Lau, Allison S M; Lum, Sharilyn K; Chronister, Krista M; Forrest, Linda
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of values acculturation and the influence of media on Asian American college women's overall body image. A sample of 59 Asian American women from two large universities completed self-report surveys, which included questions regarding values acculturation, media internalization, and overall body satisfaction. Results showed that Asian American women who identified more strongly with traditional Asian values reported higher levels of body image dissatisfaction. Further, Asian American women who reported higher internalization of media portrayals of beauty ideals reported higher body image dissatisfaction. Research and clinical recommendations are made to enhance psychologists' understanding of Asian American women's body image and acculturation.
Tanfer Emin Tunc
Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim
Social science literature on stereotypes is reviewed. Negative stereotypes of Asian Americans are examined and their relationship to Asian American political and economic status and self image is discussed. Specific actions to counter these stereotypes are advocated. (GC)
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
... Breadcrumb Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...
Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay
This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…
... and diabetes. Asian Americans also have a high prevalence of the following conditions and risk factors: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, smoking, tuberculosis, and liver ...
Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T
A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.
Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Morales, Danielle X
Studies have demonstrated disparate exposures to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in neighborhoods with high densities of Black and Hispanic residents in the US. Asians are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the US, yet they have been underemphasized in previous studies of environmental health and injustice. This cross-sectional study investigated possible disparities in residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs among Asian Americans, including Asian American subgroups in the US (including all 50 states and the District of Columbia, n = 71,208 US census tracts) using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. In an unadjusted analysis, Chinese and Korean Americans experience the highest mean cancer risks from HAPs, followed by Blacks. The aggregated Asian category ranks just below Blacks and above Hispanics, in terms of carcinogenic HAP risk. Multivariate models adjusting for socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that an increase in proportion of Asian residents in census tracts is associated with significantly greater cancer risk from HAPs. Neighborhoods with higher proportions (as opposed to lower proportions) of Chinese, Korean, and South Asian residents have significantly greater cancer risk burdens relative to Whites. Tracts with higher concentrations of Asians speaking a non-English language and Asians that are US-born have significantly greater cancer risk burdens. Asian Americans experience substantial residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs in US census tracts and in the US more generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Every racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Asian Americans.
Lin, Steven Y; Chang, Ellen T; So, Samuel K
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious liver disease that, if left undiagnosed or without appropriate medical management, is associated with a 25% chance of death from cirrhosis or liver cancer. To study the demographics and prevalence of chronic HBV infection and HBV vaccination in the Asian American population, we provided free HBV serological screening and administered a survey to 3163 Asian American adult volunteers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2001 and 2006. Of those screened, 8.9% were chronically infected with HBV. Notably, one-half to two-thirds (65.4%) of the chronically infected adults were unaware that they were infected. Of those who were not chronically infected, 44.8% lacked protective antibodies against HBV and were likely susceptible to future infection. Men were twice as likely as women to be chronically infected (12.1% versus 6.4%). Asian Americans born in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or the Pacific Islands were 19.4 times more likely to be chronically infected than those born in the United States. Self-reporting of prior vaccination was unreliable to assess protection against HBV. Among the 12% who reported having been vaccinated, 5.2% were chronically infected, and 20.3% lacked protective antibodies. Given the high prevalence of unrecognized chronic HBV infection in the Asian American population, we call for healthcare providers to routinely screen Asian adults for HBV, regardless of their vaccination status. Those who test positive should be provided with culturally appropriate information to prevent disease transmission and proper medical management to reduce their risk of liver disease.
Ohm, Julie Juhye
The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...
Tran, Kimberly K; Wong, Y Joel; Cokley, Kevin O; Brownson, Chris; Drum, David; Awad, Germine; Wang, Mei-Chuan
This study addresses the paucity of knowledge on protective factors associated with Asian American college students' suicidal behavior. Participants were 58 Asian American college students who seriously considered suicide within the past 12 months and responded to open-ended online survey questions about what was helpful during their suicide crisis. A phenomenological analysis of participants' narratives revealed the following protective factors: (a) a desire not to hurt or burden others, (b) social support, (c) fear, (d) self-reliance, and (e) insight. These findings can guide culturally informed clinical interventions by mental health professionals.
Lee, Eddie Kyo
This mixed methods, phenomenological study examined how cultural tension influences career development for Asian American community college students. Students initially completed Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and an instrument developed for this study called the Cultural Identification Survey. The mean for ethnic…
Chiang, Linda H.
This study examined the unique learning styles of Asian-American students, noting different Asian immigrants' backgrounds and relating Asian cultures to children's learning. Data came from a literature review; interviews with 19 families from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan who had a total of 33 children ages 6-21 years; and home and…
Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…
Sha, Saliha L.
This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…
Hui Niu Wilcox
Full Text Available The objective of this article is two-fold: First, it argues for critical engagement between Hmong Studies and Asian American Studies. Second, to illustrate the productivity of such engagement,this article analyzes the media coverage of an incident involving Hmong American farmers and their white neighbors in Eagan, Minnesota, June 2010. The focal question is how media discourses around farming and immigration serve to racialize Hmong American identities. Thisanalysis shows that Hmong Americans experience “Asiatic racialization” in that they are either discursively cast outside of the imagined American nation, or included contingent uponassimilation and conformity. Critiquing both the exclusionary and assimilative narratives, this article explicates the inherent contradictions of the U.S. nationalism, referencing both existingHmong Studies literature and Asian Americanist discourses on race and nation. Both bodies of work foreground the historical and social construction of identities, as well as the simultaneous,intertwined workings of race, class, gender/sexuality and nation. Critical dialogues could generate new ideas and possibilities for both Asian American Studies and Hmong Studies.
Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.
The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…
Shah, Sejal K; Bhanusali, Dhaval G; Sachdev, Amit; Geria, Aanand N; Alexis, Andrew F
South Asians represent a rapidly growing part of the U.S. population, increasing 188 percent from 1990 to 2000 (0.27% to 0.78%). Studies investigating the epidemiology of skin disorders in South Asian Americans are lacking. We sought to determine common skin conditions and concerns among this population. This was a community-based survey study. The IRB-approved survey tool was distributed to South Asians adults in the New York City area. All data was self-reported. 190 surveys were completed. 54 percent of responders were female and 46 percent were male. The age of participants ranged from 18-74 years. The respondents were predominantly foreign born (76%), but a large minority (32%) reported living in the U.S. for over 20 years. Nearly half (49%) of the study population reported having visited a dermatologist in the past. The five most common dermatologic diagnoses included: acne (37%), eczema (22%), fungal infection (11%), warts (8%) and moles (8%). The five most common concerns included: dry skin (25%), hair loss (22%), uneven tone (21%), dark spots (18%) and acne (17%). Our results suggest that the leading skin conditions and concerns in South Asian Americans are similar to those reported in other populations with skin of color.
Okutsu, James K.
Asian American students are called a "model minority" for their scholastic success. Few studies focus on their educational concerns. This study surveyed students of Japanese, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Pacific Island decent and found they were generally pleased with college experiences. Attitudes toward education and the impact of…
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Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized ove...
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.
Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.
A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899
Asian American college students are at increased risk for cigarette smoking and its health consequences. Cigarette smoking often serves as a social lubricant among Asian American smokers. Electronic diaries were used to examine the roles of peer presence and social connectedness in relation to cigarette use patterns among Asian American college students. Multilevel modeling results showed that participants smoked more cigarettes when smoking with peers than when smoking alone. Social connectedness attenuated the within-person associations between smoking with peers and cigarettes smoked per occasion. Those with lower social connectedness smoked more cigarettes when smoking with peers than when smoking alone. Social settings and social connectedness are important in explaining situational variations in the number of cigarettes consumed by Asian American college smokers.
Ishii-Kuntz, Masako; Gomel, Jessica N.; Tinsley, Barbara J.; Parke, Ross D.
Asian American families are often portrayed as affluent, having achieved a high level of education and occupational prestige. Despite this model-minority image, many Asian Americans suffer from economic hardship. Using a sample of 95 Asian Americans, this study examines the effect of perceived economic hardship on coping behavior, family…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minorities with depression are more likely to seek mental health care through primary care providers (PCPs than mental health specialists. However, both provider and patient-specific challenges exist. PCP-specific challenges include unfamiliarity with depressive symptom profiles in diverse patient populations, limited time to address mental health, and limited referral options for mental health care. Patient-specific challenges include stigma around mental health issues and reluctance to seek mental health treatment. To address these issues, we implemented a multi-component intervention for Asian American and Latino American primary care patients with depression at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH. Methods/Design We propose a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a culturally appropriate intervention to improve the diagnosis and treatment of depression in our target population. Our goals are to facilitate a primary care providers' ability to provide appropriate, culturally informed care of depression, and b patients' knowledge of and resources for receiving treatment for depression. Our two-year long intervention targets Asian American and Latino American adult (18 years of age or older primary care patients at MGH screening positive for symptoms of depression. All eligible patients in the intervention arm of the study who screen positive will be offered a culturally focused psychiatric (CFP consultation. Patients will meet with a study clinician and receive toolkits that include psychoeducational booklets, worksheets and community resources. Within two weeks of the initial consultation, patients will attend a follow-up visit with the CFP clinicians. Primary outcomes will determine the feasibility and cost associated with implementation of the service, and evaluate patient and provider satisfaction with the CFP service. Exploratory aims will describe the study population at screening, recruitment, and enrollment
Background Asian-Americans represent the fastest growing minority group in the United States, but are under-represented patients in outpatient dermatology clinics. At the same time, skin cancer rates in individuals of Asian descent are increasing, but skin cancer detection appears to be delayed in Asian-Americans compared to white individuals. Some health-care provider related factors for this phenomenon have been reported in the literature, but the patient-related factors are unclear. Methods This exploratory study to identify patient-related factors associated with dermatology visits in Asian-Americans was performed after Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. An anonymous, online survey utilizing validated items was conducted on adults who self-identified as Asian-American in Northern California. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression for dermatology visits as indicated by responses to the question of “ever having had skin checked by a dermatologist” were performed on survey responses pertaining to demographic information, socioeconomic factors, acculturation, knowledge of melanoma warning signs and SSE belief and practice. Results 89.7% of individuals who opened the online survey completed the items, with 469 surveys included in the analysis. Only 60% reported ever performing a SSE, and only 48% reported ever having a skin examination by a dermatologist. Multivariate models showed that “ever performing SSE” (p dermatology clinic visits in Asian-Americans is important so that this potential gap in dermatologic care can be better addressed through future studies. PMID:25085260
P.L. Winter; W.C. Jeong; G.C. Godbey
Demographic change is redefining the demand for recreation and leisure within North America (Shelhas, 2002; Struglia & Winter, 2002). One such change is a result of rapid Asian American and Hispanic American population growth. A better understanding of the outdoor recreation attitudes and behaviors of those populations and a clearer understanding of how those...
Chung, Jennifer Y.
This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…
Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E
The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Brenner, Bradley R.; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Asay, Penelope A.
Adaptation experiences of 1.5-generation Asian American college students (N=10) were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Results indicated 4 domains of adaptation experiences: preimmigration experiences, acculturation and enculturation experiences, intercultural relationships, and support systems. Participants reported that…
This dissertation explores language as a resource for the formation and expression of ethnic identity among the members of an Asian American college sorority. As a community of practice organized around ethnicity, the sorority provides an excellent site to examine the mutually constitutive relationship of language and ethnic identity. Two features…
Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.
Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah
This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…
Loo, Chalsa M; Lim, Brian R; Koff, Gabriel; Morton, Robert K; Kiang, Peter N C
Empirical research has shown that exposure to race-related stressors in the military by Asian American Pacific Islander Vietnam veterans, now reliably measurable, contributes uniquely and significantly to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and generalized psychiatric distress; moreover, studies reveal that adverse race-related events can meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for a PTSD diagnosis. Competence in treating PTSD or general psychiatric distress requires understanding the types of, and effects of, adverse race-related events experienced by ethnic minority veterans. Case studies highlight two types of race-related stressors-"bicultural identification and conflict" and "racial stigmatization"-which placed the veteran at greater risk of death and reduced cohesion with fellow service members. The studies demonstrate the presence of race-related stressors in one or more of the four major types of war zone stressors: traditional combat, atrocities-abusive violence, perceived threat, and malevolent environment. These case studies supplement the empirical findings on race-related stressors and PTSD, enlarging the clinician's understanding of this unique type of mental health risk factor.
Won Kim Cook
Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick
Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Ho, E Y; Ha, N B; Ahmed, A; Ayoub, W; Daugherty, T; Garcia, G; Cooper, A; Keeffe, E B; Nguyen, M H
Commonly known risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) include blood transfusion, injection drug use, intranasal cocaine use, and body tattoos. We hypothesized that Asian Americans infected with HCV may not identify with these established risk factors present in Caucasians and Hispanics, and our aim was to conduct a survey of risk factors in HCV-infected patients in these ethnic groups. In this prospective study, 494 patients infected with HCV completed a detailed risk assessment questionnaire at a liver centre in Northern California from 2001 to 2008. Among subjects participating in this study, 55% identified themselves as Caucasian, 20% as Hispanic, and 25% as Asian. Asian Americans were older, less likely to smoke or consume alcohol, and have a family history of cancer compared with Caucasians and Hispanics. The laboratory profiles were similar, and genotype 1 was the most common infection in all groups (74-75%). The great majority of Caucasians (94%) and Hispanics (86%) identified with commonly known risk factors, which was in contrast to 67% of Asians (P Americans. These findings may guide the development of HCV screening in our increasingly diverse population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C
The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.
Lim, Shirley Geok-Lin; Williams, Angela Noelle
Contains an annotated bibliography of Asian American literature (published between 1992 and 1996) focusing on prose narratives, including novels, short stories, and memoirs. Includes also some critical studies of Asian American literature and some drama and award-winning poetry collections. (TB)
Kim, Janna L.
This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…
Discusses how Asian Americans are faring in the job market, focusing on the three largest subgroups: the Japanese, Chinese, and Pilipinos. The information on which this discussion is based comes from "A Study of Selected Socio-economic Characteristics of Ethnic Minorities Based on the 1970 Census, Volume II; Asian Americans," prepared by Urban…
Katrak, Ketu H.
Explores post-1965 South Asian American writers writing in English and the role of geography and memory and how political and societal factors of the "capitalist new world order" continue to determine the physical and metaphorical location of postcolonial writers in the diaspora. It examines South Asian American writers' compelling evocations of…
Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)
Cheng, Zhen Hadassah
Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.
Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran
Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...
Spickard, Paul R.
Explores the inclusion of people of multiple ancestries who are only part Asian in Asian American Studies. The history of intermarriage in the United States means that, as increasing numbers of people choose to embrace multiple racial identities, Asian Americans must rearrange their definitions of what it means to be Asian American. (SLD)
Smith, Tara D.; Maton, Kenneth I.
Demographic trends suggest increasing numbers of multiple racial heritage students attending US campuses and universities, a change reflected within psychology. However, there is little empirical investigation into the educational experiences and needs of multiracials. The current study (the second in a series of studies to utilize data from a national survey of psychology graduate and undergraduate students) compared two multiracial groups, Asian American/European American and Latino/a/European Americans, to their single heritage counterparts on several variables of interest – academic supports and barriers; linkage between barriers faced and ethnicity; and perceived cultural diversity. Results indicated that multiracial groups reported more of a link between academic barriers experienced and their ethnicity than European American students, but less of a link than their monoracial minority peers. No differences between groups were found related to academic supports, academic barriers, and perceived cultural diversity. Study limitations, future research and implications are discussed. PMID:25111546
... Population Profiles > Asian American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...
Andrew Thomas Reyes
Full Text Available Asian American women face unique stressors that threaten their overall health and well-being. However, resilience is a phenomenon that allows individuals to develop positive adaptation despite adversities and challenges. This integrative review is conducted in order to explore the current state of knowledge regarding the resilience of Asian American women. Twelve databases were used to identify related articles: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, ERIC, Ethnic NewsWatch, GenderWatch, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, ProQuest Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, SAGE (Psychology and Sociology collections, Scopus, and Web of Science. Twenty-one research studies met the inclusion criteria of the integrative review. Five common themes emerged from the analysis of the studies: (a resilience as conceptualized as a coping strategy, (b resilience as related to social support and network, (c resilience as an enduring phenomenon, (d resilience as connected to bicultural identity, and (e resilience as an emancipatory perspective and experience. These themes imply that resilience is a developmental process, culture has a significant influence on resilience, and Asian American women are a vulnerable and marginalized group. Further recommendations for nursing practice and research are discussed as related to these implications.
Kin, Kevin C; Lin, Brian; Chaung, Kevin T; Ha, Nghiem B; Trinh, Huy N; Garcia, Ruel T; Nguyen, Huy A; Nguyen, Khanh K; Levitt, Brian S; da Silveira, Eduardo B; Nguyen, Mindie H
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with injection drug use, blood transfusion before 1992, stigmata of liver disease, or born between 1945 and 1965. The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors for HCV acquisition in Asian Americans. This was a case-controlled study, with 471 consecutive patients testing positive for anti-HCV between January 2001 and December 2008. Controls included 471 patients with negative HCV matched at a one-to-one ratio for sex, age (±5 years), and ethnicity. For Asian patients, the most common risk factors were blood transfusion and acupuncture or exposure to dirty needles (27 and 20 %, respectively). On multiple logistic regression, potential predictors for a positive anti-HCV test in Asians were acupuncture or exposure to dirty needles (OR = 12.9, P tattoo (OR = 12.0, P = 0.001), and history of blood transfusion (OR = 5.7, P < 0.0001). Acupuncture and exposure to dirty needles are independent risk factors of HCV infection. Asians coming from endemic areas should be screened for HCV even when commonly-known risk factors for Western patients are not present.
Sims, Tamara; Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Young, Henry R; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene; Tsai, Jeanne L
Despite being considered a "model minority," Asian Americans report worse health care encounters than do European Americans. This may be due to affective mismatches between Asian American patients and their European American physicians. We predicted that because Asian Americans value excitement (vs. calm) less than European Americans, they will respond less favorably to excitement-focused (vs. calm) physicians. In Study 1, 198 European American, Chinese American, and Hong Kong Chinese community adults read a medical scenario and indicated their preference for an excitement-focused versus calm-focused physician. In Study 2, 81 European American and Asian American community college students listened to recommendations made by an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician in a video, and later attempted to recall the recommendations. In Study 3, 101 European American and Asian American middle-aged and older adults had multiple online encounters with an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician and then evaluated their physicians' trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge. As predicted, Hong Kong Chinese preferred excitement-focused physicians less than European Americans, with Chinese Americans falling in the middle (Study 1). Similarly, Asian Americans remembered health information delivered by an excitement-focused physician less well than did European Americans (Study 2). Finally, Asian Americans evaluated an excitement-focused physician less positively than did European Americans (Study 3). These findings suggest that while physicians who promote and emphasize excitement states may be effective with European Americans, they may be less so with Asian Americans and other ethnic minorities who value different affective states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Goto, Stanford T.
Asian Americans have been viewed as a model, high-achieving minority, but recently some researchers have questioned the "myth" of universal Asian-American success. A study examined the validity of current explanations of Asian-American success in school. With a group of high-achieving Chinese-American high school freshmen in Northern…
Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Tam, Christina; John, Iyanrick; Lui, Camillia
Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. Informed by a wide socioeconomic diversity among Asian American ethnic groups, this study explored ethnic-group socioeconomic status (SES) as an indicator of community-level disadvantage that may influence overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. We hypothesized that ethnic-group SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1525 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from pooled 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data. Age, gender, nativity, individual-level SES (income and education), and two lifestyle variables (fast food consumption and physical activity) were controlled for. We found that adolescents in high- or middle-level SES ethnic groups were far less likely to be overweight/obese than those in low-SES ethnic groups. Further, these relationships were more pronounced for foreign-born adolescents but not significant for U.S.-born adolescents. Ethnic-group SES may be a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans and, potentially, other populations with high proportions of immigrants of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dinh, Khanh T; Weinstein, Traci L; Nemon, Melissa; Rondeau, Sara
On the basis of acculturation theory, explicating mutual influences between different cultural or ethnic groups coming into contact, this study focused "on the other side of acculturation" theory by examining the effects of intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans on the psychosocial experiences of White American college students. Participants (N = 315), undergraduates attending a public university located within the state of Massachusetts, completed a survey that assessed demographic and personal characteristics, acculturation (extent of intercultural contact with Asian people and Asian cultures), attitudes towards Asians and Asian Americans, awareness of institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues, and psychological distress. Results indicated that White American students' intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans contributed significant variance to the prediction of their attitudes towards this ethnic group and awareness of discrimination and racial issues, but not to psychological distress. This study provides implications for understanding mutual acculturative influences between different ethnic groups in the United States.
Park, Hanjong; Choi, Heeseung; Suarez, Marie L; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Park, Chang; Wilkie, Diana J
The study purpose was to determine the predictors of watching most of a Web-based streaming video and whether data characteristics differed for those watching most or only part of the video. A convenience sample of 650 students (349 Asian Americans and 301 non-Hispanic whites) was recruited from a public university in the United States. Study participants were asked to view a 27-minute suicide awareness streaming video and to complete online questionnaires. Early data monitoring showed many, but not all, watched most of the video. We added software controls to facilitate video completion and defined times for a video completion group (≥26 minutes) and video noncompletion (video noncompletion group, the video completion group included more females, undergraduates, and Asian Americans, and had higher individualistic orientation and more correct manipulation check answers. The video noncompletion group skipped items in a purposeful manner, showed less interest in the video, and spent less time completing questionnaires. The findings suggest that implementing software controls, evaluating missing data patterns, documenting the amount of time spent completing questionnaires, and effective manipulation check questions are essential to control potential bias in Web-based research involving college students.
Chae, David H; Lee, Sunmin; Lincoln, Karen D; Ihara, Emily S
Depression represents a growing concern among Asian Americans. This study examined whether discrimination and family dynamics are associated with depression in this population. Weighted logistic regressions using nationally representative data on Asian American adults (N = 2095) were used to examine associations between discrimination, negative interactions with relatives, family support, and 12-month major depressive disorder (MDD). Discrimination (odds ratio [OR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67, 2.71) and negative interactions with relatives (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.58) were positively associated with MDD. Family support was associated with lower MDD (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.89), and buffered lower levels of discrimination. Results suggest that discrimination may have negative mental health implications, and also point to the importance of family relationships for depression among Asian Americans. Findings suggest that providers may consider stress experienced at multiple ecological levels to address Asian American mental health needs.
Hidalgo, Danielle Antoinette; Bankston, Carl L.
In this work, the authors use statistics from the U.S. Census to examine trends in intermarriage, racial and ethnic combinations, and categorizations among Asian Americans. Specifically, the authors want to consider the extent to which family patterns may contribute to Asian Americans and their descendants' continuing as distinct, becoming members…
Juon, Hee-Soon; Rimal, Rajiv N; Klassen, Ann; Lee, Sunmin
Individuals' behaviors are influenced by those of others in their social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as by how individuals perceive they should behave in that environment (e.g., injunctive norms). Although social norms are thought to play an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening, limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. In addition, norms are social phenomena that are spread through family discussion about the importance of getting HBV screening. Using the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB), this study examined the roles of injunctive norms (IN), descriptive norms (DN), and family discussion in HBV screening behavior among Asian Americans. Data from a survey of Asian Americans in the Baltimore Washington metropolitan area (N = 877) were used to test underlying theoretical propositions. DN and family discussion emerged as key factors in HBV screening behavior among all Asian Americans. IN were associated with HBV screening among Chinese and Korean Americans, but not for Vietnamese Americans. Family discussion moderated the influence of DN on behavior among Chinese and Vietnamese Americans. However, the main effect of DN on screening behavior was not modified by IN (no interactions between DN and IN). The results indicate that family discussion and social norms are integral in enabling Asian Americans to undergo HBV screening and warrant sensitivity in the design and implementation of a liver cancer prevention program in this high-risk group of Asian Americans.
Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody
Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…
Hamamoto, Darrell Y.
Examines television portrayals of the Asian American family during the Reagan-Bush era as a model minority group. Argues that Asian Americans encounter racism and marginalization and that only relatively few achieve the "American dream." Analyzes the portrayal of Asian Americans in television documentaries and dramas. (JB)
Thien-bao Thuc Phi
Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.
Thien-bao Thuc Phi
Full Text Available Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming
The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…
Mok, T A
The majority of research on romantic relationships has tended to focus on marriage, with relatively less attention paid to dating. This study examined the relationship between Asian American dating, both interracial and intraracial, and a variety of factors thought to be associated with dating in this population, including acculturation, ethnic identity, attractiveness, interracial dating experience, ethnicity of friends, parental influence over dating, and density. Participants were administered measures of these variables and were asked questions regarding their likelihood of dating both Asian Americans and White Americans. An interesting pattern of results emerged when the variables were put into regression equations to predict both interracial and intraracial dating. Findings are presented and implications discussed.
Sue, Stanley; And Others
The stated purpose of this article is to argue for a more realistic appraisal of the status of Asian Americans, by examining the 1970 statistics concerning income, education, interracial marriage, and mental health among the 435,000 Chinese, 343,000 Filipinos, and 591,000 Japanese in the U.S. (Author/JM)
This study investigated the perspectives of 23 first-generation Asian American mothers of children with developmental disabilities. The intent was to explore the working relationships between the mothers and professionals in health care and special education in the United States. The participants in this study were from China, Taiwan, Vietnam,…
Full Text Available Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.
Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey
Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.
Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney
Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Poulsen, Melissa Eriko
This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
The bicultural work motivations of Asian Americans have not yet been comprehensively captured by contemporary vocational constructs and scales. For this study, we conducted two studies on the initial reliability and validity of the Bicultural Work Motivation Scale (BWMS) by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. First, a pilot study was…
Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea
Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.
Wolfe, Maren M.; Yang, Peggy H.; Wong, Eunice C.; Atkinson, Donald R.
Introduces development of a scale that can be used along with the Asian Values Scale, to assess adherence to Asian cultural values. Used in combination these scales can measure Asian American acculturation to European American values. They make it possible to obtain a value and behavior assessment of Asian American acculturation. (JDM)
Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen
Using the base year data of parent interviews (n=15,376) conducted by the U. S. Department of Education for the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), this study examined patterns of parenting style of Asian-American parents (n=536) in six domains. Descriptive and ANOVA analyses revealed significant differences between…
Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin
This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…
Chao, Ruth K.
A study was conducted to determine Asian American conceptualizations of parenting, focusing on socialization goals, parenting style, and parenting practices related to schooling, aspects of parental influences discussed by D. Darling and L. Steinberg (1993). It was suggested that the standard conceptualizations of parenting style, those of D.…
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Kodama, Corinne M.; Poon, OiYan A.; Manzano, Lester J.; Sihite, Ester U.
This case study was focused on the establishment of the Midwest Asian American Students Union (MAASU) as a racial project reflecting students' articulations of a regional, panethnic identity in response to racism. A critical race theory lens was used to analyze interviews with 13 MAASU founders. Findings highlight the role of social context (in…
Sue, Stanley; And Others
This article suggests that there are genetic and cultural factors which account for the difference in drinking patterns between Caucasian and Asian Americans. It is also suggested that Asian acculturation has an influence on this difference. (EB)
Wong-Padoongpatt, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
Asian Americans are commonly perceived as perpetual foreigners and, therefore, not "true" Americans. Asian Americans report inquiries about nationality and English abilities as the most common forms of racial microaggressions perpetrated by White Americans (Sue, 2015). Race theorists assert that these microaggressions are race-related and marginalize Asian Americans. Scholars have claimed that these subtle acts are harmful, yet only a few studies have uncovered the mechanisms by which racial microaggressions affect mental and physical well-being (Ong, Burrow, Fuller-Rowell, Ja, & Sue, 2013; Wong, Derthick, David, Saw, & Okazaki, 2013). The current study conceptualized racial microaggressions as a stressor to address the major gaps in research. Specifically, this study (a) experimentally tested the race-related nature of the microaggression event to determine whether a White American perpetrator would elicit more stress in Asian Americans compared to an Asian American perpetrator and (b) examined threats to explicit and implicit self-esteem as possible mediators of microaggression-generated stress. Findings confirmed that the race of the perpetrator did have an impact on stress among Asian Americans. In the multiple meditation analysis, experience with a White American perpetrator, compared to an Asian American perpetrator, lowered implicit self-esteem, which resulted in more stress. Implications and strategies for counseling Asian American clients are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wong, Y Joel; Tran, Kimberly K; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Van Horn Kerne, Valerie; Calfa, Nicolina Ann
Guided by a culturally informed illness representation self-regulation model (CIRSRM), this study analyzed the relations among 223 Asian Americans' lay beliefs about depression, enculturation to Asian values, and their likelihood of seeking professional help for depression. Participants' lay beliefs were assessed through an analysis of written responses to open-ended questions about depression. Enculturation as well as beliefs in biological causes, situational causes, and a short duration of depression were significantly related to the likelihood of professional help seeking. In addition, enculturation moderated the association between several lay beliefs and the endorsement of professional help seeking. The findings are discussed in light of how clinicians can incorporate mental illness lay beliefs in their work with Asian Americans. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen
Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Lee, Donghun
The present study examined cultural factors underlying help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students (N = 106). Specifically, we explored internalized model minority myth as a predictor of help-seeking attitudes and tested an intrapersonal-interpersonal framework of Asian values as a mechanism by which the two are related. Results indicated that internalized model minority myth significantly predicted unfavorable help-seeking attitudes, and emotional self-control mediated this relationship. Interpersonal values and humility were nonsignificant mediators, contrary to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that the investigation of internalized model minority myth in help-seeking research is a worthwhile endeavor, and they also highlight emotional self-control as an important explanatory variable in help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students.
