated with the receipt of a mammogram, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear. We conducted a large cross-sectional study involving four Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities with high proportions of individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). Participants were recruited from community clinics, churches and temples, supermarkets, and other community gathering sites in Northern and Southern California. Among those that responded, 98% completed the survey rendering a total of 1,708 AAPI women. In a series of multivariate logistic regression models, it was found that women who typically used a medical interpreter had a greater odds of having received a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 2.83), clinical breast exam (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.82, 5.03), and a Pap smear (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.97) than those who did not usually use an interpreter. The study provides support for increasing language access in healthcare settings. In particular, medical interpreters may help increase the utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among LEP AAPI women.
Full Text Available
This essay argues that Chang-rae Lee’s novel A Gesture Life exemplifies both the conceptual gains and the potential pitfalls of current Asian American literature’s transnationalism. The first section of the essay discusses the interlocking of psychoanalytic theory and political philosophy, specifically Freud’s uncanny and Arendt’s banality of evil, in Lee’s portrait of the psychology of criminal repression. The second section juxtaposes Lee’s novel against real-life comfort women’s survivor testimonies to probe broader questions of historical memory, politicized historiography, and the modes of circulation and authority in contemporary international comfort women discourse. The final section, which recontextualizes Lee’s novel within current debates in Asian and Asian American Studies, argues against a paradigm of alterity vis-à-vis the comfort women and proposes instead a transnational aesthetic premised on the human.
Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lisha, Nadra E; Vittinghoff, Eric
The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and awareness of heart attacks/heart disease and perceived risk for future heart attack in Asian/Pacific Islander women, compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In this cross-sectional study, 318 women enrolled in a mobile phone-based physical activity education trial were analyzed. Heart attack knowledge, self-efficacy for recognizing and responding to heart attack symptoms, and perceived risk for a future heart attack were measured. Analyses were conducted using logistic, proportional odds, and linear regression models, depending on the outcome and adjusting for age. Pairwise differences between Asian/Pacific Islanders and the other four groups were assessed using a Bonferroni correction (p heart attack and self-efficacy for heart attack recognition and care seeking behavior compared to the Caucasian women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, perceived risk did not differ among the groups. Forty-six percent of the Asian American women, compared to 25% of Caucasian women, falsely believed "breast cancer is the number one cause of death for women (p = 0.002)." In addition, Asian/Pacific Islander women were less likely to report "arm pain, numbness, tingling, or radiating" as one of the heart attack symptoms compared to the Caucasian and the multiracial group (34%, 63% [p < 0.001], and 66% [p = 0.004], respectively). These findings highlight the urgent need to develop effective, tailored campaigns to close the knowledge gap between Asian/Pacific Islander women and Caucasian women.
Chung, Jennifer Y.
This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…
Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E
The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.
Zhao, Meng; Conard, Patricia L
Asian American women have the lowest mammography screening rate in the United States. There is no standardized instrument available to measure their cultural beliefs regarding screening mammography. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content validity of the Cultural Health and Screening Mammography Belief Scale (CHSMBS) developed for this population. Procedures for Instrument Development: The content validity was examined using content validity index (CVI). Both item-level (I-CVI) and scale-level CVIs (S-CVI) were evaluated. The instrument's I-CVIs ranged from 0.75 to 1.00, and the S-CVI was 1.00, reflecting excellent inter-rater agreement. The study has established the scale's content validity to evaluate Asian American women's use of screening mammography. Further examination of the reliability and construct validity will add further support of the scale's utility in health research and practice.
Vogt, Kristen E.
The purpose of this research study was to examine, for undergraduate women of various Asian American ethnic backgrounds, the influence of background contextual and college environment factors on their sense of academic self-efficacy and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Social cognitive career theory and its critiques provided a theoretical foundation for relationships from past performance, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and college environment variables (compositional diversity, racial climate, gendered climate, academic peer support), to academic self-efficacy and achievement. Data were collected through an online survey. Instrumentation included the scales of Language, Identity, and Behavioral Acculturation; Gender Discrimination; Faculty and Classroom Behavior; Interactions with Peers; and Academic Milestones Self-efficacy. The participants were 228 Asian American undergraduate women in STEM at a large public, doctoral research extensive university on the east coast; the response rate was 51%. In three MANOVAs for nine social cognitive career variables, four ethnic groups (East, South, Southeast, and Multi-ethnic Asian American) significantly differed only on socioeconomic status. In path analysis, the initial model was not a good fit and was rejected. The model was respecified through statistical and theoretical evaluation, tested in exploratory analysis, and considered a good fit. The respecified model explained 36% of semester GPA (achievement) and 28% of academic self-efficacy. The academic achievement of Asian American women in STEM was related to past performance, background contextual factors, academic self-efficacy, academic peer support, and gendered climate. The strongest direct influence on achievement was academic self-efficacy followed by past performance. The total effect of Asian acculturation on achievement was negative and the total effect of American acculturation on achievement was not
Gossip, defined as evaluative talk about a third party, is a powerful tool for establishing in- and out-group norms and determining belonging. Drama, a form of gossip that is evolving in online spaces, is the process of fighting back against gossip and rumors designed to isolate and ostracise. While literature commonly portrays women as victims or…
Allen Laura J
Full Text Available Abstract Background US Asian women with early-stage breast cancer are more likely to receive a modified radical mastectomy (MRM than White women, contrary to clinical recommendations regarding breast conserving treatment (BCT. Methods We surveyed physicians regarding treatment decision-making for early-stage breast cancer, particularly as it applies to Asian patients. Physicians were identified through the population-based Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry. Eighty (of 147 physicians completed a questionnaire on sociodemographics, professional training, clinical practices, and perspectives on the treatment decision-making processes. Results The most important factors identified by physicians in the BCT/MRM decision were clinical in nature, including presence of multifocal disease (86% identified this as being an important factor for selecting MRM, tumor size (71% for MRM, 78% for BCT, cosmetic result (74% for BCT, and breast size (50% for MRM, 55% for BCT. The most important reasons cited for the Asian treatment patterns were patient attitudes toward not needing to preserve the breast (53%, smaller breast sizes (25%, and fear and cultural beliefs (12%. Conclusion These survey results suggest that physicians perceive major roles of both clinical and cultural factors in the BCT/MRM decision, but cultural factors may be more relevant in explaining surgical treatment patterns among Asians.
Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong
Objectives To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. Methods We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35–80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Results Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pimage quality (p>0.05). Conclusions Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD. PMID:28419125
Chiang, Linda H.
This study examined the unique learning styles of Asian-American students, noting different Asian immigrants' backgrounds and relating Asian cultures to children's learning. Data came from a literature review; interviews with 19 families from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan who had a total of 33 children ages 6-21 years; and home and…
Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C
The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.
Chen, Juan; Takeuchi, David T.
This study investigates the consequences of Asian women's intermarriage-whether it is associated with higher social standing and lower ethnic identity, using data on Asian women (N = 589) from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS). The socioeconomic status of partners of women who intermarried and partners of women who married men…
Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody
Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…
Katrak, Ketu H.
Explores post-1965 South Asian American writers writing in English and the role of geography and memory and how political and societal factors of the "capitalist new world order" continue to determine the physical and metaphorical location of postcolonial writers in the diaspora. It examines South Asian American writers' compelling evocations of…
Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)
Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran
Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...
... Population Profiles > Asian American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...
Shawn M. Burn; Patricia L. Winter; Brittany Hori; N Clayton. Silver
There are relatively few articles in sociology and psychology on gender, ethnicity, and the environment, yet ethnic and gender neutral approaches to sustainability may be incomplete. We studied gender, ethnicity, and environmental concern with an internet sample of Asian American women (n=157) and men (n=69), and European American women (n=222) and men (n=99)....
Okutsu, James K.
Asian American students are called a "model minority" for their scholastic success. Few studies focus on their educational concerns. This study surveyed students of Japanese, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Pacific Island decent and found they were generally pleased with college experiences. Attitudes toward education and the impact of…
Chmaj, Betty E.
The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…
Weaver, C N
Many demographic and labor force characteristics, such as family income, educational attainment, and occupation, correlated with job satisfaction. Since Asian Americans are more like Euro-Americans than African Americans in most of these characteristics, it seems reasonable to predict that their job satisfaction would be high as for Euro-Americans rather than low as for African Americans. Yet research of Weaver and Hinson showed that the opposite is true. One explanation for this unexpected result is that Asians do not think of jobs as a source of happiness but simply as a means of earning money to underwrite other aspects of their lives, such as the well-being of their families, which are the main sources of their happiness. The hypothesis was tested that job satisfaction does not contribute to the happiness of Asian Americans in comparison to satisfaction from other domains of their lives. Analysis was conducted of the attitudes of Asian-American (n = 160), African-American (n = 602), and Euro-American (n = 6,477) workers who responded to 22 surveys drawn from 1972 to 1998, each of which was representative of the labor force of the USA. The hypothesis was supported by the finding that the partial correlation of job satisfaction and global happiness with satisfaction in seven other domains of life (marriage, financial condition, community, nonwork activities, family, health and physical condition, and friendships) held constant was significant for Euro-American women and men but not for Asian Americans or African Americans of either sex. And, the same result occurred when global happiness was regressed on job satisfaction net the effects of satisfaction in other seven domains.
Hidalgo, Danielle Antoinette; Bankston, Carl L.
In this work, the authors use statistics from the U.S. Census to examine trends in intermarriage, racial and ethnic combinations, and categorizations among Asian Americans. Specifically, the authors want to consider the extent to which family patterns may contribute to Asian Americans and their descendants' continuing as distinct, becoming members…
Discusses the objectives and presents instructional materials for a course entitled Women in American Literature'' which attempts to introduce students to the concept of alternative life styles for American women. (RB)
Hamamoto, Darrell Y.
Examines television portrayals of the Asian American family during the Reagan-Bush era as a model minority group. Argues that Asian Americans encounter racism and marginalization and that only relatively few achieve the "American dream." Analyzes the portrayal of Asian Americans in television documentaries and dramas. (JB)
Thien-bao Thuc Phi
Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.
Thien-bao Thuc Phi
Full Text Available Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.
Sue, Stanley; And Others
The stated purpose of this article is to argue for a more realistic appraisal of the status of Asian Americans, by examining the 1970 statistics concerning income, education, interracial marriage, and mental health among the 435,000 Chinese, 343,000 Filipinos, and 591,000 Japanese in the U.S. (Author/JM)
Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah
This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…
Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.
Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family…
Poulsen, Melissa Eriko
This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...
Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer in Asian American women. American women are more likely to receive a diagnosis in the advanced stages of the disease primarily because of late detection...
Wolfe, Maren M.; Yang, Peggy H.; Wong, Eunice C.; Atkinson, Donald R.
Introduces development of a scale that can be used along with the Asian Values Scale, to assess adherence to Asian cultural values. Used in combination these scales can measure Asian American acculturation to European American values. They make it possible to obtain a value and behavior assessment of Asian American acculturation. (JDM)
Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin
This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…
Katherine G Hastings
Full Text Available Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%. Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.
Sue, Stanley; And Others
This article suggests that there are genetic and cultural factors which account for the difference in drinking patterns between Caucasian and Asian Americans. It is also suggested that Asian acculturation has an influence on this difference. (EB)
Jin, Hongbin; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Xu, Jianbo; Amei, Amei
Cancer incidence disparities exist among specific Asian American populations. However, the existing reports exclude data from large metropoles like Chicago, Houston and New York. Moreover, incidence rates by subgroup have been underestimated due to the exclusion of Asians with unknown subgroup. Cancer incidence data for 2009 to 2011 for eight states accounting for 68% of the Asian American population were analyzed. Race for cases with unknown subgroup was imputed using stratified proportion models by sex, age, cancer site and geographic regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for 17 cancer sites for the six largest Asian subgroups. Our analysis comprised 90,709 Asian and 1,327,727 non-Hispanic white cancer cases. Asian Americans had significantly lower overall cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (336.5 per 100,000 and 541.9 for men, 299.6 and 449.3 for women, respectively). Among specific Asian subgroups, Filipino men (377.4) and Japanese women (342.7) had the highest overall incidence rates while South Asian men (297.7) and Korean women (275.9) had the lowest. In comparison to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups, significantly higher risks were observed for colorectal cancer among Japanese, stomach cancer among Koreans, nasopharyngeal cancer among Chinese, thyroid cancer among Filipinos, and liver cancer among Vietnamese. South Asians had remarkably low lung cancer risk. Overall, Asian Americans have a lower cancer risk than non-Hispanic whites, except for nasopharyngeal, liver and stomach cancers. The unique portrayal of cancer incidence patterns among specific Asian subgroups in this study provides a new baseline for future cancer surveillance research and health policy. © 2015 UICC.
As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
Won Kim Cook
Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick
Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Nguyen, Kim H; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Karliner, Leah S
Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. In the current study, the authors examined differences in abnormal screening mammogram follow-up between non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian women. The authors used a prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging, Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) abnormal result of category 0 or 3-plus in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier estimation for the median number of days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test was performed, and the authors compared the percentage of women with follow-up at 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days and no follow-up at 1 year for Asian women overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHW women. In addition, the authors assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time to follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipina women had the longest, and Japanese women the shortest, median follow-up (32 days, 28 days, and 19 days, respectively) compared with NHW women (15 days). The percentage of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians versus NHWs (57% vs 77%; Pethnic groups except Japanese. Asian women had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHW women (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.72). Asian women also had a higher rate of receiving no follow-up compared with NHW women (15% vs 10%; Pethnic groups, Filipinas were found to have the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Asian women, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese women, were less likely than NHW women to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. Cancer 2017;123:3468-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
This paper reports on the "Women's Roundtable Discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis" by the Gender Development Programme and Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), which was held in Manila, Philippines, on April 12-14, 1998. The purpose of the Women's Roundtable was to provide a forum for regional analysis of women workers, labor migration and trade policies, women's livelihoods, food security and social development, globalization, and adverse impacts of economic recession and inflation. Among the recommendations of the forum were that the impact of globalization on women should be monitored and that the analyses and concerns raised during the roundtable discussions should be disseminated through other regional and international platforms.
Zhou, Zheng; Siu, Candice R.; Xin, Tao
Asian Americans are commonly perceived as the diligent and high-achieving "model minority." This positive stereotype has negative consequences for this ethnic minority group because it trivializes their social and mental health problems. This image of success has made many overlook the true nature of the struggles many Asian American families have…
Lim, Shirley Geok-Lin; Williams, Angela Noelle
Contains an annotated bibliography of Asian American literature (published between 1992 and 1996) focusing on prose narratives, including novels, short stories, and memoirs. Includes also some critical studies of Asian American literature and some drama and award-winning poetry collections. (TB)
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Yang, Peggy H.; Atkinson, Donald R.; Wolfe, Maren M.; Hong, Sehee
Failure to recognize the uniqueness of specific Asian American ethnic groups may lead to ineffective counseling. Investigates similarities and differences between college students (N=570) from four Asian American ethnic groups on their adherence to six value dimensions identified in previous research. Findings confirm the need to understand…
Discusses how Asian Americans are faring in the job market, focusing on the three largest subgroups: the Japanese, Chinese, and Pilipinos. The information on which this discussion is based comes from "A Study of Selected Socio-economic Characteristics of Ethnic Minorities Based on the 1970 Census, Volume II; Asian Americans," prepared by Urban…
Greenberg, Michael R; Sinha, Reya
A survey was conducted of approximately 200 Asian Indian Americans and 200 other residents of New Jersey in order to understand the risk management priorities that they want government to have. We found that Asian Indian Americans, especially younger women, focused on personal/family risks, such as alcohol and drug abuse, sexual abuse, and domestic violence. The New Jersey comparison group, in contrast, placed war/terrorism and loss of health care services and insurance at the top of their priorities for government. These results suggest stressful acculturation-related issues within the Asian Indian community. Both populations want more risk management from government than they believe government is currently providing. Respondents who wanted more from government tended to dread the risk, be fearful of the consequences, trust government, and have a feeling of personal efficacy. Within the Asian Indian American sample, wide variations were observed by language spoken at home and religious affiliation. Notably, Muslims and Hindi language speakers tended not to trust government and hence wanted less government involvement. This study supports our call for studies of recent migrant populations and Johnson's for testing ethnic identity and acculturation as factors in risk judgments.
In South Asian countries the amalgamation of Buddhist, Confucian, Hindu, Islamic and Christian traditions have shaped the personalities of women and determined their social status. Rigid cultures and patriarchal attitudes which devalue the role of women, result in the wide spread occurrence of violence against women. The family structure, in which the man is the undisputed ruler of the household, and activities within the family are seen as private, allows violence to occur at home. As well as traditional forms of violence such as wife-battering and sexual assault, women in these countries are also exposed to dowry crimes such as bride burning, kidnapping for the purposes of prostitution, and "honour killings". Laws permit discrimination against women and discourage reporting of violent acts. Efforts to remedy this situation must include changes in local laws as well as assistance from the United Nations and the international community.
Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.
The 1970 United States census counted a female population of 104,299,734. Of all the nations in the world, only three have larger female populations: China, India, and the Soviet Union. Females made up 51.3 percent of the United States population. Over 70 million American women are of voting age--that's nearly seven million more than the number of…
Cheng, Zhen Hadassah
Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.
Yi, Stella S.; Kwon, Simona C.; Wyatt, Laura; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
According to national estimates, obesity prevalence is lower in Asian Americans compared to other racial/ethnic groups, but this low prevalence may be misleading for three reasons. First, a lower body mass index (BMI) cutoff as proposed by the World Health Organization may be more appropriate to use in Asian populations. However, evidence is limited to substantiate the potential costs and burden of adopting these cutoffs. Increasing BMI in Asians (as in other racial/ethnic groups) should be c...
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G.; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of “disempowering parenting styles” that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescr...
Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…
Wong, Eugene F.
Challenges the view of Chinese and Japanese Americans as middlemen with its assumptions that Asian Americans are sojourners and unassimilable. Questions the equation of a middle class minority with a middleman minority, examining the roots of this myth in the relationship of Asian Americans to the White-Black racial dyad. (RDN)
Okazaki, Sumie; Liu, Joyce F.; Longworth, Sandra L.; Minn, Janice Y.
Examines whether Asian American-White American differences on a trait measure of social anxiety extend to nonverbal behavior and to reports of anxiety-related emotions during a social performance task. Results indicated that Asian American reported more anxiety but that they did not differ substantially on behavioral indexes of social anxiety.…
Park, Julie J.; Dizon, Jude Paul Matias
This chapter describes how race, ethnicity, religion, and spirituality uniquely interact for Asian American college students, including a discussion of the diverse religious and spiritual backgrounds of this population.
Chae, David H; Lee, Sunmin; Lincoln, Karen D; Ihara, Emily S
Depression represents a growing concern among Asian Americans. This study examined whether discrimination and family dynamics are associated with depression in this population. Weighted logistic regressions using nationally representative data on Asian American adults (N = 2095) were used to examine associations between discrimination, negative interactions with relatives, family support, and 12-month major depressive disorder (MDD). Discrimination (odds ratio [OR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67, 2.71) and negative interactions with relatives (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.58) were positively associated with MDD. Family support was associated with lower MDD (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.89), and buffered lower levels of discrimination. Results suggest that discrimination may have negative mental health implications, and also point to the importance of family relationships for depression among Asian Americans. Findings suggest that providers may consider stress experienced at multiple ecological levels to address Asian American mental health needs.
Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)
Presents a set of pedagogical approaches and suggested topics and materials for teaching gender issues in Asian-American psychology. Central issues are discussed under categories of gender roles, gender stereotypes, and gender differences. (SLD)
Juon, Hee-Soon; Rimal, Rajiv N; Klassen, Ann; Lee, Sunmin
Individuals' behaviors are influenced by those of others in their social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as by how individuals perceive they should behave in that environment (e.g., injunctive norms). Although social norms are thought to play an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening, limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. In addition, norms are social phenomena that are spread through family discussion about the importance of getting HBV screening. Using the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB), this study examined the roles of injunctive norms (IN), descriptive norms (DN), and family discussion in HBV screening behavior among Asian Americans. Data from a survey of Asian Americans in the Baltimore Washington metropolitan area (N = 877) were used to test underlying theoretical propositions. DN and family discussion emerged as key factors in HBV screening behavior among all Asian Americans. IN were associated with HBV screening among Chinese and Korean Americans, but not for Vietnamese Americans. Family discussion moderated the influence of DN on behavior among Chinese and Vietnamese Americans. However, the main effect of DN on screening behavior was not modified by IN (no interactions between DN and IN). The results indicate that family discussion and social norms are integral in enabling Asian Americans to undergo HBV screening and warrant sensitivity in the design and implementation of a liver cancer prevention program in this high-risk group of Asian Americans.
Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi
To explore fatalistic attributions of colon cancer development among Asian and Hispanic Americans in comparison with non-Hispanic whites; also to examine the impacts of fatalism on adherence to the colon cancer screening guideline. For the analysis, the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data were employed. Both Asian and Hispanic Americans were more likely to make fatalistic attribution and were less likely to follow the guideline than whites. Particularly for Asians, fatalism was a significant predictor for not adhering to the guideline. These findings emphasize the need for cultural interventions to disrupt fatalistic attitudes towards colon cancer preventions.
Sims, Tamara; Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Young, Henry R; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene; Tsai, Jeanne L
Despite being considered a "model minority," Asian Americans report worse health care encounters than do European Americans. This may be due to affective mismatches between Asian American patients and their European American physicians. We predicted that because Asian Americans value excitement (vs. calm) less than European Americans, they will respond less favorably to excitement-focused (vs. calm) physicians. In Study 1, 198 European American, Chinese American, and Hong Kong Chinese community adults read a medical scenario and indicated their preference for an excitement-focused versus calm-focused physician. In Study 2, 81 European American and Asian American community college students listened to recommendations made by an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician in a video, and later attempted to recall the recommendations. In Study 3, 101 European American and Asian American middle-aged and older adults had multiple online encounters with an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician and then evaluated their physicians' trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge. As predicted, Hong Kong Chinese preferred excitement-focused physicians less than European Americans, with Chinese Americans falling in the middle (Study 1). Similarly, Asian Americans remembered health information delivered by an excitement-focused physician less well than did European Americans (Study 2). Finally, Asian Americans evaluated an excitement-focused physician less positively than did European Americans (Study 3). These findings suggest that while physicians who promote and emphasize excitement states may be effective with European Americans, they may be less so with Asian Americans and other ethnic minorities who value different affective states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren
Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus
While individuals of note have been documented, there has been a paucity of research into the collective voices of Asian women faculty in higher education. To fill this gap, the study brings forward the narratives of nine Asian women faculty members in the Canadian academy who have roots in East Asia. Employing the concept of Orientalism within a…
Tanfer Emin Tunc
Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim
Mok, T A
The majority of research on romantic relationships has tended to focus on marriage, with relatively less attention paid to dating. This study examined the relationship between Asian American dating, both interracial and intraracial, and a variety of factors thought to be associated with dating in this population, including acculturation, ethnic identity, attractiveness, interracial dating experience, ethnicity of friends, parental influence over dating, and density. Participants were administered measures of these variables and were asked questions regarding their likelihood of dating both Asian Americans and White Americans. An interesting pattern of results emerged when the variables were put into regression equations to predict both interracial and intraracial dating. Findings are presented and implications discussed.
Kumagai, Gloria L., Comp.; And Others
This annotated bibliography is a list of resource materials available at the Asian American Resource Center, St. Paul, Minnesota. It was compiled in order to provide information to classroom teachers and other public school personnel about Chinese, Japanese, Indochinese, Korean, Pacific Island, and Pilipino Americans. Many of the items described…
Lin, Steven Y; Chang, Ellen T; So, Samuel K
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious liver disease that, if left undiagnosed or without appropriate medical management, is associated with a 25% chance of death from cirrhosis or liver cancer. To study the demographics and prevalence of chronic HBV infection and HBV vaccination in the Asian American population, we provided free HBV serological screening and administered a survey to 3163 Asian American adult volunteers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2001 and 2006. Of those screened, 8.9% were chronically infected with HBV. Notably, one-half to two-thirds (65.4%) of the chronically infected adults were unaware that they were infected. Of those who were not chronically infected, 44.8% lacked protective antibodies against HBV and were likely susceptible to future infection. Men were twice as likely as women to be chronically infected (12.1% versus 6.4%). Asian Americans born in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or the Pacific Islands were 19.4 times more likely to be chronically infected than those born in the United States. Self-reporting of prior vaccination was unreliable to assess protection against HBV. Among the 12% who reported having been vaccinated, 5.2% were chronically infected, and 20.3% lacked protective antibodies. Given the high prevalence of unrecognized chronic HBV infection in the Asian American population, we call for healthcare providers to routinely screen Asian adults for HBV, regardless of their vaccination status. Those who test positive should be provided with culturally appropriate information to prevent disease transmission and proper medical management to reduce their risk of liver disease.
Spickard, Paul R.