Shawn M. Burn; Patricia L. Winter; Brittany Hori; N Clayton. Silver
There are relatively few articles in sociology and psychology on gender, ethnicity, and the environment, yet ethnic and gender neutral approaches to sustainability may be incomplete. We studied gender, ethnicity, and environmental concern with an internet sample of Asian American women (n=157) and men (n=69), and European American women (n=222) and men (n=99)....
Thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and depression among asian americans: A longitudinal study of interpersonal shame as a mediator and perfectionistic family discrepancy as a moderator.
Carrera, Stephanie G; Wei, Meifen
This short-term longitudinal study applied Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide to Asian Americans' experiences with depression. Interpersonal shame (i.e., the experience of inadequacy arising from interpersonal concerns) was hypothesized to mediate the effects of (a) thwarted belongingness and (b) perceived burdensomeness on future depression. Furthermore, the positive associations between (a) thwarted belongingness and (b) perceived burdensomeness on future depression were hypothesized to vary depending on students' experiences with perfectionistic family discrepancy (PFD; their perceived gap between their actual performance and what their parents expect of them). A total of 605 Asian Americans attending predominantly White, Midwestern universities completed 3 online surveys. Conditional process modeling via Hayes's (2013) PROCESS was used to analyze the data. Results demonstrated that (a) thwarted belongingness and (b) perceived burdensomeness contributed to higher interpersonal shame, which influenced students' future depression. Furthermore, the effect of thwarted belongingness on future depression was significantly positive for those with PFD levels greater than the 12th percentile, after taking into account students' initial level of depression. The effect of perceived burdensomeness on future depression was not significant for those with PFD levels greater than the 3.5th percentile. This study identified that students with perfectionistic family discrepancy may be at higher risk for depression while experiencing thwarted belongingness. Overall, findings supported using Joiner's (2005) theory to understand Asian American students' risk for future depression. Future studies may gather data across Asian American students' years in college. Counselors can apply these findings to increase students' awareness about possible risk factors for depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Zhang, Pao San Lucy; Sim, Shao-Chee; Pong, Perry; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Li, Shijian; Tsang, Thomas; Rey, Mariano
Background: Because health disparities among Asian Americans are understudied, a partnership program between the Charles B. Wang Community Health Center and the Center for the Study of Asian American Health was created to increase awareness and interest in Asian American research. Purpose: To evaluate the process, outcome, and impact of a health…
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian
Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Feinstein, Amanda B.
Research on Asian Americans and their psychological adjustment is limited. Consisting of two cross-sectional studies, the present investigation examined the relationships among self-concealment, mindfulness, emotional distress in stressful interpersonal situations, and general psychological ill-health in Asian American college students, and in…
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; HOFF, RANI A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adoles...
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with pos...
Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA…
Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H
With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.
Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H.
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the…
Liang, Jia; Peters-Hawkins, April L.
Purpose: Little research exists that examines the leadership experiences of Asian American women in public schools. This study sought to understand the meanings Asian American women school administrators have constructed out of their professional lives given the intersection of gender, race-ethnicity, and leadership. Research Method/Approach: Data…
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth
In a qualitative study we examined the constructs "race" and "ethnicity" and their relative importance in the multidimensional identities of 52 Asian American undergraduates across 2 universities. Findings suggest these constructs are useful for Asian American students' identity claims and that multiple contextual influences…
Choi, Jayoung L.; Rogers, James R.; Werth, James L., Jr.
Scholars have based their understanding of college-student suicide in the United States largely on the study of European Americans, and therefore, its relevance to making culturally informed decisions with suicidal Asian American college students is unclear. This article explores aspects of suicide assessment potentially unique to Asian American…
Wong, Y. Joel; Maffini, Cara S.
Although suicide-related outcomes among Asian American adolescents are a serious public health problem in the United States, research in this area has been relatively sparse. To address this gap in the empirical literature, this study examined subgroups of Asian American adolescents for whom family, school, and peer relationships exerted…
Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…
Assalone, Amanda E.; Fann, Amy
Contrary to the model minority myth that portrays Asian Americans as academic all-stars overrepresented in elite 4-year institutions, nearly half of all Asian American college students do, in fact, attend community colleges, and many experience myriad challenges. This exploratory study utilized a qualitative analysis and investigated how model…
Hahm, Hyeouk C.; Lahiff, Maureen; Guterman, Neil B.
This study examines the association between acculturation and subsequent binge drinking among Asian American adolescents and investigates the mediating effect of friends' alcohol and tobacco use. Data from a nationally representative sample of 714 Asian American adolescents in grades 7 to 12 were analyzed. There was no gender difference in terms…
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li,Lisa C.; Kim, Bryan S. K.
The development of the 29-item Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) is presented. In the first study, data from 161 Asian American respondents were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded 3 subscales composed of Socio-Historical Racism (14 items), General Racism (8 items), and Perpetual Foreigner Racism (7…
Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow
This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students.
Zhou, Zheng; Siu, Candice R.; Xin, Tao
Asian Americans are commonly perceived as the diligent and high-achieving "model minority." This positive stereotype has negative consequences for this ethnic minority group because it trivializes their social and mental health problems. This image of success has made many overlook the true nature of the struggles many Asian American families have…
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Yang, Peggy H.; Atkinson, Donald R.; Wolfe, Maren M.; Hong, Sehee
Failure to recognize the uniqueness of specific Asian American ethnic groups may lead to ineffective counseling. Investigates similarities and differences between college students (N=570) from four Asian American ethnic groups on their adherence to six value dimensions identified in previous research. Findings confirm the need to understand…
Chan, Stephanie H.
This project studies works by Asian Pacific American writers and artists that respond critically to the widespread enthusiasm for ethnic food and multiculturalism which arose in the United States during the late-twentieth century. This enthusiasm reflected popular hope that food culture's welcoming of ethnic cuisine was a sign of racism receding into the past. Yet consuming palatable ethnic food representations as a surrogate for racialized bodies encourages the disavowal of past inequities...
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the hepatitis B virus (HBV-related knowledge among Asian American college students and to determine whether there are significant differences in the level of HBV knowledge among Asian American subgroups. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was self-administered to assess a sample of 258 Asian American students′ knowledge about HBV at the campus of the research site. Results: Knowledge regarding transmission and consequences of HBV infection was poor. Of a possible knowledge score of 14, the median number of correct answers was eight. There were no significant differences between the subgroups of Asian American college students in total knowledge of HBV infection. Conclusion: The findings of this study point to the fact that the lack of knowledge and awareness is not limited to community settings only but also includes higher education environment. This finding brings to the forefront the importance of HBV education for Asian American college students.
Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Ko Chin, Kathy; John, Iyanrick; Chung, Corina
Working in small businesses has been identified as a key factor for low coverage rates in immigrant communities. In this study, we identify specific cultural and socioeconomic predictors of Asian Americans who work in small businesses to identify subgroups at a greater disadvantage than others in obtaining health insurance. Logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 3,819 Asian American small business owners and employers extracted from pooled 2005–2012 California Health Interview Survey data. We found that individuals with low income levels, Korean Americans, U.S.-born South Asian and Southeast Asian (other than Vietnamese) Americans, immigrants without citizenship (particularly those lacking a green card), and individuals with limited English proficiency had higher odds of lacking coverage. The odds of being uninsured did not differ between small business owners and employees. Based upon these key findings, we propose several strategies to expand coverage for Asian Americans working in small businesses and their most vulnerable subgroups.
Kim, Min-Jin; Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Torres, Maria I.; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.
Objective: To examine the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related knowledge among Asian American college students and to determine whether there are significant differences in the level of HBV knowledge among Asian American subgroups. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was self-administered to assess a sample of 258 Asian American students’ knowledge about HBV at the campus of the research site. Results: Knowledge regarding transmission and consequences of HBV infection was poor. Of a possible knowledge score of 14, the median number of correct answers was eight. There were no significant differences between the subgroups of Asian American college students in total knowledge of HBV infection. Conclusion: The findings of this study point to the fact that the lack of knowledge and awareness is not limited to community settings only but also includes higher education environment. This finding brings to the forefront the importance of HBV education for Asian American college students. PMID:27981087
Gordon H Chang
Full Text Available Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org
Gordon H Chang
Full Text Available
Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org
Lee, Hae Kook; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph C
This study (1) estimated the prevalence of alcohol and binge alcohol use among adult Asian Americans by sub-ethnicity; (2) examined alcohol drinking patterns among these subpopulations; and (3) investigated sub-ethnic differences in characteristics associated with alcohol and binge alcohol use. Data from 8900 Asian Americans aged 18 or older who participated in the 2002-2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) were analyzed. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were applied. Korean Americans (51.8%) and Japanese Americans (49.7%) reported higher rates of past-month alcohol use than Chinese Americans (42.0%), Filipino Americans (37.9%), and Asian Indian Americans (34.0%). Korean Americans (24.6%) reported the highest rate of past-month binge alcohol use, followed by Filipino Americans (14.5%), Japanese Americans (14.2%), Asian Indian Americans (10.1%), and Chinese Americans (8.1%). Among these examined Asian Americans, foreign-born Chinese, Filipino, and Asian Indian Americans were less likely to have past-month alcohol use than their corresponding U.S. born counterparts; and only foreign-born Asian Indian Americans were less likely to have past-month binge alcohol use than their U.S. born counterparts. Males were 3-5 times more likely to have binge alcohol use than females among examined Asian American subpopulations except for Korean Americans. Korean Americans were more likely to have binge alcohol use than the other examined sub-ethnic Asian Americans. Adult Asian Americans are heterogeneous in sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and binge alcohol use. These differences suggest the need for sub-ethnically specific prevention and treatment programs for alcohol use problems among Asian American subpopulations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bersamira, Clifford S; Lin, Yu-An; Park, Keunhye; Marsh, Jeanne C
This study examined past-year drug use among Asian Americans with respect to ethnic subgroup, acculturation, and gender differences. Survey data were collected during the National Latino and Asian American Survey, a national epidemiological household survey of behavioral health prevalence and service utilization rates. The analytical sample consisted of 505 Filipino, 598 Chinese, 518 Vietnamese, and 466 other Asian respondents. Results indicated that among ethnic subgroups, Filipinos had the highest rates of drug use. Among all Asian Americans, those who were born in the United States, those with higher levels of English proficiency, males, those who were younger, those with lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode, and those who were frequent drinkers were all more likely to have reported past-year drug use. Findings suggest the need to better understand the heterogeneous character of Asian American drug use when considering the provision of culturally competent and linguistically appropriate prevention and treatment services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Alice W; Chang, Janet; O'Brien, Janine; Budgazad, Marc S; Tsai, Jack
This study examined the influence of the model minority stereotype on the perceived mental health functioning of Asian Americans. It was hypothesized that college students would perceive Asian Americans as having fewer mental health problems and clinical symptoms than Whites due to the model minority stereotype. Four hundred and twenty-five undergraduate students from a predominately White college campus in the American northeast were randomly exposed to one of four conditions: (1) a clinical vignette describing a White college student suffering from adjustment disorder; (2) the same vignette describing an Asian American college student; (3) a newspaper article describing a success story of Whites and the White clinical vignette; (4) the same newspaper article and clinical vignette describing an Asian American. Following exposure to one of the conditions, participants completed a memory recall task and measures of colorblindness, attitudes towards Asian Americans, attitudes towards out-group members, and perceived mental health functioning. Participants exposed to the vignettes primed with the positive/model minority stereotype perceived the target regardless of race/ethnicity as having better mental health functioning and less clinical symptoms than the condition without the stereotype. Additionally, the stereotype primer was found to be a modest predictor for the perception of mental health functioning in Asian American vignettes. Results shed light on the impact of the model minority stereotype on the misperception of Asian Americans' mental health status, contributing to the invisibility or neglect of this minority group's mental health needs.
Yi, Stella S.; Kwon, Simona C.; Wyatt, Laura; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
According to national estimates, obesity prevalence is lower in Asian Americans compared to other racial/ethnic groups, but this low prevalence may be misleading for three reasons. First, a lower body mass index (BMI) cutoff as proposed by the World Health Organization may be more appropriate to use in Asian populations. However, evidence is limited to substantiate the potential costs and burden of adopting these cutoffs. Increasing BMI in Asians (as in other racial/ethnic groups) should be c...
Katigbak, Carina; Flaherty, Erin; Chao, Ying-Yu; Nguyen, Tam; Cheung, Daphne; Yiu-Cho Kwan, Rick
Physical activity (PA) is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For older adults, engaging in PA is shown to improve cardiac status, reduce cognitive, and functional decline, and improve overall quality of life. However, only 17% of Asian American adults meet the 2008 federal recommended guidelines for aerobic and muscle strengthening activity; and there is a paucity of data reporting on older Asian Americans - a rapidly growing, underserved group. While data pertaining to Asian Americans is frequently reported at the aggregate level, this masks differences (eg, language, culture, income) among Asian ethnic subgroups that may impact health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to identify intervention, and cultural adaptation strategies in studies promoting PA for older Asian Americans. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify interventions published between 1996-2016 focused on improving PA among older Asian Americans (> 60 years old). Data were abstracted to examine intervention study designs, cultural adaptation strategies, theoretical frameworks, and physical activity measures. Nine studies met the reviewâs inclusion criteria. Community-based recruitment approaches were widely used, and all studies employed cultural adaptation to varying degrees. Most studies reported improvements in PA outcomes, focused on Chinese Americans, and relied on self-reports of PA, while few aimed to increase PA using a multi-component approach. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes, a wider representation of Asian ethnic subgroups, and concentrated efforts to implement deep level adaptations that may increase the salience and sustainability of these interventions.
Wong, Eugene F.
Challenges the view of Chinese and Japanese Americans as middlemen with its assumptions that Asian Americans are sojourners and unassimilable. Questions the equation of a middle class minority with a middleman minority, examining the roots of this myth in the relationship of Asian Americans to the White-Black racial dyad. (RDN)
Okazaki, Sumie; Liu, Joyce F.; Longworth, Sandra L.; Minn, Janice Y.
Examines whether Asian American-White American differences on a trait measure of social anxiety extend to nonverbal behavior and to reports of anxiety-related emotions during a social performance task. Results indicated that Asian American reported more anxiety but that they did not differ substantially on behavioral indexes of social anxiety.…
Park, Julie J.; Dizon, Jude Paul Matias
This chapter describes how race, ethnicity, religion, and spirituality uniquely interact for Asian American college students, including a discussion of the diverse religious and spiritual backgrounds of this population.
Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)
Presents a set of pedagogical approaches and suggested topics and materials for teaching gender issues in Asian-American psychology. Central issues are discussed under categories of gender roles, gender stereotypes, and gender differences. (SLD)
Greenberg, Michael R; Sinha, Reya
A survey was conducted of approximately 200 Asian Indian Americans and 200 other residents of New Jersey in order to understand the risk management priorities that they want government to have. We found that Asian Indian Americans, especially younger women, focused on personal/family risks, such as alcohol and drug abuse, sexual abuse, and domestic violence. The New Jersey comparison group, in contrast, placed war/terrorism and loss of health care services and insurance at the top of their priorities for government. These results suggest stressful acculturation-related issues within the Asian Indian community. Both populations want more risk management from government than they believe government is currently providing. Respondents who wanted more from government tended to dread the risk, be fearful of the consequences, trust government, and have a feeling of personal efficacy. Within the Asian Indian American sample, wide variations were observed by language spoken at home and religious affiliation. Notably, Muslims and Hindi language speakers tended not to trust government and hence wanted less government involvement. This study supports our call for studies of recent migrant populations and Johnson's for testing ethnic identity and acculturation as factors in risk judgments.
Iwamoto, Derek K; Grivel, Margaux M; Cheng, Alice W; Zamboanga, Byron L
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems appears to be a growing problem among young adult Asian Americans. One promising factor that helps explain within-group differences among Asian American includes nativity. Nativity refers to whether an individual was born in (i.e., second generation or higher) or outside (i.e., first generation) of the United States. Despite this theoretically promising variable, there has been a paucity of literature examining comparing drinking patterns between first and second generation Asians Americans and White college men. The current study examined the relationship between HED and alcohol-related problems among first- and second-generation Asian American, and White college male students. Interaction between race and the variables in HED and alcohol-related problems models were also investigated. A total of 630 men were recruited of which 489 were Asian American men (407 second generation and 82 first generation) and 148 White students attending a public university in southern California (USA) were recruited. Results revealed no differences in HED rates between second-generation Asian American and White male college students; however, White students reported higher rates of HED compared to first-generation Asian Americans. No differences in alcohol-related problems were found between all three groups. There were no significant interactions between racial groups, drinking to cope, Greek/fraternity status, and descriptive norms on the alcohol outcomes. Conclusion/importance: Second-generation Asian American young adult men reported similar HED and rates of alcohol-related problems as White men. The present findings suggest that alcohol-related problems among Asian American men are a larger public health concern than previously believed.
Nguyen, Duy; Bornheimer, Lindsay A
Despite levels of need that are comparable with other groups, relatively few Asian Americans receive mental health care. While studies have described the tendency for Asian Americans to delay care until mental health symptoms are severe, relatively little research has examined how the severity of symptoms impact mental health service use. This study uses publicly available data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and focuses solely on Asian American respondents with a psychiatric disorder (n = 230). Unexpectedly, few Asian Americans with a psychiatric disorder received care in a medical setting. The perception of mental health needs increased the likelihood of using mental health specialist care. Social and systemic barriers together hinder mental health service use. Implications for addressing Asian American mental health service use within a changing health care environment are discussed.
Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi
To explore fatalistic attributions of colon cancer development among Asian and Hispanic Americans in comparison with non-Hispanic whites; also to examine the impacts of fatalism on adherence to the colon cancer screening guideline. For the analysis, the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data were employed. Both Asian and Hispanic Americans were more likely to make fatalistic attribution and were less likely to follow the guideline than whites. Particularly for Asians, fatalism was a significant predictor for not adhering to the guideline. These findings emphasize the need for cultural interventions to disrupt fatalistic attitudes towards colon cancer preventions.
Valerie Ooka Pang; Peggy P. Han; Jennifer M. Pang
The authors studied more than 1 million Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and White seventh graders in a statewide California testing program between 2003 and 2008, examining their reading and math achievement...
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria; Song, Anna
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed. PMID:23832755
Jin, Hongbin; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Xu, Jianbo; Amei, Amei
Cancer incidence disparities exist among specific Asian American populations. However, the existing reports exclude data from large metropoles like Chicago, Houston and New York. Moreover, incidence rates by subgroup have been underestimated due to the exclusion of Asians with unknown subgroup. Cancer incidence data for 2009 to 2011 for eight states accounting for 68% of the Asian American population were analyzed. Race for cases with unknown subgroup was imputed using stratified proportion models by sex, age, cancer site and geographic regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for 17 cancer sites for the six largest Asian subgroups. Our analysis comprised 90,709 Asian and 1,327,727 non-Hispanic white cancer cases. Asian Americans had significantly lower overall cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (336.5 per 100,000 and 541.9 for men, 299.6 and 449.3 for women, respectively). Among specific Asian subgroups, Filipino men (377.4) and Japanese women (342.7) had the highest overall incidence rates while South Asian men (297.7) and Korean women (275.9) had the lowest. In comparison to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups, significantly higher risks were observed for colorectal cancer among Japanese, stomach cancer among Koreans, nasopharyngeal cancer among Chinese, thyroid cancer among Filipinos, and liver cancer among Vietnamese. South Asians had remarkably low lung cancer risk. Overall, Asian Americans have a lower cancer risk than non-Hispanic whites, except for nasopharyngeal, liver and stomach cancers. The unique portrayal of cancer incidence patterns among specific Asian subgroups in this study provides a new baseline for future cancer surveillance research and health policy. © 2015 UICC.
Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.
The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…
Weaver, C N
Many demographic and labor force characteristics, such as family income, educational attainment, and occupation, correlated with job satisfaction. Since Asian Americans are more like Euro-Americans than African Americans in most of these characteristics, it seems reasonable to predict that their job satisfaction would be high as for Euro-Americans rather than low as for African Americans. Yet research of Weaver and Hinson showed that the opposite is true. One explanation for this unexpected result is that Asians do not think of jobs as a source of happiness but simply as a means of earning money to underwrite other aspects of their lives, such as the well-being of their families, which are the main sources of their happiness. The hypothesis was tested that job satisfaction does not contribute to the happiness of Asian Americans in comparison to satisfaction from other domains of their lives. Analysis was conducted of the attitudes of Asian-American (n = 160), African-American (n = 602), and Euro-American (n = 6,477) workers who responded to 22 surveys drawn from 1972 to 1998, each of which was representative of the labor force of the USA. The hypothesis was supported by the finding that the partial correlation of job satisfaction and global happiness with satisfaction in seven other domains of life (marriage, financial condition, community, nonwork activities, family, health and physical condition, and friendships) held constant was significant for Euro-American women and men but not for Asian Americans or African Americans of either sex. And, the same result occurred when global happiness was regressed on job satisfaction net the effects of satisfaction in other seven domains.
Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic ...
Cruz, Cristhopher D; Forshey, Brett M; Juarez, Diana S; Guevara, Carolina; Leguia, Mariana; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S
During the past decade, countries in South America have reported dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) associated with American/Asian genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). DENV-2 strains have been associated with large outbreaks of dengue fever and DHF in numerous regions of Peru since the mid-1990s, but studies to address the origins, distribution, and genetic diversity of DENV-2 strains have been limited. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the envelope gene region of DENV-2 isolates from Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Sequences were aligned and compared to a global sample of DENV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the circulation of two DENV-2 genotypes in Peru: American (prior to 2001) and American/Asian (2000 to present). American/Asian genotype variants can be classified into two lineages, and these were introduced into Peru from the north (Ecuador, Colombia, and/or Venezuela) and the east (Brazil and Bolivia). American/Asian lineage II replaced lineage I after 2009. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for American/Asian DENV-2 genotype in the Americas was in 1980, and 1984 and 1989 for lineages I and II, respectively. In light of evidence for increased virulence of lineage II of American/Asian DENV-2, our results support the need for continuous monitoring for the emergence of new DENV genotypes that may be associated with severe disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kumagai, Gloria L., Comp.; And Others
This annotated bibliography is a list of resource materials available at the Asian American Resource Center, St. Paul, Minnesota. It was compiled in order to provide information to classroom teachers and other public school personnel about Chinese, Japanese, Indochinese, Korean, Pacific Island, and Pilipino Americans. Many of the items described…
Gómez, Jennifer M
Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health, with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma. Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental healthcare utilization. According to cultural betrayal trauma theory, societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students. Participants (N = 108) were AAPI college students from a predominantly white university. Data collection concluded in December 2015. Participants completed online self-report measures. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that when controlling for interracial trauma, ethno-cultural betrayal trauma significantly impacted dissociation, hallucinations, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hypervigilance. The results have implications for incorporating identity, discrimination, and ethno-cultural betrayal trauma victimization into assessments and case conceptualizations in therapy.
Full Text Available Duy NguyenSilver School of Social Work, New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: The use of physicians is more common than of behavioral specialists, especially in underserved Asian American communities. Despite a rapidly aging Asian American population, research has overlooked older people. This study examines the way mental health need affects the number of physician contacts by older Asian Americans.Method: This study uses data on self-identified Asian Americans aged over age 50 years derived from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. A total of 1191 Asian Americans from Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese backgrounds were studied. Replicate weights were applied to account for the survey’s complex sampling methods. Linear regression was used to identify the number of physician contacts.Results: Overall, respondents had seen a doctor an average of five times in the previous 12 months; 7% perceived that they had a mental health need. Perceiving a mental health need was associated with a decreased number of physician contacts for Filipino and Korean Americans.Conclusion: This study revealed interethnic differences among older Asian Americans’ contact with physicians. As older Filipino and Korean Americans who perceive a mental health need have fewer contacts with their physician, correctly identifying mental health needs in the health care system for these groups is crucial. Health and mental health professionals can work toward reducing mental health disparities by accounting for older Asian Americans’ help-seeking patterns when designing evidence-based interventions.Keywords: minority groups, Asians, health service use
Ying, Y W; Lee, P A; Tsai, J L; Hung, Y; Lin, M; Wan, C T
Educational success among Asian Americans has led to their being labeled the "model minority." At the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), Asian American students have higher grade point averages (GPAs) than Hispanic and African American but not White students, supporting the notion that Asian Americans are more successful compared with other racial minorities. However, success in the classroom does not implicate effective functioning in life, and nonacademic criteria ought to be considered in assessing the validity of the model minority image. Given the increasing diversification of the United States, cross-racial engagement may be an additional contributor to overall competence. This was empirically tested in a group of 642 undergraduates at UCB, including 291 Asian, 197 White, 20 African American, 67 Hispanic, and 56 multiracial students. Overall competence was operationalized by sense of coherence, that is, the extent to which the world is experienced as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful (A. Antonovsky, 1979, 1987). As predicted, Asian Americans had significantly fewer numbers of cross-racial groups represented in their friendship network than did students of all other races. Lower cross-racial engagement and being Asian (as compared with White) were related to a lower sense of coherence, whereas lower GPA was not. Within the Asian American subsample, cross-racial engagement was again significantly associated with greater coherence, whereas GPA again was not. Thus, extending the definition of success to overall competence, these findings raise questions about the applicability of the model minority label to Asian Americans, despite their academic achievement. Future studies need to assess the reasons for their limited cross-racial engagement and lower sense of coherence and to examine means to assist the development of these strengths.
The article, presenting the difficulties of teaching about any foreign civilization, sketches an Asian civilization course which attempts to mitigate those difficulties with a text book that uses models of historical processes applicable to different civilizations and indicative of their common grounds. (JH)
Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.
Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda; Liang, Christopher T H
Due to the limited psychological research on Asian Americans' experiences with racism, in the current study the authors examined the relationships between racial socialization, racial identity, and perceptions of racism, with a college-aged sample (N = 254) consisting primarily of Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans. With the use of multiple regression analyses, the results indicated that racial socialization, particularly discussions about race and racism, was positively related to one's perceptions of racism. Moreover, the study also showed that the relationship between racial socialization and perceptions of racism was partially mediated by racial identity schemas. To understand how Asian Americans regard racism, it is useful to have an understanding of racial identity theory and the manner in which Asian Americans are socialized to perceive racism.
No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi
People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.
Farquhar, Judith; Doi, Mary L.
Discussed in this article are numerous films which feature Asian characters and the influence these films have on stereotyped images of Asians and prevailing racist attitudes toward Asian Americans. (EB)
Zhang, Wei; Hong, Seunghye
Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, this work examines if and how perceived everyday discrimination is associated with psychological distress among Asian Americans and whether this association varies by important structural factors as education and place of education. Findings reveal that perception of discrimination is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Most importantly, education moderates the discrimination-distress association such that the detrimental effect of discrimination is stronger for Asian Americans with college or more levels of education than for Asian Americans with less than college levels of education. Place of education further conditions the moderating effect of education: The foreign-educated Asian Americans with higher levels of education are affected most negatively by discrimination compared to others. This study highlights (1) the significant joint role of education and place of education in conditioning the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress, and (2) unique features of education in improving our understanding of Asian Americans’ mental health. PMID:22767300
Park, Mijung; Chesla, Catherine A; Rehm, Roberta S; Chun, Kevin M
The aim of this study is to describe how mental healthcare providers adapted their practice to meet the unique needs of Asian Americans. As the number of ethnic minorities and multicultural patients and families rapidly increases, cultural competency becomes an essential skill for all healthcare providers. The lack of knowledge about how healthcare providers grapple with diverse cultures and cultural competency limits the ability of others to deliver patient-centred care across cultural lines. Interpretive phenomenology guided the design and conduct of this study. Twenty mental healthcare providers who treated Asian Americans were recruited. Narrative data were collected through face-to-face, in-depth interviews between 2006 and 2007. Three characteristics of culturally appropriate care for Asian Americans were identified. Cultural brokering: providers addressed issues stemming from cultural differences via bicultural skills education. Asian American patients generally received broader education than current literature recommended. Supporting families in transition: providers assisted Asian American families during transition from and to professional care. Using cultural knowledge to enhance competent care: providers' knowledge of Asian culture and flexible attitudes affected the care that they provided. Culturally competent providers were able to identify cultural issues that were relevant to the specific situation, and incorporated cultural solutions into the care provided. Culturally appropriate care is nuanced and context specific. Thus, more sophisticated and broader conceptualizations are necessary to prepare nurses for such complex practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie
The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Chu, Lap Tak
The purpose of the study reported here was to test the myth that Asian-American students are a "model minority," who consistently outperform Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and other minorities. Using 1989 data on students attending the nine colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD), the study…
Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley
This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…
Chang, Janet; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Chen, Chih-Nan
The present study utilized data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine ethnic and generational differences in family cultural conflict and family cohesion and how the effects of such family conflict and cohesion on lifetime service use vary by generation status for Latino Americans (n = 2,554) and Asian Americans (n = 2,095). Findings revealed that first-generation Asian Americans reported greater family cultural conflict than their Latino counterparts, but third-generation Latino Americans had higher family conflict than their Asian American counterparts. First-generation Latino and Asian Americans had the highest levels of family cohesion. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that Latino Americans who reported higher family cultural conflict and lower family cohesion were more likely to use mental health services. For Asian Americans, family cultural conflict, but not family cohesion, was associated with service use. Relative to third-generation Asian Americans, second-generation Asian Americans with higher family cultural conflict were more likely to use mental health services. Given that cohesive familial bonds appear to discourage service use on the part of Latino Americans irrespective of generation status, further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which this tendency stems from greater reliance on family support as opposed to the stigma associated with mental health treatment. Mental health providers and treatment programs need to address the role of family cultural conflict in the lives of Asian Americans, particularly second generation, and Latino Americans across generations, because conflictual family ties may motivate help-seeking behaviors and reveal substantial underlying distress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon
Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Urban and Regional Affairs.
This directory lists primarily not-for-profit organizations, associations, and mutual assistance groups in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota) that are by, for, and about Asian Americans. It does not include state offices, religious organizations, or student groups among its 116 entries. Each entry includes the organization's…
The cultures of racial and ethnic minorities influence many aspects of mental illness, including communication styles, symptoms, coping strategies, family and community support, and willingness to seek treatment. This article presents the effects of Asian American/Pacific Islanders' beliefs and behaviors related to mental health. Strategies to enhance the process and outcomes of the psychiatric interview with members of this populatior are addressed.
Lau, Anna S.; Jernewall, Nadine M.; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F.
Medical record abstraction was conducted to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Acculturation interacted with risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating…
Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.
The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…
Yoshioka, Robert B.; And Others
The first of the three parts of this article provides a brief outline of the stereotypes applied to Asian American Women and a useful backdrop on the other two parts. The second part on Chinese immigrants focuses on the strong family ties of tgis ethnic group. The third and last part concerns the quietness and modesty of the Issei--equated with…
Julian, Teresa W.; And Others
Examined cultural variations in parenting attitudes, behavior, and involvement of mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Findings from Caucasian (n=2,642), African-American (n=469), Hispanic-American (n=357), and Asian-American (n=49) parents revealed that, as group, ethnic parents indicated greater general emphasis on children exerting…
Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.
The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…
Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Zemore, Sarah
Despite the low overall prevalence of alcohol use among Asian Americans, rates of alcohol use disorder are high among Asian American young adults. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures on immigrants and their descendants has been overlooked in past research. We took an integrative approach to examine the influence of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and socioeconomic disparities on problem drinking among Asian American young adults. This study was a nationally representative sample of 854 Asian American young adults extracted from the Wave 4 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data. About 48% of the sample was female and 52% male. Several multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Controlling for other covariates, two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture were associated with alcohol outcomes only for the foreign born: (a) detrimental drinking pattern with frequent drunkenness and alcohol-abuse symptoms and (b) drinking prevalence with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Financial hardship was a significant predictor of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence only for the U.S. born. Asian language use was protective against alcohol-abuse symptoms and alcohol-dependence symptoms for the foreign born. Cultural and socioeconomic factors of problem drinking may be different for U.S.-and foreign-born Asian American young adults. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence problem drinking of foreign-born Asian American young adults, independent of their acculturation into U.S. cultures. To inform effective interventions targeted at immigrants and their descendants, future research might further investigate the cultural and socioeconomic processes in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking.
Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel
The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren
Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus
John, Dolly A.; de Castro, A.B.; Duran, Bonnie; Martin, Diane P.
Using data from 1,530 Asian respondents of the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study, we examined how nativity and occupational class are associated with uninsurance, no routine physical check-up in the past year and no dental/eye exam use in the past year using weighted multivariate logistic regression models. Recent immigrants had increased odds of uninsurance and no dental/eye exam use than US-born Asians which became nonsignificant after controlling for occupational class and...
Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…
Iwamoto, Derek K; Corbin, William; Fromme, Kim
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) among Asian Americans is a growing concern. However, little is known about the etiology and developmental patterns of HED among Asian Americans, even though this group is one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. Three year longitudinal design. Sample included 404 Asian American college students transitioning from high school, through the college years. Measures included heavy episodic drinking, parental and peer relationships, alcohol expectancies, drinking values, and alcohol-related problems. Results from growth-mixture models (GMM) identified two discrete latent classes of HED comprising 59% of our sample: these trajectory classes (high increasers and low increasers) corresponded to expected changes and stability in well-established correlates of drinking behaviour, including alcohol-related problems, personal drinking values and alcohol expectancies. Parental awareness and caring and quality of peer relationships during senior year of high school were associated directly and indirectly with HED class membership. These findings advance the literature by providing information about the developmental course of HED among Asian American young adults. The significant within-group variability in problematic drinking in this sample highlights the fact that subgroups of high-risk drinkers can be identified even in relatively low-risk groups such as Asian Americans. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Suzie S. Weng
Full Text Available With the growth of the Asian American population in the Southern region of the United States, mainstream and Asian American community must be aware of both informal and formal supports that are available for the population in order to effectively address needs and allocate resources. This community-based project identified informal and mainstream support that is available to an Asian American community using asset mapping. The asset-based community development framework was used in which the capacities of the local people and their associations are recognized to be essential in building a more powerful community, to helping a community be more self-sustaining, and to developing better relationships among entities. This study provides an inventory of community assets that otherwise may have been ignored and thus has the potential to contribute to a better functioning Asian American community in Jacksonville, Florida. 719 assets were identified as available potential resources for members of the Asian American community with a majority as formal resources. Of the informal assets, a majority are organizations. In general, formal resources are centralized, whereas informal resources are more evenly distributed throughout the city. These results can contribute to the establishment of more culturally accessible services and utilization of services.
The extent to which poor academic achievement is strongly related to delinquency among Southeast Asian Americans (SEAA) remains unclear; reasons are methodological limitations and aggregated findings for Asian Americans, which mask evidence that SEAA have a higher prevalence of criminality and poor academic performance than other Asian American groups. The present study examines the academic achievement-delinquency relationship in a diverse group of 1,214 SEAA using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to make causal inferences and assess whether poor academic achieving SEAA, after being matched with higher academic achieving SEAA, displayed a higher prevalence of delinquency. Findings showed that, even after matching, poor academic achieving SEAA were still more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior than those who performed academically better. Interventions targeting SEAA communities will need to focus more on improving academic achievement to directly prevent and decrease delinquent behavior.
Choi, Heeseung; Park, Hanjong; Suarez, Marie L; Park, Chang; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Wilkie, Diana J
Objective The Truth about Suicide video has been widely used but has never been empirically tested regarding its cultural appropriateness for Asian Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of using the video in a web-based suicide awareness programme for Asian American and non-Hispanic white college students. Methods A cross-sectional, comparative, web-based study was conducted with 227 Asian Americans and 204 non-Hispanic whites at a university in the Midwest region of the USA. Study participants completed a questionnaire measuring their cultural orientation and attitudes towards suicide, watched the 27 min video, completed a debriefing session and evaluated the video's overall suitability. Results Asian Americans rated the suicide awareness video significantly lower for cultural relevance than did non-Hispanic whites (F=5.479, p=0.02). Collectivist cultural orientation was a significant predictor for cultural relevance, credibility and appeal; however, evaluation of the video's cultural relevance was negatively affected by Asian ethnicity. Conclusions Cultural orientation and race/ethnicity should be strongly considered when web-based suicide awareness programmes are developed for college students. PMID:28003296
Sarwar, Evangel; Arias, Devin; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa Bhattacharya
Studies show that Asian-American subgroups do not always meet dietary recommendations and are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of our research is to illustrate the various sociodemographic correlates of dietary habits for six subgroups of Asian-Americans in California. The 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was utilized. A total of 3772 Asian-Americans were included in this study, with the largest subgroup being Chinese (n = 1280; N = 913,798). The outcome variable for this study was dietary behavior defined as consuming five or more fruits and vegetables per day (5-a-day), provided by CHIS. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted accounting for complex survey design. Being a female (Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese), not being married (Chinese), not being a college graduate (Chinese), living in poverty (South Asian), and speaking only English language at home (Chinese and Japanese) were associated with higher odds of not meeting a 5-a-day requirement. Results highlighted several sociodemographic correlates to not meeting 5-a-day requirement among six Asian-American subgroups. Targeted health promotion measures for such at-risk groups should be implemented to improve dietary practices.
Choi, Heeseung; Park, Hanjong; Suarez, Marie L; Park, Chang; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Wilkie, Diana J
The Truth about Suicide video has been widely used but has never been empirically tested regarding its cultural appropriateness for Asian Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of using the video in a web-based suicide awareness programme for Asian American and non-Hispanic white college students. A cross-sectional, comparative, web-based study was conducted with 227 Asian Americans and 204 non-Hispanic whites at a university in the Midwest region of the USA. Study participants completed a questionnaire measuring their cultural orientation and attitudes towards suicide, watched the 27 min video, completed a debriefing session and evaluated the video's overall suitability. Asian Americans rated the suicide awareness video significantly lower for cultural relevance than did non-Hispanic whites (F=5.479, p=0.02). Collectivist cultural orientation was a significant predictor for cultural relevance, credibility and appeal; however, evaluation of the video's cultural relevance was negatively affected by Asian ethnicity. Cultural orientation and race/ethnicity should be strongly considered when web-based suicide awareness programmes are developed for college students. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Burkey, Heidi; Ratanasiripong, Nop
The present study investigated the relationship between stress and substance use among 347 Asian American, 346 Latino, and 776 White college students. Although stress was not found to predict substance use among the ethnic/ethnic group studied, results of the study indicated that Latino students reported a significantly higher stress level than…
Full Text Available Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87 and White (n = 87 participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates, coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs. The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.
Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom; Kimbro, Rachel T
Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Secondary aims were to compare changes by Asian ethnic group and acculturation x socioeconomic status. Participants included 1200 Asian-American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a longitudinal study of U.S. children attending kindergarten in 2010-2011. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict weight change based on body mass indices in kindergarten (spring 2011) and second grade (spring 2013): consistently healthy weight, consistently overweight/obese, healthy weight change, and unhealthy weight change. Models included demographic, household, socioeconomic status, and acculturation measures, specifically mother's English proficiency and percentage of life spent in the U.S. Overall, 72.3% of children were at healthy weights in kindergarten and second grade. Of all Asian ethnic groups, Filipino children had the highest rate of being consistently overweight/obese (24.8%) and the lowest rate of being consistently healthy weight (62.9%). In addition, mother's English proficiency predicted unhealthy weight change (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and healthy weight change (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65-0.86), relative to "consistently healthy weight." English proficiency also predicted being consistently overweight/obese for children with less educated mothers. Findings enhance our understanding of obesity disparities within Asian Americans and highlight the need to disaggregate the population. Obesity interventions are needed for Filipino children and families with low socioeconomic status but high English proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lew, Jonathan W.
Asian Americans, as a group, are not as civically engaged as might be expected given their rapid growth in population and high average levels of education and income. The undergraduate years are a critical period in which this "civic engagement gap" could be addressed given the dramatic growth in Asian American college students and…
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and-although very limited-negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research.
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415
Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ganuza, Zoila M.
Career development that adequately addresses the needs of multicultural students is important. The authors explored whether a constructivist career course might be a viable mechanism for improving career decision self-efficacy for 81 Asian American and African American college students. Results indicated significant increases in all 5 elements of…
Leong, Frederick T. L.
Tests hypotheses proposed by Leong and Chou for understanding the acculturation process among Asian Americans and uses their model to predict potential career adjustment problems encountered by Asians. In Study 1, acculturation was positively linked to job satisfaction. In Study 2, acculturation was found to be positively related to supervisors'…
Hassan Manal M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are established causes of HCC. HCC patients are often diagnosed late and receive palliative therapies, however, the survival of Asian American patients with HCC treated without transplantation has not been well studied. We reviewed our institution's experience to determine predictors and rates of survival in Asian American HCC patients treated without transplantation. Methods We identified Asian American patients with HCC referred to M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patients were tested for HBV and HCV. Survival curves were generated by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the relationship between prognostic factors and survival. Results Of 82 Asian American HCC patients, most had advanced disease (65% and received treatment (68%; however, only 11% had surgical resection. 94% had positive anti-HBc and 61% had positive HBsAg. 20% had positive anti-HCV. There were no significant changes in the rates of HBV and HCV over time. Male gender, high alpha-fetoprotein levels, and stage IV disease were associated with shorter survival Overall median survival was 9.2 months (95% CI 6.5–11.9, and the survival of HCV and HBV patients was not statistically different. Conclusion The survival rate of Asian American patients with advanced HCC, for whom transplantation was not available, was low. Timely hepatitis screening and interventions by primary care physicians may be the most logical solution to reduce the burden of hepatitis-associated HCC among Asian Americans.
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R
An important aspect of identity development requires adolescents to consider and select the cultural label or labels that best fit with their conception of who they are. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal development of such labeling preferencs and their possible links with adjustment. Using longitudinal data from 180 Asian Americans (60% female; 74% U.S.-born), intra-individual and group-level changes in adolescents' American label use were tracked. Over time, 48% chose an American label as their "best-fitting" label and 42% chose an American label at least once, but did not include an American label during at least one other time point. American label use was not associated with continuous measures of American identity, but the use of American labels was linked with lower levels of ethnic identity. American identity, whether indicated by label use or continuous scale scores, was generally linked with positive psychological and academic adjustment, with some effects of label use moderated by gender and generational status. Developmental implications of American cultural labels as markers of adolescent identity and broader adjustment are discussed.
This article provides an overview of the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its complications, treatment and impact on the Asian American population in the United States. A discussion of the impact that hepatitis B vaccination can have on reducing HBV infection and liver disease is also provided. A review of current literature on the history, diagnosis, complications and treatment of HBV infection was conducted as well as a review of current hepatitis B vaccination efforts. HBV infection is common in the Asian American population, with 1 in 10 Asian Americans affected. Perinatal and childhood transmission account for most of these chronic cases. Molecular genetic advances have allowed for advances in understanding of this disease in chronically infected individuals. Interferon therapy and/or Lamivudine are currently the main therapies. Even though considerable success has been shown with drug therapy, and numerous other agents are under investigation, the high morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma of those chronically infected with HBV, risk prevention and vaccination will have to be the main foci for future eradication. The combined efforts of public health, health practitioners, immunization and cancer control leaders and voluntary and advocacy organizations are necessary to achieve universal hepatitis B vaccination.
Lee, Janilla; Lok, Anna S; Chen, Judy
Free HBV (hepatitis B virus) screening was offered at 8 health fairs to Asian Americans in Southeast and West Michigan for two and a half years as a community service to study the prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans in Michigan as a first step in reducing the incidence of hepatitis B. The screening included a 4 ml blood sample and a questionnaire assessing demographics and family history of hepatitis B; tests included the HBV surface antigen and antibody. 567 people participated in the study. About 6% of the participants had chronic hepatitis B (HBV carriers), 54% had the antibody (either had the disease before or were vaccinated) and 40% had no antibody or antigen (never infected by HBV and should be vaccinated to get protection). More than 95% of the participants were immigrants. Participants indicated in the family history that 10% had relatives with hepatitis B, 5% with liver cirrhosis, and 3% with liver cancer. Results of our screening supported our hypothesis that prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans in Michigan would be similar to that in Asian Americans on the East and West coasts. We need to develop a strategy in Michigan to address this disease. In conducting this study, it was noticed that there was still resistance by Asian Americans to participate in clinical studies. An education intervention that is delivered in native Asian languages and in a culturally sensitive manner is needed to effectively raise awareness of hepatitis B among Asian Americans.
Lowinger, Robert; Song, Hyun-a
This study explored Asian American students' likelihood of selecting STEM over liberal arts or business college majors using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Student-level variables were the strongest predictors of college major, followed by parent-level variables, and background variables. Academic achievement and interest were the…
Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E
The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States.
abstrakt til konferencepaper, der diskuterer forholdet mellem ASAL, der i mange år har tegnet australske studier med hovedvægten på litteraturstudier, og AASRN, der repræsenterer asiatisk-australske studier. AASRN er langt mere populærkulturelt, cultural studies, og tværdisciplinært orienteret, ud...
Park, Jerry Z.; Martinez, Brandon C.; Cobb, Ryon; Park, Julie J.; Wong, Erica Ryu
Stereotypes of outgroups help create social identificational boundaries for ingroups. When the ingroup is dominant, members employ individualist sentiments to justify their status. In this study, we build on advances in social psychological research that account for multiple outgroup stereotypes. We argue the Asian American model minority stereotype is analogous to the “cold but competent” position of perceptions toward Asians in Fiske’s stereotype content model. Asian Americans are perceived to be exceptional to other minority groups, and we hypothesize that perceived competence is associated with individualist sentiments directed at Blacks and Latinos. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Freshmen, we find support for our hypotheses but find that perceived coldness has no relationship to individualist sentiments. We discuss the implications and directions for further research. PMID:27478288
Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Lin, Yi-Chun; Rausch, Meredith A.
There is a considerable history of misunderstandings associated with Asian American in education. Although many educators and scholars have begun to pay more attention to unique issues associated with this population, studies exploring these students' experiences as honors students in collegiate contexts are scant in the educational literature.…
Studies on college students' racial identities seldom focus on geographic context, despite existing research documenting its role in how racial groups construct and express racial identities. Drawing on theories of ecological systems and racial formation, I explored experiences of race and racial identity among 10 Asian American students who…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Hung, Yuan; Lin, Melissa; Wan, Ching Tin
Success in the classroom does not necessarily imply effective life functioning. Study suggests nonacademic criteria be considered in assessing the validity of the model minority image. It compares Asian American college students with their racially different peers on degree of cross-racial engagement, and empirically tests its relationship with…
Chung, Ruth H. Gim
This study looked at intergenerational relations according to gender, ethnicity, and acculturation, as aspects of immigrant family life of Asian American college students (N=342). Variations were found in intergenerational tensions over expectations regarding educational and career concerns, and dating and marriage issues. Gender was a factor but…
Chutuape, Erica D.
This study provides a deeper understanding of the interracial connections not just between non-whites and whites, but among non-whites. Filipino American youth attending high school in New York City contended with a dominant bipolar racial discourse that marginalizes the racialized experiences of Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, instead of…
The purpose of this study was to examine what career development variables, according to the Social Cognitive Career Theory, contribute to career decision-making self-efficacy, one of the key components of career development in a sample of Asian American undergraduate college students. The career literature is historically limited in empirical…
Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.
This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors of…
Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti
College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…
The purpose of this study was to explore the moderating and mediating role of collectivistic/situation-specific coping and individualistic/dispositional coping in the relationship between perceived racism and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 203) of Asian American college students. Data were collected from a large public Southeastern state…
Chmaj, Betty E.
The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…
Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily
This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily
This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N=2095 Asian Americans living in N=259 neighborhoods; N=2554 Latinos living in N=317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24769491
Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.
Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.
Lee, Sunmin; Chae, David H; Jung, Mary Y; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon
This study examines the associations between acculturation and three health examination behaviors (physical, dental, and eye exams) among 846 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. The study was part of a randomized, community-based trial on liver cancer prevention that targeted Asian Americans in Washington DC metropolitan area. Acculturation was assessed using Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, acculturation clusters, and length of stay. Health examination behaviors in the last 2 years were self-reported. Potential confounders such as age, gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, self-rated health status, health insurance, and having a regular physician were adjusted. Increased acculturation was associated with greater receipt of preventive services when acculturation was measured by SL-ASIA and acculturation clusters. Compared to those in the "Asian" cluster, those in the "American" cluster and "bicultural" clusters were more likely to have physical exams (American odds ratio (OR) = 1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.99, 3.88; bicultural OR = 1.11; 95 % CI 0.72, 1.70), dental exams (American OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.65; bicultural OR = 1.83, 95 % CI 1.21, 2.78), and eye exams (American OR = 4.48, 95 % CI 2.67, 7.66; bicultural OR = 1.92, 95 % CI 1.31, 2.81). A gradient was observed in these associations with the American cluster having stronger associations than the bicultural cluster. Interaction was found between acculturation and gender for receipt of a physical exam. Future studies are needed to further explicate how access to health care impacts the association between acculturation and health examinations among Asian Americans.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G.; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of “disempowering parenting styles” that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescr...
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice "disempowering parenting styles," (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications - Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is
Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Lixuan; Weng, Zhongqi; Li, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh
We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the USA. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyse the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January-June 2013. Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their 'American dreams'. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could 'make their dreams come true.' Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should focus on enhancing acculturation and reducing depression to
Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J
We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.
Ayres, Cynthia G; Mahat, Ganga
This study developed and tested a theory to better understand positive health practices (PHP) among Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. It tested theoretical relationships postulated between PHP and (a) social support (SS), (b) optimism, and (c) acculturation, and between SS and optimism and acculturation. Optimism and acculturation were also tested as possible mediators in the relationship between SS and PHP. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 163 Asian college students in an urban setting completed four questionnaires assessing SS, PHP, optimism, and acculturation and one demographic questionnaire. There were statistically significant positive relationships between SS and optimism with PHP, between acculturation and PHP, and between optimism and SS. Optimism mediated the relationship between SS and PHP, whereas acculturation did not. Findings extend knowledge regarding these relationships to a defined population of Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. Findings contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian Americans. The theoretical and empirical findings of this study provide the direction for future research as well. Further studies need to be conducted to identify and test other mediators in order to better understand the relationship between these two variables.
Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle
Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…
Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents' level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent-child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers' ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children's anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children.
Chao, Ruth K; Aque, Christine
Although studies have reported ethnic and cultural differences in the effects of parenting on adolescent well-being, rarely have they included specific examinations of the cultural processes underlying these differences. This study examined adolescents' affective interpretations of parents' control (i.e., feelings of anger toward control) and how these interpretations may moderate the relationship between control and adolescents' behavioral adjustment. The study comprised 1,085 immigrant youth of Chinese, Korean, and Filipino descent, and also European American youth from high schools in the greater Los Angeles area. Differences were found between European American and Asian immigrant youth in the effects of both behavioral control and psychological control. Furthermore, among European Americans only, as adolescents' feelings of anger increased, the beneficial consequences of behavioral control decreased, whereas the negative effects of psychological control on behavior problems decreased. The results suggest that feeling anger toward parents' use of psychological control may serve a protective function for European American youth but not for Asian immigrant youth. In contrast, feeling angry about behavioral control seems to reduce the beneficial consequences of control among European Americans but not Asian immigrants. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Jo, Moon H.
While Asians in the United States continue to experience the discriminatory barriers that other minorities face, the myth that Asian Americans are a well-adjusted model minority has resulted in public neglect of the problems of this group. To a significant extent, the myth arises from the fact that Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian groups have…
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined a specific type of racial microaggression known as an exceptionalizing stereotype, in which an action is framed as interpersonally complimentary but perpetuates negative stereotypical views of a racial/ethnic group. Asian American participants (N = 68) were assigned to 1 of 3 brief semistructured interview conditions that highlight an exceptionalizing stereotype of Asian Americans to varying degrees. In the low racially loaded condition, participants were told, "You speak English well" by a White confederate. In the high racially loaded condition, they were told, "You speak English well for an Asian." In the control condition, the confederate said, "Nice talking to you." Only participants in the high racially loaded condition rated their partner, the interaction, and future interactions less favorably than participants in the control condition. They also evaluated their partner and interaction less positively than participants in the low racial loading condition. The results suggest exceptionalizing stereotypes can be interpersonally damaging for Asian Americans. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.
Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.
Lew, A S; Allen, R; Papouchis, N; Ritzler, B
One hundred eighty-five Asian American undergraduates participated in a study designed to examine the relationships among gender, acculturation, achievement orientation, and fear of academic success. Acculturation was modestly correlated with achievement orientation. Endorsement of Asian and Anglo values were significantly related to individual-oriented achievement. Marginal significance, however, was obtained for endorsement of Asian values and beliefs to social-oriented achievement. These findings suggest that persons with a bicultural identity tend to adopt a multifaceted achievement style. Achievement orientation, in turn, predicted fear of academic success, with gender and perceived discrepancies from parental achievement values contributing minimal additional variance. Social-oriented achievement was related to high fear of academic success, whereas an individualistic orientation buffered against such conflicts.
Katherine G Hastings
Full Text Available Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%. Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.
Perkins, A C; Cheng, C E; Hillebrand, G G; Miyamoto, K; Kimball, A B
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease with a large quality of life impact, characterized by comedones, inflammatory lesions, secondary dyspigmentation and scarring. There are few large objective studies comparing acne epidemiology between racial and ethnic groups. This study aimed to define the prevalence and subtypes of acne in women of different racial groups from four ethnicities. The sample consisted of 2895 (384 African American, 520 Asian, 1295 Caucasian, 258 Hispanic and 438 Continental Indian) women ranging in age from 10 to 70 years. Photographs of subjects were graded for acne lesions, scars, dyspigmentation, and measurements taken of sebum excretion and pore size. Clinical acne was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic women (37%, 32% respectively) than in Continental Indian, Caucasian and Asian (23%, 24%, 30% respectively) women. All racial groups displayed equal prevalence of both subtypes of acne with the exception of Asians, for whom inflammatory acne was more prevalent than comedonal (20% vs. 10%) acne, and in Caucasians, for whom comedonal acne was more prevalent than inflammatory (14% vs. 10%) acne. Hyperpigmentation was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic (65%, 48% respectively) than in Asian, Continental Indian and Caucasian (18%, 10%, 25% respectively) women. Dyspigmentation and atrophic scarring were more common in African American and Hispanic women than in all other ethnicities. There was a negative correlation between pore size and skin lightness for all ethnicities. Sebum production was positively correlated with acne severity in African American, Asian and Hispanic women, and pore size was positively correlated with acne in African American, Asian and Continental Indian women, (for all above results, PAcne was evaluated only on the left side of the face and the two-dimensional nature of photography may not capture all skin surface changes. Acne prevalence and sequelae were more common in those with darker skin types
Her, Chia S.
The educational experiences of Southeast Asian Americans, particularly Cambodian Americans, Hmong Americans, Laotian Americans, and Vietnamese Americans, are characterized by numerous challenges, which can be attributed to their migration history, socioeconomic status, and English proficiency. By the end of 11th grade, a high percentage of…
Mateus Pereira, L H; Socorro, A; Fernandez, I; Masleh, M; Vidal, D; Bianchi, N O; Bonatto, S L; Salzano, F M; Herrera, R J
This study attempts to ascertain genetic affinities between Native American and East Asian populations by analyzing four polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs) and three L1 polymorphic loci. These two genetic systems demonstrated strong congruence when levels of diversity and genetic distances were considered. Overall, genetic relatedness within Native American groups does not correlate with geographical and linguistic structure, although strong grouping for Native Americans with East Asians was demonstrated, with clear discrimination from African and European groups. Most of the variation was assigned to differences occurring within groups, but the interpopulation variation found for South Amerindians was recognizably higher in comparison to the other sampled groups of populations. Our data suggest that bottleneck events followed by strong influence of genetic drift in the process of the peopling of the Americas may have been determinant factors in delineating the genetic background of present-day South Amerindians. Since no clear subgroups were detected within Native Americans and East Asians, there is no indication of multiple waves in the early colonization of the New World. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M
Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.
Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…
Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis
AIMS: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence of...
Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Coll, Blai; Davis, Justin W.; Idler, Ken; Kohan, Donald E.; Liu, Mohan; Perkovic, Vlado; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Toto, Robert; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick
Aims: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence of
Excerpts from an interview with an Asian-American woman about her views on aspects of her life illustrate key issues related to the cultural implications of having a visual impairment. Suggestions for professionals who work with Asian-American or Pacific-Islander clients are also presented. (Author/CR)
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.
The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…
Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…
Museus, Samuel D.; Park, Julie J.
Asian Americans are one of the most misunderstood populations in higher education, and more research on this population is warranted. In this investigation, authors sought to understand the range of ways that Asian American students experience racism on a daily basis in college. They analyzed data from 46 individual, face-to-face qualitative…
Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap
This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…
Souza, Cheri Y. H.
Within the United States, the model minority myth has contributed to empirically unsubstantiated misconceptions about Asian American college students. Although there is considerable research on college student adjustment and its role in persistence, literature focusing on the Asian American experience is lacking. Furthermore, the experience of…
Monideepa B. Becerra
Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans (N=665,195 were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (OR=3.05, 95% CI=1.55, 5.98 and monolingual (English only Vietnamese (OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.58, 5.70, especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only, not being current married (South Asian only, and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians. Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults.
Mok, T A
Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy.
This article addresses practice concerns and special issues for professionals doing case management for older Asian Americans using Alzheimer's disease as the case example. Highlighted are cross-cultural issues in assessment for depression in this population, as well as caregiving and community service utilization issues. The research is based on the author's own work and the literature, as well as results from a population-based study of caregivers of the elderly in California.
Rosalind S. Chou
Full Text Available Our article demonstrates the power of white habitus, prevalence of colorblind racism, and effect of hegemonic masculine ideology on Asian American students at an elite Southern university. This study takes an intersectional approach towards white habitus, acknowledging the gendered sexualized nature of colorblind racial ideology. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 Asian American undergraduates, we emphasize that Asian Americans are not immune to the racist and racialized experiences of even the most elite American universities and its social spaces. Findings suggest that white habitus and exclusionary white university Greek spaces support a racialized, sexualized, and gendered socialization that intimatley affects our respondents. Our Asian American undergraduates describe instances of sexualized racism and racialized romantic experiences that are particular by gender. We also discuss how our participants have adopted and internalized ideology produced from white habitus and colorblind racism at the university. White habitus socializes and shapes Asian American students at an elite Southern university through intersecting domains of power and through exclusion in largely white spaces.
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined cross-ethnic friendship choices and intergroup attitudes in a sample of 762 sixth grade Asian American students (Mage=11.5 years) attending one of 19 middle schools that varied in ethnic composition. Multiple measures of friendship (quantity and quality) and intergroup attitudes (affective, cognitive, behavioral) toward White, Latino, and Black grademates were assessed. The results showed that Asian American students over-nominated White students and under-nominated Latino and Black students as their friends when school availability of each ethnic group was accounted for. Cross-ethnic friendships were related to better intergroup attitudes, especially the behavioral dimension of attitudes. Cross-ethnic friendships were least likely to change attitudes towards Blacks. Implications for future research, educational practice, and attitude intervention programs were discussed. PMID:25626492
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.
Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.
Hibbard, S; Tang, P C; Latko, R; Park, J H; Munn, S; Bolz, S; Somerville, A
Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) responses of 69 Asian American (hereafter, Asian) and 83 White students were coded for defenses according to the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, 1991b) and studied for differential validity in predicting paper-and-pencil measures of relevant constructs. Three tests for differential validity were used: (a) differences between validity coefficients, (b) interactions between predictor and ethnicity in criterion prediction, and (c) differences between groups in mean prediction errors using a common regression equation. Modest differential validity was found. It was surprising that the DMM scales were slightly stronger predictors of their criteria among Asians than among Whites and when a common predictor was used, desirable criteria were overpredicted for Asians, whereas undesirable ones were overpredicted for Whites. The results were not affected by acculturation level or English vocabulary among the Asians.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Cheon, Hee-Sun
The present study is an empirical investigation of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and mental health (anxiety, depression, and well-being) in a sample of Asian American college students. In addition, we explored the role of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Asian American participants (N = 156) were recruited from 2 institutions located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Participants filled out an online survey consisting of measures assessing the study variables. Bootstrapped results indicated that cultural mistrust was a significant mediator in the relation between microaggressions and well-being, such that racial microaggressions was significantly and positively associated with cultural mistrust, which, in turn, was significantly and inversely related to well-being. Mediation models involving anxiety, depression, and help-seeking attitudes as outcome variables were nonsignificant. The significant mediation finding (microaggressions → mistrust → well-being) has implications for improved understanding of Asian American students' reactions to modern day racism and how it relates to their sense of well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Zemore, Sarah
Objective: Despite the low overall prevalence of alcohol use among Asian Americans, rates of alcohol use disorder are high among Asian American young adults. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures on immigrants and their descendants has been overlooked in past research. We took an integrative approach to examine the influence of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and socioeconomic disparities on problem drinking among Asian American young adults. Method: This study was a nationally representative sample of 854 Asian American young adults extracted from the Wave 4 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data. About 48% of the sample was female and 52% male. Several multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results: Controlling for other covariates, two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture were associated with alcohol outcomes only for the foreign born: (a) detrimental drinking pattern with frequent drunkenness and alcoholabuse symptoms and (b) drinking prevalence with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Financial hardship was a significant predictor of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence only for the U.S. born. Asian language use was protective against alcohol-abuse symptoms and alcohol-dependence symptoms for the foreign born. Conclusions: Cultural and socioeconomic factors of problem drinking may be different for U.S.- and foreign-born Asian American young adults. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence problem drinking of foreign-born Asian American young adults, independent of their acculturation into U.S. cultures. To inform effective interventions targeted at immigrants and their descendants, future research might further investigate the cultural and socioeconomic processes in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking. PMID:23739016
Is immigrant groups' assimilation to host society at odds with their engagement with the country of ancestral origin? This study divides the concept of assimilation into socioeconomic resources and attachment to host society, and argues that assimilation and transnational perspectives are coexisting paradigms. Analyses using the nationally representative samples of Latino and Asian Americans indicate that 1) higher-order generations reduce the odds of home country engagement, i.e. frequent return visits, 2) attachment to American society does not discourage return visits, 3) socioeconomic resources increase frequent visits, and 4) the country of origin is a significant predictor of home country visits. PMID:21647239
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. PMID:24183532
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin
Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women.
Judy Soojin Park
Full Text Available This article investigates the recent proliferation of Asian American participants in Electronic Dance Music (EDM festivals with a particular focus on those organized by Insomniac Events in Southern California. As Insomniac’s events aim to propagate an ethos of PLUR—Peace, Love, Unity and Respect—reminiscent of historical rave culture, these events promise a space where anyone, regardless of race, class, gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with participant observation, I argue that Asian American youth’s status as “perpetual foreigners” and subsequent desire for cultural belonging have motivated their participation in events promoted by Insomniac. Nevertheless, the Asian American participants I interviewed defined notions of belonging, authenticity and subcultural capital in the EDM festival scene in relation to suburban middle-class whiteness and in opposition to urban hip-hop blackness. My research provides a much-needed study of nonwhite participants and how they negotiate their subjectivities in relation to the contemporary EDM festival scene.
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju
Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cook, Won Kim; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Bond, Jason; Lui, Camillia
We aimed to identify problem drinking trajectories and their predictors among Asian Americans transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. We considered cultural and socioeconomic contextual factors, specifically ethnic drinking cultures, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and neighborhood coethnic density, to identify subgroups at high risk for developing problematic drinking trajectories. We used a sample of 1333 Asian Americans from 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1994-2008) in growth mixture models to identify trajectory classes of frequent heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness. We fitted multinomial logistic regression models to identify predictors of trajectory class membership. Two dimensions of ethnic drinking culture-drinking prevalence and detrimental drinking pattern in the country of origin-were predictive of problematic heavy episodic drinking and drunkenness trajectories. Higher neighborhood socioeconomic status in adolescence was predictive of the trajectory class indicating increasing frequency of drunkenness. Neighborhood coethnic density was not predictive of trajectory class membership. Drinking cultures in the country of origin may have enduring effects on drinking among Asian Americans. Further research on ethnic drinking cultures in the United States is warranted for prevention and intervention.
Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S
Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.
Lee, Young-Me; Florez, Elizabeth; Tariman, Joseph; McCarter, Sarah; Riesche, Laren
To understand the influential factors related to sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents and to evaluate common factors across successful sexual education programs for this population. Despite a rapid increase in cases of STIs/HIV among Asian-American populations, there remains a need for a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors related to risky sexual behaviors for this population. An integrative literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles and government resources were analyzed. Five influential factors were identified: family-centered cultural values, parental relationship, acculturation, gender roles, and lack of knowledge and information about sex and STIs. Only two sexual educational programs met the inclusion criteria and provided evidence towards effectiveness: Safer Choices and Seattle Social Development Project. The findings of this study indicate an urgent need for culturally sensitive sexual education programs that incorporate the identified influential factors, especially cultural values in order to reduce risky sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy
We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We demonstrate…
Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping
In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.
Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that the degree to which individuals focus on themselves vs. social relations in their memories varies markedly across cultures. Do the differences result from differing cultural self-views (i.e., an autonomous vs. a relational sense of self), as often suggested in the literature? Experimental evidence…
Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast
Kuramoto, A; Louie, K B
The trend of high incidence of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, Hepatitis B, and tuberculosis among the Asian/Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) will significantly affect the increased need for culturally competent care for this particular ethnic group. There is a need to increase the numbers of Asian/Pacific Islander American nurses in the future workforce to meet the health needs of this heterogenous and diversified population. Current workforce data on the Asian/Pacific Islander American nurses is misleading, since data collection aggregates all APIAs into a single category, with disregard to the various subgroupings of this large ethnic group.
Javier, Sarah J; Belgrave, Faye Z
The etiology of body dissatisfaction and its correlates (eg, disordered eating) among ethnic minorities is generally unknown. The purpose of this study was to replicate the tripartite model of influence in an Asian American college female sample in order to examine this relationship. Participants were 80 undergraduate Asian American females between the ages of 18 and 25. Participants completed a survey that included the Tripartite Influence Scale, Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, and Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3. Mediation analyses indicated that thin-ideal internalization fully mediated the relationship between media influence and body dissatisfaction and partially mediated the relationship between peer influence and body dissatisfaction. Family influence did not significantly predict body dissatisfaction. Asian American college females experience body dissatisfaction through mechanisms that have not been examined in detail. These factors must be considered when creating targeted health promotion strategies and developing best practices for eating disorder assessment and treatment protocols at university health centers.
Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew
Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them.
Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai
Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.
Singh, Vibhuti; Deedwania, Prakash
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and certain population groups, such as South Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics, carry a disproportionately larger burden of CVD manifested as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension. Persons of these special populations experience approximately two- to threefold greater morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of risk factors, including dyslipidemia, overweight, and diabetes, is not only higher in these groups, but is also rising. The reasons for such disparity appear to be multifactorial and influenced by such factors as lifestyle, diet, culture, genetics, and suboptimal healthcare. Furthermore, because these minority populations are not significantly represented in major clinical trials, evidence-based management strategies for treatment and prevention of CVD are seriously lacking. Lately, however, several randomized trials of therapy for dyslipidemia to reduce cardiovascular events among these ethnic groups have been undertaken. Preliminary data suggest the need for stricter goals and increasingly aggressive therapy for these special populations, including administrative and educational interventions.
Poon, OiYan A.
Opponents of affirmative action in the Fisher Supreme Court case claim that race-conscious admissions policies discriminate against Asian American applicants and impose a "higher bar" in college admissions than for other students. In their amicus brief supporting the plaintiff in the Fisher case, 80-20 states that, "Asian American…
Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.
Carrion, Iraida V; Park, Nan Sook; Lee, Beom S
This study examined the characteristics of individuals in hospice care by racial/ethnic groups. A total of 22,936 patients served by a hospice in Central Florida during a four-year period, from 2002 to 2006, were included. Of these, 80.6% were White, 9.6% were Black/African-American, 9.3% were Hispanic and 0.5% were Asian American/Pacific Islander. We examined the associations between the characteristics of hospice users and race/ethnicity, and change of hospice user characteristics over time using chi-square and ANOVA tests. More females than males were represented. Spouse caregivers were most common for Whites (35%) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (36%). However, "other" (41%) caregivers were most frequent for African Americans and daughters (33%) were most often caregivers for Hispanics. Cancer was the primary diagnosis across the four groups. Racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to rely on Medicaid than Whites (10-70% vs. 4%) and African Americans were most likely to be transferred from hospital (57%), whereas Whites were referred from assisted living/nursing homes more frequently than others(16% vs. 7-10%). As the hospice settings become more racially/ethnically diverse, it is essential to attend to the different circumstances and needs of the various groups in providing optimal care.
Shafer, Autumn; Kaufhold, Kelly; Luo, Yunjuan
An important part in the effort to prevent, treat, and cure breast cancer is research done with healthy breast tissue. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (KTB) encourages women to donate a small amount of healthy breast tissue and then provides that tissue to researchers studying breast cancer. Although KTB has a large donor base, the volume of tissue samples from Asian women is low despite prior marketing efforts to encourage donation among this population. This study builds on prior work promoting breast cancer screenings among Asian women by applying constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) to investigate why Asian-American women are less inclined to donate their healthy breast tissue than non-Asian women and how this population may be motivated to donate in the future. A national online survey (N = 1,317) found Asian women had significantly lower perceived severity, some lower perceived benefits, and higher perceived barriers to tissue donation than non-Asian women under HBM and significantly lower injunctive norms supporting breast tissue donation, lower perceived behavioral control, and lower intentions to donate under IBM. This study also compares and discusses similarities and differences among East, Southeast, and South Asian women on these same constructs.
ChenFeng, Jessica; Kim, Lana; Wu, Yuwei; Knudson-Martin, Carmen
Asian Americans juggle the intersections of multiple social identities and societal discourses as they respond to experiences of immigration, marginalization, and patriarchy, integrate collectivist and individualistic family values, and form families and intimate relationships. In this study we examine what we have learned as we apply Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy (SERT) with heterosexual couples of Asian heritage. SERT begins with sociocultural attunement and the assumption that relationships should mutually support each partner. Drawing on case examples, we illustrate how we practice sociocultural attunement as couples respond to the relational processes that comprise the Circle of Care (mutual influence, vulnerability, attunement, and shared relational responsibility). We emphasize three key socioemotional themes that intersect with gender: (1) intangible loss; (2) quiet fortitude/not burdening others; and (3) duty to the family. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Park, Judy Soojin
..., gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with participant observation, I argue that Asian American youth's status as "perpetual foreigners" and subsequent desire for cultural belonging...
Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.
This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…
In this review, the author incorporates her own personal narrative into the discussion as a way of enriching and contextualizing the intersection of critical race theory, Asian Americans, and higher education. From the issues explored in this paper, two key themes emerged: 1) Asian Americans should not be considered as one monolithic group, but rather their educational experiences and outcomes should be disaggregated and 2) issues of race and racism, particularly as it challenges the model mi...
Song, Suzan J.; Ziegler, Robert; Arsenault, Lisa; Fried, Lise E.; Hacker, Karen
There are inconsistent findings about depression in Asians. This study examined risk factors for depression in Asian and Caucasian adolescents. Stratified bivariate secondary analyses of risk indicators and depressed mood were performed in this cross-sectional study of high school survey data (9th to 12th grades) from 2,542 students (198 Asian).…
Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose
"Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Sy, Thomas; Shore, Lynn M; Strauss, Judy; Shore, Ted H; Tram, Susanna; Whiteley, Paul; Ikeda-Muromachi, Kristine
On the basis of the connectionist model of leadership, we examined perceptions of leadership as a function of the contextual factors of race (Asian American, Caucasian American) and occupation (engineering, sales) in 3 experiments (1 student sample and 2 industry samples). Race and occupation exhibited differential effects for within- and between-race comparisons. With regard to within-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were higher when race-occupation was a good fit (engineer position) than when race-occupation was a poor fit (sales position) for the two industry samples. With regard to between-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were low relative to those of Caucasian Americans. Additionally, when race-occupation was a good fit for Asian Americans, such individuals were evaluated higher on perceptions of technical competence than were Caucasian Americans, whereas they were evaluated lower when race-occupation was a poor fit. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that race affects leadership perceptions through the activation of prototypic leadership attributes (i.e., implicit leadership theories). Implications for the findings are discussed in terms of the connectionist model of leadership and leadership opportunities for Asian Americans. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Wong, Sabrina T; Gildengorin, Ginny; Nguyen, Tung; Mock, Jeremiah
Among Asian Americans, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer, and it is the third highest cause of cancer-related mortality. The 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2001) was used to examine 1) CRC screening rates between different Asian-American ethnic groups compared with non-Latino whites and 2) factors related to CRC screening. The CHIS 2001 was a population-based telephone survey that was conducted in California. Responses about CRC screening were analyzed from 1771 Asian Americans age 50 years and older (Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese). The authors examined two CRC screening outcomes: individuals who ever had CRC screening and individuals who were up to date for CRC screening. For CRC screening, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, and any other form of screening were examined. CRC screening of any kind was low in all populations, and Koreans had the lowest rate (49%). Multivariate analysis revealed that, compared with non-Latino whites, Koreans were less likely to undergo FOBT (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.25-0.62), and Filipinos were the least likely to undergo sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88) or to be up to date with screening (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.97). Asian Americans were less likely to undergo screening if they were older, male, less educated, recent immigrants, living with >or= 3 individuals, poor, or uninsured. Asian-American populations, especially Koreans and Filipinos, are under-screened for CRC. Outreach efforts could be more focused on helping Asian Americans to understand the importance of CRC screening, providing accurate information in different Asian languages. Other strategies for increasing CRC screening may include using a more family-centered approach and using qualified translators. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chui-Chen; Twaddle, Nathan C; Doerge, Daniel R
In a case-control study conducted among Asian-American women in Los Angeles County, we reported that the risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in association with soy intake [Wu,A.H., Wan,P., Hankin,J. et al. (2002...
Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam
Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…
Analyzing interviews with 18 Asian American female undergraduates, this study seeks to understand how participants viewed the sorority system at a predominantly White institution in the Southeastern United States. Drawing from critical race theory, I argue that the ways in which women perceived and experienced both acceptance and marginalization…
This study investigated how ten Asian American female classroom teachers experienced racial microaggressions (Ong et al. in "J Couns Psychol" 60(2):188-199, 2013; Sue et al. in "Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol" 13(1):72-81, 2007; Sue in "Microaggressions in everyday life: race, gender, and sexual orientation." Wiley,…
Kodama, Corinne M.; Ebreo, Angela
This study explored the relationship between Asian American students' choices of racial and ethnic identity labels, their attitudes toward racial and ethnic issues, and involvement in campus organizations. The findings suggest complex relationships between racial and ethnic self-identification and attitudes for some identity groups and no…
Masuda, Akihiko; Goodnight, Bradly L.; Ng, Stacey Y.; Ward Schaefer, L.; Tully, Erin C.; Chan, Wing Yi; Drake, Chad E.
Help-seeking stigma is considered a major obstacle to seeking professional psychological services in Asian American college women. Informed in part by objectification theory and the psychological flexibility model of behavior change, the present cross-sectional study examines the role of disordered eating cognition and psychological inflexibility…
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara
Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…
Romero, Andrea J.; Carvajal, Scott C.; Valle, Fabian; Orduna, Michele
The perception of bicultural stress, stress due to discrimination/prejudice, immigration, and acculturation, was investigated in relation to mental well-being in a sample of urban Latino (n = 304), European American (n = 215), and Asian American (n = 131) 8th grade students. Bicultural stress was reported by all ethnic groups and was significantly…
Huang, Bu; Appel, Hoa; Ai, Amy L
There is ample research showing that there are health disparities for minorities with respect to seeking mental health services in the United States. Although there are general barriers for minorities in seeking service health, minority women are more vulnerable due to their negative experiences and lower satisfaction in receiving health care, compared to men. This study utilized the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) data set, which is the first population-based mental health study on Latino and Asian Americans, to give a full description of Latina and Asian American women's experience in mental health service seeking and identifies the opportunities in increasing their satisfaction levels. The results showed that perceived discrimination attributed to gender or race/ethnicity is negatively predicting levels of satisfaction of mental health service seeking. Older age, higher education levels, longer duration in the United States, and better mental health, are positively related to satisfaction levels for Latina and Asian American women.
Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo
This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.
Collantes, Lourdes Y., Ed.
Six symposium papers are included in this document. The first paper, by Henry Chang, is a brief profile of Asian/Pacific American (APA) librarians, emphasizing the need for more data on this group and the need for the group to become more assertive of their rights to equal opportunity in the field. The second paper, by Jane Katayama, addresses…
Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Sacks, Rachel; Ahn, Jiyoung; Yi, Stella S
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, and cancer cases among Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are expected to rise by 132% by 2050. Yet, little is known about biologic and environmental factors that contribute to these higher rates of disease in this population. Precision medicine has the potential to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of morbidity and mortality trends among Asian American subgroups and to reduce cancer-related health disparities by recognizing patients as individuals with unique genetic, environmental, and lifestyle characteristics; identifying ways in which these differences impact cancer expression; and developing tailored disease prevention and clinical treatment strategies to address them. Yet, substantial barriers to the recruitment and retention of Asian Americans in cancer research persist, threatening the success of precision medicine research in addressing these knowledge gaps. This commentary outlines the major challenges to recruiting and retaining Asian Americans in cancer trials, suggests ways of surmounting them, and offers recommendations to ensure that personalized medicine becomes a reality for all Americans.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a lay health worker (LHW telephone intervention on completing a series of hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccinations among foreign-born Asian Americans in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan area.During the period of April 2013 and March 2014, we recruited Asian Americans who were 18 years of age and older in the community-based organizations. Of the 645 eligible participants, 600 (201 Chinese, 198 Korean, 201 Vietnamese completed a pretest survey and received hepatitis B screening. Based on the screening results, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among those unprotected (HBsAg-/HBsAB- by assigning them either to an intervention group (n = 124 or control group (n = 108. The intervention group received a list of resources by mails for where to get free vaccinations as well as reminder calls for vaccinations from trained LHWs, while the control group received only list of resources by mail. Seven months after mailing the HBV screening results, trained LHWs followed up with all participants by phone to ask how many of the recommended series of 3 vaccinations they had received: none, 1 or 2, or all 3 (complete. Their self-reported vaccinations were verified with the medical records. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of the LHW intervention. Process evaluation was conducted by asking study participants in the intervention group to evaluate the performance of the LHWs.After seven months, those in the intervention group were more likely to have 1 or more vaccines than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 3.04, 95% CI, 1.16, 8.00. Also, those in the intervention group were more likely to complete a series of vaccinations than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 7.29, 95% CI 3.39, 15.67. The most important barrier preventing them from seeking hepatitis B vaccinations was lack of time to get the vaccination. The most important
Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.
Gourevitch, Peter Alexis
Growth of interest in Asian studies has provided new resources and opportunities but has also caused conflict and disagreement. The "new agenda" focusing on economics, management, public policy, and international relations through intercultural comparisons is sometimes at odds with the traditional approach to studying civilizations. More…
Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen
Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Researchers are increasingly investigating the drinking behavior and associated consequences among Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States. Among adolescents, APIs generally have lower rates of alcohol consumption and appear to be at lower risk for alcohol abuse compared with other ethnic groups. Similarly, the rates of drinking and heavy drinking have been found to be lower among API college students than among other ethnic groups. Among adult Asian-Americans, Japanese-Americans have the highest and Chinese-Americans have the lowest lifetime prevalence of drinking and heavy drinking. Southeast Asians (e.g., Vietnamese) living in the United States appear to be at high risk for heavy drinking. Numerous factors help determine the drinking patterns of APIs, including their economic status, educational attainment, and degree of acculturation as well as genetic and environmental factors, such as drinking norms and alcohol availability.
Weil, Jennifer M; Lee, Hwayun H
There has been much research conducted in the area of family violence, however, there is a paucity of research specifically addressing family violence in Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities. Because AAPIs are regarded as the model minority, many have the misconception that family violence does not exist in this population. This article examines Asian cultural beliefs and values to gain a better understanding of Asian attitudes towards family violence. A more in-depth exploration of the Cambodian and Vietnamese cultures regarding attitudes towards violence is included because of the higher tolerance of family violence among these 2 cultures than other Asian cultures. Public health nurses working with AAPI families can provide culturally appropriate care by taking Asian attitudes, values, and beliefs into account when developing nursing interventions with victims of abuse.
Despite their popular portrayal as high achieving and structurally incorporated, race continues to shape the career choices of Asian American college students. As second-generation Americans, Asian Americans negotiate a constellation of factors when deciding their career choices, most notably, pressures from immigrant parents, awareness of labor…
Alvarez-Iglesias, V; Jaime, J C; Carracedo, A; Salas, A
We have developed a single PCR multiplex SNaPshot reaction that consists of 32 coding region SNPs that allows (i) increasing the discrimination power of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing in forensic casework, and (ii) haplogroup assignments of mtDNA profiles in both human population studies (e.g. anthropological) and medical research. The selected SNPs target the East Asian phylogeny, including its Native American derived branches. We have validated this multiplex assay by genotyping a sample of East Asians (Taiwanese) and Native Americans (Argentineans). In addition to the coding SNP typing, we have sequenced the complete control region for the same samples. The genotyping results (control region plus SNaPshot profiles) are in good agreement with previous human population genetic studies (based on e.g. complete sequencing) and the known mtDNA phylogeny. We observe that the SNaPshot method is reliable, rapid, and cost effective in comparison with other techniques of multiplex SNP genotyping. We discuss the advantages of our SNP genotyping selection with respect to previous attempts, and we highlight the importance of using the known mtDNA phylogeny as a framework for SNP profile interpretation and as a tool to minimize genotyping errors.
Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Xu, Yu; Davidhizar, Ruth
In the context of globalization and changing American demographics, it is becoming increasingly important to understand and communicate effectively with people from diverse cultural and racial/ethnic backgrounds. This article applies the framework of cultural variability and intercultural communication research literature to examine and highlight the different communication behaviors of Asians and non-Asians in the United States. The meanings of various verbal and nonverbal behaviors of Asian students are examined to clarify their communication patterns. Culture-based assumptions are identified, and measures to improve intercultural communication in nursing education are provided.
Wong, Y. Joel; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Nguyen, Chi P.; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saw, Anne
This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Shame Inventory (ISI), a culturally salient and clinically relevant measure of interpersonal shame for Asian Americans. Across 4 studies involving Asian American college students, the authors provided evidence for this new measure’s validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with 2 correlated factors: external shame (arising from concerns about others’ negative evaluations) and family shame (arising from perceptions that one has brought shame to one’s family), corresponding to 2 subscales: ISI-E and ISI-F, respectively. Evidence for criterion-related, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity was demonstrated by testing the associations between external shame and family shame and immigration/international status, generic state shame, face concerns, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. External shame and family shame also exhibited differential relations with other variables. Mediation findings were consistent with a model in which family shame mediated the effects of thwarted belongingness on suicide ideation. Further, the ISI subscales demonstrated high alpha coefficients and test–retest reliability. These findings are discussed in light of the conceptual, methodological, and clinical contributions of the ISI. PMID:24188650
Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey P
Based on 250 qualitative interviews with Asian American young men and women in the dance/club scenes in the San Francisco area, we examine the interplay between consumption, style and taste cultures with issues of ethnic identity, gender and acculturation. We explore the ways that consumption and taste markers (e.g. fashion, cars, music and drugs) are used to establish or negotiate symbolic boundaries between groups in this youth culture. The picture they paint of the dance scene is one less about cohesiveness and unity and more about divisions and boundaries, not only between but also significantly within ethnic groupings. The choice of drugs and ways of exhibiting intoxication are among the types of consumption that the young people drew upon to mark symbolic boundaries and establish identities. The young men and women in this study discuss a number of key boundaries in the scene, e.g. between FOBs and twinkies, between pretty boys and thugs, as they attempt to establish the cultural legitimacy of their own styles of Asian American identities.