Explores the inclusion of people of multiple ancestries who are only part Asian in Asian American Studies. The history of intermarriage in the United States means that, as increasing numbers of people choose to embrace multiple racial identities, Asian Americans must rearrange their definitions of what it means to be Asian American. (SLD)
Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney
Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The article, presenting the difficulties of teaching about any foreign civilization, sketches an Asian civilization course which attempts to mitigate those difficulties with a text book that uses models of historical processes applicable to different civilizations and indicative of their common grounds. (JH)
Shafer, Autumn; Kaufhold, Kelly; Luo, Yunjuan
An important part in the effort to prevent, treat, and cure breast cancer is research done with healthy breast tissue. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (KTB) encourages women to donate a small amount of healthy breast tissue and then provides that tissue to researchers studying breast cancer. Although KTB has a large donor base, the volume of tissue samples from Asian women is low despite prior marketing efforts to encourage donation among this population. This study builds on prior work promoting breast cancer screenings among Asian women by applying constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) to investigate why Asian-American women are less inclined to donate their healthy breast tissue than non-Asian women and how this population may be motivated to donate in the future. A national online survey (N = 1,317) found Asian women had significantly lower perceived severity, some lower perceived benefits, and higher perceived barriers to tissue donation than non-Asian women under HBM and significantly lower injunctive norms supporting breast tissue donation, lower perceived behavioral control, and lower intentions to donate under IBM. This study also compares and discusses similarities and differences among East, Southeast, and South Asian women on these same constructs.
Shin, Hai-Rim; Joubert, Clementine; Boniol, Mathieu; Hery, Clarisse; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Won, Young-Joo; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Sobue, Tomotaka; Chen, Chien-Jen; You, San-Lin; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Law, Stephen Chun-Key; Mang, Oscar; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Chia, Kee-Seng; Rattanamongkolgul, Suthee; Chen, Jian-Guo; Curado, Maria Paula; Autier, Philippe
Incidence of breast cancer is rising in Asian countries, and breast cancer is the most common cancer among Asian women. However, there are few recent descriptive reports on the epidemiology of breast cancer among Eastern and Southeastern Asian populations. We examined incidence trends for invasive breast cancer in women aged ≥20 years from 15 registries in Eastern (China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan) and Southeastern Asia (the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand) for the period 1993-2002 mainly using data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volumes VIII and IX. We compared trends in annual incidence rates and age-specific incidence curves over a 10-year period. We also compared the incidence rates of Asian-Americans with the rates of their Asian counterparts. Breast cancer incidence rates increased gradually over time in all study populations. Rates were relatively high in Southeastern Asia and became progressively lower along a south-to-north gradient, with a fourfold geographic variation within the study populations. Age-specific incidence curves showed patterns that gradually changed according to incidence rates. Breast cancer incidence among Asian women living in the United States was 1.5-4 times higher than the corresponding incidence rate in the women's respective countries of origin. Breast cancer incidence is expected to continue to increase for the next 10 years in Asia and may approach rates reported among Asian-Americans. The number and mean age of breast cancer cases is expected to increase as the female Asian population ages, the prevalence of certain risk factors changes (early menarche, late menopause, low parity, late age at first live birth, and low prevalence of breastfeeding), and as Asian countries introduce mass screening programs.
Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Farquhar, Judith; Doi, Mary L.
Discussed in this article are numerous films which feature Asian characters and the influence these films have on stereotyped images of Asians and prevailing racist attitudes toward Asian Americans. (EB)
Dinh, Khanh T; Weinstein, Traci L; Nemon, Melissa; Rondeau, Sara
On the basis of acculturation theory, explicating mutual influences between different cultural or ethnic groups coming into contact, this study focused "on the other side of acculturation" theory by examining the effects of intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans on the psychosocial experiences of White American college students. Participants (N = 315), undergraduates attending a public university located within the state of Massachusetts, completed a survey that assessed demographic and personal characteristics, acculturation (extent of intercultural contact with Asian people and Asian cultures), attitudes towards Asians and Asian Americans, awareness of institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues, and psychological distress. Results indicated that White American students' intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans contributed significant variance to the prediction of their attitudes towards this ethnic group and awareness of discrimination and racial issues, but not to psychological distress. This study provides implications for understanding mutual acculturative influences between different ethnic groups in the United States.
Goto, Stanford T.
Asian Americans have been viewed as a model, high-achieving minority, but recently some researchers have questioned the "myth" of universal Asian-American success. A study examined the validity of current explanations of Asian-American success in school. With a group of high-achieving Chinese-American high school freshmen in Northern…
Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam
Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…
Wong, Y Joel; Tran, Kimberly K; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Van Horn Kerne, Valerie; Calfa, Nicolina Ann
Guided by a culturally informed illness representation self-regulation model (CIRSRM), this study analyzed the relations among 223 Asian Americans' lay beliefs about depression, enculturation to Asian values, and their likelihood of seeking professional help for depression. Participants' lay beliefs were assessed through an analysis of written responses to open-ended questions about depression. Enculturation as well as beliefs in biological causes, situational causes, and a short duration of depression were significantly related to the likelihood of professional help seeking. In addition, enculturation moderated the association between several lay beliefs and the endorsement of professional help seeking. The findings are discussed in light of how clinicians can incorporate mental illness lay beliefs in their work with Asian Americans. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Lee, Donghun
The present study examined cultural factors underlying help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students (N = 106). Specifically, we explored internalized model minority myth as a predictor of help-seeking attitudes and tested an intrapersonal-interpersonal framework of Asian values as a mechanism by which the two are related. Results indicated that internalized model minority myth significantly predicted unfavorable help-seeking attitudes, and emotional self-control mediated this relationship. Interpersonal values and humility were nonsignificant mediators, contrary to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that the investigation of internalized model minority myth in help-seeking research is a worthwhile endeavor, and they also highlight emotional self-control as an important explanatory variable in help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students.
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Urban and Regional Affairs.
This directory lists primarily not-for-profit organizations, associations, and mutual assistance groups in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota) that are by, for, and about Asian Americans. It does not include state offices, religious organizations, or student groups among its 116 entries. Each entry includes the organization's…
Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen
Using the base year data of parent interviews (n=15,376) conducted by the U. S. Department of Education for the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), this study examined patterns of parenting style of Asian-American parents (n=536) in six domains. Descriptive and ANOVA analyses revealed significant differences between…
Chao, Ruth K.
A study was conducted to determine Asian American conceptualizations of parenting, focusing on socialization goals, parenting style, and parenting practices related to schooling, aspects of parental influences discussed by D. Darling and L. Steinberg (1993). It was suggested that the standard conceptualizations of parenting style, those of D.…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
The bicultural work motivations of Asian Americans have not yet been comprehensively captured by contemporary vocational constructs and scales. For this study, we conducted two studies on the initial reliability and validity of the Bicultural Work Motivation Scale (BWMS) by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. First, a pilot study was…
The cultures of racial and ethnic minorities influence many aspects of mental illness, including communication styles, symptoms, coping strategies, family and community support, and willingness to seek treatment. This article presents the effects of Asian American/Pacific Islanders' beliefs and behaviors related to mental health. Strategies to enhance the process and outcomes of the psychiatric interview with members of this populatior are addressed.
Lau, Anna S.; Jernewall, Nadine M.; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F.
Medical record abstraction was conducted to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Acculturation interacted with risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating…
Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.
The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Kodama, Corinne M.; Poon, OiYan A.; Manzano, Lester J.; Sihite, Ester U.
This case study was focused on the establishment of the Midwest Asian American Students Union (MAASU) as a racial project reflecting students' articulations of a regional, panethnic identity in response to racism. A critical race theory lens was used to analyze interviews with 13 MAASU founders. Findings highlight the role of social context (in…
Chiang, Linda H.
East Asia is the region which has experienced unprecedented growth in the past few decades. This growth resulted in the increase in education opportunities and the empowerment of women. Modernization and globalization provided opportunities for many women in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Modern Asian women can obtain…
Julian, Teresa W.; And Others
Examined cultural variations in parenting attitudes, behavior, and involvement of mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Findings from Caucasian (n=2,642), African-American (n=469), Hispanic-American (n=357), and Asian-American (n=49) parents revealed that, as group, ethnic parents indicated greater general emphasis on children exerting…
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X; Fang, Carolyn Y
Interactions between breast cancer patients and their oncologists are important as effective patient-physician communication can facilitate the delivery of quality cancer care. However, little is known about patient-physician communication processes among Asian American breast cancer patients, who may have unique communication needs and challenges. Thus, we interviewed Asian American patients and several oncologists to explore patient-physician communication processes in breast cancer care. We conducted in-depth interviews with nine Chinese- or Korean American breast cancer patients and three Asian American oncologists who routinely provided care for Asian American patients in the Washington DC metropolitan area in 2010. We conducted patient interviews in Chinese or Korean and then translated into English. We conducted physicians' interviews in English. We performed qualitative analyses to identify themes. For women with limited English proficiency, language was the greatest barrier to understanding information and making treatment-related decisions. Both patients and oncologists believed that interpretation provided by patients' family members may not be accurate, and patients may neglect to ask questions because of their worry of burdening others. We observed cultural differences regarding expectations of the doctor's role and views of cancer recovery. As expressed by the patients and observed by oncologists, Asian American women are less likely to be assertive and are mostly reliant on physicians to make treatment decisions. However, many patients expressed a desire to be actively involved in the decision-making process. Findings provide preliminary insight into patient-physician communication and identify several aspects of patient-physician communication that need to be improved for Asian American breast cancer patients. Proper patient education with linguistically and culturally appropriate information and tools may help improve communication and decision
Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.
The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming
The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…
Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…
Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.
Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.
Bedi, Manveen; Devins, Gerald M
Cultural values shape a woman's experience of disease and introduce novel stressors that influence psychosocial needs and adaptation. This literature review examines the psychosocial impact of breast cancer in South Asian women, a large group that has received little attention in this regard. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature published before April 2014 using Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PubMED, CINHAL, EMBASE, and Sociological Abstracts. We searched for articles about the psychosocial impact of breast cancer in South Asian women. We retained 23 studies for review. The literature concerning South Asian women's experiences identified culturally linked themes that play significant roles in shaping the illness experience; e.g., stigma and breast cancer, low priority of women's health, collective experience of disease, and religion and spirituality. There is a growing need for culturally sensitive care for South Asian women. By understanding the core cultural values and integrating them into clinical practice, Western healthcare providers may improve the quality of care they deliver and help women to extract the maximum benefit. Developing culturally competent support services may enhance effectiveness in addressing the healthcare needs of South Asian women and may serve other ethnic minorities in North America.
Women's participation in sport is emphasized in this historical, philosophical, and sociological sketch of sport and physical recreation activities. Various sports are traced from the time of George Washington up through the present noting cultural influences that affected their development. Under the heading "Past Events," American Indian women,…
Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen
Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…
Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ganuza, Zoila M.
Career development that adequately addresses the needs of multicultural students is important. The authors explored whether a constructivist career course might be a viable mechanism for improving career decision self-efficacy for 81 Asian American and African American college students. Results indicated significant increases in all 5 elements of…
Chan, Stephanie H.
This project studies works by Asian Pacific American writers and artists that respond critically to the widespread enthusiasm for ethnic food and multiculturalism which arose in the United States during the late-twentieth century. This enthusiasm reflected popular hope that food culture's welcoming of ethnic cuisine was a sign of racism receding into the past. Yet consuming palatable ethnic food representations as a surrogate for racialized bodies encourages the disavowal of past inequities...
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R
An important aspect of identity development requires adolescents to consider and select the cultural label or labels that best fit with their conception of who they are. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal development of such labeling preferencs and their possible links with adjustment. Using longitudinal data from 180 Asian Americans (60% female; 74% U.S.-born), intra-individual and group-level changes in adolescents' American label use were tracked. Over time, 48% chose an American label as their "best-fitting" label and 42% chose an American label at least once, but did not include an American label during at least one other time point. American label use was not associated with continuous measures of American identity, but the use of American labels was linked with lower levels of ethnic identity. American identity, whether indicated by label use or continuous scale scores, was generally linked with positive psychological and academic adjustment, with some effects of label use moderated by gender and generational status. Developmental implications of American cultural labels as markers of adolescent identity and broader adjustment are discussed.
This article provides an overview of the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its complications, treatment and impact on the Asian American population in the United States. A discussion of the impact that hepatitis B vaccination can have on reducing HBV infection and liver disease is also provided. A review of current literature on the history, diagnosis, complications and treatment of HBV infection was conducted as well as a review of current hepatitis B vaccination efforts. HBV infection is common in the Asian American population, with 1 in 10 Asian Americans affected. Perinatal and childhood transmission account for most of these chronic cases. Molecular genetic advances have allowed for advances in understanding of this disease in chronically infected individuals. Interferon therapy and/or Lamivudine are currently the main therapies. Even though considerable success has been shown with drug therapy, and numerous other agents are under investigation, the high morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma of those chronically infected with HBV, risk prevention and vaccination will have to be the main foci for future eradication. The combined efforts of public health, health practitioners, immunization and cancer control leaders and voluntary and advocacy organizations are necessary to achieve universal hepatitis B vaccination.
Full Text Available Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.
Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey
Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.
Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan
Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…
Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea
Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.
Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping
In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.
Carr, Joetta L.; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica
International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social…
Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J
We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.
Wong-Padoongpatt, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
Asian Americans are commonly perceived as perpetual foreigners and, therefore, not "true" Americans. Asian Americans report inquiries about nationality and English abilities as the most common forms of racial microaggressions perpetrated by White Americans (Sue, 2015). Race theorists assert that these microaggressions are race-related and marginalize Asian Americans. Scholars have claimed that these subtle acts are harmful, yet only a few studies have uncovered the mechanisms by which racial microaggressions affect mental and physical well-being (Ong, Burrow, Fuller-Rowell, Ja, & Sue, 2013; Wong, Derthick, David, Saw, & Okazaki, 2013). The current study conceptualized racial microaggressions as a stressor to address the major gaps in research. Specifically, this study (a) experimentally tested the race-related nature of the microaggression event to determine whether a White American perpetrator would elicit more stress in Asian Americans compared to an Asian American perpetrator and (b) examined threats to explicit and implicit self-esteem as possible mediators of microaggression-generated stress. Findings confirmed that the race of the perpetrator did have an impact on stress among Asian Americans. In the multiple meditation analysis, experience with a White American perpetrator, compared to an Asian American perpetrator, lowered implicit self-esteem, which resulted in more stress. Implications and strategies for counseling Asian American clients are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian
Shannon M. Conroy
Full Text Available Ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution may contribute to different chronic disease risks across ethnic groups, and adipokines may mediate the risk. In a cross-sectional study, we examined ethnic differences in adipokines and inflammatory markers as related to body mass index (BMI among 183 premenopausal women with Caucasian and Asian ancestry. General linear models were used to estimate adjusted mean levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Asian women had significantly lower serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and CRP than Caucasian participants (P≤.01 across all levels of BMI. Among overweight and obese women, Asians showed a stronger association of CRP with leptin (β=1.34 versus β=0.64 and with adiponectin (β=−0.95 versus β=−0.75 than Caucasians. Compared to Caucasians of similar BMI, Asians may experience a higher chronic disease risk due to lower levels of adiponectin despite their lower levels of leptin.
Jo, Moon H.
While Asians in the United States continue to experience the discriminatory barriers that other minorities face, the myth that Asian Americans are a well-adjusted model minority has resulted in public neglect of the problems of this group. To a significant extent, the myth arises from the fact that Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian groups have…
Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Feinstein, Amanda B.
Research on Asian Americans and their psychological adjustment is limited. Consisting of two cross-sectional studies, the present investigation examined the relationships among self-concealment, mindfulness, emotional distress in stressful interpersonal situations, and general psychological ill-health in Asian American college students, and in…
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with pos...
Amelia Sáiz López
Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of studying Asian businesswomen in Spain. It begins by noting how businesswomen have been viewed from various analytical perspectives, and concludes that such profiles do not help us to analyse the most common type of Asian businesswomen that we have encountered in both statistical data and in fieldwork, given that the most common type of Asian businesswoman forms part of the family business. A new bibliographic review this time in the area of family businesses reveals that in recent times, the academic view has tended to view the family as a basic entity of study; a comprehensive perspective which, when applied to our specific field, enables us to reconsider the role and contribution of women in family businesses.
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria; Song, Anna
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed. PMID:23832755
Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow
This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students.
Her, Chia S.
The educational experiences of Southeast Asian Americans, particularly Cambodian Americans, Hmong Americans, Laotian Americans, and Vietnamese Americans, are characterized by numerous challenges, which can be attributed to their migration history, socioeconomic status, and English proficiency. By the end of 11th grade, a high percentage of…
Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Foong, Heng L; Lee, Susan W; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen Ngoc; Rickles, Jordan; Wang, Jennifer S
During the last 25 years, numerous studies have been conducted to promote breast cancer and cervical cancer screening. Most of these studies focused on individual-level factors predicting screening, but we are unaware of any that directly examined community and ecological influences. The goal of this project, Promoting Access to Health for Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian Women (PATH for Women), was to increase community capacity for breast and cervical cancer screening and follow up in Los Angeles and Orange counties. We focused on Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women because, although they have the lowest rates for cancer, compared to all other ethnic groups, relatively few programs have specifically targeted Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women to promote and sustain screening practices. The PATH for Women project involved a partnership between 5 community-based organizations and 2 universities, and included 7 Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities: Cambodians, Chamorros, Laotians, Thais, Tongans, Samoans, and Vietnamese. In this paper, we share our experiences in developing a Geographic Information System (GIS)-mapping evaluation component that was used to explore availability and accessibility to culturally responsive breast and cervical cancer screening services for Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women in all 7 communities. We describe the methods used to develop the maps, and present the preliminary findings that demonstrate significant geographic and language barriers to accessing healthcare providers, services for breast and cervical cancer screening, and follow up, in each of the communities. Finally, we discuss implications for programs designed to promote breast and cervical screening and policy education.
Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H.
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the…
Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M
Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA…
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth
In a qualitative study we examined the constructs "race" and "ethnicity" and their relative importance in the multidimensional identities of 52 Asian American undergraduates across 2 universities. Findings suggest these constructs are useful for Asian American students' identity claims and that multiple contextual influences…
Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…
Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis
AIMS: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence of...
Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Coll, Blai; Davis, Justin W.; Idler, Ken; Kohan, Donald E.; Liu, Mohan; Perkovic, Vlado; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Toto, Robert; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick
Aims: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence of
Choi, Jayoung L.; Rogers, James R.; Werth, James L., Jr.
Scholars have based their understanding of college-student suicide in the United States largely on the study of European Americans, and therefore, its relevance to making culturally informed decisions with suicidal Asian American college students is unclear. This article explores aspects of suicide assessment potentially unique to Asian American…
Excerpts from an interview with an Asian-American woman about her views on aspects of her life illustrate key issues related to the cultural implications of having a visual impairment. Suggestions for professionals who work with Asian-American or Pacific-Islander clients are also presented. (Author/CR)
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.
The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…
Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay
This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…
Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…
Wong, Y. Joel; Maffini, Cara S.
Although suicide-related outcomes among Asian American adolescents are a serious public health problem in the United States, research in this area has been relatively sparse. To address this gap in the empirical literature, this study examined subgroups of Asian American adolescents for whom family, school, and peer relationships exerted…
Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…
Assalone, Amanda E.; Fann, Amy
Contrary to the model minority myth that portrays Asian Americans as academic all-stars overrepresented in elite 4-year institutions, nearly half of all Asian American college students do, in fact, attend community colleges, and many experience myriad challenges. This exploratory study utilized a qualitative analysis and investigated how model…
Hahm, Hyeouk C.; Lahiff, Maureen; Guterman, Neil B.
This study examines the association between acculturation and subsequent binge drinking among Asian American adolescents and investigates the mediating effect of friends' alcohol and tobacco use. Data from a nationally representative sample of 714 Asian American adolescents in grades 7 to 12 were analyzed. There was no gender difference in terms…
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li,Lisa C.; Kim, Bryan S. K.
The development of the 29-item Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) is presented. In the first study, data from 161 Asian American respondents were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded 3 subscales composed of Socio-Historical Racism (14 items), General Racism (8 items), and Perpetual Foreigner Racism (7…
Museus, Samuel D.; Park, Julie J.
Asian Americans are one of the most misunderstood populations in higher education, and more research on this population is warranted. In this investigation, authors sought to understand the range of ways that Asian American students experience racism on a daily basis in college. They analyzed data from 46 individual, face-to-face qualitative…
Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap
This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…
Souza, Cheri Y. H.
Within the United States, the model minority myth has contributed to empirically unsubstantiated misconceptions about Asian American college students. Although there is considerable research on college student adjustment and its role in persistence, literature focusing on the Asian American experience is lacking. Furthermore, the experience of…
Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T
A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.
Mok, T A
Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy.
Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey P
Based on 250 qualitative interviews with Asian American young men and women in the dance/club scenes in the San Francisco area, we examine the interplay between consumption, style and taste cultures with issues of ethnic identity, gender and acculturation. We explore the ways that consumption and taste markers (e.g. fashion, cars, music and drugs) are used to establish or negotiate symbolic boundaries between groups in this youth culture. The picture they paint of the dance scene is one less about cohesiveness and unity and more about divisions and boundaries, not only between but also significantly within ethnic groupings. The choice of drugs and ways of exhibiting intoxication are among the types of consumption that the young people drew upon to mark symbolic boundaries and establish identities. The young men and women in this study discuss a number of key boundaries in the scene, e.g. between FOBs and twinkies, between pretty boys and thugs, as they attempt to establish the cultural legitimacy of their own styles of Asian American identities.
This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the hepatitis B virus (HBV-related knowledge among Asian American college students and to determine whether there are significant differences in the level of HBV knowledge among Asian American subgroups. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was self-administered to assess a sample of 258 Asian American students′ knowledge about HBV at the campus of the research site. Results: Knowledge regarding transmission and consequences of HBV infection was poor. Of a possible knowledge score of 14, the median number of correct answers was eight. There were no significant differences between the subgroups of Asian American college students in total knowledge of HBV infection. Conclusion: The findings of this study point to the fact that the lack of knowledge and awareness is not limited to community settings only but also includes higher education environment. This finding brings to the forefront the importance of HBV education for Asian American college students.
Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Ko Chin, Kathy; John, Iyanrick; Chung, Corina
Working in small businesses has been identified as a key factor for low coverage rates in immigrant communities. In this study, we identify specific cultural and socioeconomic predictors of Asian Americans who work in small businesses to identify subgroups at a greater disadvantage than others in obtaining health insurance. Logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 3,819 Asian American small business owners and employers extracted from pooled 2005–2012 California Health Interview Survey data. We found that individuals with low income levels, Korean Americans, U.S.-born South Asian and Southeast Asian (other than Vietnamese) Americans, immigrants without citizenship (particularly those lacking a green card), and individuals with limited English proficiency had higher odds of lacking coverage. The odds of being uninsured did not differ between small business owners and employees. Based upon these key findings, we propose several strategies to expand coverage for Asian Americans working in small businesses and their most vulnerable subgroups.
Kim, Min-Jin; Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Torres, Maria I.; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.
Objective: To examine the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related knowledge among Asian American college students and to determine whether there are significant differences in the level of HBV knowledge among Asian American subgroups. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was self-administered to assess a sample of 258 Asian American students’ knowledge about HBV at the campus of the research site. Results: Knowledge regarding transmission and consequences of HBV infection was poor. Of a possible knowledge score of 14, the median number of correct answers was eight. There were no significant differences between the subgroups of Asian American college students in total knowledge of HBV infection. Conclusion: The findings of this study point to the fact that the lack of knowledge and awareness is not limited to community settings only but also includes higher education environment. This finding brings to the forefront the importance of HBV education for Asian American college students. PMID:27981087
The issue of domestic violence among South Asian immigrant population in the United States is examined in the light of the Violence Against Women Act. The paper gives a background to the issue of domestic violence in the South Asian community and examines the Violence Against Women Acts of 1994, 2000 and 2005 with regard to issues affecting South Asian women. It addresses issues around marriage and has emphasized the difficulties of women with dependent immigration status. Policy alternatives...
Gordon H Chang
Full Text Available Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org
Gordon H Chang
Full Text Available
Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org
No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi
People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.
Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I
Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p 20 years (OR = 0.22, p American Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.
Cheng, Alice W; Chang, Janet; O'Brien, Janine; Budgazad, Marc S; Tsai, Jack
This study examined the influence of the model minority stereotype on the perceived mental health functioning of Asian Americans. It was hypothesized that college students would perceive Asian Americans as having fewer mental health problems and clinical symptoms than Whites due to the model minority stereotype. Four hundred and twenty-five undergraduate students from a predominately White college campus in the American northeast were randomly exposed to one of four conditions: (1) a clinical vignette describing a White college student suffering from adjustment disorder; (2) the same vignette describing an Asian American college student; (3) a newspaper article describing a success story of Whites and the White clinical vignette; (4) the same newspaper article and clinical vignette describing an Asian American. Following exposure to one of the conditions, participants completed a memory recall task and measures of colorblindness, attitudes towards Asian Americans, attitudes towards out-group members, and perceived mental health functioning. Participants exposed to the vignettes primed with the positive/model minority stereotype perceived the target regardless of race/ethnicity as having better mental health functioning and less clinical symptoms than the condition without the stereotype. Additionally, the stereotype primer was found to be a modest predictor for the perception of mental health functioning in Asian American vignettes. Results shed light on the impact of the model minority stereotype on the misperception of Asian Americans' mental health status, contributing to the invisibility or neglect of this minority group's mental health needs.
Bersamira, Clifford S; Lin, Yu-An; Park, Keunhye; Marsh, Jeanne C
This study examined past-year drug use among Asian Americans with respect to ethnic subgroup, acculturation, and gender differences. Survey data were collected during the National Latino and Asian American Survey, a national epidemiological household survey of behavioral health prevalence and service utilization rates. The analytical sample consisted of 505 Filipino, 598 Chinese, 518 Vietnamese, and 466 other Asian respondents. Results indicated that among ethnic subgroups, Filipinos had the highest rates of drug use. Among all Asian Americans, those who were born in the United States, those with higher levels of English proficiency, males, those who were younger, those with lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode, and those who were frequent drinkers were all more likely to have reported past-year drug use. Findings suggest the need to better understand the heterogeneous character of Asian American drug use when considering the provision of culturally competent and linguistically appropriate prevention and treatment services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
Zhang, Pao San Lucy; Sim, Shao-Chee; Pong, Perry; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Li, Shijian; Tsang, Thomas; Rey, Mariano
Background: Because health disparities among Asian Americans are understudied, a partnership program between the Charles B. Wang Community Health Center and the Center for the Study of Asian American Health was created to increase awareness and interest in Asian American research. Purpose: To evaluate the process, outcome, and impact of a health…
Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy
We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We demonstrate…
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...
Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Morales, Danielle X
Studies have demonstrated disparate exposures to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in neighborhoods with high densities of Black and Hispanic residents in the US. Asians are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the US, yet they have been underemphasized in previous studies of environmental health and injustice. This cross-sectional study investigated possible disparities in residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs among Asian Americans, including Asian American subgroups in the US (including all 50 states and the District of Columbia, n = 71,208 US census tracts) using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. In an unadjusted analysis, Chinese and Korean Americans experience the highest mean cancer risks from HAPs, followed by Blacks. The aggregated Asian category ranks just below Blacks and above Hispanics, in terms of carcinogenic HAP risk. Multivariate models adjusting for socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that an increase in proportion of Asian residents in census tracts is associated with significantly greater cancer risk from HAPs. Neighborhoods with higher proportions (as opposed to lower proportions) of Chinese, Korean, and South Asian residents have significantly greater cancer risk burdens relative to Whites. Tracts with higher concentrations of Asians speaking a non-English language and Asians that are US-born have significantly greater cancer risk burdens. Asian Americans experience substantial residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs in US census tracts and in the US more generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marion, Michelle S; Range, Lillian M
African American women have lower suicide rates than other women and men in the United States They may possess suicide buffers including social support, religiosity, negative attitudes regarding suicide acceptability, and African American culture. To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious problem-solving style. The identification of these factors may help in the assessment, prevention, and intervention of suicide for African American women and other women and men.
Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Scoppa, Steve; Gibson, James T; Liu, Lihua; Morris, Cyllene; Kwong, Sandy; Fish, Kari; Wilkens, Lynne R; Goodman, Marc T; Deapen, Dennis; Miller, Barry A
National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2008 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registries. Incidence rates from 1990 through 2008 and average percentage change were computed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Rates for non-Hispanic whites are presented for comparison. Prostate cancer was the most common malignancy among most groups, followed by lung, colorectal, liver, and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was generally the most common cancer in women, followed by colorectal and lung cancers; liver, cervix, thyroid, and stomach cancers also ranked highly. Among men, increasing trends were observed for prostate (Asian Indians and Pakistanis: APC 1990-2003 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.3 to 4.1; Filipinos: APC 1990-1994 = 19.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 35.4; Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.0), colorectal (Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.5), and liver cancers (Filipinos: APC 1990-2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.7; Koreans: APC 1990-2006 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4 to 3.7; Vietnamese: APC 1990-2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.8), whereas lung and stomach cancers generally remained stable or decreased. Among women, increases were observed for uterine cancer (Asian Indians: APC 1990-2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.3 to 5.8; Chinese: APC 2004-2008 = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 12.9; Filipina: APC 1990-2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.7; Japanese: APC 1990-2008 = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), colorectal cancer (Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.9; Laotians: APC: 1990-2008 = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.0 to 7.7), lung cancer (Filipinas: APC 1990-2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.8; Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.6 to 3
Background National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Methods Cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2008 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registries. Incidence rates from 1990 through 2008 and average percentage change were computed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Rates for non-Hispanic whites are presented for comparison. Results Prostate cancer was the most common malignancy among most groups, followed by lung, colorectal, liver, and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was generally the most common cancer in women, followed by colorectal and lung cancers; liver, cervix, thyroid, and stomach cancers also ranked highly. Among men, increasing trends were observed for prostate (Asian Indians and Pakistanis: APC 1990–2003 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.3 to 4.1; Filipinos: APC 1990–1994 = 19.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 35.4; Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.0), colorectal (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.5), and liver cancers (Filipinos: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.7; Koreans: APC 1990–2006 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4 to 3.7; Vietnamese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.8), whereas lung and stomach cancers generally remained stable or decreased. Among women, increases were observed for uterine cancer (Asian Indians: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.3 to 5.8; Chinese: APC 2004–2008 = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 12.9; Filipina: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.7; Japanese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), colorectal cancer (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.9; Laotians: APC: 1990–2008 = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.0 to 7.7), lung cancer (Filipinas: APC 1990–2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 1
Iwamoto, Derek K; Grivel, Margaux M; Cheng, Alice W; Zamboanga, Byron L
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems appears to be a growing problem among young adult Asian Americans. One promising factor that helps explain within-group differences among Asian American includes nativity. Nativity refers to whether an individual was born in (i.e., second generation or higher) or outside (i.e., first generation) of the United States. Despite this theoretically promising variable, there has been a paucity of literature examining comparing drinking patterns between first and second generation Asians Americans and White college men. The current study examined the relationship between HED and alcohol-related problems among first- and second-generation Asian American, and White college male students. Interaction between race and the variables in HED and alcohol-related problems models were also investigated. A total of 630 men were recruited of which 489 were Asian American men (407 second generation and 82 first generation) and 148 White students attending a public university in southern California (USA) were recruited. Results revealed no differences in HED rates between second-generation Asian American and White male college students; however, White students reported higher rates of HED compared to first-generation Asian Americans. No differences in alcohol-related problems were found between all three groups. There were no significant interactions between racial groups, drinking to cope, Greek/fraternity status, and descriptive norms on the alcohol outcomes. Conclusion/importance: Second-generation Asian American young adult men reported similar HED and rates of alcohol-related problems as White men. The present findings suggest that alcohol-related problems among Asian American men are a larger public health concern than previously believed.
Kuramoto, A; Louie, K B
The trend of high incidence of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, Hepatitis B, and tuberculosis among the Asian/Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) will significantly affect the increased need for culturally competent care for this particular ethnic group. There is a need to increase the numbers of Asian/Pacific Islander American nurses in the future workforce to meet the health needs of this heterogenous and diversified population. Current workforce data on the Asian/Pacific Islander American nurses is misleading, since data collection aggregates all APIAs into a single category, with disregard to the various subgroupings of this large ethnic group.
Katigbak, Carina; Flaherty, Erin; Chao, Ying-Yu; Nguyen, Tam; Cheung, Daphne; Yiu-Cho Kwan, Rick
Physical activity (PA) is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For older adults, engaging in PA is shown to improve cardiac status, reduce cognitive, and functional decline, and improve overall quality of life. However, only 17% of Asian American adults meet the 2008 federal recommended guidelines for aerobic and muscle strengthening activity; and there is a paucity of data reporting on older Asian Americans - a rapidly growing, underserved group. While data pertaining to Asian Americans is frequently reported at the aggregate level, this masks differences (eg, language, culture, income) among Asian ethnic subgroups that may impact health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to identify intervention, and cultural adaptation strategies in studies promoting PA for older Asian Americans. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify interventions published between 1996-2016 focused on improving PA among older Asian Americans (> 60 years old). Data were abstracted to examine intervention study designs, cultural adaptation strategies, theoretical frameworks, and physical activity measures. Nine studies met the reviewâs inclusion criteria. Community-based recruitment approaches were widely used, and all studies employed cultural adaptation to varying degrees. Most studies reported improvements in PA outcomes, focused on Chinese Americans, and relied on self-reports of PA, while few aimed to increase PA using a multi-component approach. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes, a wider representation of Asian ethnic subgroups, and concentrated efforts to implement deep level adaptations that may increase the salience and sustainability of these interventions.
Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai
Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.
Singh, Vibhuti; Deedwania, Prakash
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and certain population groups, such as South Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics, carry a disproportionately larger burden of CVD manifested as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension. Persons of these special populations experience approximately two- to threefold greater morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of risk factors, including dyslipidemia, overweight, and diabetes, is not only higher in these groups, but is also rising. The reasons for such disparity appear to be multifactorial and influenced by such factors as lifestyle, diet, culture, genetics, and suboptimal healthcare. Furthermore, because these minority populations are not significantly represented in major clinical trials, evidence-based management strategies for treatment and prevention of CVD are seriously lacking. Lately, however, several randomized trials of therapy for dyslipidemia to reduce cardiovascular events among these ethnic groups have been undertaken. Preliminary data suggest the need for stricter goals and increasingly aggressive therapy for these special populations, including administrative and educational interventions.
Poon, OiYan A.
Opponents of affirmative action in the Fisher Supreme Court case claim that race-conscious admissions policies discriminate against Asian American applicants and impose a "higher bar" in college admissions than for other students. In their amicus brief supporting the plaintiff in the Fisher case, 80-20 states that, "Asian American…
Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…
Cruz, Cristhopher D; Forshey, Brett M; Juarez, Diana S; Guevara, Carolina; Leguia, Mariana; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S
During the past decade, countries in South America have reported dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) associated with American/Asian genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). DENV-2 strains have been associated with large outbreaks of dengue fever and DHF in numerous regions of Peru since the mid-1990s, but studies to address the origins, distribution, and genetic diversity of DENV-2 strains have been limited. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the envelope gene region of DENV-2 isolates from Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Sequences were aligned and compared to a global sample of DENV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the circulation of two DENV-2 genotypes in Peru: American (prior to 2001) and American/Asian (2000 to present). American/Asian genotype variants can be classified into two lineages, and these were introduced into Peru from the north (Ecuador, Colombia, and/or Venezuela) and the east (Brazil and Bolivia). American/Asian lineage II replaced lineage I after 2009. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for American/Asian DENV-2 genotype in the Americas was in 1980, and 1984 and 1989 for lineages I and II, respectively. In light of evidence for increased virulence of lineage II of American/Asian DENV-2, our results support the need for continuous monitoring for the emergence of new DENV genotypes that may be associated with severe disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lee, Hae Kook; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph C
This study (1) estimated the prevalence of alcohol and binge alcohol use among adult Asian Americans by sub-ethnicity; (2) examined alcohol drinking patterns among these subpopulations; and (3) investigated sub-ethnic differences in characteristics associated with alcohol and binge alcohol use. Data from 8900 Asian Americans aged 18 or older who participated in the 2002-2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) were analyzed. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were applied. Korean Americans (51.8%) and Japanese Americans (49.7%) reported higher rates of past-month alcohol use than Chinese Americans (42.0%), Filipino Americans (37.9%), and Asian Indian Americans (34.0%). Korean Americans (24.6%) reported the highest rate of past-month binge alcohol use, followed by Filipino Americans (14.5%), Japanese Americans (14.2%), Asian Indian Americans (10.1%), and Chinese Americans (8.1%). Among these examined Asian Americans, foreign-born Chinese, Filipino, and Asian Indian Americans were less likely to have past-month alcohol use than their corresponding U.S. born counterparts; and only foreign-born Asian Indian Americans were less likely to have past-month binge alcohol use than their U.S. born counterparts. Males were 3-5 times more likely to have binge alcohol use than females among examined Asian American subpopulations except for Korean Americans. Korean Americans were more likely to have binge alcohol use than the other examined sub-ethnic Asian Americans. Adult Asian Americans are heterogeneous in sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and binge alcohol use. These differences suggest the need for sub-ethnically specific prevention and treatment programs for alcohol use problems among Asian American subpopulations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Asian American college students are at increased risk for cigarette smoking and its health consequences. Cigarette smoking often serves as a social lubricant among Asian American smokers. Electronic diaries were used to examine the roles of peer presence and social connectedness in relation to cigarette use patterns among Asian American college students. Multilevel modeling results showed that participants smoked more cigarettes when smoking with peers than when smoking alone. Social connectedness attenuated the within-person associations between smoking with peers and cigarettes smoked per occasion. Those with lower social connectedness smoked more cigarettes when smoking with peers than when smoking alone. Social settings and social connectedness are important in explaining situational variations in the number of cigarettes consumed by Asian American college smokers.
Valerie Ooka Pang; Peggy P. Han; Jennifer M. Pang
The authors studied more than 1 million Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and White seventh graders in a statewide California testing program between 2003 and 2008, examining their reading and math achievement...
Park, Judy Soojin
..., gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with participant observation, I argue that Asian American youth's status as "perpetual foreigners" and subsequent desire for cultural belonging...
Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel
The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.
Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic ...
Ying, Y W; Lee, P A; Tsai, J L; Hung, Y; Lin, M; Wan, C T
Educational success among Asian Americans has led to their being labeled the "model minority." At the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), Asian American students have higher grade point averages (GPAs) than Hispanic and African American but not White students, supporting the notion that Asian Americans are more successful compared with other racial minorities. However, success in the classroom does not implicate effective functioning in life, and nonacademic criteria ought to be considered in assessing the validity of the model minority image. Given the increasing diversification of the United States, cross-racial engagement may be an additional contributor to overall competence. This was empirically tested in a group of 642 undergraduates at UCB, including 291 Asian, 197 White, 20 African American, 67 Hispanic, and 56 multiracial students. Overall competence was operationalized by sense of coherence, that is, the extent to which the world is experienced as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful (A. Antonovsky, 1979, 1987). As predicted, Asian Americans had significantly fewer numbers of cross-racial groups represented in their friendship network than did students of all other races. Lower cross-racial engagement and being Asian (as compared with White) were related to a lower sense of coherence, whereas lower GPA was not. Within the Asian American subsample, cross-racial engagement was again significantly associated with greater coherence, whereas GPA again was not. Thus, extending the definition of success to overall competence, these findings raise questions about the applicability of the model minority label to Asian Americans, despite their academic achievement. Future studies need to assess the reasons for their limited cross-racial engagement and lower sense of coherence and to examine means to assist the development of these strengths.
In this review, the author incorporates her own personal narrative into the discussion as a way of enriching and contextualizing the intersection of critical race theory, Asian Americans, and higher education. From the issues explored in this paper, two key themes emerged: 1) Asian Americans should not be considered as one monolithic group, but rather their educational experiences and outcomes should be disaggregated and 2) issues of race and racism, particularly as it challenges the model mi...
Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose
"Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.
Lalaine Yanilla Aquino
Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary award winning young adult novels in English: Sing to the Dawn by Minfong Ho, and A Step from Heaven by An Na. Sing to the Dawn, published in Singapore, won first prize in the 1975 Council of Interracial Books for Children in New York; while A Step from Heaven, published in New York, won the 2002 Michael L. Printz Award. By using feminist and critical stylistics, this paper aims to answer the following questions: Do Asians retain their “voice” even when they write in English and live in foreign lands? Given this situation, how do they make their voice heard? How do the two women Asian writers represent the voice of their young female protagonists? Is the voice still distinctly Asian in spite of speaking in English and being written by Asian writers who have long lived in America? When the Asian girl speaks, who listens? Literally and figuratively speaking, has the Asian female finally found her voice?By answering these questions, this paper aims to identify at least some aspects of the Asian “voice” in English and determine the Asian female identity represented in the two young adult novels.
Sy, Thomas; Shore, Lynn M; Strauss, Judy; Shore, Ted H; Tram, Susanna; Whiteley, Paul; Ikeda-Muromachi, Kristine
On the basis of the connectionist model of leadership, we examined perceptions of leadership as a function of the contextual factors of race (Asian American, Caucasian American) and occupation (engineering, sales) in 3 experiments (1 student sample and 2 industry samples). Race and occupation exhibited differential effects for within- and between-race comparisons. With regard to within-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were higher when race-occupation was a good fit (engineer position) than when race-occupation was a poor fit (sales position) for the two industry samples. With regard to between-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were low relative to those of Caucasian Americans. Additionally, when race-occupation was a good fit for Asian Americans, such individuals were evaluated higher on perceptions of technical competence than were Caucasian Americans, whereas they were evaluated lower when race-occupation was a poor fit. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that race affects leadership perceptions through the activation of prototypic leadership attributes (i.e., implicit leadership theories). Implications for the findings are discussed in terms of the connectionist model of leadership and leadership opportunities for Asian Americans. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved
... Women Aged 50 and Older Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and ... and anticonvulsants history of anorexia nervosa. What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that makes bones fragile ...
Full Text Available Duy NguyenSilver School of Social Work, New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: The use of physicians is more common than of behavioral specialists, especially in underserved Asian American communities. Despite a rapidly aging Asian American population, research has overlooked older people. This study examines the way mental health need affects the number of physician contacts by older Asian Americans.Method: This study uses data on self-identified Asian Americans aged over age 50 years derived from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. A total of 1191 Asian Americans from Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese backgrounds were studied. Replicate weights were applied to account for the survey’s complex sampling methods. Linear regression was used to identify the number of physician contacts.Results: Overall, respondents had seen a doctor an average of five times in the previous 12 months; 7% perceived that they had a mental health need. Perceiving a mental health need was associated with a decreased number of physician contacts for Filipino and Korean Americans.Conclusion: This study revealed interethnic differences among older Asian Americans’ contact with physicians. As older Filipino and Korean Americans who perceive a mental health need have fewer contacts with their physician, correctly identifying mental health needs in the health care system for these groups is crucial. Health and mental health professionals can work toward reducing mental health disparities by accounting for older Asian Americans’ help-seeking patterns when designing evidence-based interventions.Keywords: minority groups, Asians, health service use
Wong, Sabrina T; Gildengorin, Ginny; Nguyen, Tung; Mock, Jeremiah
Among Asian Americans, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer, and it is the third highest cause of cancer-related mortality. The 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2001) was used to examine 1) CRC screening rates between different Asian-American ethnic groups compared with non-Latino whites and 2) factors related to CRC screening. The CHIS 2001 was a population-based telephone survey that was conducted in California. Responses about CRC screening were analyzed from 1771 Asian Americans age 50 years and older (Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese). The authors examined two CRC screening outcomes: individuals who ever had CRC screening and individuals who were up to date for CRC screening. For CRC screening, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, and any other form of screening were examined. CRC screening of any kind was low in all populations, and Koreans had the lowest rate (49%). Multivariate analysis revealed that, compared with non-Latino whites, Koreans were less likely to undergo FOBT (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.25-0.62), and Filipinos were the least likely to undergo sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88) or to be up to date with screening (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.97). Asian Americans were less likely to undergo screening if they were older, male, less educated, recent immigrants, living with >or= 3 individuals, poor, or uninsured. Asian-American populations, especially Koreans and Filipinos, are under-screened for CRC. Outreach efforts could be more focused on helping Asian Americans to understand the importance of CRC screening, providing accurate information in different Asian languages. Other strategies for increasing CRC screening may include using a more family-centered approach and using qualified translators. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and treatment-seeking among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Xu, Yang; Okuda, Mayumi; Hser, Yih-Ing; Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos
To compare the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in contrast to non–Hispanic whites; and further compare persistence and treatment-seeking rates for psychiatric disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and non-Hispanic whites, analyses from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 1 (n =43,093) were conducted for the subsample of 1,332 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (596 men and 736 women) and 24,507 non-Hispanic whites (10,845 men and 13,662 women). The past 12-month prevalence for any psychiatric disorder was significantly lower in Asian American/Pacific Islander males and females than non-Hispanic white males and females. Asian American/Pacific Islander males were less likely than non-Hispanic white males to have any mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, whereas the prevalence of mood disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islander females did not differ from those of non-Hispanic white females. In some cases, such as drug use disorders, both male and female Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were more likely to have more persistent disorders than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic white females, Asian American/Pacific Islander females had lower rates of treatment-seeking for any mood/anxiety disorders. Although less prevalent than among non-Hispanic whites, psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. The lower treatment seeking rates for mood/anxiety disorders in Asian American/Pacific Islander females underscore the unmet needs for psychiatric service among this population. PMID:21238989
Lam, W.K. [University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (China). Queen Mary Hospital
The mortality rate of lung cancer in Asian women has increased significantly in the past few decades. Environmental factors include tobacco smoke (active and environmental), other indoor pollutions (cooking oil vapours, coal burning, fungus spores), diet, and infections. Active tobacco smoking is not the major factor. Cooking oil vapours associated with high temperature wok cooking and indoor coal burning for heating and cooking in unvented homes, particularly in rural areas, are risk factors for Chinese women. Chronic benign respiratory diseases due to the fungus Microsporum canis probably accounts for the high incidence of lung cancer in northern Thai women at Sarapee. Diets rich in fruits, leafy green vegetables, and vitamin A are protective, while cured meat (Chinese sausage, pressed duck and cured pork), deep-fried cooking, and chili increased the risk. Tuberculosis is associated with lung cancer. Also, a Taiwanese study showed that the odds ratio of papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 infection in non-smoking female lung cancer patients was 10.1, strongly suggesting a causative role. Genetic factors have also been studied in Chinese women, including human leucocyte antigens, K-ras oncogene activation, p53 mutation, polymorphisms of phase I activating enzymes (cytochrome P450, N-acetyltransferase slow acetylator status), and phase II detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase rapid acetylator status).
Romero, Andrea J.; Carvajal, Scott C.; Valle, Fabian; Orduna, Michele
The perception of bicultural stress, stress due to discrimination/prejudice, immigration, and acculturation, was investigated in relation to mental well-being in a sample of urban Latino (n = 304), European American (n = 215), and Asian American (n = 131) 8th grade students. Bicultural stress was reported by all ethnic groups and was significantly…
Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie
The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875
Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda; Liang, Christopher T H
Due to the limited psychological research on Asian Americans' experiences with racism, in the current study the authors examined the relationships between racial socialization, racial identity, and perceptions of racism, with a college-aged sample (N = 254) consisting primarily of Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans. With the use of multiple regression analyses, the results indicated that racial socialization, particularly discussions about race and racism, was positively related to one's perceptions of racism. Moreover, the study also showed that the relationship between racial socialization and perceptions of racism was partially mediated by racial identity schemas. To understand how Asian Americans regard racism, it is useful to have an understanding of racial identity theory and the manner in which Asian Americans are socialized to perceive racism.
Collantes, Lourdes Y., Ed.
Six symposium papers are included in this document. The first paper, by Henry Chang, is a brief profile of Asian/Pacific American (APA) librarians, emphasizing the need for more data on this group and the need for the group to become more assertive of their rights to equal opportunity in the field. The second paper, by Jane Katayama, addresses…
Zhang, Wei; Hong, Seunghye
Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, this work examines if and how perceived everyday discrimination is associated with psychological distress among Asian Americans and whether this association varies by important structural factors as education and place of education. Findings reveal that perception of discrimination is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Most importantly, education moderates the discrimination-distress association such that the detrimental effect of discrimination is stronger for Asian Americans with college or more levels of education than for Asian Americans with less than college levels of education. Place of education further conditions the moderating effect of education: The foreign-educated Asian Americans with higher levels of education are affected most negatively by discrimination compared to others. This study highlights (1) the significant joint role of education and place of education in conditioning the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress, and (2) unique features of education in improving our understanding of Asian Americans’ mental health. PMID:22767300
Park, Mijung; Chesla, Catherine A; Rehm, Roberta S; Chun, Kevin M
The aim of this study is to describe how mental healthcare providers adapted their practice to meet the unique needs of Asian Americans. As the number of ethnic minorities and multicultural patients and families rapidly increases, cultural competency becomes an essential skill for all healthcare providers. The lack of knowledge about how healthcare providers grapple with diverse cultures and cultural competency limits the ability of others to deliver patient-centred care across cultural lines. Interpretive phenomenology guided the design and conduct of this study. Twenty mental healthcare providers who treated Asian Americans were recruited. Narrative data were collected through face-to-face, in-depth interviews between 2006 and 2007. Three characteristics of culturally appropriate care for Asian Americans were identified. Cultural brokering: providers addressed issues stemming from cultural differences via bicultural skills education. Asian American patients generally received broader education than current literature recommended. Supporting families in transition: providers assisted Asian American families during transition from and to professional care. Using cultural knowledge to enhance competent care: providers' knowledge of Asian culture and flexible attitudes affected the care that they provided. Culturally competent providers were able to identify cultural issues that were relevant to the specific situation, and incorporated cultural solutions into the care provided. Culturally appropriate care is nuanced and context specific. Thus, more sophisticated and broader conceptualizations are necessary to prepare nurses for such complex practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Sacks, Rachel; Ahn, Jiyoung; Yi, Stella S
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, and cancer cases among Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are expected to rise by 132% by 2050. Yet, little is known about biologic and environmental factors that contribute to these higher rates of disease in this population. Precision medicine has the potential to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of morbidity and mortality trends among Asian American subgroups and to reduce cancer-related health disparities by recognizing patients as individuals with unique genetic, environmental, and lifestyle characteristics; identifying ways in which these differences impact cancer expression; and developing tailored disease prevention and clinical treatment strategies to address them. Yet, substantial barriers to the recruitment and retention of Asian Americans in cancer research persist, threatening the success of precision medicine research in addressing these knowledge gaps. This commentary outlines the major challenges to recruiting and retaining Asian Americans in cancer trials, suggests ways of surmounting them, and offers recommendations to ensure that personalized medicine becomes a reality for all Americans.
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; HOFF, RANI A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adoles...
Full Text Available The issue of domestic violence among South Asian immigrant population in the United States is examined in the light of the Violence Against Women Act. The paper gives a background to the issue of domestic violence in the South Asian community and examines the Violence Against Women Acts of 1994, 2000 and 2005 with regard to issues affecting South Asian women. It addresses issues around marriage and has emphasized the difficulties of women with dependent immigration status. Policy alternatives are examined and discussed with regard to efficacy and efficiency of the policy.
Keegan Theresa HM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women on non-adherence to screening guidelines, they have not identified the distinct segments of the population who remain at highest risk of not being screened. Methods To better describe characteristics of Asian women associated with not having a mammogram in the last two years, we applied recursive partitioning to population-based data (N = 1521 from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS, for seven racial/ethnic groups of interest: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Vietnamese, and all Asians combined. Results We identified two major subgroups of Asian women who reported not having a mammogram in the past two years and therefore, did not follow mammography screening recommendations: 1 women who have never had a pap exam to screen for cervical cancer (68% had no mammogram, and 2 women who have had a pap exam, but have no women's health issues (osteoporosis, using menopausal hormone therapies, and/or hysterectomy nor a usual source of care (62% had no mammogram. Only 19% of Asian women who have had pap screening and have women's health issues did not have a mammogram in the past two years. In virtually all ethnic subgroups, having had pap or colorectal screening were the strongest delineators of mammography usage. Other characteristics of women least likely to have had a mammogram included: Chinese non-U.S. citizens or citizens without usual source of health care, Filipinas with no health insurance, Koreans without women's health issues and public or no health insurance, South Asians less than age 50 who were
Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon
Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483
Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E
While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.
Chu, Lap Tak
The purpose of the study reported here was to test the myth that Asian-American students are a "model minority," who consistently outperform Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and other minorities. Using 1989 data on students attending the nine colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD), the study…
P.L. Winter; W.C. Jeong; G.C. Godbey
Demographic change is redefining the demand for recreation and leisure within North America (Shelhas, 2002; Struglia & Winter, 2002). One such change is a result of rapid Asian American and Hispanic American population growth. A better understanding of the outdoor recreation attitudes and behaviors of those populations and a clearer understanding of how those...
Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley
This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…
Nguyen, Duy; Bornheimer, Lindsay A
Despite levels of need that are comparable with other groups, relatively few Asian Americans receive mental health care. While studies have described the tendency for Asian Americans to delay care until mental health symptoms are severe, relatively little research has examined how the severity of symptoms impact mental health service use. This study uses publicly available data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and focuses solely on Asian American respondents with a psychiatric disorder (n = 230). Unexpectedly, few Asian Americans with a psychiatric disorder received care in a medical setting. The perception of mental health needs increased the likelihood of using mental health specialist care. Social and systemic barriers together hinder mental health service use. Implications for addressing Asian American mental health service use within a changing health care environment are discussed.
Researchers are increasingly investigating the drinking behavior and associated consequences among Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States. Among adolescents, APIs generally have lower rates of alcohol consumption and appear to be at lower risk for alcohol abuse compared with other ethnic groups. Similarly, the rates of drinking and heavy drinking have been found to be lower among API college students than among other ethnic groups. Among adult Asian-Americans, Japanese-Americans have the highest and Chinese-Americans have the lowest lifetime prevalence of drinking and heavy drinking. Southeast Asians (e.g., Vietnamese) living in the United States appear to be at high risk for heavy drinking. Numerous factors help determine the drinking patterns of APIs, including their economic status, educational attainment, and degree of acculturation as well as genetic and environmental factors, such as drinking norms and alcohol availability.
Weil, Jennifer M; Lee, Hwayun H
There has been much research conducted in the area of family violence, however, there is a paucity of research specifically addressing family violence in Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities. Because AAPIs are regarded as the model minority, many have the misconception that family violence does not exist in this population. This article examines Asian cultural beliefs and values to gain a better understanding of Asian attitudes towards family violence. A more in-depth exploration of the Cambodian and Vietnamese cultures regarding attitudes towards violence is included because of the higher tolerance of family violence among these 2 cultures than other Asian cultures. Public health nurses working with AAPI families can provide culturally appropriate care by taking Asian attitudes, values, and beliefs into account when developing nursing interventions with victims of abuse.
Despite their popular portrayal as high achieving and structurally incorporated, race continues to shape the career choices of Asian American college students. As second-generation Americans, Asian Americans negotiate a constellation of factors when deciding their career choices, most notably, pressures from immigrant parents, awareness of labor…
Drawing on interviews with divorced American Muslim women, I will discuss the range of ways Muslim women in the U.S. incorporate Islamic law into their lives and how they negotiate the religious and legal aspects of their divorces. A common challenge my interlocutors faced in divorce was establishing an access to ...
Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.
The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…
Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Zemore, Sarah
Despite the low overall prevalence of alcohol use among Asian Americans, rates of alcohol use disorder are high among Asian American young adults. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures on immigrants and their descendants has been overlooked in past research. We took an integrative approach to examine the influence of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and socioeconomic disparities on problem drinking among Asian American young adults. This study was a nationally representative sample of 854 Asian American young adults extracted from the Wave 4 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data. About 48% of the sample was female and 52% male. Several multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Controlling for other covariates, two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture were associated with alcohol outcomes only for the foreign born: (a) detrimental drinking pattern with frequent drunkenness and alcohol-abuse symptoms and (b) drinking prevalence with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Financial hardship was a significant predictor of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence only for the U.S. born. Asian language use was protective against alcohol-abuse symptoms and alcohol-dependence symptoms for the foreign born. Cultural and socioeconomic factors of problem drinking may be different for U.S.-and foreign-born Asian American young adults. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence problem drinking of foreign-born Asian American young adults, independent of their acculturation into U.S. cultures. To inform effective interventions targeted at immigrants and their descendants, future research might further investigate the cultural and socioeconomic processes in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking.
Iwamoto, Derek K; Corbin, William; Fromme, Kim
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) among Asian Americans is a growing concern. However, little is known about the etiology and developmental patterns of HED among Asian Americans, even though this group is one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. Three year longitudinal design. Sample included 404 Asian American college students transitioning from high school, through the college years. Measures included heavy episodic drinking, parental and peer relationships, alcohol expectancies, drinking values, and alcohol-related problems. Results from growth-mixture models (GMM) identified two discrete latent classes of HED comprising 59% of our sample: these trajectory classes (high increasers and low increasers) corresponded to expected changes and stability in well-established correlates of drinking behaviour, including alcohol-related problems, personal drinking values and alcohol expectancies. Parental awareness and caring and quality of peer relationships during senior year of high school were associated directly and indirectly with HED class membership. These findings advance the literature by providing information about the developmental course of HED among Asian American young adults. The significant within-group variability in problematic drinking in this sample highlights the fact that subgroups of high-risk drinkers can be identified even in relatively low-risk groups such as Asian Americans. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Suzie S. Weng
Full Text Available With the growth of the Asian American population in the Southern region of the United States, mainstream and Asian American community must be aware of both informal and formal supports that are available for the population in order to effectively address needs and allocate resources. This community-based project identified informal and mainstream support that is available to an Asian American community using asset mapping. The asset-based community development framework was used in which the capacities of the local people and their associations are recognized to be essential in building a more powerful community, to helping a community be more self-sustaining, and to developing better relationships among entities. This study provides an inventory of community assets that otherwise may have been ignored and thus has the potential to contribute to a better functioning Asian American community in Jacksonville, Florida. 719 assets were identified as available potential resources for members of the Asian American community with a majority as formal resources. Of the informal assets, a majority are organizations. In general, formal resources are centralized, whereas informal resources are more evenly distributed throughout the city. These results can contribute to the establishment of more culturally accessible services and utilization of services.
Xu, Yu; Davidhizar, Ruth
In the context of globalization and changing American demographics, it is becoming increasingly important to understand and communicate effectively with people from diverse cultural and racial/ethnic backgrounds. This article applies the framework of cultural variability and intercultural communication research literature to examine and highlight the different communication behaviors of Asians and non-Asians in the United States. The meanings of various verbal and nonverbal behaviors of Asian students are examined to clarify their communication patterns. Culture-based assumptions are identified, and measures to improve intercultural communication in nursing education are provided.
John, Dolly A.; de Castro, A.B.; Duran, Bonnie; Martin, Diane P.
Using data from 1,530 Asian respondents of the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study, we examined how nativity and occupational class are associated with uninsurance, no routine physical check-up in the past year and no dental/eye exam use in the past year using weighted multivariate logistic regression models. Recent immigrants had increased odds of uninsurance and no dental/eye exam use than US-born Asians which became nonsignificant after controlling for occupational class and...
The extent to which poor academic achievement is strongly related to delinquency among Southeast Asian Americans (SEAA) remains unclear; reasons are methodological limitations and aggregated findings for Asian Americans, which mask evidence that SEAA have a higher prevalence of criminality and poor academic performance than other Asian American groups. The present study examines the academic achievement-delinquency relationship in a diverse group of 1,214 SEAA using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to make causal inferences and assess whether poor academic achieving SEAA, after being matched with higher academic achieving SEAA, displayed a higher prevalence of delinquency. Findings showed that, even after matching, poor academic achieving SEAA were still more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior than those who performed academically better. Interventions targeting SEAA communities will need to focus more on improving academic achievement to directly prevent and decrease delinquent behavior.
Choi, Heeseung; Park, Hanjong; Suarez, Marie L; Park, Chang; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Wilkie, Diana J
Objective The Truth about Suicide video has been widely used but has never been empirically tested regarding its cultural appropriateness for Asian Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of using the video in a web-based suicide awareness programme for Asian American and non-Hispanic white college students. Methods A cross-sectional, comparative, web-based study was conducted with 227 Asian Americans and 204 non-Hispanic whites at a university in the Midwest region of the USA. Study participants completed a questionnaire measuring their cultural orientation and attitudes towards suicide, watched the 27 min video, completed a debriefing session and evaluated the video's overall suitability. Results Asian Americans rated the suicide awareness video significantly lower for cultural relevance than did non-Hispanic whites (F=5.479, p=0.02). Collectivist cultural orientation was a significant predictor for cultural relevance, credibility and appeal; however, evaluation of the video's cultural relevance was negatively affected by Asian ethnicity. Conclusions Cultural orientation and race/ethnicity should be strongly considered when web-based suicide awareness programmes are developed for college students. PMID:28003296
Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine
To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking.
Full Text Available Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87 and White (n = 87 participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates, coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs. The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.
Sarwar, Evangel; Arias, Devin; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa Bhattacharya
Studies show that Asian-American subgroups do not always meet dietary recommendations and are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of our research is to illustrate the various sociodemographic correlates of dietary habits for six subgroups of Asian-Americans in California. The 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was utilized. A total of 3772 Asian-Americans were included in this study, with the largest subgroup being Chinese (n = 1280; N = 913,798). The outcome variable for this study was dietary behavior defined as consuming five or more fruits and vegetables per day (5-a-day), provided by CHIS. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted accounting for complex survey design. Being a female (Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese), not being married (Chinese), not being a college graduate (Chinese), living in poverty (South Asian), and speaking only English language at home (Chinese and Japanese) were associated with higher odds of not meeting a 5-a-day requirement. Results highlighted several sociodemographic correlates to not meeting 5-a-day requirement among six Asian-American subgroups. Targeted health promotion measures for such at-risk groups should be implemented to improve dietary practices.
Choi, Heeseung; Park, Hanjong; Suarez, Marie L; Park, Chang; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Wilkie, Diana J
The Truth about Suicide video has been widely used but has never been empirically tested regarding its cultural appropriateness for Asian Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of using the video in a web-based suicide awareness programme for Asian American and non-Hispanic white college students. A cross-sectional, comparative, web-based study was conducted with 227 Asian Americans and 204 non-Hispanic whites at a university in the Midwest region of the USA. Study participants completed a questionnaire measuring their cultural orientation and attitudes towards suicide, watched the 27 min video, completed a debriefing session and evaluated the video's overall suitability. Asian Americans rated the suicide awareness video significantly lower for cultural relevance than did non-Hispanic whites (F=5.479, p=0.02). Collectivist cultural orientation was a significant predictor for cultural relevance, credibility and appeal; however, evaluation of the video's cultural relevance was negatively affected by Asian ethnicity. Cultural orientation and race/ethnicity should be strongly considered when web-based suicide awareness programmes are developed for college students. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hassan Manal M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are established causes of HCC. HCC patients are often diagnosed late and receive palliative therapies, however, the survival of Asian American patients with HCC treated without transplantation has not been well studied. We reviewed our institution's experience to determine predictors and rates of survival in Asian American HCC patients treated without transplantation. Methods We identified Asian American patients with HCC referred to M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patients were tested for HBV and HCV. Survival curves were generated by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the relationship between prognostic factors and survival. Results Of 82 Asian American HCC patients, most had advanced disease (65% and received treatment (68%; however, only 11% had surgical resection. 94% had positive anti-HBc and 61% had positive HBsAg. 20% had positive anti-HCV. There were no significant changes in the rates of HBV and HCV over time. Male gender, high alpha-fetoprotein levels, and stage IV disease were associated with shorter survival Overall median survival was 9.2 months (95% CI 6.5–11.9, and the survival of HCV and HBV patients was not statistically different. Conclusion The survival rate of Asian American patients with advanced HCC, for whom transplantation was not available, was low. Timely hepatitis screening and interventions by primary care physicians may be the most logical solution to reduce the burden of hepatitis-associated HCC among Asian Americans.
Cook, Won K; Caetano, Raul
Heterogeneity in drinking across national groups is well documented, but what explains such heterogeneity is less clear. To improve understanding of the underlying cultural conditions that may lead to diverse drinking outcomes, we investigate whether 3 dimensions of ethnic drinking culture (EDC)-alcohol consumption level, drinking prevalence, and detrimental drinking pattern (DDP) in the country of origin (COO)-are significantly associated with alcohol consumption in Asian Americans and Latina/os, and whether the associations vary by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) as assessed by educational level. A nationally representative sample of 1,012 Asian American and 4,831 Latino adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. A series of multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted separately for Asian Americans and for Latinos. Analyses were also stratified by gender and educational level. Overall, the associations between EDC variables and drinking outcomes were more pronounced for all Asian Americans than for all Latina/os, for males than for females among Asian Americans, and for Latinas than for Latinos. In analyses simultaneously stratifying on gender and education level, however, there was a clear pattern of COO DDP associated with heavier drinking and alcohol consumption volume only for Latinos without a college degree. Ethnic drinking cultures may influence drinking in Asian American and Latino subgroups, albeit to a varying degree. Low-SES Latinos may be at disproportionate risk of harmful drinking patterns pervasive in their COO. Future research might investigate the complex interplay between socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural conditions to inform targeted interventions for subgroups at high risk of alcohol-related harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A
To examine factors associated with dental health insurance, self-rated oral health, and use of preventive dental care services in older Asian Americans. Cross-sectional survey. The Asian American Quality of Life Survey was conducted with 2,614 Asian Americans living in central Texas using questionnaires available in English and six Asian languages. Asian American Quality of Life Survey participants aged 60 and older (N = 533; mean age = 69.4 ± 6.9). Participants were asked whether they had insurance that covered the cost of any dental visit, how they would rate their overall oral health status, and whether they had visited a dental clinic for a routine examination in the past 12 months. Information was also collected on sociodemographic and immigration-related variables. More than 61% of the sample had no dental health insurance, 45% reported that their oral health was fair or poor, and 44% had not used preventive dental care services. A series of logistic regression analyses identified factors posing a significant risk to oral health and dental care. For example, those with limited English proficiency were 3.5 times as likely to lack dental health insurance and 3.2 times as likely to rate their oral health as fair or poor. The odds of not using preventive dental care services were 6.4 times as great in those without dental health insurance. The overall findings call attention to efforts to promote oral health and dental care in older Asian Americans. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease. Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) and Office of Dispute Resolution and Equal Employment Opportunity, Office of the Director (OD). Date Released: 5/1/2008.
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and-although very limited-negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research.
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415
Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom; Kimbro, Rachel T
Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Secondary aims were to compare changes by Asian ethnic group and acculturation x socioeconomic status. Participants included 1200 Asian-American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a longitudinal study of U.S. children attending kindergarten in 2010-2011. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict weight change based on body mass indices in kindergarten (spring 2011) and second grade (spring 2013): consistently healthy weight, consistently overweight/obese, healthy weight change, and unhealthy weight change. Models included demographic, household, socioeconomic status, and acculturation measures, specifically mother's English proficiency and percentage of life spent in the U.S. Overall, 72.3% of children were at healthy weights in kindergarten and second grade. Of all Asian ethnic groups, Filipino children had the highest rate of being consistently overweight/obese (24.8%) and the lowest rate of being consistently healthy weight (62.9%). In addition, mother's English proficiency predicted unhealthy weight change (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and healthy weight change (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65-0.86), relative to "consistently healthy weight." English proficiency also predicted being consistently overweight/obese for children with less educated mothers. Findings enhance our understanding of obesity disparities within Asian Americans and highlight the need to disaggregate the population. Obesity interventions are needed for Filipino children and families with low socioeconomic status but high English proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tran, Kimberly K; Wong, Y Joel; Cokley, Kevin O; Brownson, Chris; Drum, David; Awad, Germine; Wang, Mei-Chuan
This study addresses the paucity of knowledge on protective factors associated with Asian American college students' suicidal behavior. Participants were 58 Asian American college students who seriously considered suicide within the past 12 months and responded to open-ended online survey questions about what was helpful during their suicide crisis. A phenomenological analysis of participants' narratives revealed the following protective factors: (a) a desire not to hurt or burden others, (b) social support, (c) fear, (d) self-reliance, and (e) insight. These findings can guide culturally informed clinical interventions by mental health professionals.
Lau, Anna S; Fung, Joey; Wang, Shu-Wen; Kang, Sun-Mee
Previous research has documented elevated levels of social anxiety in Asian American college students when compared with their European American peers. The authors hypothesized that higher symptoms among Asians could be explained by cultural differences in attunement to the emotional states of others. Socialization within interdependent cultures may cultivate concerns about accurately perceiving other's emotional responses, yet at the same time, norms governing emotional control may limit competencies in emotion recognition. A sample of 264 Asian American and European American college students completed measures of social anxiety, attunement concerns (shame socialization and loss of face), and attunement competencies (self-reported sensitivity and performance on emotion recognition tasks). Results confirmed that ethnic differences in social anxiety symptoms were mediated by differences in attunement concerns and competencies in emotion recognition. Asian American college students may find themselves in a double bind that leads to social unease because of a cultural emphasis on sensitivity to others' emotions in the midst of barriers to developing this attunement skill set.
Chang, Janet; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Chen, Chih-Nan
The present study utilized data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine ethnic and generational differences in family cultural conflict and family cohesion and how the effects of such family conflict and cohesion on lifetime service use vary by generation status for Latino Americans (n = 2,554) and Asian Americans (n = 2,095). Findings revealed that first-generation Asian Americans reported greater family cultural conflict than their Latino counterparts, but third-generation Latino Americans had higher family conflict than their Asian American counterparts. First-generation Latino and Asian Americans had the highest levels of family cohesion. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that Latino Americans who reported higher family cultural conflict and lower family cohesion were more likely to use mental health services. For Asian Americans, family cultural conflict, but not family cohesion, was associated with service use. Relative to third-generation Asian Americans, second-generation Asian Americans with higher family cultural conflict were more likely to use mental health services. Given that cohesive familial bonds appear to discourage service use on the part of Latino Americans irrespective of generation status, further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which this tendency stems from greater reliance on family support as opposed to the stigma associated with mental health treatment. Mental health providers and treatment programs need to address the role of family cultural conflict in the lives of Asian Americans, particularly second generation, and Latino Americans across generations, because conflictual family ties may motivate help-seeking behaviors and reveal substantial underlying distress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Han, Meekyung; Pong, Helen
According to the 2008 U.S. Census, there are 15.5 million Asian Americans in the United States, and 17% are students enrolled in a university (Shea & Yeh, 2008). Asian American college students in higher education are oftentimes perceived as the "model minority" with high academic achievements and few mental and/or behavioral…
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Park, Jerry Z.; Martinez, Brandon C.; Cobb, Ryon; Park, Julie J.; Wong, Erica Ryu
Stereotypes of outgroups help create social identificational boundaries for ingroups. When the ingroup is dominant, members employ individualist sentiments to justify their status. In this study, we build on advances in social psychological research that account for multiple outgroup stereotypes. We argue the Asian American model minority stereotype is analogous to the “cold but competent” position of perceptions toward Asians in Fiske’s stereotype content model. Asian Americans are perceived to be exceptional to other minority groups, and we hypothesize that perceived competence is associated with individualist sentiments directed at Blacks and Latinos. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Freshmen, we find support for our hypotheses but find that perceived coldness has no relationship to individualist sentiments. We discuss the implications and directions for further research. PMID:27478288
Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.
Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.
Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.
Lee, Yomee; Hokanson, James F.
Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing minority in the USA with over 18 million in population, and have a long history, they remain underrepresented in sport and physical education. As we are living in a world that is becoming more diverse and multicultural, it is important to learn about the cultural meanings and significance of sport…
Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.
In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…
Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily
This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…
Parette, Phil; Huer, Mary Blake
Contrasting Euro-American and Asian values are examined with particular emphasis on differences exhibited by these families with regard to perspectives on disability, health care, family life, and education/intervention; communication styles; and reactions to augmentative and alternative communication needs. Specific suggestions for practitioners…
Lee, Richard M.; Yoo, Hyung Chol
The authors investigated the structure and measurement of ethnic identity using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; J. S. Phinney, 1992) on a diverse sample of Asian American college students. The authors drew upon 3 previously published datasets to examine the factor structure of the MEIM, initial reliability and construct validity,…
Lee, Eddie Kyo
This mixed methods, phenomenological study examined how cultural tension influences career development for Asian American community college students. Students initially completed Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and an instrument developed for this study called the Cultural Identification Survey. The mean for ethnic…
Lowinger, Robert; Song, Hyun-a
This study explored Asian American students' likelihood of selecting STEM over liberal arts or business college majors using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Student-level variables were the strongest predictors of college major, followed by parent-level variables, and background variables. Academic achievement and interest were the…
... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...
Henderson, Sheila J.; Chan, Anne
Career happiness is reexamined for relevance to non-Western cultures. Joseph Campbell's (1968, 1972, 1988) interpretations of myth are reviewed for individualistic vs. interdependent themes and critiqued in light of Asian American vocational concerns, with examples from Chinese culture. Counselors are encouraged to reflect cultural sensitivity and…
Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily
This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N=2095 Asian Americans living in N=259 neighborhoods; N=2554 Latinos living in N=317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24769491
Objective: To compare alcohol, tobacco, and illicit or nonmedical drug use behaviors and self-reported consequences of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students to cross-ethnic peers. Participants: A sample of 114,816 undergraduates between 18 and 24 completing the National College Health Assessment between 2011 and 2014 were used.…
The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…
Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Lin, Yi-Chun; Rausch, Meredith A.
There is a considerable history of misunderstandings associated with Asian American in education. Although many educators and scholars have begun to pay more attention to unique issues associated with this population, studies exploring these students' experiences as honors students in collegiate contexts are scant in the educational literature.…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…
Studies on college students' racial identities seldom focus on geographic context, despite existing research documenting its role in how racial groups construct and express racial identities. Drawing on theories of ecological systems and racial formation, I explored experiences of race and racial identity among 10 Asian American students who…
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny
This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Brenner, Bradley R.; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Asay, Penelope A.
Adaptation experiences of 1.5-generation Asian American college students (N=10) were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Results indicated 4 domains of adaptation experiences: preimmigration experiences, acculturation and enculturation experiences, intercultural relationships, and support systems. Participants reported that…
Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Okazaki, Sumie; Goto, Sharon G.
Examines approaches to assessing acculturation among Asian Americans college students in relation to the cultural indicators of individualism-collectivism, self-construal, impression management, and loss of face. An uneven nature of these relationships was found which is significant in light of the fact that acculturation differences are often…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Hung, Yuan; Lin, Melissa; Wan, Ching Tin
Success in the classroom does not necessarily imply effective life functioning. Study suggests nonacademic criteria be considered in assessing the validity of the model minority image. It compares Asian American college students with their racially different peers on degree of cross-racial engagement, and empirically tests its relationship with…
Chung, Ruth H. Gim
This study looked at intergenerational relations according to gender, ethnicity, and acculturation, as aspects of immigrant family life of Asian American college students (N=342). Variations were found in intergenerational tensions over expectations regarding educational and career concerns, and dating and marriage issues. Gender was a factor but…
Otsuki, Teresa A.
The relationship of self-esteem and depression with alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use was tested in a California statewide sample of more than 4,300 Asian American high school students comprising five subgroups: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese. Estimated prevalence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among…
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Burkey, Heidi; Ratanasiripong, Nop
The present study investigated the relationship between stress and substance use among 347 Asian American, 346 Latino, and 776 White college students. Although stress was not found to predict substance use among the ethnic/ethnic group studied, results of the study indicated that Latino students reported a significantly higher stress level than…
This dissertation explores language as a resource for the formation and expression of ethnic identity among the members of an Asian American college sorority. As a community of practice organized around ethnicity, the sorority provides an excellent site to examine the mutually constitutive relationship of language and ethnic identity. Two features…
Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris
Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…
Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.
Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…
Sha, Saliha L.
This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…
Juang, Linda P; Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie
To develop a measure of parental racial-ethnic socialization that is appropriate for Asian American families. To test the reliability and validity of this new measure, we surveyed 575 Asian American emerging adults (49% female, 79% U.S. born). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the results show 7 reliable subscales: maintenance of heritage culture, becoming American, awareness of discrimination, avoidance of other groups, minimization of race, promotion of equality, and cultural pluralism. Tests of factorial invariance show that overall, the subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial metric invariance across gender, age, nativity, educational attainment, parent educational attainment, geographic region of residence, and Asian-heritage region. Thus, the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different subgroups. The subscales also correlated with ethnic identity, ethnic centrality, perceptions of discrimination, and pluralistic orientation, demonstrating construct validity. In an increasingly complex and diverse social world, our scale will be useful for gaining a better understanding of how Asian American parents socialize their children regarding issues of race, discrimination, culture, and diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Goodwin, A. Lin
Background/Context: The United States is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented immigration, with the majority of new arrivals coming from Asia and Latin America, not Europe. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) represent the fastest growing racial group in the United States, and schools are again being asked to socialize newcomer…
Chutuape, Erica D.