Wong, Y Joel; Kim, Bryan S K; Nguyen, Chi P; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saw, Anne
This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Shame Inventory (ISI), a culturally salient and clinically relevant measure of interpersonal shame for Asian Americans. Across 4 studies involving Asian American college students, the authors provided evidence for this new measure's validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with 2 correlated factors: external shame (arising from concerns about others' negative evaluations) and family shame (arising from perceptions that one has brought shame to one's family), corresponding to 2 subscales: ISI-E and ISI-F, respectively. Evidence for criterion-related, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity was demonstrated by testing the associations between external shame and family shame and immigration/international status, generic state shame, face concerns, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. External shame and family shame also exhibited differential relations with other variables. Mediation findings were consistent with a model in which family shame mediated the effects of thwarted belongingness on suicide ideation. Further, the ISI subscales demonstrated high alpha coefficients and test-retest reliability. These findings are discussed in light of the conceptual, methodological, and clinical contributions of the ISI. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kiang, Lisa; Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parents from immigrant backgrounds must deal with normative parenting demands as well as unique challenges associated with acculturation processes. The current study examines the independent and interactive influences of acculturation conflict and cultural parenting self-efficacy (PSE; e.g., parents' confidence in instilling heritage, American, and bicultural values in their children) on perceptions of general parenting competence. Using data from 58 Asian American and 153 Latin American parents of children in grades 6-12, ethnic differences were also explored. Results suggest that lower acculturation conflict is associated with higher perceptions of general parenting competence for both Asian and Latin American parents. Higher cultural PSE is associated with higher perceived general parenting competence for Latino/a parents only. One significant interaction was found, and only for Asian Americans, whereby the negative association between acculturation conflict and perceptions of parenting competence was weaker for those who felt efficacious in transmitting heritage messages. Results are discussed in light of clinical implications and the need for further recognition and study of culturally relevant factors and frameworks among families from immigrant backgrounds. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Cook, Won Kim; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine
To investigate the influence of ethnic drinking cultures on alcohol use by Asian Americans and how this influence may be moderated by their level of integration into Asian ethnic cultures. A nationally representative sample of 952 Asian American adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted, some of which were stratified by nativity. Controlling for financial stress, discrimination and demographic variables, a hypothesized, positive relationship between ethnic drinking cultures and alcohol outcomes held for most drinking outcomes. A hypothesis on the moderating effect of integration into ethnic cultures indicated by ethnic language use was supported for US-born Asian Americans. Ethnic drinking cultures may significantly influence alcohol use by Asian Americans. The influence of ethnic drinking cultures may be conditioned by the degree of integration into the ethnic cultures. To inform alcohol interventions for reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol use among immigrants, future research needs to explore the cultural and social processes occurring in immigrant communities that might significantly influence drinking.
Cook, Won K; Caetano, Raul
Heterogeneity in drinking across national groups is well documented, but what explains such heterogeneity is less clear. To improve understanding of the underlying cultural conditions that may lead to diverse drinking outcomes, we investigate whether 3 dimensions of ethnic drinking culture (EDC)-alcohol consumption level, drinking prevalence, and detrimental drinking pattern (DDP) in the country of origin (COO)-are significantly associated with alcohol consumption in Asian Americans and Latina/os, and whether the associations vary by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) as assessed by educational level. A nationally representative sample of 1,012 Asian American and 4,831 Latino adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. A series of multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted separately for Asian Americans and for Latinos. Analyses were also stratified by gender and educational level. Overall, the associations between EDC variables and drinking outcomes were more pronounced for all Asian Americans than for all Latina/os, for males than for females among Asian Americans, and for Latinas than for Latinos. In analyses simultaneously stratifying on gender and education level, however, there was a clear pattern of COO DDP associated with heavier drinking and alcohol consumption volume only for Latinos without a college degree. Ethnic drinking cultures may influence drinking in Asian American and Latino subgroups, albeit to a varying degree. Low-SES Latinos may be at disproportionate risk of harmful drinking patterns pervasive in their COO. Future research might investigate the complex interplay between socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural conditions to inform targeted interventions for subgroups at high risk of alcohol-related harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A
To examine factors associated with dental health insurance, self-rated oral health, and use of preventive dental care services in older Asian Americans. Cross-sectional survey. The Asian American Quality of Life Survey was conducted with 2,614 Asian Americans living in central Texas using questionnaires available in English and six Asian languages. Asian American Quality of Life Survey participants aged 60 and older (N = 533; mean age = 69.4 ± 6.9). Participants were asked whether they had insurance that covered the cost of any dental visit, how they would rate their overall oral health status, and whether they had visited a dental clinic for a routine examination in the past 12 months. Information was also collected on sociodemographic and immigration-related variables. More than 61% of the sample had no dental health insurance, 45% reported that their oral health was fair or poor, and 44% had not used preventive dental care services. A series of logistic regression analyses identified factors posing a significant risk to oral health and dental care. For example, those with limited English proficiency were 3.5 times as likely to lack dental health insurance and 3.2 times as likely to rate their oral health as fair or poor. The odds of not using preventive dental care services were 6.4 times as great in those without dental health insurance. The overall findings call attention to efforts to promote oral health and dental care in older Asian Americans. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease. Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) and Office of Dispute Resolution and Equal Employment Opportunity, Office of the Director (OD). Date Released: 5/1/2008.
Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie
The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described.
Lau, Anna S; Fung, Joey; Wang, Shu-Wen; Kang, Sun-Mee
Previous research has documented elevated levels of social anxiety in Asian American college students when compared with their European American peers. The authors hypothesized that higher symptoms among Asians could be explained by cultural differences in attunement to the emotional states of others. Socialization within interdependent cultures may cultivate concerns about accurately perceiving other's emotional responses, yet at the same time, norms governing emotional control may limit competencies in emotion recognition. A sample of 264 Asian American and European American college students completed measures of social anxiety, attunement concerns (shame socialization and loss of face), and attunement competencies (self-reported sensitivity and performance on emotion recognition tasks). Results confirmed that ethnic differences in social anxiety symptoms were mediated by differences in attunement concerns and competencies in emotion recognition. Asian American college students may find themselves in a double bind that leads to social unease because of a cultural emphasis on sensitivity to others' emotions in the midst of barriers to developing this attunement skill set.
Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua; Platt, Martin B.
from this approach, this article calls for an examination of one important concept in innovative education, that is, context sensitive education. The case study of an annual joint Singapore-Denmark-America summer school programme to teach and study Southeast Asia in Context is discussed here.......As pressures mount to adopt new or alternative instructional delivery methods to achieve innovative education, there has been a strong orientation towards emphasising the need to integrate the latest technological applications to achieve the best in teaching and learning experiences. Moving away...
Han, Meekyung; Pong, Helen
According to the 2008 U.S. Census, there are 15.5 million Asian Americans in the United States, and 17% are students enrolled in a university (Shea & Yeh, 2008). Asian American college students in higher education are oftentimes perceived as the "model minority" with high academic achievements and few mental and/or behavioral…
Ahn, Annie J; Kim, Bryan S K; Park, Yong S
The study examined Korean American college students' perceived Asian cultural values gap between themselves and their parents, cognitive flexibility, and coping strategies. The relationships between these factors were studied with the intensities and types of parent-child conflicts. The results indicated that the participants adhered less strongly to Asian values than their parents. When faced with conflicts, the participants reported using problem solving coping strategy to the greatest extent, followed by social support coping strategy, and then avoidance coping strategy. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between the participant-perceived parent-child values gap and the intensity of conflicts, particularly in the area of dating and marriage. There were inverse relationships between cognitive flexibility and the intensity of conflicts, specifically in the area of dating and marriage. A positive relationship was observed between the use of social support coping strategy and intensity of conflicts. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect in which participant-perceived parent-child values gap and cognitive flexibility were related to increased frequency of dating and marriage conflicts.
Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.
Miyawaki, Christina E
This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.
This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p critical ethnic awareness and social support are important mechanisms for explaining the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among this sample of Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences.
Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins
There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.
Lee, Yomee; Hokanson, James F.
Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing minority in the USA with over 18 million in population, and have a long history, they remain underrepresented in sport and physical education. As we are living in a world that is becoming more diverse and multicultural, it is important to learn about the cultural meanings and significance of sport…
Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.
In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…
Parette, Phil; Huer, Mary Blake
Contrasting Euro-American and Asian values are examined with particular emphasis on differences exhibited by these families with regard to perspectives on disability, health care, family life, and education/intervention; communication styles; and reactions to augmentative and alternative communication needs. Specific suggestions for practitioners…
Lee, Richard M.; Yoo, Hyung Chol
The authors investigated the structure and measurement of ethnic identity using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; J. S. Phinney, 1992) on a diverse sample of Asian American college students. The authors drew upon 3 previously published datasets to examine the factor structure of the MEIM, initial reliability and construct validity,…
... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...
Henderson, Sheila J.; Chan, Anne
Career happiness is reexamined for relevance to non-Western cultures. Joseph Campbell's (1968, 1972, 1988) interpretations of myth are reviewed for individualistic vs. interdependent themes and critiqued in light of Asian American vocational concerns, with examples from Chinese culture. Counselors are encouraged to reflect cultural sensitivity and…
Objective: To compare alcohol, tobacco, and illicit or nonmedical drug use behaviors and self-reported consequences of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students to cross-ethnic peers. Participants: A sample of 114,816 undergraduates between 18 and 24 completing the National College Health Assessment between 2011 and 2014 were used.…
The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny
This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…
Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Okazaki, Sumie; Goto, Sharon G.
Examines approaches to assessing acculturation among Asian Americans college students in relation to the cultural indicators of individualism-collectivism, self-construal, impression management, and loss of face. An uneven nature of these relationships was found which is significant in light of the fact that acculturation differences are often…
Otsuki, Teresa A.
The relationship of self-esteem and depression with alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use was tested in a California statewide sample of more than 4,300 Asian American high school students comprising five subgroups: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese. Estimated prevalence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among…
Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris
Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…
Juang, Linda P; Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie
To develop a measure of parental racial-ethnic socialization that is appropriate for Asian American families. To test the reliability and validity of this new measure, we surveyed 575 Asian American emerging adults (49% female, 79% U.S. born). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the results show 7 reliable subscales: maintenance of heritage culture, becoming American, awareness of discrimination, avoidance of other groups, minimization of race, promotion of equality, and cultural pluralism. Tests of factorial invariance show that overall, the subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial metric invariance across gender, age, nativity, educational attainment, parent educational attainment, geographic region of residence, and Asian-heritage region. Thus, the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different subgroups. The subscales also correlated with ethnic identity, ethnic centrality, perceptions of discrimination, and pluralistic orientation, demonstrating construct validity. In an increasingly complex and diverse social world, our scale will be useful for gaining a better understanding of how Asian American parents socialize their children regarding issues of race, discrimination, culture, and diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Goodwin, A. Lin
Background/Context: The United States is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented immigration, with the majority of new arrivals coming from Asia and Latin America, not Europe. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) represent the fastest growing racial group in the United States, and schools are again being asked to socialize newcomer…
Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…
Marsing, Deborah J.
Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…
Full Text Available This essay describes and analyzes the various statutory and constitutional provisions which denied specific rights to Asian immigrants and their descendants and relates the various processes by which these rights were granted or restored from the earliest days of the American republic to the penultimate decade of the 20th century.
Kim, Eunha; Lee, Donghyuck
The present study explored several layers of individual and contextual variables as related to collective self-esteem among 304 Asian-American college students. The findings suggested that variables, such as immigration generation status and cultural identification, were significantly associated with Private collective self-esteem (personal evaluation of one's ethnic group), while contextual variables, including number of same-ethnicity peers and community ethnic composition, were associated with Public collective self-esteem (judgment of how other people evaluate one's ethnic group). In addition to these variables, age and fluency of heritage language were positively related to Membership esteem (how worthy one feels as a member of one's ethnic group). For the Importance of identity (the importance of ethnic group membership to one's self-concept), cultural identification, number of same-ethnicity peers, and perceived campus climate were statistically significant. The implication of the present findings for future research is discussed.
Chris C Martin
Full Text Available The belief that ethnic majorities dominate ethnic minorities informs research on intergroup processes. This belief can lead to the social heuristic that the ethnic majority sets an upper limit that minority groups cannot surpass, but this possibility has not received much attention. In three studies of perceived income, we examined how this heuristic, which we term the White ceiling heuristic leads people to inaccurately estimate the income of a minority group that surpasses the majority. We found that Asian Americans, whose median income has surpassed White median income for nearly three decades, are still perceived as making less than Whites, with the least accurate estimations being made by people who strongly believe that Whites are privileged. In contrast, income estimates for other minorities were fairly accurate. Thus, perceptions of minorities are shaped both by stereotype content and a heuristic.
Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Corina, Chung; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia
Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations. Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Steger, Michael F; Lee, Richard M
This investigation describes the validation of a measure of perceived racism developed to assess racial experiences of Asian American college students. In three studies across two different regions of the United States, there was strong evidence for the validation of the 8-item Subtle and Blatant Racism Scale for Asian American College Students (SABR-A2). The subtle racism subscale refers to instances of discrimination attributable implicitly to racial bias or stereotype, whereas the blatant racism subscale refers to instances of discrimination attributable explicitly to racial bias or stereotype. The two-subscale structure of the SABR-A2 was supported by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and demonstrated discriminant, convergent, and incremental validity, as well as internal reliability and stability over 2 weeks.
Firestone, Melanie J; Beasley, Jeannette M; Kwon, Simona C; Ahn, Jiyoung; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yi, Stella S
Asian Americans consume more sodium than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of this analysis was to describe major sources of sodium intake to inform sodium reduction initiatives. Cross-sectional data on adults (aged >18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 with one 24-hour dietary recall were analyzed (n=5,076). Population proportions were calculated from "What We Eat in America" (WWEIA) food categories. Asian Americans had a higher sodium density vs adults of other racial/ethnic groups (means in mg/1000kcal: Asian American, 2031.1; Hispanic,1691.6; White: 1666.5; Black: 1655.5; Pfood categories, in contrast to Hispanics (43.6%), Whites (39.0%), and Blacks (36.0%). Four food categories were a top source of sodium for Hispanics, Whites, Blacks, and others, but not among Asian Americans: cold cuts and cured meats; meat mixed dishes; eggs and omelets; and cheese. The top three food category sources of sodium among Asians were soups, rice, and yeast breads accounting for 28.9% of dietary sodium. Asian Americans were less likely to add salt at the table, but used salt in food preparation 'very often' (P for both ethnic groups with highest consumption in Asian Americans. Given the smaller number of food categories contributing to sodium intake in Asian Americans, results imply that targeted activities on a few food items would have a large impact on reducing sodium intake in this group.
Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E
While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.
Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P
Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Nguyen, Mike M; Ellison, Lars M
To examine the racial differences in testicular cancer incidence, pathologic grade, stage, and survival with specific reference to Asian and white Americans and to evaluate the impact of disparities in stage at presentation, if present, on survival. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we extracted all testicular cancer cases among white and Asian-American males for the years 1973 to 2000. Baseline demographic data included age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and histologic features. Survival was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards modeling. The incidence of testicular cancer is lower among Asian Americans than among whites. However, Asian-American males presented with higher stage disease at diagnosis. Significant differences were noted in the histologic features between the two groups, with Asian Americans presenting with greater rates of seminoma. Asians also demonstrated survival differences, with poorer unadjusted survival compared with whites. However, when the variables of stage at diagnosis and histologic features were included in the analysis, the survival curves became similar. Asians appeared to present with higher stage disease than do whites. Observed differences in survival for the Asian group relative to whites appeared to be primarily a result of delayed presentation. Cultural perceptions of malignancy and the understanding of cancer screening may be important determinants of later presentation. Healthcare access and education issues, rather than inherent biologic differences, are more likely the primary underlying factors for the observed survival differences in Asian males.
Blanco, Lyzette; Nydegger, Liesl A; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Tong, Elisa K; White, Martha M; Trinidad, Dennis R
Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States and are more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (LITS) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). LITS experience adverse health effects related to smoking. Previous research has aggregated Asian American ethnic groups, masking important differences between groups. We sought to compare LITS rates among Asian American subgroups before and after the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with NHWs in California utilizing data from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). We combined 1990, 1992, and 1996 CTS (pre-MSA) and the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 CTS (post-MSA) to examine changes in LITS (smoking daily). Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, and Korean ethnic groups were compared with NHWs. Pre-MSA logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education level, language spoken at home, and use of other tobacco products found that Chinese (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19, 5.21), Filipinos (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.73, 4.63), Japanese (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.22, 3.27), and Koreans (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.06, 5.03) were significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Post-MSA, all Asian American subgroups experienced an increase in LITS (11.7%-37.8%); however, only Chinese (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16, 4.13) and Filipinos (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.26, 4.91) remained significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Our results highlight the need for tobacco control efforts that address the growing group of LITS among Asian Americans and NHWs.
Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C
This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Yu, Jiang; Warner, Lynn A
According to New York statewide substance abuse treatment and discharge data, Asians are a small minority who differ significantly from other racial-ethnic groups on income, primary language, treatment setting, substance abuse, referral source, and discharge status. The present study further compares alcohol and substance abuse service utilization patterns of Asians with those of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in New York State. Cox regressions were employed to examine the differences in treatment admission patterns among Asians and other ethnic groups, while controlling a number of demographic, treatment-related, and non-treatment-related factors. A sample of 408,158 clients was selected from the Client Data System of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services for the analysis. While Asians in general are less likely to use treatment services and to have multiple treatment admissions compared with other groups, those Asians with multiple admissions tend to show utilization patterns - the period of greatest risk for readmission, the rate at which readmissions occur, and the likelihood of readmission - similar to the other groups at each subsequent admission. These findings suggest both similarities and differences in treatment readmission patterns between Asians and other clients of substance abuse treatment services. Future research on the cultural and linguistic factors related to Asians' recovery and service utilization patterns after the initial treatment experience may be particularly important for systems of care seeking to be responsive to Asians' needs.
Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Kim, Miyong T
The purposes of the present study were (1) to explore the completion rate of advance directives (ADs) in a sample of Asian Americans and (2) to examine the direct and moderating effects of knowledge of AD, education, and acculturation in predicting AD completion. Education and acculturation were conceptualized as moderators in the link between knowledge and completion of ADs. Using data from 2609 participants in the 2015 Asian American Quality of Life survey (aged 18-98), logistic regression analyses on AD completion were conducted, testing both direct and moderating effects. The overall AD completion rate in sample was about 12%. The AD knowledge and acculturation independently predicted AD completion. No direct effect of education was found; however, it interacted with AD knowledge. The AD knowledge was more likely to be translated into completion in the group with higher education. The AD completion rate observed in the present sample of Asian Americans was much lower than that of the US general population (26%-36%). The interactive role of education helps to explain the gap between AD knowledge and completion and suggests intervention strategies.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia
The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Foong, Heng L; Lee, Susan W; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen Ngoc; Rickles, Jordan; Wang, Jennifer S
During the last 25 years, numerous studies have been conducted to promote breast cancer and cervical cancer screening. Most of these studies focused on individual-level factors predicting screening, but we are unaware of any that directly examined community and ecological influences. The goal of this project, Promoting Access to Health for Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian Women (PATH for Women), was to increase community capacity for breast and cervical cancer screening and follow up in Los Angeles and Orange counties. We focused on Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women because, although they have the lowest rates for cancer, compared to all other ethnic groups, relatively few programs have specifically targeted Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women to promote and sustain screening practices. The PATH for Women project involved a partnership between 5 community-based organizations and 2 universities, and included 7 Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities: Cambodians, Chamorros, Laotians, Thais, Tongans, Samoans, and Vietnamese. In this paper, we share our experiences in developing a Geographic Information System (GIS)-mapping evaluation component that was used to explore availability and accessibility to culturally responsive breast and cervical cancer screening services for Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women in all 7 communities. We describe the methods used to develop the maps, and present the preliminary findings that demonstrate significant geographic and language barriers to accessing healthcare providers, services for breast and cervical cancer screening, and follow up, in each of the communities. Finally, we discuss implications for programs designed to promote breast and cervical screening and policy education.
Chae, David H; Ayala, George
Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.
Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S
California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.
Kelley, Elizabeth A; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M; Yen, Irene H
The neighborhood built environment can have a strong influence on physical activity levels, particularly walking for transport. In examining racial/ethnic differences in physical activity, one important and understudied group is South Asians. This study aims to describe the association between neighborhood walkability and walking for transport among South Asian men and women in the United States in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using the baseline dataset of the MASALA study (N = 906). Mean age was 55 years old and 54% of the sample was male. Weekly minutes spent walking for transport was assessed using a questionnaire adapted from the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Neighborhood walkability was measured using Walk Score, a composite index of walkability. After adjusting for covariates, with each 10-point increase in Walk Score, South Asian American men engaged in 13 additional minutes per week of walking for transport (P = .008). No association was observed between walkability and walking for transport in South Asian American women. Results provide new evidence for how the effects of environmental influences on walking for transport may vary between South Asian men and women.
Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.
Parental pressure and support toward Asian Americans' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and interests in stereotypical occupations: Living up to parental expectations and internalized stereotyping as mediators.
Shen, Frances C; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Abraham, W Todd; Weng, Chih-Yuan
This study examined whether living up to parental expectations and internalized stereotyping (i.e., internalizing Asian American stereotypes) mediated the impact of parental pressure and support on occupational outcomes (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and interests in stereotypical occupations) among 229 Asian American students from universities nationwide. Results indicated that living up to parental expectations and internalized stereotyping partially mediated the associations between parental pressure and these 3 occupational outcomes. In addition, living up to parental expectations fully mediated the associations between parental support and the 3 occupational outcomes, but internalized stereotyping did not. The results demonstrated the differential role of parental pressure and parental support as well as the mediating role of living up to parental expectations and internalized stereotyping in Asian Americans' occupational outcomes. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Ju Yon Kim
Full Text Available The 2008 San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival presented three narrative films, Never Forever, Pretty to Think So, and West 32nd, with suggestively similar interests. Namely, all three films focus on “horizontal” (rather than intergenerational conflicts between characters distinguished by class, legal status, and migration history but connected by ethnic or racial identifications. This article argues that the films, individually and collectively, participate in ongoing deliberations about the borders of Asian America by juxtaposing and organizing distinct models of conceiving Asian American identity. In particular, the films suggest the limitations of privileging certain formations of Asian America over others by both dramatizing and embodying their uneasy coexistence. Tensions between minority, immigrant, and diasporic positions become evident not only through their plots, characterizations, and stylistic elements but also in their complex production and distribution histories. The films together highlight the necessity of attending to the difficult questions of ethnic and racial identification and material inequity that are manifest when the various narratives of affiliation and difference espoused by each model encounter one another.
Narayan, K M Venkat; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Oza-Frank, Reena; Pandey, Mona; Curb, J David; McNeely, Marguerite; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Palaniappan, Latha; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
The Asian and Pacific Islander population (Asian Americans) in the U.S. has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Yet, data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population are scarce. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health conducted an Expert Workshop to: 1) assess the importance of studying CVD in Asian Americans in the U.S.; and 2) consider strategic options for further investigations of CVD in this population. There is considerable geographical, ethnic, cultural, and genetic diversity within this population. Limited data also suggest striking differences in the risk of CVD, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other CVD risk factors across the Asian-American population. The Asian-American population is a new diverse pool with less contemporary genetic and cultural admixture relative to groups that have lived in the U.S. for generations, plus it is diverse in lifestyle including culture, diet, and family structure. This diversity provides a window of opportunity for research on genes and gene-environment interactions and also to investigate how acculturation/assimilation to U.S. lifestyles affects health and CVD risk among relatively homogenous groups of recent immigrants. Given the heterogeneity in body weight, body size, and CVD risk, the Asian-American population in the U.S. offers a unique model to study the interaction and relationships between visceral adiposity and adipose tissue distribution and beta cell function, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maramba, Dina C.; Palmer, Robert T.; Yull, Denise; Ozuna, Taryn
Although research has shown that more Asian American and Latino students are choosing to attend historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), no research has offered insight into what motivates students from these demographics to enroll in these institutions. Given this, the authors explored the college choice process for Asian American…
Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....
Judy Soojin Park
This article investigates the recent proliferation of Asian American participants in Electronic Dance Music (EDM) festivals with a particular focus on those organized by Insomniac Events in Southern California. As Insomniac’s events aim to propagate an ethos of PLUR—Peace, Love, Unity and Respect—reminiscent of historical rave culture, these events promise a space where anyone, regardless of race, class, gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with partic...
Fazio, A.; Joe-Laidler, K.; Moloney, M; Hunt, G
This article examines the relationship between substance use and gender, sexuality, ethnicity, and nativity among 250 Asian American youths involved in the dance club/rave scene. We find distinct patterns of drug use differing by country of origin and ethnicity. However, contrary to some literature we do not find significant differences corresponding to immigration status, or number of years in the U.S. The most significant differences between subgroups are related to gender and sexuality: ma...
Full Text Available The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS are questionnaires used to assess sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in clinical and population-based studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among young adults in four countries (Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,481 undergraduate students. Students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. In each country, the construct validity and factorial structures of PSQI and ESS questionnaires were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA.The largest component-total correlation coefficient for sleep quality as assessed using PSQI was noted in Chile (r = 0.71 while the smallest component-total correlation coefficient was noted for sleep medication use in Peru (r = 0.28. The largest component-total correlation coefficient for excessive daytime sleepiness as assessed using ESS was found for item 1 (sitting/reading in Chile (r = 0.65 while the lowest item-total correlation was observed for item 6 (sitting and talking to someone in Thailand (r = 0.35. Using both EFA and CFA a two-factor model was found for PSQI questionnaire in Chile, Ethiopia and Thailand while a three-factor model was found for Peru. For the ESS questionnaire, we noted two factors for all four countries.Overall, we documented cross-cultural comparability of sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness measures using the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among Asian, South American and African young adults. Although both the PSQI and ESS were originally developed as single-factor questionnaires, the results of our EFA and CFA revealed the multi- dimensionality of the scales suggesting limited usefulness of the global PSQI and ESS
Gelaye, Bizu; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmeharit, Somrat; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Zhu, Xiaotong; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Anderade, Asterio; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) are questionnaires used to assess sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in clinical and population-based studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among young adults in four countries (Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8,481 undergraduate students. Students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. In each country, the construct validity and factorial structures of PSQI and ESS questionnaires were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). The largest component-total correlation coefficient for sleep quality as assessed using PSQI was noted in Chile (r = 0.71) while the smallest component-total correlation coefficient was noted for sleep medication use in Peru (r = 0.28). The largest component-total correlation coefficient for excessive daytime sleepiness as assessed using ESS was found for item 1 (sitting/reading) in Chile (r = 0.65) while the lowest item-total correlation was observed for item 6 (sitting and talking to someone) in Thailand (r = 0.35). Using both EFA and CFA a two-factor model was found for PSQI questionnaire in Chile, Ethiopia and Thailand while a three-factor model was found for Peru. For the ESS questionnaire, we noted two factors for all four countries. Overall, we documented cross-cultural comparability of sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness measures using the PSQI and ESS questionnaires among Asian, South American and African young adults. Although both the PSQI and ESS were originally developed as single-factor questionnaires, the results of our EFA and CFA revealed the multi- dimensionality of the scales suggesting limited usefulness of the global PSQI and ESS scores
Choi, Andrew Young; Israel, Tania; Maeda, Hotaka
This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias. Confirmatory factor analysis with a separate subsample (n = 331) indicated that the proposed correlated factors model was strongly consistent with the observed data. Factor determinacies were high and demonstrated that the specified items adequately measured their intended factors. Bifactor modeling further indicated that this multidimensionality could be univocally represented for the purpose of measurement, including the use of a mean total score representing a single continuum of internalized racism on which individuals vary. The IRAAS statistically predicted depressive symptoms, and demonstrated statistically significant correlations in theoretically expected directions with four dimensions of collective self-esteem. These results provide initial validity evidence supporting the use of the IRAAS to measure aspects of internalized racism in this population. Limitations and research implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cummins, Lillian Huang; Lehman, Janice
Eating disorders are one of the most lethal psychiatric illnesses and affect millions of individuals worldwide. While they have been more typically attributed to middle class, Caucasian, adolescent females, current research suggests that there is a similar prevalence of eating disorders and their symptoms, especially body dissatisfaction, among Asian American girls and women. Despite this, very little research has investigated how culture and gender may impact the assessment and treatment of eating disorders for Asian American women. This review examines the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders and negative body image in Asian American women and describes current research on the efficacy of a variety of theoretical approaches for treatment, including psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and feminist perspectives. Recommendations for considering culture and gender when working clinically with Asian American women who experience eating concerns as well as suggestions for future research directions are provided.