This study provides a deeper understanding of the interracial connections not just between non-whites and whites, but among non-whites. Filipino American youth attending high school in New York City contended with a dominant bipolar racial discourse that marginalizes the racialized experiences of Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, instead of…
The purpose of this study was to examine what career development variables, according to the Social Cognitive Career Theory, contribute to career decision-making self-efficacy, one of the key components of career development in a sample of Asian American undergraduate college students. The career literature is historically limited in empirical…
Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…
Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.
This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors of…
Marsing, Deborah J.
Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.
Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti
College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…
The purpose of this study was to explore the moderating and mediating role of collectivistic/situation-specific coping and individualistic/dispositional coping in the relationship between perceived racism and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 203) of Asian American college students. Data were collected from a large public Southeastern state…
Full Text Available This essay describes and analyzes the various statutory and constitutional provisions which denied specific rights to Asian immigrants and their descendants and relates the various processes by which these rights were granted or restored from the earliest days of the American republic to the penultimate decade of the 20th century.
Lee, Sunmin; Chae, David H; Jung, Mary Y; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon
This study examines the associations between acculturation and three health examination behaviors (physical, dental, and eye exams) among 846 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. The study was part of a randomized, community-based trial on liver cancer prevention that targeted Asian Americans in Washington DC metropolitan area. Acculturation was assessed using Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, acculturation clusters, and length of stay. Health examination behaviors in the last 2 years were self-reported. Potential confounders such as age, gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, self-rated health status, health insurance, and having a regular physician were adjusted. Increased acculturation was associated with greater receipt of preventive services when acculturation was measured by SL-ASIA and acculturation clusters. Compared to those in the "Asian" cluster, those in the "American" cluster and "bicultural" clusters were more likely to have physical exams (American odds ratio (OR) = 1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.99, 3.88; bicultural OR = 1.11; 95 % CI 0.72, 1.70), dental exams (American OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.65; bicultural OR = 1.83, 95 % CI 1.21, 2.78), and eye exams (American OR = 4.48, 95 % CI 2.67, 7.66; bicultural OR = 1.92, 95 % CI 1.31, 2.81). A gradient was observed in these associations with the American cluster having stronger associations than the bicultural cluster. Interaction was found between acculturation and gender for receipt of a physical exam. Future studies are needed to further explicate how access to health care impacts the association between acculturation and health examinations among Asian Americans.
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Firestone, Melanie J; Beasley, Jeannette M; Kwon, Simona C; Ahn, Jiyoung; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yi, Stella S
Asian Americans consume more sodium than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of this analysis was to describe major sources of sodium intake to inform sodium reduction initiatives. Cross-sectional data on adults (aged >18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 with one 24-hour dietary recall were analyzed (n=5,076). Population proportions were calculated from "What We Eat in America" (WWEIA) food categories. Asian Americans had a higher sodium density vs adults of other racial/ethnic groups (means in mg/1000kcal: Asian American, 2031.1; Hispanic,1691.6; White: 1666.5; Black: 1655.5; Pfood categories, in contrast to Hispanics (43.6%), Whites (39.0%), and Blacks (36.0%). Four food categories were a top source of sodium for Hispanics, Whites, Blacks, and others, but not among Asian Americans: cold cuts and cured meats; meat mixed dishes; eggs and omelets; and cheese. The top three food category sources of sodium among Asians were soups, rice, and yeast breads accounting for 28.9% of dietary sodium. Asian Americans were less likely to add salt at the table, but used salt in food preparation 'very often' (P for both ethnic groups with highest consumption in Asian Americans. Given the smaller number of food categories contributing to sodium intake in Asian Americans, results imply that targeted activities on a few food items would have a large impact on reducing sodium intake in this group.
Im, Eun-Ok; Broome, Marion E; Inouye, Jillian; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Oh, Eui Geum; Sakashita, Reiko; Yi, Myungsun; Huang, Lian-Hua; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Wang, Hsiu-Hung
Asian cultures reflect patriarchal cultural values and attitudes, which likely have influenced women leaders in their countries differently from women in Western cultures. However, virtually no leadership theories have been developed to reflect the experiences and development of nursing leaders from Asian cultures. The purpose of this article is to present an emerging integrated middle-range theory on Asian women's leadership in nursing. Using an integrative approach, the theory was developed based on three major sources: the leadership frames of Bolman and Deal, literature reviews, and exemplars/cases from five different countries. The theory includes two main domains (leadership frames and leadership contexts). The domain of leadership frames includes human resources/networks, structure/organization, national/international politics, and symbols. The domain of leadership contexts includes cultural contexts, sociopolitical contexts, and gendered contexts. This theory will help understand nursing leadership in Asian cultures and provide directions for future nurse leaders in this ever-changing globalized world.
Hui Niu Wilcox
Full Text Available The objective of this article is two-fold: First, it argues for critical engagement between Hmong Studies and Asian American Studies. Second, to illustrate the productivity of such engagement,this article analyzes the media coverage of an incident involving Hmong American farmers and their white neighbors in Eagan, Minnesota, June 2010. The focal question is how media discourses around farming and immigration serve to racialize Hmong American identities. Thisanalysis shows that Hmong Americans experience “Asiatic racialization” in that they are either discursively cast outside of the imagined American nation, or included contingent uponassimilation and conformity. Critiquing both the exclusionary and assimilative narratives, this article explicates the inherent contradictions of the U.S. nationalism, referencing both existingHmong Studies literature and Asian Americanist discourses on race and nation. Both bodies of work foreground the historical and social construction of identities, as well as the simultaneous,intertwined workings of race, class, gender/sexuality and nation. Critical dialogues could generate new ideas and possibilities for both Asian American Studies and Hmong Studies.
Fernando, Delini M.
This article describes a support group for Sri Lankan women survivors of the 2004 Asian Tsunami. The article discusses unique leader challenges in doing group work in a diverse and foreign setting, and presents leader reflections, recommendations, and implications for group workers who may work with disaster survivors.
Nguyen, Mike M; Ellison, Lars M
To examine the racial differences in testicular cancer incidence, pathologic grade, stage, and survival with specific reference to Asian and white Americans and to evaluate the impact of disparities in stage at presentation, if present, on survival. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we extracted all testicular cancer cases among white and Asian-American males for the years 1973 to 2000. Baseline demographic data included age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and histologic features. Survival was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards modeling. The incidence of testicular cancer is lower among Asian Americans than among whites. However, Asian-American males presented with higher stage disease at diagnosis. Significant differences were noted in the histologic features between the two groups, with Asian Americans presenting with greater rates of seminoma. Asians also demonstrated survival differences, with poorer unadjusted survival compared with whites. However, when the variables of stage at diagnosis and histologic features were included in the analysis, the survival curves became similar. Asians appeared to present with higher stage disease than do whites. Observed differences in survival for the Asian group relative to whites appeared to be primarily a result of delayed presentation. Cultural perceptions of malignancy and the understanding of cancer screening may be important determinants of later presentation. Healthcare access and education issues, rather than inherent biologic differences, are more likely the primary underlying factors for the observed survival differences in Asian males.
Blanco, Lyzette; Nydegger, Liesl A; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Tong, Elisa K; White, Martha M; Trinidad, Dennis R
Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States and are more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (LITS) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). LITS experience adverse health effects related to smoking. Previous research has aggregated Asian American ethnic groups, masking important differences between groups. We sought to compare LITS rates among Asian American subgroups before and after the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with NHWs in California utilizing data from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). We combined 1990, 1992, and 1996 CTS (pre-MSA) and the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 CTS (post-MSA) to examine changes in LITS (smoking daily). Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, and Korean ethnic groups were compared with NHWs. Pre-MSA logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education level, language spoken at home, and use of other tobacco products found that Chinese (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19, 5.21), Filipinos (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.73, 4.63), Japanese (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.22, 3.27), and Koreans (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.06, 5.03) were significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Post-MSA, all Asian American subgroups experienced an increase in LITS (11.7%-37.8%); however, only Chinese (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16, 4.13) and Filipinos (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.26, 4.91) remained significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Our results highlight the need for tobacco control efforts that address the growing group of LITS among Asian Americans and NHWs.
Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Lixuan; Weng, Zhongqi; Li, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh
We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the USA. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyse the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January-June 2013. Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their 'American dreams'. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could 'make their dreams come true.' Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should focus on enhancing acculturation and reducing depression to
Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J
With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.
Ayres, Cynthia G; Mahat, Ganga
This study developed and tested a theory to better understand positive health practices (PHP) among Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. It tested theoretical relationships postulated between PHP and (a) social support (SS), (b) optimism, and (c) acculturation, and between SS and optimism and acculturation. Optimism and acculturation were also tested as possible mediators in the relationship between SS and PHP. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 163 Asian college students in an urban setting completed four questionnaires assessing SS, PHP, optimism, and acculturation and one demographic questionnaire. There were statistically significant positive relationships between SS and optimism with PHP, between acculturation and PHP, and between optimism and SS. Optimism mediated the relationship between SS and PHP, whereas acculturation did not. Findings extend knowledge regarding these relationships to a defined population of Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. Findings contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian Americans. The theoretical and empirical findings of this study provide the direction for future research as well. Further studies need to be conducted to identify and test other mediators in order to better understand the relationship between these two variables.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined a specific type of racial microaggression known as an exceptionalizing stereotype, in which an action is framed as interpersonally complimentary but perpetuates negative stereotypical views of a racial/ethnic group. Asian American participants (N = 68) were assigned to 1 of 3 brief semistructured interview conditions that highlight an exceptionalizing stereotype of Asian Americans to varying degrees. In the low racially loaded condition, participants were told, "You speak English well" by a White confederate. In the high racially loaded condition, they were told, "You speak English well for an Asian." In the control condition, the confederate said, "Nice talking to you." Only participants in the high racially loaded condition rated their partner, the interaction, and future interactions less favorably than participants in the control condition. They also evaluated their partner and interaction less positively than participants in the low racial loading condition. The results suggest exceptionalizing stereotypes can be interpersonally damaging for Asian Americans. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chao, Ruth K; Aque, Christine
Although studies have reported ethnic and cultural differences in the effects of parenting on adolescent well-being, rarely have they included specific examinations of the cultural processes underlying these differences. This study examined adolescents' affective interpretations of parents' control (i.e., feelings of anger toward control) and how these interpretations may moderate the relationship between control and adolescents' behavioral adjustment. The study comprised 1,085 immigrant youth of Chinese, Korean, and Filipino descent, and also European American youth from high schools in the greater Los Angeles area. Differences were found between European American and Asian immigrant youth in the effects of both behavioral control and psychological control. Furthermore, among European Americans only, as adolescents' feelings of anger increased, the beneficial consequences of behavioral control decreased, whereas the negative effects of psychological control on behavior problems decreased. The results suggest that feeling anger toward parents' use of psychological control may serve a protective function for European American youth but not for Asian immigrant youth. In contrast, feeling angry about behavioral control seems to reduce the beneficial consequences of control among European Americans but not Asian immigrants. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents' level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent-child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers' ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children's anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children.
Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.
In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.
Lew, A S; Allen, R; Papouchis, N; Ritzler, B
One hundred eighty-five Asian American undergraduates participated in a study designed to examine the relationships among gender, acculturation, achievement orientation, and fear of academic success. Acculturation was modestly correlated with achievement orientation. Endorsement of Asian and Anglo values were significantly related to individual-oriented achievement. Marginal significance, however, was obtained for endorsement of Asian values and beliefs to social-oriented achievement. These findings suggest that persons with a bicultural identity tend to adopt a multifaceted achievement style. Achievement orientation, in turn, predicted fear of academic success, with gender and perceived discrepancies from parental achievement values contributing minimal additional variance. Social-oriented achievement was related to high fear of academic success, whereas an individualistic orientation buffered against such conflicts.
Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla
This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mateus Pereira, L H; Socorro, A; Fernandez, I; Masleh, M; Vidal, D; Bianchi, N O; Bonatto, S L; Salzano, F M; Herrera, R J
This study attempts to ascertain genetic affinities between Native American and East Asian populations by analyzing four polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs) and three L1 polymorphic loci. These two genetic systems demonstrated strong congruence when levels of diversity and genetic distances were considered. Overall, genetic relatedness within Native American groups does not correlate with geographical and linguistic structure, although strong grouping for Native Americans with East Asians was demonstrated, with clear discrimination from African and European groups. Most of the variation was assigned to differences occurring within groups, but the interpopulation variation found for South Amerindians was recognizably higher in comparison to the other sampled groups of populations. Our data suggest that bottleneck events followed by strong influence of genetic drift in the process of the peopling of the Americas may have been determinant factors in delineating the genetic background of present-day South Amerindians. Since no clear subgroups were detected within Native Americans and East Asians, there is no indication of multiple waves in the early colonization of the New World. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E
The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States.
Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.
A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899
Sousa, Maria das Graças Barbosa; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Szejnfeld, Vera L; Castro, Charlles H M
Body composition (BC) seems to vary between populations, suggesting the need for regional reference data. The objective of this study was to determine BC in Brazilian women. Five hundred healthy non-black Brazilian women aged 20 yr or older were included. Women with fractures, chronic diseases, medications affecting bone and mineral metabolism, coronary heart disease, pregnancy, silicone prosthesis, and Asians or Indians were excluded. BC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) included total lean mass, appendicular lean mass, skeletal muscle index, and total body fat (BF). Reference values were made for 10-yr age groups. Lean mass decreased with age reaching the lowest values in women aged 80 yr and older. BF showed a bimodal distribution: increased with age until 50-59 yr, with a slight subsequent decrease. BF in Brazilian women did not differ from American women, except in the age groups 75-79 and 80-84 yr, where BF was lower (p Brazilian women compared with Americans in almost all age and ethnic groups (p Brazilian women differs from American reference data. Our findings support the notion that BC varies according to ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shah, Sejal K; Bhanusali, Dhaval G; Sachdev, Amit; Geria, Aanand N; Alexis, Andrew F
South Asians represent a rapidly growing part of the U.S. population, increasing 188 percent from 1990 to 2000 (0.27% to 0.78%). Studies investigating the epidemiology of skin disorders in South Asian Americans are lacking. We sought to determine common skin conditions and concerns among this population. This was a community-based survey study. The IRB-approved survey tool was distributed to South Asians adults in the New York City area. All data was self-reported. 190 surveys were completed. 54 percent of responders were female and 46 percent were male. The age of participants ranged from 18-74 years. The respondents were predominantly foreign born (76%), but a large minority (32%) reported living in the U.S. for over 20 years. Nearly half (49%) of the study population reported having visited a dermatologist in the past. The five most common dermatologic diagnoses included: acne (37%), eczema (22%), fungal infection (11%), warts (8%) and moles (8%). The five most common concerns included: dry skin (25%), hair loss (22%), uneven tone (21%), dark spots (18%) and acne (17%). Our results suggest that the leading skin conditions and concerns in South Asian Americans are similar to those reported in other populations with skin of color.
Ju Yon Kim
Full Text Available The 2008 San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival presented three narrative films, Never Forever, Pretty to Think So, and West 32nd, with suggestively similar interests. Namely, all three films focus on “horizontal” (rather than intergenerational conflicts between characters distinguished by class, legal status, and migration history but connected by ethnic or racial identifications. This article argues that the films, individually and collectively, participate in ongoing deliberations about the borders of Asian America by juxtaposing and organizing distinct models of conceiving Asian American identity. In particular, the films suggest the limitations of privileging certain formations of Asian America over others by both dramatizing and embodying their uneasy coexistence. Tensions between minority, immigrant, and diasporic positions become evident not only through their plots, characterizations, and stylistic elements but also in their complex production and distribution histories. The films together highlight the necessity of attending to the difficult questions of ethnic and racial identification and material inequity that are manifest when the various narratives of affiliation and difference espoused by each model encounter one another.
Lee, Janilla; Lok, Anna S; Chen, Judy
Free HBV (hepatitis B virus) screening was offered at 8 health fairs to Asian Americans in Southeast and West Michigan for two and a half years as a community service to study the prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans in Michigan as a first step in reducing the incidence of hepatitis B. The screening included a 4 ml blood sample and a questionnaire assessing demographics and family history of hepatitis B; tests included the HBV surface antigen and antibody. 567 people participated in the study. About 6% of the participants had chronic hepatitis B (HBV carriers), 54% had the antibody (either had the disease before or were vaccinated) and 40% had no antibody or antigen (never infected by HBV and should be vaccinated to get protection). More than 95% of the participants were immigrants. Participants indicated in the family history that 10% had relatives with hepatitis B, 5% with liver cirrhosis, and 3% with liver cancer. Results of our screening supported our hypothesis that prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans in Michigan would be similar to that in Asian Americans on the East and West coasts. We need to develop a strategy in Michigan to address this disease. In conducting this study, it was noticed that there was still resistance by Asian Americans to participate in clinical studies. An education intervention that is delivered in native Asian languages and in a culturally sensitive manner is needed to effectively raise awareness of hepatitis B among Asian Americans.
Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu
Although breast cancer is a major public health worry among Asian women, adherence to screening for the disease remains an obstacle to its prevention. A variety of psycho-social and cultural factors predispose women to delay or avoidance of screening for breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when cure is most likely to be successful. Yet few interventions implemented to date to address this condition in this region have drawn on health behavior theory. This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria. Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue. Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined cross-ethnic friendship choices and intergroup attitudes in a sample of 762 sixth grade Asian American students (Mage=11.5 years) attending one of 19 middle schools that varied in ethnic composition. Multiple measures of friendship (quantity and quality) and intergroup attitudes (affective, cognitive, behavioral) toward White, Latino, and Black grademates were assessed. The results showed that Asian American students over-nominated White students and under-nominated Latino and Black students as their friends when school availability of each ethnic group was accounted for. Cross-ethnic friendships were related to better intergroup attitudes, especially the behavioral dimension of attitudes. Cross-ethnic friendships were least likely to change attitudes towards Blacks. Implications for future research, educational practice, and attitude intervention programs were discussed. PMID:25626492
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.
Leong, Frederick T. L.
Tests hypotheses proposed by Leong and Chou for understanding the acculturation process among Asian Americans and uses their model to predict potential career adjustment problems encountered by Asians. In Study 1, acculturation was positively linked to job satisfaction. In Study 2, acculturation was found to be positively related to supervisors'…
Maramba, Dina C.; Palmer, Robert T.; Yull, Denise; Ozuna, Taryn
Although research has shown that more Asian American and Latino students are choosing to attend historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), no research has offered insight into what motivates students from these demographics to enroll in these institutions. Given this, the authors explored the college choice process for Asian American…
Winder, A E; Chen, T T; Mfuko, W C
This study addresses the question: has the opening of their markets to American tobacco products in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan led to an increase in smoking behavior among women and youth? The data on smoking rates for women and youth is presented. This data was obtained for each country before markets were opened to the importation of American tobacco products through the agency of non-governmental organizations in these countries. Comparison data was obtained from similar Asian countries whose markets were not opened. The data from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan show a sizeable increase in smoking rates for women and youth. The authors believe, based upon anecdotal data, that importation of tobacco products combined with aggressive marketing and advertising by American firms is, in a good measure, responsible for the reported increase.
This article addresses practice concerns and special issues for professionals doing case management for older Asian Americans using Alzheimer's disease as the case example. Highlighted are cross-cultural issues in assessment for depression in this population, as well as caregiving and community service utilization issues. The research is based on the author's own work and the literature, as well as results from a population-based study of caregivers of the elderly in California.
Judy Soojin Park
This article investigates the recent proliferation of Asian American participants in Electronic Dance Music (EDM) festivals with a particular focus on those organized by Insomniac Events in Southern California. As Insomniac’s events aim to propagate an ethos of PLUR—Peace, Love, Unity and Respect—reminiscent of historical rave culture, these events promise a space where anyone, regardless of race, class, gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with partic...
Fazio, A.; Joe-Laidler, K.; Moloney, M; Hunt, G
This article examines the relationship between substance use and gender, sexuality, ethnicity, and nativity among 250 Asian American youths involved in the dance club/rave scene. We find distinct patterns of drug use differing by country of origin and ethnicity. However, contrary to some literature we do not find significant differences corresponding to immigration status, or number of years in the U.S. The most significant differences between subgroups are related to gender and sexuality: ma...
Gadgil, Meghana D; Oza-Frank, Reena; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The incidence of both GDM and type 2 diabetes is exceedingly high in South Asian populations. However, the risk of type 2 diabetes after GDM in South Asian women in the United States is unknown. South Asians aged 40 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a community-based cohort called Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. A history of GDM was elicited through self-report, and type 2 diabetes was ascertained by an oral glucose tolerance test. We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the odds of type 2 diabetes after GDM history in this cross-sectional analysis. About 9.7% of women in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study self-reported a history of GDM, and were significantly younger, with higher mean diastolic blood pressure and self-reported weight at age 20 and 40 years than women without a history of GDM. In a model adjusted for age, weight at age 40, family history of diabetes, education, income, physical activity, caloric intake, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking, women with a history of GDM had increased odds of having type 2 diabetes compared with women without GDM (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3, 7.5). A history of GDM further increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in US South Asian women. Our findings underscore the importance of early postpartum screening in a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Judy Soojin Park
Full Text Available This article investigates the recent proliferation of Asian American participants in Electronic Dance Music (EDM festivals with a particular focus on those organized by Insomniac Events in Southern California. As Insomniac’s events aim to propagate an ethos of PLUR—Peace, Love, Unity and Respect—reminiscent of historical rave culture, these events promise a space where anyone, regardless of race, class, gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with participant observation, I argue that Asian American youth’s status as “perpetual foreigners” and subsequent desire for cultural belonging have motivated their participation in events promoted by Insomniac. Nevertheless, the Asian American participants I interviewed defined notions of belonging, authenticity and subcultural capital in the EDM festival scene in relation to suburban middle-class whiteness and in opposition to urban hip-hop blackness. My research provides a much-needed study of nonwhite participants and how they negotiate their subjectivities in relation to the contemporary EDM festival scene.
Cook, Won Kim; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Bond, Jason; Lui, Camillia
We aimed to identify problem drinking trajectories and their predictors among Asian Americans transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. We considered cultural and socioeconomic contextual factors, specifically ethnic drinking cultures, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and neighborhood coethnic density, to identify subgroups at high risk for developing problematic drinking trajectories. We used a sample of 1333 Asian Americans from 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2008) in growth mixture models to identify trajectory classes of frequent heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness. We fitted multinomial logistic regression models to identify predictors of trajectory class membership. Two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture-drinking prevalence and detrimental drinking pattern in the country of origin-were predictive of problematic heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness trajectories. Higher neighborhood socioeconomic status in adolescence was predictive of the trajectory class indicating increasing frequency of drunkenness. Neighborhood coethnic density was not predictive of trajectory class membership. Drinking cultures in the country of origin may have enduring effects on drinking among Asian Americans. Further research on ethnic drinking cultures in the United States is warranted for prevention and intervention.
Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S
Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Cheon, Hee-Sun
The present study is an empirical investigation of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and mental health (anxiety, depression, and well-being) in a sample of Asian American college students. In addition, we explored the role of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Asian American participants (N = 156) were recruited from 2 institutions located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Participants filled out an online survey consisting of measures assessing the study variables. Bootstrapped results indicated that cultural mistrust was a significant mediator in the relation between microaggressions and well-being, such that racial microaggressions was significantly and positively associated with cultural mistrust, which, in turn, was significantly and inversely related to well-being. Mediation models involving anxiety, depression, and help-seeking attitudes as outcome variables were nonsignificant. The significant mediation finding (microaggressions → mistrust → well-being) has implications for improved understanding of Asian American students' reactions to modern day racism and how it relates to their sense of well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Young-Me; Florez, Elizabeth; Tariman, Joseph; McCarter, Sarah; Riesche, Laren
To understand the influential factors related to sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents and to evaluate common factors across successful sexual education programs for this population. Despite a rapid increase in cases of STIs/HIV among Asian-American populations, there remains a need for a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors related to risky sexual behaviors for this population. An integrative literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles and government resources were analyzed. Five influential factors were identified: family-centered cultural values, parental relationship, acculturation, gender roles, and lack of knowledge and information about sex and STIs. Only two sexual educational programs met the inclusion criteria and provided evidence towards effectiveness: Safer Choices and Seattle Social Development Project. The findings of this study indicate an urgent need for culturally sensitive sexual education programs that incorporate the identified influential factors, especially cultural values in order to reduce risky sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Andrew Young; Israel, Tania; Maeda, Hotaka
This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias. Confirmatory factor analysis with a separate subsample (n = 331) indicated that the proposed correlated factors model was strongly consistent with the observed data. Factor determinacies were high and demonstrated that the specified items adequately measured their intended factors. Bifactor modeling further indicated that this multidimensionality could be univocally represented for the purpose of measurement, including the use of a mean total score representing a single continuum of internalized racism on which individuals vary. The IRAAS statistically predicted depressive symptoms, and demonstrated statistically significant correlations in theoretically expected directions with four dimensions of collective self-esteem. These results provide initial validity evidence supporting the use of the IRAAS to measure aspects of internalized racism in this population. Limitations and research implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.
Diego Sánchez, Jorge
[EN]Gurinder Chadha and Mira Nair’s hybrid films and narratives define diaspora space and portray women in this space with a doublefold purpose. Firstly, their films dismantle Orientalised conceptions about the South Asian Subcontinent and its diaspora by using South Asian performing arts tradition. Secondly, both Chadha and Nair’s female characters emerge as pioneering women who fight against gender and race inequality both in the Subcontinent and in its diaspora. [ES]Las películas híbrid...
We conducted in-depth telephone interviews with a convenience sample of 20 South Asian women experiencing domestic violence in the United States. Utilizing the emotion-focused and problem-focused coping framework, the researchers analyzed the narratives of abused South Asian women. Emotion-focused coping strategies include (a) spirituality and/or religion and (b) the role of children. Problem-focused coping strategies include (c) informal and formal support and (d) strategies of resisting, pacifying, safety planning. Implications for practice and future research in the United States and internationally are discussed.
... territories, all possess the common purpose of the fulfilling the American dream and leading a life bound by... discrimination—yet they excelled. Even in the darkness of the Exclusion Act and Japanese internment, Asian...
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Goto, Sharon
The authors examined the impact of perceived racial discrimination on various mental health outcomes for Asian American and Latino college students within an emic and etic framework. Results indicate that Asian American and Latino college students experienced similar exposure and reactions to various kinds of discrimination. However, Latino students were more likely than Asian American students to have been accused of doing something wrong, such as cheating and breaking the law, and more likely to appraise these experiences as stressful. Asian Americans evidenced higher risk for trait anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity, perceived racial discrimination was associated with several negative mental health outcomes, including higher psychological distress, suicidal ideation, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression. Findings highlight the need to address discrimination across multiple social and professional settings and to understand the broad array of mental health outcomes.
Mohindra, Katia S
Promoting the health of women requires an understanding of the full range of factors shaping their health, including globalization. Focusing on South Asia, I outline some of the critical global women's health issues that warrant further attention by health promotion researchers. I discuss the inadequacy of international approaches for improving the health of South Asian women, occupational health hazards associated with global industries targeting women, new forms of gender based violence, gendered ethical challenges arising as global and local forces collide and the rise of transnational feminist networks that can be harnessed for advancing women's health across the region. © The Author(s) 2016.
Is immigrant groups' assimilation to host society at odds with their engagement with the country of ancestral origin? This study divides the concept of assimilation into socioeconomic resources and attachment to host society, and argues that assimilation and transnational perspectives are coexisting paradigms. Analyses using the nationally representative samples of Latino and Asian Americans indicate that 1) higher-order generations reduce the odds of home country engagement, i.e. frequent return visits, 2) attachment to American society does not discourage return visits, 3) socioeconomic resources increase frequent visits, and 4) the country of origin is a significant predictor of home country visits. PMID:21647239
Horton, K. Renee
As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized ove...
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.
A brief, vivid portrait of the human rights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's human rights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of human rights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's Human Rights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's human rights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in
Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew
Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them.
... centuries, America's story has been tied to the Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed... honor all Americans who trace their ancestry to Asia and the Pacific Islands, we must acknowledge the...
Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin
We examined whether perception of university environment mediated the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes after controlling for perceived general stress. Participants were 160 Asian American, African American, and Latino students who attended a predominantly White university. Results of a path model analysis showed that university environment was a significant mediator for the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes. Additionally, minority status stress was distinct from perceived general stress. Finally, the results from a multiple-group comparison indicated that the magnitude of the mediation effect was invariant across Asian American, African American, and Latino college students, thus supporting the generalizability of the mediation model.
Wong, Eugene Franklin
This paper questions the applicability of middleman minority theory to Chinese and Japanese Americans. The constructional elements of the theory, in its American form, are analyzed in the context of Chinese and Japanese American economic, social, and political conditions. The ethnic group triad (elite-middleman minority-masses) is identified and…
Carrion, Iraida V; Park, Nan Sook; Lee, Beom S
This study examined the characteristics of individuals in hospice care by racial/ethnic groups. A total of 22,936 patients served by a hospice in Central Florida during a four-year period, from 2002 to 2006, were included. Of these, 80.6% were White, 9.6% were Black/African-American, 9.3% were Hispanic and 0.5% were Asian American/Pacific Islander. We examined the associations between the characteristics of hospice users and race/ethnicity, and change of hospice user characteristics over time using chi-square and ANOVA tests. More females than males were represented. Spouse caregivers were most common for Whites (35%) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (36%). However, "other" (41%) caregivers were most frequent for African Americans and daughters (33%) were most often caregivers for Hispanics. Cancer was the primary diagnosis across the four groups. Racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to rely on Medicaid than Whites (10-70% vs. 4%) and African Americans were most likely to be transferred from hospital (57%), whereas Whites were referred from assisted living/nursing homes more frequently than others(16% vs. 7-10%). As the hospice settings become more racially/ethnically diverse, it is essential to attend to the different circumstances and needs of the various groups in providing optimal care.
Ahmad-Stout, Farah; Nath, Sanjay R; Khoury, Nayla M; Huang, Hsiang
Eleven South Asian women were recruited from three domestic violence agencies in the United States and interviewed to examine their experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV). The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Themes included detailed barriers and facilitators to disclosure of the abuse and leaving the abusive relationship. Findings suggest that families of origin and in-laws play a significant role in the process of leaving the relationship. Children are often cited as a source of strength for the women. The process of healing and recovery after leaving a relationship with IPV was also discussed by women enrolled in this study. Pragmatic approaches to addressing IPV among South Asian women in health care settings are also considered.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minorities with depression are more likely to seek mental health care through primary care providers (PCPs than mental health specialists. However, both provider and patient-specific challenges exist. PCP-specific challenges include unfamiliarity with depressive symptom profiles in diverse patient populations, limited time to address mental health, and limited referral options for mental health care. Patient-specific challenges include stigma around mental health issues and reluctance to seek mental health treatment. To address these issues, we implemented a multi-component intervention for Asian American and Latino American primary care patients with depression at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH. Methods/Design We propose a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a culturally appropriate intervention to improve the diagnosis and treatment of depression in our target population. Our goals are to facilitate a primary care providers' ability to provide appropriate, culturally informed care of depression, and b patients' knowledge of and resources for receiving treatment for depression. Our two-year long intervention targets Asian American and Latino American adult (18 years of age or older primary care patients at MGH screening positive for symptoms of depression. All eligible patients in the intervention arm of the study who screen positive will be offered a culturally focused psychiatric (CFP consultation. Patients will meet with a study clinician and receive toolkits that include psychoeducational booklets, worksheets and community resources. Within two weeks of the initial consultation, patients will attend a follow-up visit with the CFP clinicians. Primary outcomes will determine the feasibility and cost associated with implementation of the service, and evaluate patient and provider satisfaction with the CFP service. Exploratory aims will describe the study population at screening, recruitment, and enrollment
Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Mok, Geoffrey; Nishida, Harumi
Eleven foreign-born and -raised Asian women faculty in counseling and psychology programs in the United States were interviewed about their work experiences. Analysis using consensual qualitative research revealed 7 sources of stressors, 6 emotional reactions associated with stressors, 5 coping strategies, and 4 types of intrinsic rewards gained…
Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.
Chaudhuri, Soma; Morash, Merry; Yingling, Julie
This article contributes to the literature on wife abuse by using the patriarchal bargaining framework, which highlights the issue of agency as women strive to achieve their goals within the constraints of family and culture. Study participants were recent South Asian immigrants to the United States. Narrative analysis revealed that patriarchal constraints in natal families, culture, and expectations of benefits gained through marriage influenced many of the women to migrate for marriage. When husbands enforced extreme patriarchy with abuse, women's personal efforts to contain abuse were largely ineffective. However, advocacy agency interventions did help some women break out of extreme patriarchy.
Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M
The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.
Background Asian-Americans represent the fastest growing minority group in the United States, but are under-represented patients in outpatient dermatology clinics. At the same time, skin cancer rates in individuals of Asian descent are increasing, but skin cancer detection appears to be delayed in Asian-Americans compared to white individuals. Some health-care provider related factors for this phenomenon have been reported in the literature, but the patient-related factors are unclear. Methods This exploratory study to identify patient-related factors associated with dermatology visits in Asian-Americans was performed after Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. An anonymous, online survey utilizing validated items was conducted on adults who self-identified as Asian-American in Northern California. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression for dermatology visits as indicated by responses to the question of “ever having had skin checked by a dermatologist” were performed on survey responses pertaining to demographic information, socioeconomic factors, acculturation, knowledge of melanoma warning signs and SSE belief and practice. Results 89.7% of individuals who opened the online survey completed the items, with 469 surveys included in the analysis. Only 60% reported ever performing a SSE, and only 48% reported ever having a skin examination by a dermatologist. Multivariate models showed that “ever performing SSE” (p dermatology clinic visits in Asian-Americans is important so that this potential gap in dermatologic care can be better addressed through future studies. PMID:25085260
Kuo, Shu-Fen; Chang, Wen-Yin; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Yu-Hua; Chen, Ching-Min
This is a report of development and psychometric testing of the East Asian Acculturation Measure-Chinese version (EAAM-C) scale. An instrument validation design with a cross-sectional survey was conducted. The process was carried in two phases. In Phase 1, Barry's East Asian Acculturation Measure was translated and back translated to evaluate its content, face validity, and feasibility validity. In Phase 2, the 16-item EAAM-C was pilot-tested among 485 female immigrants for test-retest reliability, internal consistency, theoretically-supported construct validity and concurrent validity. The pilot work and the survey results indicated the tools possessed adequate content and face validity. The Cronbach's Alphas for the EAAM-C was 0.72, and 0.76-0.79 for its subscales, and the correlation of test-retest reliability (at 3 weeks) was 0.75. After dropping one item, four theoretically-supported factors which explained 61.82% of the variance were abstracted using exploratory factor analysis: assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. Based on the underlying four-factor theoretical structures of the EAAM, the confirmatory factor analysis of the EAAM-C was further examined. The analysis revealed that the four-factor model was an acceptable fit for the data which demonstrated adequate finding in its construct validity. These factors were inter-correlated, and showed statistically significant correlation with the Chinese Health Questionnaire, indicating adequate concurrent validity. The scale shows acceptable validity and consistency, and suggests that immigrant acculturation is a complex construct. This quick evaluation instrument can be applied to assess clients' acculturation and in further developing certain interventions to improve their health.
Wen, Wanqing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Guo, Xingyi; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Ying; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Brennan, Paul; Chen, Shou-Tung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Ito, Hidemi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Teo, Soo H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Wu, Anna H; Yip, Cheng Har; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yongbing; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei
Approximately 100 common breast cancer susceptibility alleles have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The utility of these variants in breast cancer risk prediction models has not been evaluated adequately in women of Asian ancestry. We evaluated 88 breast cancer risk variants that were identified previously by GWAS in 11,760 cases and 11,612 controls of Asian ancestry. SNPs confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian women were used to construct a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relative and absolute risks of breast cancer by the PRS percentiles were estimated based on the PRS distribution, and were used to stratify women into different levels of breast cancer risk. We confirmed significant associations with breast cancer risk for SNPs in 44 of the 78 previously reported loci at P women in the middle quintile of the PRS, women in the top 1% group had a 2.70-fold elevated risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 2.15-3.40). The risk prediction model with the PRS had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.606. The lifetime risk of breast cancer for Shanghai Chinese women in the lowest and highest 1% of the PRS was 1.35% and 10.06%, respectively. Approximately one-half of GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants can be directly replicated in East Asian women. Collectively, common genetic variants are important predictors for breast cancer risk. Using common genetic variants for breast cancer could help identify women at high risk of breast cancer.
ChenFeng, Jessica; Kim, Lana; Wu, Yuwei; Knudson-Martin, Carmen
Asian Americans juggle the intersections of multiple social identities and societal discourses as they respond to experiences of immigration, marginalization, and patriarchy, integrate collectivist and individualistic family values, and form families and intimate relationships. In this study we examine what we have learned as we apply Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy (SERT) with heterosexual couples of Asian heritage. SERT begins with sociocultural attunement and the assumption that relationships should mutually support each partner. Drawing on case examples, we illustrate how we practice sociocultural attunement as couples respond to the relational processes that comprise the Circle of Care (mutual influence, vulnerability, attunement, and shared relational responsibility). We emphasize three key socioemotional themes that intersect with gender: (1) intangible loss; (2) quiet fortitude/not burdening others; and (3) duty to the family. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Feb 1, 2011 ... Yet violence against women remains a problem of staggering proportions, says Kapur. As she pointed out, “in 2000, five years after Beijing, the UN reported that each year the world's women have 80 million unwanted pregnancies, undergo 20 million unsafe abortions, suffer millions of beatings and rapes, ...
Monideepa B. Becerra
Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans (N=665,195 were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (OR=3.05, 95% CI=1.55, 5.98 and monolingual (English only Vietnamese (OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.58, 5.70, especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only, not being current married (South Asian only, and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians. Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults.
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.
Rosalind S. Chou
Full Text Available Our article demonstrates the power of white habitus, prevalence of colorblind racism, and effect of hegemonic masculine ideology on Asian American students at an elite Southern university. This study takes an intersectional approach towards white habitus, acknowledging the gendered sexualized nature of colorblind racial ideology. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 Asian American undergraduates, we emphasize that Asian Americans are not immune to the racist and racialized experiences of even the most elite American universities and its social spaces. Findings suggest that white habitus and exclusionary white university Greek spaces support a racialized, sexualized, and gendered socialization that intimatley affects our respondents. Our Asian American undergraduates describe instances of sexualized racism and racialized romantic experiences that are particular by gender. We also discuss how our participants have adopted and internalized ideology produced from white habitus and colorblind racism at the university. White habitus socializes and shapes Asian American students at an elite Southern university through intersecting domains of power and through exclusion in largely white spaces.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a lay health worker (LHW telephone intervention on completing a series of hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccinations among foreign-born Asian Americans in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan area.During the period of April 2013 and March 2014, we recruited Asian Americans who were 18 years of age and older in the community-based organizations. Of the 645 eligible participants, 600 (201 Chinese, 198 Korean, 201 Vietnamese completed a pretest survey and received hepatitis B screening. Based on the screening results, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among those unprotected (HBsAg-/HBsAB- by assigning them either to an intervention group (n = 124 or control group (n = 108. The intervention group received a list of resources by mails for where to get free vaccinations as well as reminder calls for vaccinations from trained LHWs, while the control group received only list of resources by mail. Seven months after mailing the HBV screening results, trained LHWs followed up with all participants by phone to ask how many of the recommended series of 3 vaccinations they had received: none, 1 or 2, or all 3 (complete. Their self-reported vaccinations were verified with the medical records. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of the LHW intervention. Process evaluation was conducted by asking study participants in the intervention group to evaluate the performance of the LHWs.After seven months, those in the intervention group were more likely to have 1 or more vaccines than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 3.04, 95% CI, 1.16, 8.00. Also, those in the intervention group were more likely to complete a series of vaccinations than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 7.29, 95% CI 3.39, 15.67. The most important barrier preventing them from seeking hepatitis B vaccinations was lack of time to get the vaccination. The most important
Hibbard, S; Tang, P C; Latko, R; Park, J H; Munn, S; Bolz, S; Somerville, A
Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) responses of 69 Asian American (hereafter, Asian) and 83 White students were coded for defenses according to the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, 1991b) and studied for differential validity in predicting paper-and-pencil measures of relevant constructs. Three tests for differential validity were used: (a) differences between validity coefficients, (b) interactions between predictor and ethnicity in criterion prediction, and (c) differences between groups in mean prediction errors using a common regression equation. Modest differential validity was found. It was surprising that the DMM scales were slightly stronger predictors of their criteria among Asians than among Whites and when a common predictor was used, desirable criteria were overpredicted for Asians, whereas undesirable ones were overpredicted for Whites. The results were not affected by acculturation level or English vocabulary among the Asians.
Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Zemore, Sarah
Objective: Despite the low overall prevalence of alcohol use among Asian Americans, rates of alcohol use disorder are high among Asian American young adults. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures on immigrants and their descendants has been overlooked in past research. We took an integrative approach to examine the influence of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and socioeconomic disparities on problem drinking among Asian American young adults. Method: This study was a nationally representative sample of 854 Asian American young adults extracted from the Wave 4 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data. About 48% of the sample was female and 52% male. Several multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results: Controlling for other covariates, two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture were associated with alcohol outcomes only for the foreign born: (a) detrimental drinking pattern with frequent drunkenness and alcoholabuse symptoms and (b) drinking prevalence with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Financial hardship was a significant predictor of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence only for the U.S. born. Asian language use was protective against alcohol-abuse symptoms and alcohol-dependence symptoms for the foreign born. Conclusions: Cultural and socioeconomic factors of problem drinking may be different for U.S.- and foreign-born Asian American young adults. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence problem drinking of foreign-born Asian American young adults, independent of their acculturation into U.S. cultures. To inform effective interventions targeted at immigrants and their descendants, future research might further investigate the cultural and socioeconomic processes in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:23739016
Basu, Dipannita; Werbner, Pnina
The 200 Richest Asians Magazines 2000, 2002, 2003 construct the success of British South Asian multi-millionaires in images that foreground their masculine traits and characteristics. And yet, this paper argues, such individual success stories are merely the tip of an “entrepreneurial iceberg”. They mask the existence of clusters of immigrant enterprises concentrated in particular economic sectors and industries. These may be headed by women as well as men. While South Asian men in Britain in...
Foo, Chek Siang; Su, David; Chong, Chee Keong; Chng, Hong Chee; Tay, Khoon Hean; Low, Sze Chuan; Tan, Su Ming
Breast cancer in young patients is often associated with a poorer prognosis, but there has been a paucity of published data in an Asian population. One hundred and six patients (12.6%) under the age of 40 years with breast cancer (group V) were compared with 737 patients with breast cancer aged 40 years or more (group W). Demographics, presentations, pathological profiles, treatment and survival measures were analysed. Median tumour size was similar in both groups. Group V had more patients with grade 3 tumours and nodal involvement compared to group W (51.5% vs 38.1%, P = 0.012 and 52.5% vs 41.8%, P = 0.045). The mean Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) score was significantly higher in group V compared to group W (4.75 vs 4.26, P < 0.001). The incidences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in group V were higher than group W (69.2% vs 35.2%, P < 0.001 and 41.1% vs 24.4%, P = 0.002). There were no differences in overall survival and disease-free survival (local recurrence). Patients below 40 years with breast cancer have tumours with a poorer prognostic profile. However, this did not translate into a poorer overall survival, and this might be attributable to more aggressive adjuvant treatment of younger patients.
Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed
Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.
Baca, Fernie; Lundquist, Gerald W.
Background and historical information regarding adaptation assimilation of Chinese women to living in Southeast Asia includes details of Chinese immigration to Southeast Asia, socialization factors affecting identity and change, and language education. (Journal availability: National Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State…
Oct 26, 2010 ... One outcome: a Chinese, English, and Malay language website through which the now more than 17,000 members share information, organize activities, advertise products and services, and more. eHomemakers believes that acquiring micro-business skills can increase women's confidence and improve ...
Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen
Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alvarez-Iglesias, V; Jaime, J C; Carracedo, A; Salas, A
We have developed a single PCR multiplex SNaPshot reaction that consists of 32 coding region SNPs that allows (i) increasing the discrimination power of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing in forensic casework, and (ii) haplogroup assignments of mtDNA profiles in both human population studies (e.g. anthropological) and medical research. The selected SNPs target the East Asian phylogeny, including its Native American derived branches. We have validated this multiplex assay by genotyping a sample of East Asians (Taiwanese) and Native Americans (Argentineans). In addition to the coding SNP typing, we have sequenced the complete control region for the same samples. The genotyping results (control region plus SNaPshot profiles) are in good agreement with previous human population genetic studies (based on e.g. complete sequencing) and the known mtDNA phylogeny. We observe that the SNaPshot method is reliable, rapid, and cost effective in comparison with other techniques of multiplex SNP genotyping. We discuss the advantages of our SNP genotyping selection with respect to previous attempts, and we highlight the importance of using the known mtDNA phylogeny as a framework for SNP profile interpretation and as a tool to minimize genotyping errors.
Wong, Y. Joel; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Nguyen, Chi P.; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saw, Anne
This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Shame Inventory (ISI), a culturally salient and clinically relevant measure of interpersonal shame for Asian Americans. Across 4 studies involving Asian American college students, the authors provided evidence for this new measure’s validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with 2 correlated factors: external shame (arising from concerns about others’ negative evaluations) and family shame (arising from perceptions that one has brought shame to one’s family), corresponding to 2 subscales: ISI-E and ISI-F, respectively. Evidence for criterion-related, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity was demonstrated by testing the associations between external shame and family shame and immigration/international status, generic state shame, face concerns, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. External shame and family shame also exhibited differential relations with other variables. Mediation findings were consistent with a model in which family shame mediated the effects of thwarted belongingness on suicide ideation. Further, the ISI subscales demonstrated high alpha coefficients and test–retest reliability. These findings are discussed in light of the conceptual, methodological, and clinical contributions of the ISI. PMID:24188650
Wong, Y Joel; Kim, Bryan S K; Nguyen, Chi P; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saw, Anne
This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Shame Inventory (ISI), a culturally salient and clinically relevant measure of interpersonal shame for Asian Americans. Across 4 studies involving Asian American college students, the authors provided evidence for this new measure's validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with 2 correlated factors: external shame (arising from concerns about others' negative evaluations) and family shame (arising from perceptions that one has brought shame to one's family), corresponding to 2 subscales: ISI-E and ISI-F, respectively. Evidence for criterion-related, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity was demonstrated by testing the associations between external shame and family shame and immigration/international status, generic state shame, face concerns, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. External shame and family shame also exhibited differential relations with other variables. Mediation findings were consistent with a model in which family shame mediated the effects of thwarted belongingness on suicide ideation. Further, the ISI subscales demonstrated high alpha coefficients and test-retest reliability. These findings are discussed in light of the conceptual, methodological, and clinical contributions of the ISI. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Liu, Huaqing; Hall, John J; Xu, Xiaoyue; Mishra, Gita D; Byles, Julie E
To determine differences in food and nutrient intakes between Australian- and Asian-born women living in Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, including 6461 women born in Australia or Asia who completed food frequency questionnaires in 2001 and 2013. Diet was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies version 2. Longitudinal generalised estimating-equation modelling was performed to determine the effect of country of birth and survey year on fruit and vegetable intake. Asian-born women ate more cereals, soybeans and fish but less vegetables, legumes, dairy, meat and meat products than Australian-born women both in 2001 and in 2013. Asian-born women ate less cereals, rice and noodles, meat and its products (P Asian-born women had a lower daily intake of fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, folate and retinol compared with those born in Australia. Asian-born women living in Australia show different food and nutrient intakes from Australian-born women, although their diets tend to deviate from typical Asian characteristics and approach a Western diet. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Pilver, Corey E.; Kasl, Stanislav; Desai, Rani; Levy, Becca R.
Background Ethnic minorities in America will achieve majority by 2042, and due to their younger age distribution, will represent the largest proportion of women at risk for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Research has not addressed ethnic minority women’s vulnerabilities to PMDD. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation and PMDD. Methods An analysis of acculturation and PMDD among 3,856 English-speaking, pre-menopausal Asian, Latina, and Black women from the National Latino and Asian American Survey and the National Survey of American Life. Results The lifetime prevalence of PMDD was 3.3%. Nativity status, duration of residence, and age at immigration were significantly associated with PMDD. Foreign-born women (OR=0.38; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.21–0.68)and immigrants arriving to the US after age six (OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.18, 0.62) were less likely to have PMDD, compared to US-born women, and US-born women/immigrants who arrived before age six, respectively. The likelihood of PMDD increased as the duration of residence in the US lengthened. Limitations The diagnosis of PMDD was provisional due to retrospective symptom reporting. Statements of causality could not be made because the study was cross-sectional. Conclusions A substantial percentage of ethnic minority women suffer from PMDD in their lifetimes. Exposure to American culture appeared to elevate ethnic minority women’s likelihood for PMDD. The stressors that are associated with ethnic minority life in America—discrimination, poverty, pressures to assimilate, etc.—may contribute to ethnic minority women’s vulnerability to PMDD, and clinicians should be sensitive to the special risks in this population. PMID:21055829
Spirituality has been a major source of strength for African American women educators, who comprise a tiny fraction of college faculty and administrators. Spiritually connected people achieve self-realization by attaining oneness with humanity. Until African American women speak publicly about their spiritual experience, their contributions to…
Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S
Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.
Javier, Sarah J; Belgrave, Faye Z
The etiology of body dissatisfaction and its correlates (eg, disordered eating) among ethnic minorities is generally unknown. The purpose of this study was to replicate the tripartite model of influence in an Asian American college female sample in order to examine this relationship. Participants were 80 undergraduate Asian American females between the ages of 18 and 25. Participants completed a survey that included the Tripartite Influence Scale, Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, and Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3. Mediation analyses indicated that thin-ideal internalization fully mediated the relationship between media influence and body dissatisfaction and partially mediated the relationship between peer influence and body dissatisfaction. Family influence did not significantly predict body dissatisfaction. Asian American college females experience body dissatisfaction through mechanisms that have not been examined in detail. These factors must be considered when creating targeted health promotion strategies and developing best practices for eating disorder assessment and treatment protocols at university health centers.