... territories, all possess the common purpose of the fulfilling the American dream and leading a life bound by... discrimination—yet they excelled. Even in the darkness of the Exclusion Act and Japanese internment, Asian...
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Goto, Sharon
The authors examined the impact of perceived racial discrimination on various mental health outcomes for Asian American and Latino college students within an emic and etic framework. Results indicate that Asian American and Latino college students experienced similar exposure and reactions to various kinds of discrimination. However, Latino students were more likely than Asian American students to have been accused of doing something wrong, such as cheating and breaking the law, and more likely to appraise these experiences as stressful. Asian Americans evidenced higher risk for trait anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity, perceived racial discrimination was associated with several negative mental health outcomes, including higher psychological distress, suicidal ideation, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression. Findings highlight the need to address discrimination across multiple social and professional settings and to understand the broad array of mental health outcomes.
Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...
Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin
We examined whether perception of university environment mediated the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes after controlling for perceived general stress. Participants were 160 Asian American, African American, and Latino students who attended a predominantly White university. Results of a path model analysis showed that university environment was a significant mediator for the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes. Additionally, minority status stress was distinct from perceived general stress. Finally, the results from a multiple-group comparison indicated that the magnitude of the mediation effect was invariant across Asian American, African American, and Latino college students, thus supporting the generalizability of the mediation model.
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.
This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…
Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary D
Although the study of delinquency has previously focused on identifying individual, family, peer, and social risk and protective factors, little empirical research has studied cultural factors and their relations to delinquency. In a large community sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youths, individualism was positively related to, and collectivism negatively related to, self-reported delinquency, with partial mediation through peer delinquency (PD). Although the percentage of variance in delinquency attributable to individualism-collectivism was small compared to PD, it cannot be discounted as trivial. The results also supported the measurement and structural invariance of these associations across the 4 ethnic groups.
Wong, Eugene Franklin
This paper questions the applicability of middleman minority theory to Chinese and Japanese Americans. The constructional elements of the theory, in its American form, are analyzed in the context of Chinese and Japanese American economic, social, and political conditions. The ethnic group triad (elite-middleman minority-masses) is identified and…
Otsuki, Michiko; Tinsley, Barbara J; Chao, Ruth K; Unger, Jennifer B
Using electronic diaries, the present study examined the roles of social smoking and smoking motives in relation to cigarette use patterns among Asian American college smokers. Multilevel modeling results showed that participants smoked more cigarettes when smoking with peers than when smoking alone. Participants' coping (but not social) motives moderated the within-person associations between smoking with peers and the cigarettes smoked during a smoking episode. The findings support the utility of an ecological perspective in examining the dynamic interaction between smoking motives and the social settings of cigarette use, and call for further research on the social smoking behaviors in diverse populations. 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available
This essay argues that Chang-rae Lee’s novel A Gesture Life exemplifies both the conceptual gains and the potential pitfalls of current Asian American literature’s transnationalism. The first section of the essay discusses the interlocking of psychoanalytic theory and political philosophy, specifically Freud’s uncanny and Arendt’s banality of evil, in Lee’s portrait of the psychology of criminal repression. The second section juxtaposes Lee’s novel against real-life comfort women’s survivor testimonies to probe broader questions of historical memory, politicized historiography, and the modes of circulation and authority in contemporary international comfort women discourse. The final section, which recontextualizes Lee’s novel within current debates in Asian and Asian American Studies, argues against a paradigm of alterity vis-à-vis the comfort women and proposes instead a transnational aesthetic premised on the human.
Ng, Tiffany; McMahan, Shari; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Beam, William
Background: The World Health Organization released lower Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff points for Asian individuals to account for increased body fat percentage (BF%) and risk of obesity-related conditions at a lower body mass index. Purpose: This preliminary study: (1) explores the impact of utilizing Asian BMI standards (compared to universal…
Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M
The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X; Fang, Carolyn Y
Interactions between breast cancer patients and their oncologists are important as effective patient-physician communication can facilitate the delivery of quality cancer care. However, little is known about patient-physician communication processes among Asian American breast cancer patients, who may have unique communication needs and challenges. Thus, we interviewed Asian American patients and several oncologists to explore patient-physician communication processes in breast cancer care. We conducted in-depth interviews with nine Chinese- or Korean American breast cancer patients and three Asian American oncologists who routinely provided care for Asian American patients in the Washington DC metropolitan area in 2010. We conducted patient interviews in Chinese or Korean and then translated into English. We conducted physicians' interviews in English. We performed qualitative analyses to identify themes. For women with limited English proficiency, language was the greatest barrier to understanding information and making treatment-related decisions. Both patients and oncologists believed that interpretation provided by patients' family members may not be accurate, and patients may neglect to ask questions because of their worry of burdening others. We observed cultural differences regarding expectations of the doctor's role and views of cancer recovery. As expressed by the patients and observed by oncologists, Asian American women are less likely to be assertive and are mostly reliant on physicians to make treatment decisions. However, many patients expressed a desire to be actively involved in the decision-making process. Findings provide preliminary insight into patient-physician communication and identify several aspects of patient-physician communication that need to be improved for Asian American breast cancer patients. Proper patient education with linguistically and culturally appropriate information and tools may help improve communication and decision
Ren, Zhumei; Zhong, Yang; Kurosu, Utako; Aoki, Shigeyuki; Ma, Enbo; von Dohlen, Carol D; Wen, Jun
Intercontinental biotic disjunctions have been documented and analyzed in numerous Holarctic taxa. Patterns previously synthesized for animals compared to plants suggest that the timing of animal disjunctions are mostly Early Tertiary and were generated by migration and vicariance events occurring in the North Atlantic, while plant disjunctions are mostly Mid-Late Tertiary and imply migration and vicariance over Beringia. Melaphidina aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Fordini) exhibit host-alternating life cycles comprising an obligate seasonal shift between Rhus subgenus Rhus species (Anacardiaceae) and mosses (Bryophyta). Similar to their Rhus hosts, melaphidines are distributed disjunctly between Eastern Asia and Eastern North America. We examined evolutionary relationships within Melaphidina to determine the position of the North American lineage, date its divergence from Asian relatives, and compare these results to a previous historical biogeographic study of Rhus. We sampled nine species and three subspecies representing all six genera of Melaphidina. Data included sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II+leucine tRNA, cytochrome b, and nuclear elongation factor 1α genes. Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian, maximum-likelihood, parsimony) of the combined data (3282 bp) supported the monophyly of all genera except Nurudea and Schlechtendalia, due to the position of N. ibofushi. While the exact position of the North American Melaphis was not well resolved, there was high support for a derived position within Asian taxa. The divergence of Melaphis from Asian relatives centered on the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (~33-35Ma), which coincides with closure of Beringian Land Bridge I. This also corresponded to the Asian-North American disjunction previously estimated for subgenus Rhus spp. We suggest the late-Eocene Bering Land Bridge as the most likely migration route for Melaphis ancestors, as was also hypothesized for North American Rhus ancestors
Wendi J. Otto
It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian ...
Wendi J. OTTO
It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian ...
Impact of body mass index levels on lipid abnormalities in Chinese Asians, American Blacks and American Whites: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Studies
Truesdale, Kimberly P; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen
Background Several researchers have reported that Chinese adults may have a greater chronic disease burden than Whites, especially at lower body mass index (BMI) levels. Objectives To compare the incidence of lipid abnormalities in Chinese (n=5,303), White (n=10,752) and Black (n=3,408) middle-aged adults and the effect of BMI on these incidences. Methods Data were from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies. In each ethnic group, we calculated the adjusted cumulative incidence for high total cholesterol (≥240 mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (≥160 mg/dL), and triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL) and low HDL-cholesterol (≤40 in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women) adjusted for age, gender, education, field site, smoking and drinking status. Risk differences associated with BMI (referent=18.5–22.9 kg/m2) were calculated using weighted linear regression and slopes compared using the Wald test. Results Chinese had lower incidence of abnormal total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Whites in most BMI groups and had lower incidence of abnormal HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Blacks. Across the range of 18.5 to cholesterol in Chinese and Whites than in Blacks. Similar trends were seen for LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but were not always statistically significant. In contrast, BMI was more highly associated with incidence of low HDL-cholesterol in Whites than in Chinese or Blacks. Conclusion Although differences in the incidence of lipid abnormalities and the impact of BMI were identified, results varied by lipid type indicating no consistent ethnic/national pattern. PMID:21802083
Impact of body mass index levels on lipid abnormalities in Chinese Asians, American Blacks and American Whites: the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Studies.
Truesdale, Kimberly P; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen
Several researchers have reported that Chinese adults may have a greater chronic disease burden than Whites, especially at lower body mass index (BMI) levels. To compare the incidence of lipid abnormalities in Chinese (n=5303), White (n=10,752) and Black (n=3408) middle-aged adults and the effect of BMI on these incidences. Data were from the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies. In each ethnic group, we calculated the adjusted cumulative incidence for high total cholesterol (≥240mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (≥160mg/dL), and triglycerides (≥200mg/dL) and low HDL-cholesterol (≤40 in men and ≤50mg/dL in women) adjusted for age, gender, education, field site, smoking and drinking status. Risk differences associated with BMI (referent=18.5-22.9kg/m(2)) were calculated using weighted linear regression and slopes compared using the Wald test. Chinese had lower incidence of abnormal total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Whites in most BMI groups and had lower incidence of abnormal HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Blacks. Across the range of 18.5 to cholesterol in Chinese and Whites than in Blacks. Similar trends were seen for LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but were not always statistically significant. In contrast, BMI was more highly associated with incidence of low HDL-cholesterol in Whites than in Chinese or Blacks. Although differences in the incidence of lipid abnormalities and the impact of BMI were identified, results varied by lipid type indicating no consistent ethnic/national pattern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chang, Janet; Le, Thao N
Multiculturalism constitutes an important element of school climate, but the relation between perceived multiculturalism and academic achievement has not been widely studied. This study examined the influence of students' perceptions of school support for multiculturalism on academic achievement among 280 Asian American and Hispanic youth, including ethnic identity and ethnocultural empathy as potential mediators. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that perceived multiculturalism was significantly positively related to ethnocultural empathy for Asian Americans and Hispanics, and that ethnocultural empathy, in turn, was predictive of academic achievement for Hispanics only. Results of bootstrapping to test for mediation effects revealed ethnocultural empathy to be a salient mediator for Hispanic youth. Although ethnic identity did not mediate the link between multiculturalism and academic achievement, ethnic identity was significantly predictive of achievement for Hispanics. On the whole, these findings suggest that fostering a school climate supportive of multiculturalism may improve empathy toward ethnic out-groups. Furthermore, schools that promote compassion and tolerance for diverse ethnic groups may achieve better academic outcomes among Hispanic youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Lee, Letha A.
Reports the findings of a 10-year study that examined the continuing conflicts between poor Blacks and Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. Focuses on two areas, economics and race, and argues that government policy has done much to inflame the conflict. Argues that the current refugee policies are diluting already inadequate social…
Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla
This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.
Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Myers, Mark G; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L
The variant aldehyde dehydrogenase allele, ALDH2∗2, consistently has been associated with protection against alcohol dependence, but the mechanism underlying this process is not known. This study examined growth trajectories of alcohol consumption (frequency, average quantity, binge drinking, maximum drinks) and problems over the college years and then tested whether the ALDH2 genotype mediated or moderated the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Asian American college students (N = 433) reported on their drinking behavior in their first year of college and then annually for 3 consecutive years. Alcohol consumption and problems increased over the college years for both those with and without ALDH2∗2, but having an ALDH2∗2 allele was associated with less of an increase in problems over time. A mediation model was supported, with ALDH2∗2 group differences in problems fully accounted for by differences in frequency of binge drinking. Findings also supported a moderation hypothesis: All four alcohol consumption variables were significant predictors of subsequent alcohol problems, but these relationships were not as strong in those with ALDH2∗2 as in those without ALDH2∗2. Our findings suggest that the interplay between ALDH2∗2 and drinking-related problems is complex, involving both mediation and moderation processes that reduce the likelihood of developing problems via reduction of heavy drinking as well as by altering the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Results of this longitudinal study provide evidence that what seems like a relatively straightforward effect of a diminished ability to metabolize alcohol on drinking behavior is actually dependent on behavior and developmental stage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Luczak, Susan E.; Yarnell, Lisa M.; Prescott, Carol A.; Myers, Mark G.; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L.
The variant aldehyde dehydrogenase allele, ALDH2*2, consistently has been associated with protection against alcohol dependence, but the mechanism underlying this process is not known. This study examined growth trajectories of alcohol consumption (frequency, average quantity, binge drinking, maximum drinks) and problems over the college years and then tested whether the ALDH2 genotype mediated or moderated the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Asian American college students (N = 433) reported on their drinking behavior in their first year of college and then annually for 3 consecutive years. Alcohol consumption and problems increased over the college years for both those with and without ALDH2*2, but having an ALDH2*2 allele was associated with less of an increase in problems over time. A mediation model was supported, with ALDH2*2 group differences in problems fully accounted for by differences in frequency of binge drinking. Findings also supported a moderation hypothesis: All four alcohol consumption variables were significant predictors of subsequent alcohol problems, but these relationships were not as strong in those with ALDH2*2 as in those without ALDH2*2. Our findings suggest that the interplay between ALDH2*2 and drinking-related problems is complex, involving both mediation and moderation processes that reduce the likelihood of developing problems via reduction of heavy drinking as well as by altering the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Results of this longitudinal study provide evidence that what seems like a relatively straightforward effect of a diminished ability to metabolize alcohol on drinking behavior is actually dependent on behavior and developmental stage. PMID:24661165
Wendi J. Otto
Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.
Wendi J. OTTO
Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.
Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J
With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.
Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Jillapalli, Regina; Saxena, Shubhada; Kim, Miyong T
Advance care planning (ACP) allows individuals to express their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become incapable of making their own decisions. This study assessed the efficacy of a conversation game intervention for increasing South Asian Indian Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in ACP behaviors as well as the game's acceptability and cultural appropriateness among SAIAs. Eligible community-dwelling SAIAs were recruited at SAIA cultural events held in central Texas during the summer of 2016. Pregame questionnaires included demographics and the 55-item ACP Engagement Survey. Played in groups of 3-5, the game consists of 17 open-ended questions that prompt discussions of end-of-life issues. After each game session, focus groups and questionnaires were used to examine the game's cultural appropriateness and self-rated conversation quality. Postintervention responses on the ACP Engagement Survey and rates of participation in ACP behaviors were collected after 3 months through phone interviews or online surveys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and paired t-tests comparing pre/post averages at a .05 significance level. Of the 47 participants, 64% were female, 62% had graduate degrees, 92% had lived in the U.S. for >10 years, 87% were first-generation immigrants, and 74% had no advance directive prior to the game. At the 3-month follow-up, 58% of participants had completed at least one ACP behavior, 42% had discussed end-of-life issues with loved ones, 15% did so with their healthcare providers, and 18% had created an advanced directive. ACP Engagement Survey scores increased significantly on all four of the process subscales by 3 months postgame. SAIA individuals who played a conversation game had a relatively high rate of performing ACP behaviors 3 months after the intervention. These findings suggest that conversation games may be useful tools for motivating people from minority communities to engage in ACP behaviors.
Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S
Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.
Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.
Tung, Elizabeth L; Baig, Arshiya A; Huang, Elbert S; Laiteerapong, Neda; Chua, Kao-Ping
Although Asian Americans are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, it is not known whether they are appropriately screened for this disease. To assess racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes screening between Asian Americans and other adults. Analysis of pooled cross-sectional data from 45 U.S. states and territories using the 2012-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated the weighted proportions of adults in each racial and ethnic group who received recommended diabetes screening. To assess for racial and ethnic disparities, we used multivariable logistic regression to model receipt of recommended diabetes screening as a function of race and ethnicity, adjusting for demographics, healthcare access, survey year, and state. A total of 526,000 adults who were eligible to receive diabetes screening according to American Diabetes Association guidelines from 2012 to 2014 (age ≥ 45 years or age racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening. Overall, Asian Americans had 34% lower adjusted odds of receiving recommended diabetes screening compared to non-Hispanic whites (95 % CI: 0.60, 0.73). In subgroup analyses by age and weight status, disparities were widest among obese Asian Americans ≥ 45 years (AOR = 0.56; 95 % CI: 0.39, 0.81). Disparities persisted among Asian Americans who completed other types of preventive cancer screening. Despite their high risk of diabetes, Asian Americans were the least likely racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening.
Chicago Board of Education, IL.
Two units of Asian materials for secondary students comprise this document. The first unit presents a brief history of Asian man and his environment, including geography, climate, ethnic groups, resources, food, and population. Following the historical narrative are community references and various learning experiences and activities which further…
Vogt, Kristen E.
The purpose of this research study was to examine, for undergraduate women of various Asian American ethnic backgrounds, the influence of background contextual and college environment factors on their sense of academic self-efficacy and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Social cognitive career theory and its critiques provided a theoretical foundation for relationships from past performance, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and college environment variables (compositional diversity, racial climate, gendered climate, academic peer support), to academic self-efficacy and achievement. Data were collected through an online survey. Instrumentation included the scales of Language, Identity, and Behavioral Acculturation; Gender Discrimination; Faculty and Classroom Behavior; Interactions with Peers; and Academic Milestones Self-efficacy. The participants were 228 Asian American undergraduate women in STEM at a large public, doctoral research extensive university on the east coast; the response rate was 51%. In three MANOVAs for nine social cognitive career variables, four ethnic groups (East, South, Southeast, and Multi-ethnic Asian American) significantly differed only on socioeconomic status. In path analysis, the initial model was not a good fit and was rejected. The model was respecified through statistical and theoretical evaluation, tested in exploratory analysis, and considered a good fit. The respecified model explained 36% of semester GPA (achievement) and 28% of academic self-efficacy. The academic achievement of Asian American women in STEM was related to past performance, background contextual factors, academic self-efficacy, academic peer support, and gendered climate. The strongest direct influence on achievement was academic self-efficacy followed by past performance. The total effect of Asian acculturation on achievement was negative and the total effect of American acculturation on achievement was not
Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Scoppa, Steve; Gibson, James T; Liu, Lihua; Morris, Cyllene; Kwong, Sandy; Fish, Kari; Wilkens, Lynne R; Goodman, Marc T; Deapen, Dennis; Miller, Barry A
National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2008 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registries. Incidence rates from 1990 through 2008 and average percentage change were computed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Rates for non-Hispanic whites are presented for comparison. Prostate cancer was the most common malignancy among most groups, followed by lung, colorectal, liver, and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was generally the most common cancer in women, followed by colorectal and lung cancers; liver, cervix, thyroid, and stomach cancers also ranked highly. Among men, increasing trends were observed for prostate (Asian Indians and Pakistanis: APC 1990-2003 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.3 to 4.1; Filipinos: APC 1990-1994 = 19.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 35.4; Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.0), colorectal (Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.5), and liver cancers (Filipinos: APC 1990-2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.7; Koreans: APC 1990-2006 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4 to 3.7; Vietnamese: APC 1990-2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.8), whereas lung and stomach cancers generally remained stable or decreased. Among women, increases were observed for uterine cancer (Asian Indians: APC 1990-2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.3 to 5.8; Chinese: APC 2004-2008 = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 12.9; Filipina: APC 1990-2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.7; Japanese: APC 1990-2008 = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), colorectal cancer (Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.9; Laotians: APC: 1990-2008 = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.0 to 7.7), lung cancer (Filipinas: APC 1990-2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.8; Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.6 to 3
Background National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Methods Cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2008 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registries. Incidence rates from 1990 through 2008 and average percentage change were computed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Rates for non-Hispanic whites are presented for comparison. Results Prostate cancer was the most common malignancy among most groups, followed by lung, colorectal, liver, and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was generally the most common cancer in women, followed by colorectal and lung cancers; liver, cervix, thyroid, and stomach cancers also ranked highly. Among men, increasing trends were observed for prostate (Asian Indians and Pakistanis: APC 1990–2003 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.3 to 4.1; Filipinos: APC 1990–1994 = 19.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 35.4; Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.0), colorectal (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.5), and liver cancers (Filipinos: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.7; Koreans: APC 1990–2006 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4 to 3.7; Vietnamese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.8), whereas lung and stomach cancers generally remained stable or decreased. Among women, increases were observed for uterine cancer (Asian Indians: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.3 to 5.8; Chinese: APC 2004–2008 = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 12.9; Filipina: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.7; Japanese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), colorectal cancer (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.9; Laotians: APC: 1990–2008 = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.0 to 7.7), lung cancer (Filipinas: APC 1990–2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 1
Harrison, Gail G; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foerster, Susan B; Lee, Henry; Pham Kim, Loan; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen; Fernandez-Ami, Allyn; Quinn, Valerie; Bal, Dileep G
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) have the fastest growing rate of overweight and obese children. Aggressive programs are urgently needed to prevent unhealthy acculturation-related changes in diet and physical activity and to promote the healthier aspects of traditional lifestyle habits. We conducted focus groups and key informant interviews to explore knowledge, attitudes, dietary practices, and physical activity levels among three low-income Asian American ethnic groups, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hmong, in California. Content analysis was used to identify similarities and differences among the groups. Several common health beliefs clearly emerged. Participants noted the importance of fresh (not frozen) fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity for general health. The concept of good health included having a harmonious family, balance, and mental and emotional stability. All groups also expressed the general belief that specific foods have hot or cold properties and are part of the Yin/Yang belief system common to Asian cultures. The lure of fast food, children's adoption of American eating habits, and long work hours were identified as barriers to a healthy, more traditional lifestyle. A California campaign for Asian Americans using multilevel strategies is recommended to counter the alarming rise of obesity among AAPI youth. Strategies directed to individual, community, and policy levels should emphasize maintenance of healthy traditional diets, informed selection of mainstream U.S. foods, and promotion of active lifestyles to prevent an impending burden from cancer and nutrition-related chronic diseases in AAPI populations. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Hishinuma, Earl S; Smith, Myra D; McCarthy, Kayne; Lee, Mark; Goebert, Deborah A; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Andrade, Naleen N; Philip, Jacques B; Chung-Do, Jane J; Hamamoto, Reid S; Andrade, Joy K L
The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal predictors of past-6-month suicide attempts for a diverse adolescent sample of Native Hawaiians, Pacific peoples, and Asian Americans. The study used longitudinal data from the Hawaiian High Schools Health Survey (N = 2,083, 9th to 11th graders, 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 school years). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was conducted. The final model consisted of three statistically significant predictors: (1) Time 1 suicide attempt, odds ratio = 30.6; (2) state anxiety, odds ratio = 4.9; and (3) parent expectations, odds ratio = 1.9. Past suicide attempt was by far the strongest predictor of future suicide attempts. Implications are discussed, including the need for screening of prior suicide attempts and focused interventions after suicide attempts.
Zhao, Meng; Conard, Patricia L
Asian American women have the lowest mammography screening rate in the United States. There is no standardized instrument available to measure their cultural beliefs regarding screening mammography. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content validity of the Cultural Health and Screening Mammography Belief Scale (CHSMBS) developed for this population. Procedures for Instrument Development: The content validity was examined using content validity index (CVI). Both item-level (I-CVI) and scale-level CVIs (S-CVI) were evaluated. The instrument's I-CVIs ranged from 0.75 to 1.00, and the S-CVI was 1.00, reflecting excellent inter-rater agreement. The study has established the scale's content validity to evaluate Asian American women's use of screening mammography. Further examination of the reliability and construct validity will add further support of the scale's utility in health research and practice.
Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Gilmore, Amanda K; Blayney, Jessica A; Kaysen, Debra L
The need for trauma research with monoracial groups such as Asian Americans (AA) has recently been emphasized to better understand trauma experiences and inform interventions across populations. Given AA cultural contexts, posttraumatic cognitions and somatization may be key in understanding trauma experiences for this group. AA and White American (WA) trauma-exposed college women completed a survey on sexual trauma history, posttraumatic cognitions, somatic symptoms, and PTSD severity. For the overall sample, higher negative cognitions were associated with higher somatization. Asian race was associated with higher negative cognitions, which then predicted higher PTSD. Unexpectedly, WAs more strongly endorsed somatization than AAs. These findings indicate that posttraumatic cognitions may be helpful in understanding relationships between somatization and PTSD severity among those of Asian backgrounds and that the relationship between somatization and PTSD symptoms is culturally complex.
Cook, Won Kim; John, Iyanrick; Chung, Corina; Tseng, Winston; Lee, Juliet P
Medicaid coverage increases access to care and improves health outcomes for disadvantaged populations. Yet disparities in enrollment and access to care persist. To understand the facilitators and barriers of Medicaid enrollment and accessing care under the Affordable Care Act for disadvantaged Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted. Informational barriers to accessing care were pervasive among most new enrollees. Immigrants with limited English proficiency experienced disproportionate difficulties in enrolling and accessing care post enrollment. The simplified, income-based Medicaid eligibility streamlined the enrollment process, but system errors in determining Medicaid eligibility denied coverage for some eligible individuals. To improve access to care, health plans, government agencies, and community organizations might coordinate more closely. Federal and state laws that mandate language assistance by health plans might be enforced to improve access to care for linguistic minorities.
Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.
Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.
Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.
Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.
Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W; Heh, Victor
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly one in every three women over their lifetimes. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy, mediated by condom use and perceived spousal/partner support among Latina and Asian women. Data came from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The analysis was restricted to married or cohabiting female respondents aged 18+ years (n = 1,595). Dependent variables included unintended pregnancy, condom use, and perceived partner support. Independent variables included physical abuse or threats by current partner and primary decision-maker. Weighted least squares was used to fit path models to data comprising dichotomous and ordinal variables. More than 13% of women reported IPV during their relationship with their partner/spouse. Abused women were twice as likely as non-abused women to have had an unintended pregnancy. This association was partially mediated by perceived partner support. Condom use had a positive, but non-significant association with unintended pregnancy, and IPV had a negative, but non-significant association with condom use. Results highlight the importance of IPV screening for minority women. Efforts to combine family planning and violence prevention services may help reduce unintended pregnancy.
Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.
Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…
Parmar, Parminder; Harkness, Sara; Super, Charles M.
Asian and Euro-American parents of preschool-aged children were interviewed concerning their beliefs about the nature and purpose of play; they also completed two questionnaires and a diary of their children's daily activities. The children's teachers were interviewed and provided information about the behaviour of the children in preschool. The…
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the incidence and trends in colorectal cancer (CRC among Asian American populations in the United States. Methods: CRC incidence data from 1994 through 2013 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. SEER*Stat and IBM SPSS Statistics were used. Results: The age-adjusted incidence of CRC among Asian Americans decreased from 45.6 per 100,000 in 1994 to 33.0 per 100,000 in 2013, with the annual percent change being −1.8% (P<0.05. The incidences were higher for men, the elderly (aged 60 years or older, and several geographic areas. For those younger than 70 years, the rectal site was more affected compared with those aged 70 years or older, in whom the proximal site were more affected. Most patients presented with localized and regional stages. Men, 80 years or older, in situ stage, and some geographic areas such as Connecticut and California experienced significant incidence decreases in the 20-year observation period. Conclusion: Although CRC incidence has declined among Asian American populations in the United States in the past 2 decades, there are persistent differences by age and geographic areas. Further research is needed to guide the design and implementation of tailored strategies to reduce CRC outcome differences across Asian American populations.
Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Gasman, Marybeth
This article emphasises two major themes that address the influence of the Asian American Movement: (1) encouraging students to broaden the discourse on race and ethnic relations by redefining categories and challenging prevalent assumptions; (2) an increased tolerance and frequency in course offerings that examine and centralise the histories,…
This dissertation interrogates the experiences of Asian American and Latino law students, as racialized second-generation, children of immigrants entering an elite profession. Intersecting immigration, race and ethnicity, and professional socialization literature, I compare the students' experiences across race, gender, socioeconomic…
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.; Liang, Mandy X.
On the basis of stress and coping theory, the authors examined coping as a mediator of the relationship between perceptions of racism and racism-related stress with a sample of Asian American college students (N = 336). Results indicated that coping mediated the relationship between racism and racism-related stress differentially by gender. The…
Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan
Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet,…
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Castro, Kimberly S.