Taylor, Victoria M; Choe, John H; Yasui, Yutaka; Li, Lin; Burke, Nancy; Jackson, J Carey
Southeast Asians have higher rates of liver cancer than any other racial/ethnic group in the United States. Chronic carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common underlying cause of liver cancer in the majority of Asian populations. Our objectives were to describe Vietnamese Americans' awareness of hepatitis B, levels of HBV testing, and knowledge about hepatitis B transmission; and to compare the HBV knowledge and practices of men and women. A community-based, in-person survey of Vietnamese men and women was conducted in Seattle during 2002. Seven hundred and fifteen individuals (345 men and 370 women) completed the questionnaire. Eighty-one percent of the respondents had heard of hepatitis B (76% of men, 86% of women) and 67% reported HBV testing (66% of men, 68% of women). A majority of the participants knew that HBV can be transmitted during sexual intercourse (71% of men, 68% of women), by sharing toothbrushes (67% of men, 77% of women), and by sharing razors (59% of men, 67% of women). Less than one-half knew that hepatitis B is not spread by eating food prepared by an infected person (46% of men, 27% of women), nor by coughing (39% of men, 25% of women). One-third of our respondents did not recall being tested for HBV. Important knowledge deficits about routes of hepatitis B transmission were identified. Continued efforts should be made to develop and implement hepatitis B educational campaigns for Vietnamese immigrant communities. These efforts might be tailored to male and female audiences.
Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.
Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie
The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described.
Liu, Shan; Sun, Yiyuan; Louie, Wendy
To identify symptom distress related to cancer for a group of Chinese American women in treatment, and to examine their use of various forms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their relationships to specific symptoms they identified. Cross-sectional, correlational. American Cancer Society Asian Initiatives support groups in the state of New York. 97 Chinese American women residing in New York with a mean age of 57 years; the time since diagnosis of cancer ranged from two months to 24 years. The type of diagnosis for the majority of women was breast cancer. A self-reported questionnaire including a demographic data form, a researcher-developed checklist for types of TCM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) were administered. The MSAS-SF has three subscales: global distress index, psychological symptom distress scale, and physical symptom distress scale. Symptoms, symptom distress, and types of TCM. The descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for data analysis. Chinese American women with cancer in treatment reported multiple symptoms, and the three MSAS-SF distress subscale scores indicated moderate symptom distress. Symptoms were positively associated with the use of TCM. Chinese American women in treatment for cancer reported multiple symptoms and moderate symptom distress. Participants with specific symptoms tended to use specific forms of TCM. High prevalence of psychological symptoms for Chinese American women with cancer suggests that oncology nurses should work with mental health providers for symptom management of this population. Oncology nurses also need to stay informed of the growing body of evidence on the benefits of TCM for patients with cancer. Future studies should include an emphasis on the improvement in methodologic quality for studies that investigate using TCM in participants with cancer.
Tung, Elizabeth L; Baig, Arshiya A; Huang, Elbert S; Laiteerapong, Neda; Chua, Kao-Ping
Although Asian Americans are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, it is not known whether they are appropriately screened for this disease. To assess racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes screening between Asian Americans and other adults. Analysis of pooled cross-sectional data from 45 U.S. states and territories using the 2012-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated the weighted proportions of adults in each racial and ethnic group who received recommended diabetes screening. To assess for racial and ethnic disparities, we used multivariable logistic regression to model receipt of recommended diabetes screening as a function of race and ethnicity, adjusting for demographics, healthcare access, survey year, and state. A total of 526,000 adults who were eligible to receive diabetes screening according to American Diabetes Association guidelines from 2012 to 2014 (age ≥ 45 years or age racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening. Overall, Asian Americans had 34% lower adjusted odds of receiving recommended diabetes screening compared to non-Hispanic whites (95 % CI: 0.60, 0.73). In subgroup analyses by age and weight status, disparities were widest among obese Asian Americans ≥ 45 years (AOR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.39, 0.81). Disparities persisted among Asian Americans who completed other types of preventive cancer screening. Despite their high risk of diabetes, Asian Americans were the least likely racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening.
This paper examined the degree of socioeconomic empowerment of Asian women due to higher education (HE). Examples illustrate different cultural contexts and stages in development. Colonial administrations established the first modern educational institutions. These schools trained Western-oriented elites in Western and gender values. Uneven development led to increased socioeconomic differences and disparities by region, ethnicity, religion, and gender. The international focus on women's rights has helped with promotion of education for gender equity. But, the international economic climate has led to adverse outcomes for education. Educational mobility is restricted by exclusion or lack of access to HE. Most of the 15 countries with strong educational systems have minimal gender disparities in primary and secondary education, but even Japan has gender disparities in HE. In 9 South Asian countries, most girls are disadvantaged from birth through the school years. Women are not a homogenous group. Socioeconomic factors affect access to HE. Women are channeled into gender appropriate jobs. Gender division of labor and gender tracking in education limit course and occupational choices. Changes in labor market structures further affect the economic empowerment of female graduates. Demand for female labor migrants siphons off females. Access of women to positions of authority is limited. Women who do reach the top are viewed as role models. Gender based division of labor in the household has changed little. Only India and the Philippines have explicit, conscious policies to promote gender equity.
Maskarinec, Gertraud; Nakamura, Kaylae L; Woolcott, Christy G; Conroy, Shannon M; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Vachon, Celine M
Mammographic density, i.e., the radiographic appearance of the breast, is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. To determine whether the association of breast density with breast cancer is modified by a first-degree family history of breast cancer (FHBC) in women of white and Asian ancestry, we analyzed data from four case-control studies conducted in the USA and Japan. The study population included 1,699 breast cancer cases and 2,422 controls, of whom 45% reported white (N = 1,849) and 40% Asian (N = 1,633) ancestry. To standardize mammographic density assessment, a single observer re-read all mammograms using one type of interactive thresholding software. Logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for confounders. Overall, 496 (12%) of participants reported a FHBC, which was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in the adjusted model (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.23-1.84). There was a statistically significant interaction on a multiplicative scale between FHBC and continuous percent density (per 10 % density: p = 0.03). The OR per 10% increase in percent density was higher among women with a FHBC (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13-1.49) than among those without a FHBC (OR 1.14; 1.09-1.20). This pattern was apparent in whites and Asians. The respective ORs were 1.45 (95% CI 1.17-1.80) versus 1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.32) in whites, whereas the values in Asians were only 1.24 (95% CI 0.97-1.58) versus 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.19). These findings support the hypothesis that women with a FHBC appear to have a higher risk of breast cancer associated with percent mammographic density than women without a FHBC.
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…
Sampselle, Carolyn M; Harris, Vanessa; Harlow, Sioban D; Sowers, MaryFran
Little is known about factors that enhance midlife women's well-being and even less about whether these factors differ for African Americans and Caucasians. We conducted focus groups with 30 women, grouped by ethnicity and menopausal status. Women identified midlife as a time of opportunity for self-development. Pre/perimenopausal women expressed more fears about severe emotional changes than did their postmenopausal counterparts. These fears were in sharp contrast to the women's descriptions of enhanced self-esteem. Caucasian women were primarily concerned about menopause as a harbinger of physical aging and the ensuing disadvantage of divergence from society's ideal of a youthful appearance, while African American women viewed menopause as a normal, even welcome, part of life. A language of emancipation and awareness of gender bias were prominent in the women's stories regardless of menopausal status or race. Further study should assess the role that feminist insights may play in the well-being of midlife women.
Bumpers, Harvey L; Tadros, Talaat; Gabram-Mendola, Sheryl; Rizzo, Monica; Martin, Mersadies; Zaremba, Nicole; Okoli, Joel
Phyllodes is a rare tumor accounting for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. Studies defining clinical predictors of malignant phyllodes (MP) are rare and inconsistent. Furthermore, MP occurrence in African American (AA) women has never been analyzed. This study will delineate clinical and pathologic features in AA patients that may reasonably predict the probability of malignancy. A retrospective study of clinical records was carried out for 50 AA patients diagnosed with phyllodes tumors (PT) and treated between 1982 and 2012. Patients' charts were analyzed regarding demographics, pathology findings, and treatment. The diagnosis of benign disease was made in 40 (78%), borderline in 3 (6%), and malignancy in 7 (14%) patients; however, 1 patient (2%) had mixed phyllodes with ductal carcinoma in situ. The mean age was significantly different for patients with benign disease (33 years) compared with those with malignancy (54 years; P < .001). The average tumor size was twice as large (11.8 vs 4.1 cm; P = .029) and mitoses were higher with 50% of MPs having greater than 5 per 10 high power fields. Although rare, nodal metastasis, ulceration, and multicentric disease occurred only in MP. Among AA patients with phyllodes tumors, those with malignant tumors were older and had larger tumors and higher mitotic indices than those with benign disease. AA patients also displayed some of the more rare features of advanced disease and presented with malignancy near the highest reported frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cates, Willard, Jr.
Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)
Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong
In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, J; Jun, H; Jung, E; Ha, J; Park, D
Although skin pigmentation, which results from the production and distribution of melanin in the epidermis, is the major physiological defence against solar irradiation, hyperpigmentation is a common and distressing problem caused by various inflammatory skin disorders, such as eczema, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effects of a preparation containing alpha-bisabolol on pigmented skin of a group of subjects. The effectiveness of the active compound, alpha-bisabolol, in a base-cream preparation for the treatment of pigmented skin was tested on 28 female subjects as follows: the cream was applied once a day to the back for 8 weeks. These same women also applied a vehicle control cream to the pigmented skin. The results were evaluated by clinical and biophysical test methods. After 8 weeks of treatment of the alpha-bisabolol-containing cream, there was significant lightening effect in the pigmented skin for the majority of the subjects who tested the cream.
Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati
The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.
Harrison, Gail G; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foerster, Susan B; Lee, Henry; Pham Kim, Loan; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen; Fernandez-Ami, Allyn; Quinn, Valerie; Bal, Dileep G
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) have the fastest growing rate of overweight and obese children. Aggressive programs are urgently needed to prevent unhealthy acculturation-related changes in diet and physical activity and to promote the healthier aspects of traditional lifestyle habits. We conducted focus groups and key informant interviews to explore knowledge, attitudes, dietary practices, and physical activity levels among three low-income Asian American ethnic groups, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hmong, in California. Content analysis was used to identify similarities and differences among the groups. Several common health beliefs clearly emerged. Participants noted the importance of fresh (not frozen) fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity for general health. The concept of good health included having a harmonious family, balance, and mental and emotional stability. All groups also expressed the general belief that specific foods have hot or cold properties and are part of the Yin/Yang belief system common to Asian cultures. The lure of fast food, children's adoption of American eating habits, and long work hours were identified as barriers to a healthy, more traditional lifestyle. A California campaign for Asian Americans using multilevel strategies is recommended to counter the alarming rise of obesity among AAPI youth. Strategies directed to individual, community, and policy levels should emphasize maintenance of healthy traditional diets, informed selection of mainstream U.S. foods, and promotion of active lifestyles to prevent an impending burden from cancer and nutrition-related chronic diseases in AAPI populations. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins
There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.
Ahn, Annie J; Kim, Bryan S K; Park, Yong S
The study examined Korean American college students' perceived Asian cultural values gap between themselves and their parents, cognitive flexibility, and coping strategies. The relationships between these factors were studied with the intensities and types of parent-child conflicts. The results indicated that the participants adhered less strongly to Asian values than their parents. When faced with conflicts, the participants reported using problem solving coping strategy to the greatest extent, followed by social support coping strategy, and then avoidance coping strategy. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between the participant-perceived parent-child values gap and the intensity of conflicts, particularly in the area of dating and marriage. There were inverse relationships between cognitive flexibility and the intensity of conflicts, specifically in the area of dating and marriage. A positive relationship was observed between the use of social support coping strategy and intensity of conflicts. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect in which participant-perceived parent-child values gap and cognitive flexibility were related to increased frequency of dating and marriage conflicts.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Western breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture. Breast cancer occurs 10 to 20 years earlier in Asian women than in Western women. We investigated if younger Asian women with breast cancer also have increased risk of fracture. METHODS: We used the universal insurance claims data from 2000 to 2003 to identify 22,076 patients with breast cancer and 88,304 women without cancer, frequency matched with age and index date (the date for a health care visit. The incidence of fracture in both cohorts and the hazard ratios (HRs of fracture in the cancer cohort were estimated by the end of 2009. RESULTS: The incidence of all types of fracture was higher in the breast cancer cohort than in the comparison cohort (46.72 vs. 42.52 per 10,000 person-years, with adjusted HRs (aHRs of 1.18 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.03-1.35 for hip fractures, 1.12 (95% CI, 0.98-1.28 for forearm fractures and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.48 for vertebral fractures. The aHRs were significant in both non-traumatic fractures (1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.51 and traumatic fractures (1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23. The age-specific aHR was higher for younger breast cancer patients, and was significant for <50 years old patients in both traumatic (aHR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08-1.68 and non-traumatic (aHR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21-2.44 fractures. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that Asian women with breast cancer might have an increased risk of fracture.
Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo
This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.
Kim, Eunha; Lee, Donghyuck
The present study explored several layers of individual and contextual variables as related to collective self-esteem among 304 Asian-American college students. The findings suggested that variables, such as immigration generation status and cultural identification, were significantly associated with Private collective self-esteem (personal evaluation of one's ethnic group), while contextual variables, including number of same-ethnicity peers and community ethnic composition, were associated with Public collective self-esteem (judgment of how other people evaluate one's ethnic group). In addition to these variables, age and fluency of heritage language were positively related to Membership esteem (how worthy one feels as a member of one's ethnic group). For the Importance of identity (the importance of ethnic group membership to one's self-concept), cultural identification, number of same-ethnicity peers, and perceived campus climate were statistically significant. The implication of the present findings for future research is discussed.
Chris C Martin
Full Text Available The belief that ethnic majorities dominate ethnic minorities informs research on intergroup processes. This belief can lead to the social heuristic that the ethnic majority sets an upper limit that minority groups cannot surpass, but this possibility has not received much attention. In three studies of perceived income, we examined how this heuristic, which we term the White ceiling heuristic leads people to inaccurately estimate the income of a minority group that surpasses the majority. We found that Asian Americans, whose median income has surpassed White median income for nearly three decades, are still perceived as making less than Whites, with the least accurate estimations being made by people who strongly believe that Whites are privileged. In contrast, income estimates for other minorities were fairly accurate. Thus, perceptions of minorities are shaped both by stereotype content and a heuristic.
Cook, Won Kim; John, Iyanrick; Chung, Corina; Tseng, Winston; Lee, Juliet P
Medicaid coverage increases access to care and improves health outcomes for disadvantaged populations. Yet disparities in enrollment and access to care persist. To understand the facilitators and barriers of Medicaid enrollment and accessing care under the Affordable Care Act for disadvantaged Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted. Informational barriers to accessing care were pervasive among most new enrollees. Immigrants with limited English proficiency experienced disproportionate difficulties in enrolling and accessing care post enrollment. The simplified, income-based Medicaid eligibility streamlined the enrollment process, but system errors in determining Medicaid eligibility denied coverage for some eligible individuals. To improve access to care, health plans, government agencies, and community organizations might coordinate more closely. Federal and state laws that mandate language assistance by health plans might be enforced to improve access to care for linguistic minorities.
Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Corina, Chung; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia
Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations. Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research.
Fu, Rose; Chang, Michelle Milee; Chen, Margaret; Rohde, Christine Hsu
Despite research supporting improved psychosocial well-being, quality of life, and survival for patients undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction, Asian patients remain one-fifth as likely as Caucasians to choose reconstruction. This study investigates cultural factors, values, and perceptions held by Asian women that might impact breast reconstruction rates. The authors conducted semistructured interviews of immigrant East Asian women treated for breast cancer in the New York metropolitan area, investigating social structure, culture, attitudes toward surgery, and body image. Three investigators independently coded transcribed interviews, and then collectively evaluated them through axial coding of recurring themes. Thirty-five immigrant East Asian women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer were interviewed. Emerging themes include functionality, age, perceptions of plastic surgery, inconvenience, community/family, fear of implants, language, and information. Patients spoke about breasts as a function of their roles as a wife or mother, eliminating the need for breasts when these roles were fulfilled. Many addressed the fear of multiple operations. Quality and quantity of information, and communication with practitioners, impacted perceptions about treatment. Reconstructive surgery was often viewed as cosmetic. Community and family played a significant role in decision-making. Asian women are statistically less likely than Caucasians to pursue breast reconstruction. This is the first study to investigate culture-specific perceptions of breast reconstruction. Results from this study can be used to improve cultural competency in addressing patient concerns. Improving access to information regarding treatment options and surgical outcomes may improve informed decision-making among immigrant Asian women.
Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C
This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
An interesting approach to the topic of women and literature is to see if the real working roles of women have been reflected in fiction. As delineated in novels, women are seen engaged in: (l) farm labor; (2) jobs that are extensions of their nurturing roles; (3) factory work--especially in the early textile and clothing mills; and (4) housework…
Bennett, Linda B.; Williams, Frances Janeene
Research on the inclusion of women in textbooks found severe inequalities in the way women were included in text and illustration. The use of carefully and purposefully selected images in the classroom can address both the lack of images of women in textbooks as well as the stereotypical portrayal of woman in textbook images.
Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J
Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.
Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar
Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)
Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.
Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…
Parmar, Parminder; Harkness, Sara; Super, Charles M.
Asian and Euro-American parents of preschool-aged children were interviewed concerning their beliefs about the nature and purpose of play; they also completed two questionnaires and a diary of their children's daily activities. The children's teachers were interviewed and provided information about the behaviour of the children in preschool. The…
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the incidence and trends in colorectal cancer (CRC among Asian American populations in the United States. Methods: CRC incidence data from 1994 through 2013 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. SEER*Stat and IBM SPSS Statistics were used. Results: The age-adjusted incidence of CRC among Asian Americans decreased from 45.6 per 100,000 in 1994 to 33.0 per 100,000 in 2013, with the annual percent change being −1.8% (P<0.05. The incidences were higher for men, the elderly (aged 60 years or older, and several geographic areas. For those younger than 70 years, the rectal site was more affected compared with those aged 70 years or older, in whom the proximal site were more affected. Most patients presented with localized and regional stages. Men, 80 years or older, in situ stage, and some geographic areas such as Connecticut and California experienced significant incidence decreases in the 20-year observation period. Conclusion: Although CRC incidence has declined among Asian American populations in the United States in the past 2 decades, there are persistent differences by age and geographic areas. Further research is needed to guide the design and implementation of tailored strategies to reduce CRC outcome differences across Asian American populations.
Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Gasman, Marybeth
This article emphasises two major themes that address the influence of the Asian American Movement: (1) encouraging students to broaden the discourse on race and ethnic relations by redefining categories and challenging prevalent assumptions; (2) an increased tolerance and frequency in course offerings that examine and centralise the histories,…
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…
Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.
This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…
This dissertation interrogates the experiences of Asian American and Latino law students, as racialized second-generation, children of immigrants entering an elite profession. Intersecting immigration, race and ethnicity, and professional socialization literature, I compare the students' experiences across race, gender, socioeconomic…
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.; Liang, Mandy X.
On the basis of stress and coping theory, the authors examined coping as a mediator of the relationship between perceptions of racism and racism-related stress with a sample of Asian American college students (N = 336). Results indicated that coping mediated the relationship between racism and racism-related stress differentially by gender. The…
This study investigated how ten Asian American female classroom teachers experienced racial microaggressions (Ong et al. in "J Couns Psychol" 60(2):188-199, 2013; Sue et al. in "Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol" 13(1):72-81, 2007; Sue in "Microaggressions in everyday life: race, gender, and sexual orientation." Wiley,…
Kodama, Corinne M.; Ebreo, Angela
This study explored the relationship between Asian American students' choices of racial and ethnic identity labels, their attitudes toward racial and ethnic issues, and involvement in campus organizations. The findings suggest complex relationships between racial and ethnic self-identification and attitudes for some identity groups and no…
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet,…
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara
Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Castro, Kimberly S.
The moderation effect of nativity status on the relationship between perceived racism and academic performance of Asian American college students was investigated. We hypothesized that perceived racism would negatively correlate with academic performance and that this relationship would be stronger for US-born students compared to foreign-born…
Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were
Saito, Miho; Matsumoto, Junko; Date, Akira; Li, Junfang
Beauty is a world common aspiration, but perceptions of what make a woman beautiful vary across culture and countries. A series of Saito's studies indicated that unlike much of the Western world, in Asia, one common desire is fairer skin tone that epitomizes feminine beauty. Using 105 Japanese women and 105 Chinese women as subjects, a comparative study concerning aspiration of Asian Women toward skin fairness was conducted. In this study, four real skin photo images that have skin tone variations (fair/dark) and skin texture variations (rough/smooth) were used. The fifty-two words describe personality were shown to the subject. The subjects were required to match a suitable skin photo image to the descriptive words. The overall result between China and Japan were very consistent. Both in China and Japan, fairer skin tone with smoother skin texture was accepted very positively. Fairer skin tone with rougher texture tends to provide passive and conservative impression while smoother skin texture with darker skin tone tends to provide friendly and delight impression. The results suggested that in addition to skin tone, the skin texture plays an important role for the personal impressions and it works as a trigger to enhance 'ideal skin fairness' for Asian women.
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. PMID:24183532
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Lim, J T; Tham, S N
Melasma is a common disorder of facial hyperpigmentation among Asian women. Many modalities of treatment are available but none is satisfactory. This study was undertaken to see if glycolic acid peels are effective and safe in the treatment of melasma and fine facial wrinkling. Ten Asian women with moderate to severe melasma were recruited into the study. The women had twice daily applications of a cream containing 10% glycolic acid and 2% hydroquinone (Neostrata AHA Age Spot and Skin Lightening Gel) to both sides of the face, and glycolic acid peels every 3 weeks (20-70%) to one-half of the face using Neostrata Skin Rejuvenation System. All patients had to use a sunblock (SPF 15%). At regular intervals and at the end of 26 weeks (or after eight peels) the degree of improvement of pigmentation and fine facial wrinkling on each side of the face were assessed. Any skin irritation or side effects were also noted. Assessment was by an independent dermatologist, the patients themselves, and the use of the Munsell color chart and photographs. The nonparametric Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test was used for statistical analysis. The melasma and fine facial wrinkling improved on both sides of the face. The side that received glycolic acid peels did better but the results were not statistically significant (P > 0.059). A cream containing 10% glycolic acid and 2% hydroquinone (Neostrata AHA Age Spot and Skin Lightening Gel) improved melasma and fine facial wrinkling in Asian women. In combination with glycolic acid peels at 3-week intervals the lightening of melasma is subjectively much better. This improvement does not reach statistical significance and the sample size is small (n = 10).
Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A
This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women.
Okosun, Ike S; Annor, Francis B; Seale, J Paul; Eriksen, Michael P
We examined (a) secular changes in abdominal fat accumulation (AFA) and family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR) across race/ethnicity, education and age in Mexican (MA), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and (b) association between PIR and AFA among American women. Data (n = 9787) from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010 NHANES were used. Rates of AFA and poverty by race/ethnic, age and education categories were determined across study time points. Subjects with low and medium PIR values were classified as poor. Linear trends in AFA and PIR were evaluated. Study time-specific odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models were used to estimate risk of AFA due to low to medium PIR. Statistical adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, education, age, and marital status. Increased trends in low to medium PIR and AFA in MA, NHW, and NHB American women were observed between 2001 and 2010. Poor women had much higher prevalence of AFA compared to richer women. For each of the studied periods, medium and low PIR were each associated with increased odds of AFA. The association between poverty and AFA was weakest in 2001-2002 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05-2.11) compared to 2009-2010 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.22). Compared to NHW, being of MA and NHB race/ethnicity was also each associated with increased odds of AFA, controlling for other independent variables. Increase in poverty and AFA, and positive association between decreased PIR and increased odds of AFA were observed in the period between 2001 and 2010 in MA, NHW, and NHB American women. A robust economic policy designed to alleviate poverty may be an important means of reducing the trajectory of AFA in American women. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jemmott, L S; Maula, E C; Bush, E
The purpose of this study was to (a) assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on the Asian-Pacific Islander (API) community and changes in their behavior due to AIDS, (b) identify perception of risk, HIV risk behaviors, factors contributing to those behaviors, barriers to HIV prevention, and the types of prevention programs that would benefit their community, and (c) describe culturally appropriate considerations when designing HIV prevention strategies for API women. Thirty API adults participated in three different groups. Focus group interviewing methods were used, guided by the Health Belief Model. The women had numerous concerns about HIV that placed them at risk for infection, such as their inability to talk with their sexual partners about condom use due to the cultural and taboo nature of sexual topics. All groups concluded that for HIV prevention interventions to be successful, they must be tailored to the cultural and specific needs of API women.
Song, Suzan J.; Ziegler, Robert; Arsenault, Lisa; Fried, Lise E.; Hacker, Karen
There are inconsistent findings about depression in Asians. This study examined risk factors for depression in Asian and Caucasian adolescents. Stratified bivariate secondary analyses of risk indicators and depressed mood were performed in this cross-sectional study of high school survey data (9th to 12th grades) from 2,542 students (198 Asian).…
van Bergen, D.D.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Saharso, S.
Young immigrant women in the Netherlands demonstrate disproportionate rates of suicidal behavior. This study investigated the origins of suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan immigrant young women in order to identify ethnic- and gender-specific patterns of suicidal
van Bergen, D.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Saharso, Sawitri
Young immigrant women in the Netherlands demonstrate disproportionate rates of suicidal behavior. This study investigated the origins of suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan immigrant young women in order to identify ethnic- and gender-specific patterns of suicidal
Ho, E Y; Ha, N B; Ahmed, A; Ayoub, W; Daugherty, T; Garcia, G; Cooper, A; Keeffe, E B; Nguyen, M H
Commonly known risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) include blood transfusion, injection drug use, intranasal cocaine use, and body tattoos. We hypothesized that Asian Americans infected with HCV may not identify with these established risk factors present in Caucasians and Hispanics, and our aim was to conduct a survey of risk factors in HCV-infected patients in these ethnic groups. In this prospective study, 494 patients infected with HCV completed a detailed risk assessment questionnaire at a liver centre in Northern California from 2001 to 2008. Among subjects participating in this study, 55% identified themselves as Caucasian, 20% as Hispanic, and 25% as Asian. Asian Americans were older, less likely to smoke or consume alcohol, and have a family history of cancer compared with Caucasians and Hispanics. The laboratory profiles were similar, and genotype 1 was the most common infection in all groups (74-75%). The great majority of Caucasians (94%) and Hispanics (86%) identified with commonly known risk factors, which was in contrast to 67% of Asians (P Americans. These findings may guide the development of HCV screening in our increasingly diverse population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Ortiz, Flora Ida
This digest examines the interdependence of schooling, work, and family in the lives of Mexican American women. Mexican Americans have lower educational achievement than other Hispanic subgroups and the total U.S. population, although females do somewhat better than males. Hispanic students are overrepresented in classes for special education,…
Kiang, Lisa; Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parents from immigrant backgrounds must deal with normative parenting demands as well as unique challenges associated with acculturation processes. The current study examines the independent and interactive influences of acculturation conflict and cultural parenting self-efficacy (PSE; e.g., parents' confidence in instilling heritage, American, and bicultural values in their children) on perceptions of general parenting competence. Using data from 58 Asian American and 153 Latin American parents of children in grades 6-12, ethnic differences were also explored. Results suggest that lower acculturation conflict is associated with higher perceptions of general parenting competence for both Asian and Latin American parents. Higher cultural PSE is associated with higher perceived general parenting competence for Latino/a parents only. One significant interaction was found, and only for Asian Americans, whereby the negative association between acculturation conflict and perceptions of parenting competence was weaker for those who felt efficacious in transmitting heritage messages. Results are discussed in light of clinical implications and the need for further recognition and study of culturally relevant factors and frameworks among families from immigrant backgrounds. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…
The history of the film industry is in many ways a reflection of the thwarted emergence in society of feminism and full equal civil rights for women. Commercial films have traditionally relied upon the charm and sexual allure of actresses to assure economic success at the box office. Victorian mores heavily influenced the way women were treated in…
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
Vernon, Irene S.
Discusses risk factors for AIDS among Native women: rates of infected male partners, biological factors affecting vulnerability, other sexually transmitted diseases, poverty, access to health services, relationships with partners, lack of trust in health care providers, and intravenous drug use. Describes the work of the Native American Women's…
Dave, Swapna S; Craft, Lynette L; Mehta, Promila; Naval, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Kandula, Namratha R
South Asian (SA) women in the United States report extremely low rates of leisure time physical activity (PA) compared with women in other ethnic minority groups. This study explored SA women's perspectives on PA during different life stages. This is a community-based participatory research study that used focus groups. The study setting was a community-based organization that provides social services to SA immigrants in Chicago, Illinois. The study team conducted six focus groups (in English and Hindi) with 42 SA women, ages 18 to 71 years. A semistructured interview guide was used to foster discussion about perceptions of, barriers to/facilitators of, and suggestions for PA programs. Discussions were transcribed and independently coded by two reviewers using thematic content analysis and guided by a coding scheme that was developed a priori. Participants said that different life stages strongly influenced their PA. PA decreased after marriage and having children. Chronic diseases constrained older women from more vigorous PA. Barriers to PA among younger women were family disapproval and perceptions that PA is unnecessary if you are "skinny." Women agreed that PA is not a priority within the culture, and that interventions must take into account cultural, religious, and family context. Sociocultural norms, family constraints, and lack of awareness about the benefits of PA strongly influenced PA among SA women. Culturally salient intervention strategies might include programs in trusted community settings where women can exercise in women-only classes with their children, and targeted education campaigns to increase awareness about the benefits of PA across life stages.
Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
Asian American immigrants have a lower level of health literacy than non-Latino whites, but their level of health literacy and its impact on health outcomes may differ among subgroups. We investigated the level of health literacy across five subgroups of Asian American immigrants and explored the association between health literacy and self-rated health status and symptoms of depression. We utilized a cross-sectional survey research design and a population-based sampling strategy using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). We sampled 30,615 non-Latino whites and 3,053 Asian American immigrants (1,058 Chinese, 598 Koreans, 534 Filipinos, 416 South Asians, and 447 Vietnamese). We used two questions as proxy measures to assess the level of health literacy in non-Latino whites and in both aggregated and disaggregated Asian American immigrant groups. We then investigated the effect of health literacy on two main health outcomes: self-rated health status and depression symptoms. The level of health literacy varied across the five subgroups of Asian American immigrants. Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese groups had the lowest levels of health literacy, while Filipinos showed the highest level. Health literacy was positively correlated with health status in Chinese and Korean immigrants, and negatively correlated with depression symptoms in Korean and South Asian immigrants. We found heterogeneity in health literacy among Asian American immigrants and found that health literacy had varying associations with health outcomes. The aggregated Asian American immigrant group results may mask the true health disparities that each Asian American immigrant group faces. Koreans were the only group found to have a significant association between the proxy for health literacy and both health outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the causes of heterogeneity and to investigate health literacy as a critical determinant of immigrant health.
Gumber Anil K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequalities in uptake of cancer screening by ethnic minority populations are well documented in a number of international studies. However, most studies to date have explored screening uptake for a single cancer only. This paper compares breast and bowel cancer screening uptake for a cohort of South Asian women invited to undertake both, and similarly investigates these women's breast cancer screening behaviour over a period of fifteen years. Methods Screening data for rounds 1, 2 and 5 (1989-2004 of the NHS breast cancer screening programme and for round 1 of the NHS bowel screening pilot (2000-2002 were obtained for women aged 50-69 resident in the English bowel screening pilot site, Coventry and Warwickshire, who had been invited to undertake breast and bowel cancer screening in the period 2000-2002. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake levels were calculated and compared using the chi-squared test. Results 72,566 women were invited to breast and bowel cancer screening after exclusions. Of these, 3,539 were South Asian and 69,027 non-Asian; 18,730 had been invited to mammography over the previous fifteen years (rounds 1 to 5. South Asian women were significantly less likely to undertake both breast and bowel cancer screening; 29.9% (n = 1,057 compared to 59.4% (n = 40,969 for non-Asians (p Conclusions Culturally appropriate targeted interventions are required to reduce observed disparities in cancer screening uptakes.
Eliason, M J
African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.
Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S
Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.
Rajaram, Shireen S; Rashidi, Anahita
Muslims constitute a growing proportion of the African-American population. This paper explores the health practices, health behaviors, and code of ethics as informed by the Islamic religion within the context of African-American Muslim women's lives. An overview of the history of Islam in the world, and in the U.S., the main Islamic tenets, and the socio-cultural context of African-American Muslim women provides the broad framework for this paper. This information will be helpful in meeting the health needs of African-American Islamic women, within an outreach/community health promotion setting, within a clinical/hospital setting, or within a home care setting.
Full Text Available Aim: To study the postpartum conversion of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM to different types of diabetes among Asian Indian women. Materials and Methods: Using data from electronic medical records, 418 women with GDM seen at a tertiary diabetes care center for diabetes in Chennai in South India between 1991 and 2014 were evaluated for development of diabetes postpartum. Results: Of the 418 GDM women followed up postpartum, 388 progressed to diabetes. Of these 359 (92.5% developed type 2 diabetes (T2DM and 29 women (7.5% developed type 1 diabetes (T1DM. The median time to development of T1DM was 2 years (interquartile range 2 [IQR] while for T2DM it was 5 years (IQR 6. Women who developed T1DM had significantly lower mean body mass index (BMI (20.4 ± 2.8 vs. 27.5 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 , P = 0.001, and higher fasting plasma glucose (222 ± 105 vs. 165 ± 62 mg/dl P = 0.008 and glycated hemoglobin levels (10.2 ± 2.7 vs. 8.5 ± 2.1% P < 0.001 compared to those who developed T2DM. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD autoantibodies were present in 24/29 (82.7% of women who developed T1DM. Conclusion: A small but significant proportion of women with GDM progress to T1DM postpartum. Measurement of GAD antibodies in leaner women with more severe diabetes could help to identify women who are likely to develop T1DM and thus prevent their presentation with acute hyperglycemic emergencies after delivery.
Marie N Fongwa
Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors
Lee, Shiuyu Katie C; Knobf, M Tish
To describe family involvement in decision making for primary treatment in Chinese-American women with early-stage breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected in 2003 from semi-structured questions in interviews with a sample of Chinese-American (ChA) women with breast cancer, who were recruited from the metropolitan New York area. Responses to the questions were written in Chinese immediately during the interview and read back to the subject for accuracy and validation. Content analysis was used to inductively code and analyze the data to generate themes. The participants consisted of 123 ChA women with early stage breast cancer with a mean age of 48.7 years (±9.3) and who had lived in the United States a median of 13.6 years. Support and Caring was the major theme that described family involvement in the breast cancer decision-making process. Gathering Information, Being There, Navigating the Health Care System, Maintaining Family Life and Making the Decision described the aspects of family support in the process. The majority of women described the treatment decision making as a collaborative supportive process with the family, but limited English fluency, strong opinions, lack of a shared perspective, distant living proximity and competing work responsibilities of family members were stressful for the women and perceived as non-supportive. Family involvement in health care decision making is culturally embedded in Asian populations. Culturally sensitive patient and family consultation strategies are needed to assist informed treatment decision making in Chinese-American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schroder, Theresa H; Sinclair, Graham; Mattman, Andre; Jung, Benjamin; Barr, Susan I; Vallance, Hilary D; Lamers, Yvonne
Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women. South Asian pregnant women had significantly lower B12 status than European pregnant women at both time points, as indicated by lower serum total B12 and holoTC concentrations, and higher MMA concentrations (all P≤0·001). The largest difference, which was substantial (Cohen's d≥0·5), was observed in mean serum total B12 concentrations (1st trimester: 189 (95 % CI 180, 199) v. 246 (95 % CI 236, 257) pmol/l; 2nd trimester: 176 (95 % CI 168, 185) v. 226 (95 % CI 216, 236) pmol/l). Further, South Asian ethnicity was a significant negative predictor of B12 status during pregnancy. South Asian women living in Vancouver have substantially lower B12 status during early pregnancy. Future research identifying predictors and health consequences of this observed difference is needed to allow for targeted interventions.
Е М Люльчева
Full Text Available Use of special linguistic means in the British and American men and women speech is researched in this article. Various linguistic means are typical of the British and American men and women negative emotional speech.
Constantine, Madonna G; Kindaichi, Mai; Okazaki, Sumie; Gainor, Kathy A; Baden, Amanda L
This qualitative study explored the cultural adjustment experiences of 15 Asian Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese international college women through semistructured interviews. By using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), 6 primary domains or themes related to these women's cultural adjustment experiences were identified via data analysis: their feelings and thoughts about living in the United States, perceived differences between their country of origin and the United States, their English language acquisition and use, their prejudicial or discriminatory experiences in the United States, their peer and family networks, and their strategies for coping with cultural adjustment problems. Implications of the findings for mental health practice are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Bajaj, Sarita; Jawad, Fatema; Islam, Najmul; Mahtab, Hajera; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Shrestha, Dina; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Muthukuda, Dimuthu T.; Widanage, Niranjala Weegoda; Aye, Than Than; Aung, Moe Wint; Kalra, Bharti; Anjana, R. M.; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Verma, Komal
Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death. Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier. There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect of sexual issues
Full Text Available Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death.Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier.There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect
Bajaj, Sarita; Jawad, Fatema; Islam, Najmul; Mahtab, Hajera; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Shrestha, Dina; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Muthukuda, Dimuthu T; Widanage, Niranjala Weegoda; Aye, Than Than; Aung, Moe Wint; Kalra, Bharti; Anjana, R M; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Verma, Komal
Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death. Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier. There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect of sexual issues
Islam, M Rakibul; Gartoulla, P; Bell, R J; Fradkin, P; Davis, S R
To systematically review published articles for the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in Asian women. A comprehensive and systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SCOPUS and Google scholar in June 2013 to retrieve all English-language studies that included information on the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in women living in Asian countries. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using a risk-of-bias tool explicitly designed for the systematic review of prevalence studies. Twenty-three independent studies met our inclusion criteria. Physical symptoms were the most prevalent symptoms compared to psychological, vasomotor and sexual symptoms. There was a wide variation in the prevalence of all symptoms across the menopausal stages due to the differences in modes of recruitment, study design, sampling procedures, the time frame over which symptoms were assessed and use of different diagnostic or screening tools. A high level of bias was observed for both external and internal validity for most studies. Although there is a wide variation in the reported prevalence of menopausal symptoms, physical symptoms predominate, followed by psychological symptoms, vasomotor symptoms and sexual symptoms. Further studies of representative samples are necessary to understand whether the variations in prevalence reporting are a function of methodological issues or due to ethnic, cultural or other socioeconomic differences.
Talaulikar, V S; Hussain, S; Perera, A; Manyonda, I T
The last two decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the field of reproductive medicine, especially assisted reproductive technology and stem cell research. As research continues in future, it is vital to ensure that individuals from all ethnic backgrounds are represented in the study populations so that the findings of the research can be generalised for the benefit of all. Many studies, however, have noted a trend of low participation rates amongst Asian women in reproductive research. Inequalities in the ethnicity of research participants can be a source of substantial bias, and have major ethical and scientific ramifications. Several factors such as educational status, fear of wrong-doing, communication barriers, and socio-cultural beliefs have been suggested to play a role. There is a need for further exploration of the factors influencing Asian women's decision to accept or decline participation in reproductive research and for development of effective targeted strategies for research recruitment with the aim of encouraging research participation as well as donation of cryopreserved embryos or other reproductive tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miyawaki, Christina E
This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.
Despite improvements in many aspects of health, African American women experience early onset of disease and disability and increased mortality because of health disparities. African American women experience stress and health disadvantages because of the interaction and multiplicative effects of race, gender, class, and age. Sojourner Syndrome is an illustrative and symbolic representation that describes the multiple roles and social identities of African American women on the basis of historical referents and adaptive behaviors that fostered survival and resilience under oppressive circumstances. Adaptive behaviors also precipitated health risks due to chronic active coping. Weathering describes the cumulative health impact of persistent stress and chronic active coping that contributes to early health deterioration and increased morbidity, disability, and mortality in African American women. An emancipatory knowing nursing perspective provides a viewpoint from which to examine social injustices that create conditions for the excessive health burdens experienced by African American women and to frame nursing actions that create opportunities to promote health and eliminate health disparities.
Loo, Chalsa M; Lim, Brian R; Koff, Gabriel; Morton, Robert K; Kiang, Peter N C
Empirical research has shown that exposure to race-related stressors in the military by Asian American Pacific Islander Vietnam veterans, now reliably measurable, contributes uniquely and significantly to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and generalized psychiatric distress; moreover, studies reveal that adverse race-related events can meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for a PTSD diagnosis. Competence in treating PTSD or general psychiatric distress requires understanding the types of, and effects of, adverse race-related events experienced by ethnic minority veterans. Case studies highlight two types of race-related stressors-"bicultural identification and conflict" and "racial stigmatization"-which placed the veteran at greater risk of death and reduced cohesion with fellow service members. The studies demonstrate the presence of race-related stressors in one or more of the four major types of war zone stressors: traditional combat, atrocities-abusive violence, perceived threat, and malevolent environment. These case studies supplement the empirical findings on race-related stressors and PTSD, enlarging the clinician's understanding of this unique type of mental health risk factor.
Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías
Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.
Full Text Available This essay examines the relationships of performing bodies to elaborate “Asian/American corporeal citations” and argues that such citations create the grounds for a politics of mobility. Revisiting and extending Sau-ling Wong’s theoretical engagement with “myths of mobility,” it specifically uses the nexus of mourning, performance, and racialization to rearticulate modes of cultural passing by constructing a lineage through several men: screen star Toshiro Mifune, actor Lane Nishikawa (who invokes Mifune through Nishikawa’s elegiac solo piece Mifune and Me, and the author (disciplined through acting classes with Nishikawa. The stakes of re-membering are further articulated through the interweaving of the bodily acts associated with the death of the author’s grandfather, Bo Jung. Joining the principal argument with this more personal reflection is an attempt to think through the implications of Nishikawa’s theatrical memorial and to grapple with loss and the complex, nonlinear structures of memory that attend it. Ultimately, all the cultural transmissions discussed place the body at the center of transnational, racial, and ethnic discourses. In so doing, the essay revises kinship as the foundation for what might otherwise be too easily read as diasporic cultural productions.
Romero, Devan R; Pulvers, Kim
Asian Americans (AA) and Pacific Islanders (PI) are an understudied population for health and tobacco use, which is alarming for a fast growing U.S. population. Research in smoking among AA and PI college students is limited, despite 50% of AA and 20% of PI having obtained a college degree. A cross-sectional tobacco survey was administered in a large racially diverse Southern California university (N = 490) that examined smoking behavior, psychosocial, and perceptual factors related to smoking among AA and PI compared with Caucasians. Overall, 19% of participants were smokers. The prevalence of current smoking by race was 26% PI, 19% AA, and 17% Caucasian. AA and PI are light, infrequent smokers who smoke mainly for social reasons and in social locations. Most AA and PI made quit attempts and reported intention to quit smoking. Low to moderate risk perceptions for addiction, disease and difficulty in quitting were observed. Social norms center on family influences, therefore it is recommended that cessation approaches target cigarette smoking norms within this social environment to increase perceptual risks of smoking. Smoking cessation should be placed in college health outreach programs based on culturally tailored approaches for AA and PI that target their unique smoking characteristics.
Lui, P Priscilla
Among immigrant Asian and Latino groups, the contrast between collectivism in traditional heritage and individualism in the mainstream American cultures presents unique challenges for their family relationships. This systematic review was designed to answer 3 fundamental questions: to what extent do(es) (a) acculturation mismatch (AM) correlate with intergenerational cultural conflict (ICC); (b) ICC correlate with offspring's mental health and educational outcomes; and (c) demographic and study characteristics moderate these relationships. Sixty-one research reports were reviewed, with 68 independent study samples (N = 14,453; 41 and 27 Asian and Latino/a samples, respectively) subjected to 3 meta-analyses. AM positively correlated with ICC (r = .23), which in turn negatively correlated with offspring mental health (r = -.20) and educational outcomes (r = -.09). Findings provided support for acculturation gap-distress theory. While these effect size estimates were small, participant and methodological variables affected their magnitude. Contrary to findings on intergenerational conflict within mainstream non-immigrant families, the relationships among AM, ICC, and mental health were larger in young adult than adolescent groups within immigrant families. ICC significantly correlated with internalizing problems and adaptive functioning, but not externalizing problems. AM was more closely related to ICC among women and second-generation immigrant offspring. AM and ICC were more problematic among offspring who were low-risk and lived in less ethnically disperse regions, particularly when studied in cross-sectional studies. Effect sizes also differed significantly across measurement tools for the key constructs. Limitations to generalizability (few studies on educational outcomes, relative under-representation of Latino/a to Asian American samples), and implications for intervention and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights
Warner, Linda Sue
This study investigated the relationship between variables of ethnic and sex-role stereotype and job satisfaction based on Festinger's dissonance avoidance theory and Bruner and Tagirui's implicit personality theory. The respondents were 114 American Indian female supervisors, out of a representative sample of 200. The data were collected using a…
Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A
Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable.
Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.
Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657
Mondia, Stephen; Hichenberg, Shira; Kerr, Erica; Eisenberg, Megan; Kissane, David W
Clinicians meet people from different ethnic backgrounds, yet need to respond in culturally sensitive ways. This article focuses on Asian American families. Within a randomized controlled trial of family therapy commenced during palliative care and continued into bereavement, 3 families of Asian American background were examined qualitatively from a cultural perspective by listening to recordings of 26 therapy sessions and reviewing detailed supervision notes compiled by each therapist. A synopsis of each family's therapy narrative is presented. Prominent themes include family closeness, respect for hierarchy within the family, gender-determined roles, intergenerational tensions, preoccupation with shame and limited emotional expressiveness. Family therapists working with culturally diverse families need to pay thoughtful attention to ethnic issues as they strive to support them during palliative care and bereavement.
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Steger, Michael F; Lee, Richard M
This investigation describes the validation of a measure of perceived racism developed to assess racial experiences of Asian American college students. In three studies across two different regions of the United States, there was strong evidence for the validation of the 8-item Subtle and Blatant Racism Scale for Asian American College Students (SABR-A2). The subtle racism subscale refers to instances of discrimination attributable implicitly to racial bias or stereotype, whereas the blatant racism subscale refers to instances of discrimination attributable explicitly to racial bias or stereotype. The two-subscale structure of the SABR-A2 was supported by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and demonstrated discriminant, convergent, and incremental validity, as well as internal reliability and stability over 2 weeks.
Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.
The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…
Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P
Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A
Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.
This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p critical ethnic awareness and social support are important mechanisms for explaining the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among this sample of Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences.
Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Kim, Miyong T
The purposes of the present study were (1) to explore the completion rate of advance directives (ADs) in a sample of Asian Americans and (2) to examine the direct and moderating effects of knowledge of AD, education, and acculturation in predicting AD completion. Education and acculturation were conceptualized as moderators in the link between knowledge and completion of ADs. Using data from 2609 participants in the 2015 Asian American Quality of Life survey (aged 18-98), logistic regression analyses on AD completion were conducted, testing both direct and moderating effects. The overall AD completion rate in sample was about 12%. The AD knowledge and acculturation independently predicted AD completion. No direct effect of education was found; however, it interacted with AD knowledge. The AD knowledge was more likely to be translated into completion in the group with higher education. The AD completion rate observed in the present sample of Asian Americans was much lower than that of the US general population (26%-36%). The interactive role of education helps to explain the gap between AD knowledge and completion and suggests intervention strategies.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia
The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Davis, Chevelle Ma; Guo, Mary; Miyamura, Jill; Chang, Ann; Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Sentell, Tetine
Childbirth is the most common reason women are hospitalized in the United States. Understanding (1) how expectant mothers gather information to decide where to give birth, and (2) who helps make that decision, provides critical health communication and decision-making insights. Diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) perspectives on such topics are understudied, particularly among those with limited English proficiency (LEP). LEP is defined as having a limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English. To address this research gap, we interviewed 400 women (18+ years) with a recent live birth on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Participants completed a 1-hour, in-person interview in English (n=291), Tagalog (n=42), Chinese (n=36), or Marshallese (n=31). Women were asked (1) what information was most important in deciding where to deliver and why; and (2) who participated in the decision-making and why. Responses were compared by LEP (n=71; 18%) vs English-proficient (n=329; 82%) in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Both LEP and English-proficient participants reported their obstetrician as the most important source of health information. Significantly more LEP participants valued advice from family or acquaintances as important sources of information compared to English-proficient participants. The top three health decision-makers for both those with LEP and English-proficient participants were themselves, their obstetrician, and their spouse, which did not differ significantly by language proficiency. These findings provide insights into health information sources and decision-making across diverse AA/PI populations, including those with LEP, and can help direct health interventions such as disseminating patient education and healthcare quality information.
Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.
African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…
Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Morland, Leslie; Matsu, Courtenay; Wright, Tricia
To better understand the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postpartum health, this study investigates the relationship of PTSD and associated perinatal behavioral risk factors in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 54 women (18-35 years of age) were interviewed at their postpartum clinic visit for PTSD, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and substance use. PTSD and subclinical PTSD during the postpartum period were associated with behavioral health risks, with PTSD at the onset of pregnancy being a predictor of postpartum PTSD by a factor of three. Women with PTSD and subclinical PTSD were more likely to also experience stress (73%), anxiety (64%), and depression (73%) during the postpartum period compared to those without PTSD. No significant differences were found by ethnicity for postpartum PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity or PTSD status, one in four women in the sample had a probable mental health disorder or risk behavior of some type during the postpartum period. Given the rates of associated mental health risks with PTSD, these findings suggest further research examining the fluctuations of PTSD symptomatology throughout each pregnancy trimester to determine its role as a potential mediator during the perinatal period. Further research is also needed to elucidate the role of ethnic or cultural differences in trauma and PTSD and perinatal health.
Yu, Jiang; Warner, Lynn A
According to New York statewide substance abuse treatment and discharge data, Asians are a small minority who differ significantly from other racial-ethnic groups on income, primary language, treatment setting, substance abuse, referral source, and discharge status. The present study further compares alcohol and substance abuse service utilization patterns of Asians with those of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in New York State. Cox regressions were employed to examine the differences in treatment admission patterns among Asians and other ethnic groups, while controlling a number of demographic, treatment-related, and non-treatment-related factors. A sample of 408,158 clients was selected from the Client Data System of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services for the analysis. While Asians in general are less likely to use treatment services and to have multiple treatment admissions compared with other groups, those Asians with multiple admissions tend to show utilization patterns - the period of greatest risk for readmission, the rate at which readmissions occur, and the likelihood of readmission - similar to the other groups at each subsequent admission. These findings suggest both similarities and differences in treatment readmission patterns between Asians and other clients of substance abuse treatment services. Future research on the cultural and linguistic factors related to Asians' recovery and service utilization patterns after the initial treatment experience may be particularly important for systems of care seeking to be responsive to Asians' needs.