The moderation effect of nativity status on the relationship between perceived racism and academic performance of Asian American college students was investigated. We hypothesized that perceived racism would negatively correlate with academic performance and that this relationship would be stronger for US-born students compared to foreign-born…
Ai, Amy L; Appel, Hoa B; Nicdao, Ethel G
In the USA, Asian-Americans (AA) constitute the fastest growing ethnic minority group, in which heterogeneous religious patterns and acculturation experiences can impose significant impacts on their mental health. Using national data, the present study examined the contributions of religious involvement and social support to self-rated mental health (SRMH) of Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinos. Findings demonstrated cross-group variations, with Filipinos reporting the highest levels of SRMH, acculturation, and discrimination. However, religious involvement was associated with better SRMH in the least religious Chinese subgroup but not in the most religious Filipino subgroup. Social support predicted SRMH for both Chinese and Vietnamese subgroups. The differential religious patterns in the more acculturated generations between the two AA subgroups suggest religious assimilation as part of their acculturation in the context of divergent immigration experiences.
Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.
In this article, the author examines how variability of socioeconomic backgrounds affects parental strategies and academic achievement among Korean American youths. The study compares experiences of high- and low-achieving Korean American high school students in New York City urban schools: 1) academically achieving students attending a…
Choi, Jeonghee; Godina, Heriberto; Ro, Yeon Sun
This ethnographic case study examines perceptions of literacy and identity for a Korean-American student in a third-grade classroom. The researchers examine how teachers can misinterpret Asian identity in the classroom due to perceptions related to the "Model Minority Myth" and other stereotypical representations of Asian culture. By…
Polek, Carolee; Hardie, Thomas
Cancer can evoke long-held cultural beliefs which either facilitate or impede efforts to expand the health literacy of families. Among these beliefs is fatalism which holds that controlling ones' outcome is not possible, and that ones' outcome is predestined. Some fatalistic beliefs are broadly held within the Asian American (AA) community and may be challenged or reinforced by the experience of having a family member diagnosed with cancer. This study evaluated the relationship between having a family member diagnosed with cancer and selected demographics in AAs on fatalistic beliefs. Data from 519 AA subjects from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Information Trends Survey were used to complete a secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics characterize fatalistic beliefs. Four models using four questions assessed fatalistic beliefs as dependent variables and independent variables of having or not having a family member diagnosed with cancer, completing college or not, sex, and age were assessed using ordinal regression. All of the fatalistic beliefs examined were endorsed by large portions of the subjects. When considering the role of being exposed to having a family member with cancer, it was associated with an increase in the likelihood in a belief that one is likely to get cancer, and everything can cause cancer. Being exposed to a family member diagnosed with cancer was not significantly associated with believing, there was little one could do to control their cancer risk. This belief was broadly rejected. While the belief that there are so many different recommendations about preventing cancer, it is hard to know what to do, was broadly endorsed and not associated with having a family member diagnosed with cancer. The major practice implications within oncology nursing suggest the importance in assessing cancer health literacy and providing corrective knowledge in families with a member diagnosed with cancer. While recognizing the need for
Full Text Available Objective: Cancer can evoke long-held cultural beliefs which either facilitate or impede efforts to expand the health literacy of families. Among these beliefs is fatalism which holds that controlling ones′ outcome is not possible, and that ones′ outcome is predestined. Some fatalistic beliefs are broadly held within the Asian American (AA community and may be challenged or reinforced by the experience of having a family member diagnosed with cancer. This study evaluated the relationship between having a family member diagnosed with cancer and selected demographics in AAs on fatalistic beliefs. Methods: Data from 519 AA subjects from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Information Trends Survey were used to complete a secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics characterize fatalistic beliefs. Four models using four questions assessed fatalistic beliefs as dependent variables and independent variables of having or not having a family member diagnosed with cancer, completing college or not, sex, and age were assessed using ordinal regression. Results: All of the fatalistic beliefs examined were endorsed by large portions of the subjects. When considering the role of being exposed to having a family member with cancer, it was associated with an increase in the likelihood in a belief that one is likely to get cancer, and everything can cause cancer. Being exposed to a family member diagnosed with cancer was not significantly associated with believing, there was little one could do to control their cancer risk. This belief was broadly rejected. While the belief that there are so many different recommendations about preventing cancer, it is hard to know what to do, was broadly endorsed and not associated with having a family member diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions: The major practice implications within oncology nursing suggest the importance in assessing cancer health literacy and providing corrective knowledge in families
Kim, Karen; Quinn, Michael; Chandrasekar, Edwin; Patel, Reena; Lam, Helen
One of the greatest challenges facing health promotion and disease prevention is translating research findings into evidence-based practices (EBP). There is currently a limited research base to inform the design of dissemination action plans, especially within medically underserved communities. The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol to disseminate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines in seven Asian subgroups. This study integrated a market-oriented Push-Pull-Infrastructure Model, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, and community-based participatory research approach to create a community-centered dissemination framework. Consumer research, through focus groups and community-wide surveys, was centered on the adopters to ensure a multilevel intervention was well designed and effective. Collaboration took place between an academic institution and eight community-based organizations. These groups worked together to conduct thorough consumer research. A sample of 72 Asian Americans participated in 8 focus groups, and differences were noted across ethnic groups. Furthermore, 464 community members participated in an Individual Client Survey. Most participants agreed that early detection of cancer was important (434/464, 93.5%), cancer could happen to anyone (403/464, 86.9%), CRC could be prevented (344/464, 74.1%), and everyone should screen for CRC (389/464, 83.8%). However, 35.8% (166/464) of participants also felt that people were better off not knowing it they had cancer, and 45.5% (211/464) would screen only when they had symptoms. Most participants indicated that they would screen upon their doctor's recommendation, but half reported that they only saw a doctor when they were sick. Data collection currently is underway for a multilevel intervention (community health advisor and social marketing campaign) and will conclude March 2016. We expect that analysis and results will be available by June 2016. This study outlines a
Kim, Karen; Quinn, Michael; Chandrasekar, Edwin; Patel, Reena
Background One of the greatest challenges facing health promotion and disease prevention is translating research findings into evidence-based practices (EBP). There is currently a limited research base to inform the design of dissemination action plans, especially within medically underserved communities. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol to disseminate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines in seven Asian subgroups. Methods This study integrated a market-oriented Push-Pull-Infrastructure Model, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, and community-based participatory research approach to create a community-centered dissemination framework. Consumer research, through focus groups and community-wide surveys, was centered on the adopters to ensure a multilevel intervention was well designed and effective. Results Collaboration took place between an academic institution and eight community-based organizations. These groups worked together to conduct thorough consumer research. A sample of 72 Asian Americans participated in 8 focus groups, and differences were noted across ethnic groups. Furthermore, 464 community members participated in an Individual Client Survey. Most participants agreed that early detection of cancer was important (434/464, 93.5%), cancer could happen to anyone (403/464, 86.9%), CRC could be prevented (344/464, 74.1%), and everyone should screen for CRC (389/464, 83.8%). However, 35.8% (166/464) of participants also felt that people were better off not knowing it they had cancer, and 45.5% (211/464) would screen only when they had symptoms. Most participants indicated that they would screen upon their doctor’s recommendation, but half reported that they only saw a doctor when they were sick. Data collection currently is underway for a multilevel intervention (community health advisor and social marketing campaign) and will conclude March 2016. We expect that analysis and results will be available by
Betânia Paiva Drumond
Full Text Available The American/Asian genotype of Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2 was introduced into the Americas in the 80's. Although there is no data showing when this genotype was first introduced into Brazil, it was first detected in Brazil in 1990. After which the virus spread throughout the country and major epidemics occurred in 1998, 2007/08 and 2010. In this study we sequenced 12 DENV-2 genomes obtained from serum samples of patients with dengue fever residing in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SJRP/SP, Brazil, in 2008. The whole open reading frame or envelope sequences were used to perform phylogenetic, phylogeographic and evolutionary analyses. Isolates from SJRP/SP were grouped within one lineage (BR3 close to isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Isolates from SJRP were probably introduced there at least in 2007, prior to its detection in the 2008 outbreak. DENV-2 circulation in Brazil is characterized by the introduction, displacement and circulation of three well-defined lineages in different times, most probably from the Caribbean. Thirty-seven unique amino acid substitutions were observed among the lineages, including seven amino acid differences in domains I to III of the envelope protein. Moreover, we dated here, for the first time, the introduction of American/Asian genotype into Brazil (lineage BR1 to 1988/89, followed by the introduction of lineages BR2 (1998-2000 and BR3 (2003-05. Our results show a delay between the introduction and detection of DENV-2 lineages in Brazil, reinforcing the importance and need for surveillance programs to detect and trace the evolution of these viruses. Additionally, Brazilian DENV-2 differed in genetic diversity, date of introduction and geographic origin and distribution in Brazil, and these are important factors for the evolution, dynamics and control of dengue.
Hyoung Tae Kim
Full Text Available Comparative analyses of complete chloroplast (cp DNA sequences within a species may provide clues to understand the population dynamics and colonization histories of plant species. Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae is a widely distributed fern species in northeastern Asia, Europe, and North America. The complete cp DNA sequences from Asian and American E. arvense individuals were compared in this study. The Asian E. arvense cp genome was 583 bp shorter than that of the American E. arvense. In total, 159 indels were observed between two individuals, most of which were concentrated on the hypervariable trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS in the large single-copy (LSC region of the cp genome. This IGS region held a series of 19 bp repeating units. The numbers of the 19 bp repeat unit were responsible for 78% of the total length difference between the two cp genomes. Furthermore, only other closely related species of Equisetum also show the hypervariable nature of the trnY-trnE IGS. By contrast, only a single indel was observed in the gene coding regions: the ycf1 gene showed 24 bp differences between the two continental individuals due to a single tandem-repeat indel. A total of 165 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were recorded between the two cp genomes. Of these, 52 SNPs (31.5% were distributed in coding regions, 13 SNPs (7.9% were in introns, and 100 SNPs (60.6% were in intergenic spacers (IGS. The overall difference between the Asian and American E. arvense cp genomes was 0.12%. Despite the relatively high genetic diversity between Asian and American E. arvense, the two populations are recognized as a single species based on their high morphological similarity. This indicated that the two regional populations have been in morphological stasis.
Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
Asian American immigrants have a lower level of health literacy than non-Latino whites, but their level of health literacy and its impact on health outcomes may differ among subgroups. We investigated the level of health literacy across five subgroups of Asian American immigrants and explored the association between health literacy and self-rated health status and symptoms of depression. We utilized a cross-sectional survey research design and a population-based sampling strategy using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). We sampled 30,615 non-Latino whites and 3,053 Asian American immigrants (1,058 Chinese, 598 Koreans, 534 Filipinos, 416 South Asians, and 447 Vietnamese). We used two questions as proxy measures to assess the level of health literacy in non-Latino whites and in both aggregated and disaggregated Asian American immigrant groups. We then investigated the effect of health literacy on two main health outcomes: self-rated health status and depression symptoms. The level of health literacy varied across the five subgroups of Asian American immigrants. Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese groups had the lowest levels of health literacy, while Filipinos showed the highest level. Health literacy was positively correlated with health status in Chinese and Korean immigrants, and negatively correlated with depression symptoms in Korean and South Asian immigrants. We found heterogeneity in health literacy among Asian American immigrants and found that health literacy had varying associations with health outcomes. The aggregated Asian American immigrant group results may mask the true health disparities that each Asian American immigrant group faces. Koreans were the only group found to have a significant association between the proxy for health literacy and both health outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the causes of heterogeneity and to investigate health literacy as a critical determinant of immigrant health.
Needham, Belinda L; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Bagchi, Pramita; Kim, Catherine; Mukherjea, Arnab; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M
In the past, epidemiologic research on acculturation and health has been criticized for its conceptual ambiguity and simplistic measurement approaches. This study applied a widely-used theoretical framework from cross-cultural psychology to identify acculturation strategies among South Asian immigrants in the US and to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. Data were from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. We used latent class analysis to identify groups of individuals that were similar based on cultural attitudes and behaviors. We used latent class regression analysis to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. We found that South Asian immigrants employed three acculturation strategies, including separation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for South Asian culture over US culture), assimilation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for US culture over South Asian culture), and integration (characterized by a similar level of preference for South Asian and US cultures). Respondents with no religious affiliation, those with higher levels of income, those who lived a greater percentage of their lives in the US, and those who spoke English well or very well were less likely to use the separation strategy than the assimilation or integration strategies. Using epidemiologic cohort data, this study illustrated a conceptual and methodological approach that addresses limitations of previous research on acculturation and health. More work is needed to understand how the acculturation strategies identified in this study affect the health of South Asian immigrants in the US.
Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F
The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated
Bannister, Rosella; Green, Hayden
The Asian Consumer Education Study was designed to gather information about the current status of consumer education in Korea. Conversations and informal interviews with 27 consumer leaders showed that, with the exception of academic specialists and consumer professionals in government, business, and community organizations, consumers gave little…
William C Hsu
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Classic features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may not apply in Asian Americans, due to shared absence of common HLA DR-DQ genotype, low prevalence of positive anti-islet antibodies and low BMI in both types of diabetes. Our objective was to characterize diabetic phenotypes in Asian Americans by clamp and clinical features. MATERIALS/METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a referral center. Thirty East young Asian American adult volunteers (27.6±5.5 years with type 1, type 2 diabetes or controls underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp to assess insulin resistance and DEXA to assess adiposity. RESULTS: Gender, BMI, waist/hip ratio, leptin, LDL, anti-GAD, anti-IA2 antibodies and C-reactive protein were similar among three groups. Serum C-peptide, adiponectin, free fatty acid, HDL concentrations and truncal fat by DEXA, were different between diabetic groups. Glucose disposal rate by clamp was lowest in type 2 diabetes, followed by type 1 diabetes and controls (5.43±2.70, 7.62±2.59, 8.61±2.37 mg/min/kg, respectively, p = 0.001. Free fatty acid concentration universally plummeted during steady state of the clamp procedure regardless of diabetes types in all three groups. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein in the entire cohort (r = -0.625, p = 0.04 and controls (r = -0.869, p = 0.046 correlated best with insulin resistance, independent of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes in Asian Americans was associated with insulin resistance despite having low BMI as type 1 diabetes, suggesting a potential role for targeting insulin resistance apart from weight loss. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, strongly associated with insulin resistance, independent of adiposity in the young Asian American population, may potentially serve as a biomarker to identify at-risk individuals. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.
Loan Thi Dao
Full Text Available Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI represent the fastest-growing racial category in the U.S., largely due to its increasing immigration from the Asia-Pacific region (AAJC 2015. Of the 10.9 million undocumented immigrants residing in the U.S., 14% (1.5 million are from Asia (Migration Policy Institute 2014. In response to immigrant youth organizing, President Barack Obama initiated the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program in 2012, which offers temporary relief from deportation to approximately 2 million undocumented childhood arrivals (Ibid. Yet, the unique perspectives of AAPI youth have gone unheard, and their political activities have been rendered invisible in public discourse on undocu/DACAmented youth in the immigrant rights movement. This study aims to capture political identity formation through what I coin “dual liminality” that leads to political participation for undocu/DACAmented AAPI youth. It considers how their status as undocumented or DACA, as being marginalized from both mainstream and co-ethnic claims to belonging, helped them form a collective political identity and engage in political activities. The use of strategic storytelling (Polletta 2006 throughout the process of their political development also led to their return to organize co-ethnic communities against internalized stereotypes of both “Model Minority” and “Yellow Peril”. This study involves 12 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with politically active AAPI, ages 20–26, from four major cities on the East Coast, conducted between 2014 and 2015. The interviews demonstrate how these youths’ choices to reveal their status shape their collective identity formation that leads to their political engagement. Through strategic storytelling, they use their dual liminality to shape their narrative framing in both the immigrant rights and in AAPI communities, enhancing their political participation across inter-racial boundaries.
Diep, Cassandra S; Leung, Randall; Thompson, Debbe I; Gor, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom
To examine Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews using constructs from the proposed model of dietary acculturation. Community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX. Twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years. Diet, favorite restaurants, and parents' cooking and grocery shopping habits. Content analysis and thematic data analysis to identify code categories and themes. Coders also identified patterns based on demographic and acculturation factors. Overall, participants described their diets and associated behaviors as Asian and non-Asian. Key themes included preference for Asian and non-Asian foods; consumption of non-Asian foods for breakfast and lunch, but Asian foods for dinner; infrequent dining at restaurants; grocery shopping at Asian and non-Asian stores; and familial influences on diet. Acculturated children and children of higher socioeconomic status appeared to prefer and consume a more Westernized/non-Asian diet. Results illustrate that Chinese American children in this study practiced both Asian and non-Asian dietary behaviors. Findings corroborated existing acculturation research with parents and caregivers; supported constructs in the model of dietary acculturation; and provide guidance for research and programs related to dietary behaviors, determinants, and culture among this population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías
Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.
Full Text Available This essay examines the relationships of performing bodies to elaborate “Asian/American corporeal citations” and argues that such citations create the grounds for a politics of mobility. Revisiting and extending Sau-ling Wong’s theoretical engagement with “myths of mobility,” it specifically uses the nexus of mourning, performance, and racialization to rearticulate modes of cultural passing by constructing a lineage through several men: screen star Toshiro Mifune, actor Lane Nishikawa (who invokes Mifune through Nishikawa’s elegiac solo piece Mifune and Me, and the author (disciplined through acting classes with Nishikawa. The stakes of re-membering are further articulated through the interweaving of the bodily acts associated with the death of the author’s grandfather, Bo Jung. Joining the principal argument with this more personal reflection is an attempt to think through the implications of Nishikawa’s theatrical memorial and to grapple with loss and the complex, nonlinear structures of memory that attend it. Ultimately, all the cultural transmissions discussed place the body at the center of transnational, racial, and ethnic discourses. In so doing, the essay revises kinship as the foundation for what might otherwise be too easily read as diasporic cultural productions.
Romero, Devan R; Pulvers, Kim
Asian Americans (AA) and Pacific Islanders (PI) are an understudied population for health and tobacco use, which is alarming for a fast growing U.S. population. Research in smoking among AA and PI college students is limited, despite 50% of AA and 20% of PI having obtained a college degree. A cross-sectional tobacco survey was administered in a large racially diverse Southern California university (N = 490) that examined smoking behavior, psychosocial, and perceptual factors related to smoking among AA and PI compared with Caucasians. Overall, 19% of participants were smokers. The prevalence of current smoking by race was 26% PI, 19% AA, and 17% Caucasian. AA and PI are light, infrequent smokers who smoke mainly for social reasons and in social locations. Most AA and PI made quit attempts and reported intention to quit smoking. Low to moderate risk perceptions for addiction, disease and difficulty in quitting were observed. Social norms center on family influences, therefore it is recommended that cessation approaches target cigarette smoking norms within this social environment to increase perceptual risks of smoking. Smoking cessation should be placed in college health outreach programs based on culturally tailored approaches for AA and PI that target their unique smoking characteristics.
Mondia, Stephen; Hichenberg, Shira; Kerr, Erica; Eisenberg, Megan; Kissane, David W
Clinicians meet people from different ethnic backgrounds, yet need to respond in culturally sensitive ways. This article focuses on Asian American families. Within a randomized controlled trial of family therapy commenced during palliative care and continued into bereavement, 3 families of Asian American background were examined qualitatively from a cultural perspective by listening to recordings of 26 therapy sessions and reviewing detailed supervision notes compiled by each therapist. A synopsis of each family's therapy narrative is presented. Prominent themes include family closeness, respect for hierarchy within the family, gender-determined roles, intergenerational tensions, preoccupation with shame and limited emotional expressiveness. Family therapists working with culturally diverse families need to pay thoughtful attention to ethnic issues as they strive to support them during palliative care and bereavement.
Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.
The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…
Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lisha, Nadra E; Vittinghoff, Eric
The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and awareness of heart attacks/heart disease and perceived risk for future heart attack in Asian/Pacific Islander women, compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In this cross-sectional study, 318 women enrolled in a mobile phone-based physical activity education trial were analyzed. Heart attack knowledge, self-efficacy for recognizing and responding to heart attack symptoms, and perceived risk for a future heart attack were measured. Analyses were conducted using logistic, proportional odds, and linear regression models, depending on the outcome and adjusting for age. Pairwise differences between Asian/Pacific Islanders and the other four groups were assessed using a Bonferroni correction (p heart attack and self-efficacy for heart attack recognition and care seeking behavior compared to the Caucasian women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, perceived risk did not differ among the groups. Forty-six percent of the Asian American women, compared to 25% of Caucasian women, falsely believed "breast cancer is the number one cause of death for women (p = 0.002)." In addition, Asian/Pacific Islander women were less likely to report "arm pain, numbness, tingling, or radiating" as one of the heart attack symptoms compared to the Caucasian and the multiracial group (34%, 63% [p < 0.001], and 66% [p = 0.004], respectively). These findings highlight the urgent need to develop effective, tailored campaigns to close the knowledge gap between Asian/Pacific Islander women and Caucasian women.
Recent work on biculturalism has made theoretical and methodological inroads into our understanding of the relation of cultural processes with psychological functioning. Through the use of cultural priming methodologies, investigators have demonstrated that biculturals, or individuals who have experienced and identify with more than one culture, can switch between various "cultural frames of reference" in response to corresponding social cues (Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet-Martinez, 2000). Drawing on this work on the cognitive implications of biculturalism, the purpose of the present study was to examine the assumption that independent and interdependent self-construals are associated with the motivational standards of self-enhancement and self-criticism, respectively. More specifically, the effects of differential primes of self on ratings of self-enhancement were investigated in a sample of bicultural Asian American (N = 42) and Anglo American (N = 60) college students; overall, more similarities than differences were noted between the two groups. It was hypothesized that Anglo American students would display marked tendencies toward self-enhancement. However, this hypothesis was not supported. Nevertheless, consistent prime effects were observed for a selected number of ratings related to academic virtues, with those who received an independent-self prime often exhibiting greater self-enhancing tendencies than those who received an interdependent-self prime. For example, participants in the independent-self condition reported on average significantly higher ratings for self-discipline and initiative, as well as the degree to which they perceived themselves to be hard working. Implications for the work on self-representations, motivation, and acculturation are discussed.
Kim, Eunyoung; Alhaddab, Taghreed A.; Aquino, Katherine C.; Negi, Reema
Existing body of research indicates that both cognitive and non-cognitive factors contribute to college students' tendency of academic procrastination. However, little attention has been paid to the likelihood of academic procrastination among Asian international college students. Given the need for empirical research on why Asian international…
Juon, Hee-Soon; Lee, Sunmin; Strong, Carol; Rimal, Rajiv; Kirk, Gregory D.; Bowie, Janice
Introduction Asian Americans have the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major form of primary liver cancer, of all ethnic groups in the United States. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of HCC, and as many as 1 in 10 foreign-born Asian Americans are chronically infected with HBV. We tested the effectiveness of a culturally tailored liver cancer education program for increasing screening for HBV among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americ...
Fleary, Sasha A; Tagorda, M; Kim, S; Rathke, M; Nigg, C R
Filipino adolescents are underrepresented in obesity research, although Filipinos are the second largest Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) subpopulation in the USA. An understanding of how well the theories of behavior change apply to Filipino and other AAPI adolescents is critical to addressing obesogenic behaviors in these groups. This study aimed to validate the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) for physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable intake (FV) among a majority Filipino adolescent population. Adolescents in grades 9-11 (N = 159, 82.4% female) completed measures of PA and FV behaviors and PA and FV stages of change. One-way ANOVAs and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests were computed to assess the validity of the PA and FV stages of change with the respective behaviors. There was a significant effect for fruit (action > contemplation, preparation) and vegetable (maintenance, action > contemplation) intakes across the FV stages of change. There was a significant effect of strenuous PA (precontemplation/contemplation, preparation < action < maintenance) and moderate PA (precontemplation/contemplation < action, maintenance) across the PA stages of change. Some variability in associations emerged when the sample was stratified by gender. This study provides validity evidence for the TTM stages of change for FV and PA among Filipino and other AAPI adolescents. This validation, in turn, extends the generalizability of the stages of change construct to include this ethnic group and replicates other adolescent studies.
周堅中 Jianzhong Zhou
Full Text Available This is a mixed method study of Asian/Pacificlibrarians career choices related to leadershippositions. The statistical analyses are based ondata from 91 librarians in survey Q1 distributedto 600+ CALA and APALA members. Thecorrelation, prediction of association, cross-tabbing,and ANOVA tests were applied to the survey.The result shows that the leadership position iscorrelated with number of years worked in thelibrary profession, number of publications,number of voluntary job changes, and nationalprofessional association’s involvement. Therewas a suggested correlation between leadershippositions and additional advanced degrees andover half of librarians with a doctoral degree arein chief librarian positions. The study also nullifiesthe hypothesis that achieving leadership position is less likely for first generation immigrants orimmigrants who did not receive k-12 orundergraduate education in the North America.In addition, the differences in professional,community, and political involvement areexamined among professional librarians,supervising librarians and chief librarians.The comments from the quantitative surveyQ1 contain rich data which can’t be interpretedby existing statistical methods. The Q1 commentsbecame the first section of a follow-up qualitativestudy using situation coding and subjectperspective coding method. A separate qualitativesurvey Q2 was sent to 12 Asian/Pacific chieflibrarians only. Eight chief librarians completedQ2 covering biographical information andin-depth questions on perceptions of leadershipachievement gap among Asian/Pacific Americanlibrarians. Comparison of comments of Q1for professional librarians and Q2 for chieflibrarians suggested many similar themesemerged. The triangulation from differentAsian/Pacific librarian population validatedthe finding.
Wu, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Kathy; Leung, Genevieve
This paper investigates Mandarin learning experiences of Chinese American teenagers from working-class families. Drawing on a subset of data from a larger ethnographic study, we focus on 14 middle schoolers who studied Mandarin as a heritage language at a socially engaging school with Mandarin as part of its official curriculum. The data highlight…
Pham, Andy V.
Studies addressing assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily been focused on Caucasian populations, although a growing number of studies have included ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanic and African American children. Findings regarding the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and race…
The transition between school and university is not an easy one. The pace of learning is much faster, the volume of written work increases and all the deadlines seem to come at once. And then there are the exams. 'Get set for American studies'assumes no prior knowledge of the subject. For students...... who have never studied American studies before, it will give an idea of what to expect. For students already studying American studies at school, itwill provide a concise but comprehensive learning aid....
Misra, Ranjita; Balagopal, Padmini; Klatt, Maryanna; Geraghty, Maureen
Asian Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at a higher rate than Americans. This national study on Asian Indians (AIs), the third largest Asian-American subgroup in the United States, examined the CAM use by gender and its association with acculturation, health behaviors, and access to health care. This was a cross-sectional survey. The subjects consisted of 1824 AI adults in six states with higher concentration of AIs. Mean age and years lived in the United States was 45.7 +/- 12.8 and 16.6 +/- 11.1 years, respectively. The respondent majority was male, immigrants, college graduates, and had access to care. Sixty three percent (63%) of AIs used at least one type of CAM; most common was a vegetarian diet, followed by use of dietary and herbal supplements and alternative medical systems. Females reported a significantly higher use of CAM, a vegetarian diet, and use of dietary and herbal supplements than AI males. Older age, female gender, having no access to care, and spirituality predicted CAM use in the logistic regression model. Older age, female gender, unmarried, and higher income was associated with use of dietary and herbal supplements; AIs who reported being vegetarian were more likely to be female, unmarried, spiritual, and self-reported their physical health to be fair or poor. This is the first national study of CAM use among AIs by gender and selected respondent characteristics. Results provide important information on health behaviors, beliefs, and patterns of CAM use in this ethnic subgroup to be factored into patient education.
Arliss, Rebecca M
Assessment of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet in the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community has been neglected. A questionnaire was used to investigate these health risk behaviors in 466 students at an urban community college and results for the 138 AAPI study participants were compared to the 328 non-Asians. Results for AAPI study participants showed that twenty percent (20.3%) were current cigarette smokers and 7.7% smoked eleven or more cigarettes per day. Ten percent (10.7%) reported binge drinking on one to two days per month and 17.3% reported binge drinking on three or more days per month. With regard to physical activity, 28.8% participated in stretching, 23.6% in strength and toning, 29.4% in moderate exercise, and 25.4% in vigorous exercise. Results indicated that on the day preceding the survey, only 11.9% consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables, 88.4% ate no more than two servings of high-fat foods, and 37.6% consumed tofu, soymilk, or other soy food. AAPI study participants were more likely to frequently binge drink (p < .05), less likely to participate in strength and toning exercises (p < .05), and more likely to consume soy foods daily (p < .01) than non-Asian study participants. Recommendations are presented for health promotion program planning.
Duan, Jian J; Aparicio, Ellen; Tatman, Daria; Smith, Michael T; Luster, Doug G
The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is a polyphagous wood-boring insect native to Asia. Since it invaded North America in the 1990s, the beetle has been continuously targeted by quarantines and eradication programs in the United States and Canada. We examined the potential for development of new species-associations between A. glabripennis and hymenopteran parasitoids collected from cerambycids and other wood-boring insects infesting red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Results of our study showed that five groups of braconid parasitoids (Ontsira mellipes Ashmead, Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marsh, Spathius laflammei Provancher, Heterospilus spp., and Atanycolus spp.) successfully attacked early instars of A. glabripennis larvae infesting red maple logs and produced both male and female progenies. One species, O. mellipes, was continuously reared on A. glabripennis larvae inserted inside small red maple sticks for over 50 generations, and produced female-biased progeny (∼6:1 female to male ratio) at each generation. Continuous rearing of O. mellipes on A. glabripennis larvae did not significantly increase the parasitism and mean number of progeny produced per parasitized host. Together, these findings demonstrate that some North American parasitoids may be able to develop new associations with A. glabripennis and thus should be further studied under semifield or field conditions for possible use in biocontrol.
Dang, Jeff; Lee, Jessica; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen N; Valdez-Dadia, Annalyn; Thomson, Jasmin; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
We examined whether the impact of medical interpretation services was associated with the receipt of a mammogram, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear. We conducted a large cross-sectional study involving four Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities with high proportions of individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). Participants were recruited from community clinics, churches and temples, supermarkets, and other community gathering sites in Northern and Southern California. Among those that responded, 98% completed the survey rendering a total of 1,708 AAPI women. In a series of multivariate logistic regression models, it was found that women who typically used a medical interpreter had a greater odds of having received a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 2.83), clinical breast exam (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.82, 5.03), and a Pap smear (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.97) than those who did not usually use an interpreter. The study provides support for increasing language access in healthcare settings. In particular, medical interpreters may help increase the utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among LEP AAPI women.
Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio
We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soto, José A; Lee, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Nicole A
Much empirical work documents the downsides of suppressing emotions. Emerging research points to the need for a more sophisticated and culturally informed approach to understanding the consequences of emotion regulation. To that end, we employed behavioral, self-report, and psychophysiological measures to examine the consequences of two types of emotion regulation (suppression and amplification) in a sample of 28 Asian Americans and 31 European Americans. Participants were shown a neutral film and then a series of disgust-eliciting films during which they were asked to regulate their response by suppressing or amplifying their emotional behavior (counterbalanced). Despite self-reporting equal levels of disgust, European Americans showed greater skin conductance reactivity than Asian Americans in both regulation conditions, but not in response to a neutral film. These findings extend work on divergence in the consequences of emotion regulation across different cultural groups, which could help identify optimal emotion regulation strategies for health and well-being. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth
While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.
Muggli, M E; Pollay, R W; Lew, R; Joseph, A M
The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. /methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use.
Wong, Eunice C; Collins, Rebecca L; Cerully, Jennifer L; Yu, Jennifer W; Seelam, Rachana
Mental illness stigma disproportionately affects help seeking among youth, men, and ethnic minorities. As part of a comprehensive statewide initiative to reduce mental illness stigma and discrimination in California, a broad set of contact-based educational programs were widely disseminated. This study examined whether the effects of contact-based educational programs varied depending on the age, gender, and race-ethnicity of participants. Participants (N = 4122) attended a contact-based educational program that was delivered as part of the statewide initiative to reduce mental illness stigma and discrimination. Self-administered surveys assessing beliefs, attitudes, and intentions toward mental illnesses and treatment were conducted immediately before and after participation in contact-based educational programs. Participant age, gender, and race-ethnicity significantly moderated pre-post changes in mental illness stigma. Although all groups exhibited significant pre-post changes across most of the stigma domains assessed, young adults, females, and Asian and Latino American participants reported larger improvements compared to older adults, males, and Whites, respectively. Findings suggest that contact-based educational programs can achieve immediate reductions in mental illness stigma across a variety of sociodemographic groups and may particularly benefit young adults and racial-ethnic minorities. Further research is needed to assess whether contact-based educational programs can sustain longer-term changes and aid in the reduction of disparities in mental illness stigma and treatment.
Chen, Li-Shiun; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Bracci, Paige M.; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Dueker, Nicole; Han, Younghun; Huang, Hongyan; Jin, Guangfu; Kohno, Takashi; Ma, Jennie Z.; Przybeck, Thomas R.; Sanders, Alan R.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Sung, Yun Ju; Wenzlaff, Angie S.; Wu, Chen; Yoon, Dankyu; Chen, Ying-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cho, Yoon Shin; David, Sean P.; Duan, Jubao; Eaton, Charles B.; Furberg, Helena; Goate, Alison M.; Gu, Dongfeng; Hansen, Helen M.; Hartz, Sarah; Hu, Zhibin; Kim, Young Jin; Kittner, Steven J.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Payne, Thomas J.; Rao, DC; Rice, John P.; Rice, Treva K.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Shete, Sanjay S.; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sun, Yan V.; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wang, Jen C.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Xian, Hong; Gejman, Pablo V.; He, Jiang; Hunt, Steven C.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Li, Ming D.; Lin, Dongxin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Park, Taesung; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shen, Hongbing; Wiencke, John K.; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yokota, Jun; Amos, Christopher I.; Bierut, Laura J.
Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations. Association results for a dichotomized cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) phenotype in 27 datasets (European ancestry (N=14,786), Asian (N=6,889), and African American (N=10,912) for a total of 32,587 smokers) were meta-analyzed by population and results were compared across all three populations. We demonstrate association between smoking quantity and markers in the chromosome 15q25 region across all three populations, and narrow the region of association. Of the variants tested, only rs16969968 is associated with smoking (p < 0.01) in each of these three populations (OR=1.33, 95%C.I.=1.25–1.42, p=1.1×10−17 in meta-analysis across all population samples). Additional variants displayed a consistent signal in both European ancestry and Asian datasets, but not in African Americans. The observed consistent association of rs16969968 with heavy smoking across multiple populations, combined with its known biological significance, suggests rs16969968 is most likely a functional variant that alters risk for heavy smoking. We interpret additional association results that differ across populations as providing evidence for additional functional variants, but we are unable to further localize the source of this association. Using the cross-population study paradigm provides valuable insights to narrow regions of interest and inform future biological experiments. PMID:22539395
Chen, Li-Shiun; Saccone, Nancy L; Culverhouse, Robert C; Bracci, Paige M; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Dueker, Nicole; Han, Younghun; Huang, Hongyan; Jin, Guangfu; Kohno, Takashi; Ma, Jennie Z; Przybeck, Thomas R; Sanders, Alan R; Smith, Jennifer A; Sung, Yun Ju; Wenzlaff, Angie S; Wu, Chen; Yoon, Dankyu; Chen, Ying-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cho, Yoon Shin; David, Sean P; Duan, Jubao; Eaton, Charles B; Furberg, Helena; Goate, Alison M; Gu, Dongfeng; Hansen, Helen M; Hartz, Sarah; Hu, Zhibin; Kim, Young Jin; Kittner, Steven J; Levinson, Douglas F; Mosley, Thomas H; Payne, Thomas J; Rao, D C; Rice, John P; Rice, Treva K; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Shete, Sanjay S; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret R; Sun, Yan V; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wang, Jen C; Wrensch, Margaret R; Xian, Hong; Gejman, Pablo V; He, Jiang; Hunt, Steven C; Kardia, Sharon L; Li, Ming D; Lin, Dongxin; Mitchell, Braxton D; Park, Taesung; Schwartz, Ann G; Shen, Hongbing; Wiencke, John K; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yokota, Jun; Amos, Christopher I; Bierut, Laura J
Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations. Association results for a dichotomized cigarettes smoked per day phenotype in 27 datasets (European ancestry (N = 14,786), Asian (N = 6,889), and African American (N = 10,912) for a total of 32,587 smokers) were meta-analyzed by population and results were compared across all three populations. We demonstrate association between smoking quantity and markers in the chromosome 15q25 region across all three populations, and narrow the region of association. Of the variants tested, only rs16969968 is associated with smoking (P < 0.01) in each of these three populations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.25-1.42, P = 1.1 × 10(-17) in meta-analysis across all population samples). Additional variants displayed a consistent signal in both European ancestry and Asian datasets, but not in African Americans. The observed consistent association of rs16969968 with heavy smoking across multiple populations, combined with its known biological significance, suggests rs16969968 is most likely a functional variant that alters risk for heavy smoking. We interpret additional association results that differ across populations as providing evidence for additional functional variants, but we are unable to further localize the source of this association. Using the cross-population study paradigm provides valuable insights to narrow regions of interest and inform future biological experiments. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Quigley, Mark Declan
The purpose of this researcher was to examine specific environmental, educational, and demographic factors and their influence on mathematics and science achievement. In particular, the researcher ascertained the interconnections of home computer access and social capital, with Asian American students and the effect on mathematics and science achievement. Coleman's theory on social capital and parental influence was used as a basis for the analysis of data. Subjects for this study were the base year students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the subsequent follow-up survey data in 1990, 1992, and 1994. The approximate sample size for this study is 640 ethnic Asians from the NELS:88 database. The analysis was a longitudinal study based on the Student and Parent Base Year responses and the Second Follow-up survey of 1992, when the subjects were in 12th grade. Achievement test results from the NELS:88 data were used to measure achievement in mathematics and science. The NELS:88 test battery was developed to measure both individual status and a student's growth in a number of achievement areas. The subject's responses were analyzed by principal components factor analysis, weights, effect sizes, hierarchial regression analysis, and PLSPath Analysis. The results of this study were that prior ability in mathematics and science is a major influence in the student's educational achievement. Findings from the study support the view that home computer access has a negative direct effect on mathematics and science achievement for both Asian American males and females. None of the social capital factors in the study had either a negative or positive direct effect on mathematics and science achievement although some indirect effects were found. Suggestions were made toward increasing parental involvement in their children's academic endeavors. Computer access in the home should be considered related to television viewing and should be closely
Full Text Available It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D, Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.
Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E.; Torres, Javier
It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America. PMID:22073291
Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E; Torres, Javier
It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.
Lo, Eugenia Y Y; Stefanović, Sasa; Christensen, Knud Ib; Dickinson, Timothy A
Phylogeographic relationships were constructed for 72 Old and New World Crataegus species using combinations of four chloroplast and up to five nuclear regions. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian results yield consistent relationships among major lineages. The close associations of the East Asian and western North American species point toward ancient trans-Beringian migrations. Relationships among eastern North American species are poorly resolved and few groups are identified that are congruent with existing classifications. Scant variation and short internal branches among these species suggest rapid divergence associated with polyploidy and hybridization. Incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear data, and morphology suggest hybrid origins of three species from an extinct European lineage (the male parent) and three different North American female parents. Europe and eastern North America are suggested as the most recent common areas for Crataegus; at least four dispersal events are inferred to explain the present distribution of the genus.
Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber
T. L. Zhao
Full Text Available New observational evidence of the trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust and its contribution to the ambient particulate matter (PM levels in North America was revealed, based on the interannual variations between Asian dust storms and the ambient PM levels in western North America from year 2000 to 2006. A high correlation was found between them with an R2 value of 0.83. From analysis of the differences in the correlation between 2005 and 2006, three factors explain the variation of trans-Pacific transport and influences of Asian dust storms on PM levels in western North America. These were identified by modeling results and the re-analysis data. They were 1 Strength of frontal cyclones from Mongolia to north eastern China: The frontal cyclones in East Asia not only bring strong cold air outbreaks, generating dust storms in East Asia, but also lift Asian dust into westerly winds of the free troposphere for trans-Pacific transport; 2 Pattern of transport pathway over the North Pacific: The circulation patterns of westerlies over the North Pacific govern the trans-Pacific transport pattern. Strong zonal airflow of the westerly jet in the free troposphere over the North Pacific favor significant trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust; 3 Variation of precipitation in the North Pacific: The scavenging of Asian dust particles by precipitation is a major process of dust removal on the trans-Pacific transport pathway. Therefore, variation of precipitation in the North Pacific could affect trans-Pacific transport of Asian dust.
Lui, P Priscilla
Among immigrant Asian and Latino groups, the contrast between collectivism in traditional heritage and individualism in the mainstream American cultures presents unique challenges for their family relationships. This systematic review was designed to answer 3 fundamental questions: to what extent do(es) (a) acculturation mismatch (AM) correlate with intergenerational cultural conflict (ICC); (b) ICC correlate with offspring's mental health and educational outcomes; and (c) demographic and study characteristics moderate these relationships. Sixty-one research reports were reviewed, with 68 independent study samples (N = 14,453; 41 and 27 Asian and Latino/a samples, respectively) subjected to 3 meta-analyses. AM positively correlated with ICC (r = .23), which in turn negatively correlated with offspring mental health (r = -.20) and educational outcomes (r = -.09). Findings provided support for acculturation gap-distress theory. While these effect size estimates were small, participant and methodological variables affected their magnitude. Contrary to findings on intergenerational conflict within mainstream non-immigrant families, the relationships among AM, ICC, and mental health were larger in young adult than adolescent groups within immigrant families. ICC significantly correlated with internalizing problems and adaptive functioning, but not externalizing problems. AM was more closely related to ICC among women and second-generation immigrant offspring. AM and ICC were more problematic among offspring who were low-risk and lived in less ethnically disperse regions, particularly when studied in cross-sectional studies. Effect sizes also differed significantly across measurement tools for the key constructs. Limitations to generalizability (few studies on educational outcomes, relative under-representation of Latino/a to Asian American samples), and implications for intervention and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights
Epps, Mary Jane; Menninger, Holly L; LaSala, Nathan; Dunn, Robert R
Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap's distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the relative frequency
Kang, Jikyeong; Kim, Youn-Kyung
Responses from 172 Chinese Americans, 185 Japanese Americans, and 144 Korean Americans revealed distinct reference group, media, and store attribute influences on clothing purchases. Patterns differed depending on degree of acculturation. (SK)
Association of 10-year and lifetime predicted cardiovascular disease risk with subclinical atherosclerosis in South Asians: findings from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study.
Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M; Liu, Kiang; Lee, Ji Young; Herrington, David; Hulley, Stephen B; Persell, Stephen D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Huffman, Mark D
Ten-year and lifetime cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms have been adopted into atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention guidelines, but these prediction models are not based on South Asian populations and may underestimate the risk in Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Nepali, and Sri Lankans in the United States. Little is known about ASCVD risk prediction and intermediate endpoints such as subclinical atherosclerosis in US individuals of South Asian ancestry. South Asians (n=893) from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study who were 40 to 79 years and free of ASCVD were included. Ten-year ASCVD predicted risk was calculated using the 2013 Pooled Cohort Equations. Lifetime predicted risk was based on risk factor burden. Baseline levels of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] and carotid intima media thickness [CIMT]) were compared across 10-year and lifetime risk strata: (1) high (≥7.5%) 10-year and low (<7.5%) 10-year risk; (2) high (≥39%) lifetime and low (<39%) lifetime risk. South Asian men and women with high 10-year predicted risk had a significantly greater CAC burden than those with low 10-year risk. South Asians with high lifetime predicted risk had a significantly increased odds for CAC higher than 0 (odds ratio: men 1.97; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.2; women 3.14; 95% CI, 1.5, 6.6). Associations between risk strata and CIMT were also present. This study is the first to provide evidence that contemporary ASCVD risk assessment algorithms derived from non-Hispanic white and African-American samples can successfully identify substantial differences in atherosclerotic burden in US South Asians. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Heide, van der William
This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society
Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Verma, Manindra K., Ed.
The following papers on subject in South Asian languages are compiled here: (1) "Subject in Sanskrit" by George Cardona; (2) "Is Sinhala a Subject Language? (or, How Restricted is Your PNP?)" by James W. Gair; (3) "Some Syntactic Reflexes of Sub-Categories of Agent in Hindi" by Peter Edwin Hook; (4) "The Notion…
Qian, Feng; Fonarow, Gregg C; Krim, Selim R; Vivo, Rey P; Cox, Margueritte; Hannan, Edward L; Shaw, Benjamin A; Hernandez, Adrian F; Eapen, Zubin J; Yancy, Clyde W; Bhatt, Deepak L
Because little was previously known about Asian-American patients with heart failure (HF), we compared clinical profiles, quality of care, and outcomes between Asian-American and non-Hispanic white HF patients using data from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) program. We analyzed 153,023 HF patients (149,249 whites, 97.5%; 3774 Asian-Americans, 2.5%) from 356 U.S. centers participating in the GWTG-HF program (2005-2012). Baseline characteristics, quality of care metrics, in-hospital mortality, discharge to home, and length of stay were examined. Relative to white patients, Asian-American HF patients were younger, more likely to be male, uninsured or covered by Medicaid, and recruited in the western region. They had higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and renal insufficiency, but similar ejection fraction. Overall, Asian-American HF patients had comparable quality of care except that they were less likely to receive aldosterone antagonists at discharge (relative risk , 0.88; 95% confidence interval , 0.78-0.99), and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97) even after risk adjustment. Compared with white patients, Asian-American patients had comparable risk adjusted in-hospital mortality (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.91-1.35), length of stay>4 days (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.08), and were more likely to be discharged to home (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11). Despite some differences in clinical profiles, Asian-American patients hospitalized with HF receive very similar quality of care and have comparable health outcomes to their white counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann
Parental warmth and knowledge are protective factors against substance use, whereas parental psychological control is a risk factor. However, the interpretation of parenting and its effects on developmental outcomes may vary cross-culturally. This study examined direct and indirect effects of three parenting dimensions on substance use across Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and European Americans. A community sample of 97 API and 255 European Americans were followed from Grades 6 to 12. Participants reported on parenting in Grade 7, academic achievement and externalizing behaviors in Grades 7 and 8, and substance use behaviors in Grades 7, 9, and 12. Direct effects of parenting were not moderated by race. Overall, mother psychological control was a risk factor for substance use problems in Grade 9, whereas father knowledge was protective against alcohol use in Grade 9, substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, and alcohol dependence in Grade 12. Moderated mediation analyses indicated significant mediational links among European Americans only: Mother knowledge predicted fewer externalizing problems in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12. Father warmth predicted better academic achievement in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, as well as alcohol and marijuana dependence in Grade 12. Better academic achievement and fewer externalizing behaviors explain how positive parenting reduces substance use risk among European Americans. Promoting father knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts can reduce substance use risk among both European and API Americans.
Fernando, Delini M.
This article describes a support group for Sri Lankan women survivors of the 2004 Asian Tsunami. The article discusses unique leader challenges in doing group work in a diverse and foreign setting, and presents leader reflections, recommendations, and implications for group workers who may work with disaster survivors.
Iyengar, Kalpana Mukunda; Smith, Howard L.
Many children from diverse cultures experience disconnectedness between their home and school. As they attempt to reconcile the conflicts among their multiple worlds, they must negotiate their situatedness in a variety of contexts, i.e., home community versus school, and construct a multifaceted identity. Absent support from school, Asian Indian…
Traditional Chinese proverbs such as: "The sea of learning knows no bounds; only through diligence may its shore be reached" and "If you don't succeed, try again." (p. 296) illustrate that educational success in the Asian culture is viewed as the result of a single notion--"hard work". This paper will examine how this…
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy
There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Baugher, Bennett W; Berman, Marvin; Dierksen, Jennifer E; Armbruster, David A; Dasgupta, Amitava
Asian, Siberian, and American ginseng are known to interfere with serum digoxin measurements using fluorescence polarization technology, Digoxin II and Digoxin III assays (Abbott Laboratories, Green oaks, IL) as well as other digoxin assays. Abbott Laboratories more recently launched two new digoxin assays: iDigoxin, a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for application on the ARCHITECT i1000SR and i2000SR immunoassay analyzers, and cDigoxin, a particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay for application on the ARCHITECT c4000, c8000, and c1600 clinical chemistry analyzers; and we studied potential interferences of ginsengs with these two assays in vitro. When aliquots of drug-free serum pool treated with activated charcoal were supplemented with extracts of various ginsengs, no significant apparent digoxin values were observed. In addition, when aliquots of the digoxin pool prepared from patients taking digoxin were further supplemented with these ginseng extracts and the digoxin values were re-measured, we observed no statistically significant difference in observed digoxin values compared to the original digoxin value of the pool. These results further establish that relatively new digoxin assays for application on the ARCHITECT analyzers that employ specific monoclonal antibodies against digoxin are free from interferences from Asian, Siberian, and American ginseng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.
Le, Hung; Wong, Sophia; Iftikar, Tracy; Keenan, Hillary; King, George L.; Hsu, William C.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a culturally specific pilot clinic for Asian Americans (AA) in reaching glycemic target and to characterize factors affecting the attainment of glycemic control in comparison with white counterparts. Methods This electronic health record review included all new AA patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 109) in a culturally specific program and a randomly selected sample of new white patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) in the adult clinic within the same time period and diabetes center. Results AA and whites had a comparable proportion of patients with A1C ≤7% (32.1%, 34.9%; P = .621) at baseline and after 12 months of care (48.6%, 56.0%; P = .210), with a similar A1C decline (−0.9% ± 1.6%, −0.8% ± 1.7%, P = .710) by 12 months. Factors associated with the lack of success in reaching target in AA but not in whites included older age, lower educational attainment, less likelihood of having health insurance, and a need for more educational visits. The percentage of AA reaching A1C ≤7%, as compared to whites, worsened among those with highest initial A1C when stratified by ascending quartiles (96.7% vs 85.2%, P = .101; 61.9% vs 58.9%, P = .813; 24.0% vs 37.7%, P = .230; 15.2% vs 35.4%, P = .044). Conclusion While a culturally specific diabetes program in a specialty setting achieved a similar glycemic outcome for AA compared with whites, reasons for not reaching glycemic target differed. The findings suggest that the elimination of diabetes disparities requires not only culturally and linguistically specific programs, but must also identify and address the socio-environmental differences unique to each population. PMID:23771841
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The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.
Gelaye, Bizu; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmeharit, Somrat; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Zhu, Xiaotong; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Anderade, Asterio; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) are questionnaires used to assess sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in clinical and population-based studies...
A twelfth grade quinmester course designed to give the student an objective overview of the development of Communism vis-a-vis Americanism (Democracy) is outlined in this guide. The course focuses on what each way of life represents and their respective positions in world politics. Included are case studies in communist expansion, the communist…
Carranza, E. Lou
A pedagogy appropriate to college level courses and comprised of interdisciplinary content, multidisciplinary faculty, and students from diverse academic backgrounds and with varying levels of skills merits development. A taxonomy of some of the difficulties in the construction of such a course in Mexican American studies, for example, focuses on…
Torre, Lindsey A.; Goding Sauer, Ann M.; Chen, Moon S.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L.
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30%–40% lower incidence and mortality rates than NHWs for all cancers combined, they have higher rates for some infection-related cancers (stomach, liver, nasopharynx).The aggregation of AANHPI subgroups conceals the diversity of these heterogeneous populations. AANHPI cancer rates vary by subgroup, with the lowest rates generally in Asian Indians/Pakistanis and the highest in Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Japanese (except for infection-related cancers). The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 due to declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. Liver cancer death rates among AANHPIs declined from 2003 to 2012, in contrast to increases in NHWs. Variation in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to risk factors including lifestyle factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. PMID:26766789
Wang, Qiuying; Andrews, Jean; Liu, Hsiu Tan; Liu, Chun Jung
Case studies of adult d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners (DMLs) are few, especially studies of DMLs who learn more than one sign language and read logographic and alphabetic scripts. To reduce this paucity, two descriptive case studies are presented. Written questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and self-appraisals of language-use rubrics were used to explore (a) the language and literacy histories of two adult Asian DMLs who had learned multiple languages: Chinese (spoken/written), English (written), Chinese Sign Language, and American Sign Language; and (b) how each language was used in different cultural communities with diverse conversational partners. Home literacy environment, family support, visual access to languages, peer and sibling support, role models, encouragement, perseverance, and Deaf identity all played vital roles in the participants' academic success. The findings provide insights into the acquisition of multiple languages and bi-literacy through social communication and academic content.
Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L
This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (pzoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A; Menon, Usha
Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during February-June, 2011. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous survey online. Dependent variables included mental health (depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) and substance use (alcohol problems, use of tobacco, marijuana or hashish, and other illegal drugs). Students' perceived discrimination were significantly, positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms, but not with substance use. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and somatic symptoms, but not depressive or anxiety symptoms. These findings suggested the negative effect of racial discrimination on API students' mental health. The buffering effect of ethnic identity may increase resilience in these students when they face racial discrimination.
Nishita, Christy; Browne, Colette
Recent federal policy supports an individual's preference for home and community-based long-term care, even among nursing home residents. Optimizing transitions from the nursing home to home is a complex undertaking that requires addressing the interrelationships between health literacy and cultural-linguistic factors in the nation's increasingly diverse older adult population. We look at four Asian American and Pacific Islander elder populations to illustrate that differing health profiles and cultural-linguistic values can affect the type of care and support needed and preferred. A research gap exists that links these factors together for optimal transitional care. The paper presents a conceptual framework and proposes a six-point research agenda that includes family assessments of health literacy abilities, exploring the relationship between culture, health, and decision-making, and the development/adaptation of transition planning tools.
Studies of East Asian medical history in Korea have progressively accumulated in the last twenty years. First, Korean scholars broadened the focus of research from China-centered research to East Asian research. Studies of Toyo medical history in Korea mainly concentrated on Chinese medical history. Toyo medical history originated from Japanese orientalism and imperialism. Today the studies of East Asian medical history in Korea include Korea, China and Japan, and attempt to deal with East Asia as a single conceptual category. Second, researchers in East Asian medical history are steadily increasing. They study Chinese medical history or Japanese medical history from universities. As they continue their research in academic positions, successive researchers emerge. Third, the number of Korean scholars remains relatively small, but they pursue original research. Their interests are in the discourse of East Asian medical history, colonial modernity, environmental history, oral history, and history of disease.
Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Alegría, Margarita; Krieger, Nancy
We examined patterns of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among a nationally representative sample of first-, second-, and third-generation Latinos and Asian Americans to reveal associations with nativity or country of origin. We used data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (2002-2003) to generate nationally representative estimates of mean BMI and obesity prevalence and explored changes in the distribution of BMI by generational status. Analyses tested the association between generational status and BMI and examined whether this association varied by ethnicity, education, or gender. We found substantial heterogeneity in BMI and obesity by country of origin and an increase in BMI in later generations among most subgroups. The data suggest different patterns for Latinos and Asian Americans in the nature and degree of distributional changes in BMI with generational status in the United States. Generational status is associated with increased BMI and obesity among Latinos and Asian Americans. Aggregate estimates not accounting for nativity and country of origin may mask significant heterogeneity in the prevalence of obesity and patterns of distributional change, with implications for prevention strategies.
Chen, Li-Shiun; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Bracci, Paige M.; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Dueker, Nicole; Han, Younghun; Huang, Hongyan; Jin, Guangfu; Kohno, Takashi; Ma, Jennie Z.; Przybeck, Thomas R.; Sanders, Alan R.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Sung, Yun Ju
Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations.
This review situates how culture, difference, and identity are discursively constructed in "Millicent Min, Girl Genius" and "Stanford Wong Flunks Big-Time," two award-winning books written by critically acclaimed Asian American author Lisa Yee. Using contextual literacy approaches, the characters, cultural motifs, and physical settings in these…
Luk, Jeremy W.; King, Kevin M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth
While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by...
Masson, Carmen L; Shopshire, Michael S; Sen, Soma; Hoffman, Kim A; Hengl, Nicholas S; Bartolome, John; McCarty, Dennis; Sorensen, James L; Iguchi, Martin Y
This mixed methods study examined motivations and barriers to substance abuse treatment entry and treatment continuation among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) substance users. AAPI substance users (N = 61) were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs in California and Hawaii. Semi-structured interviews and interviewer-administered surveys assessed barriers and facilitators to entering substance abuse treatment. Barriers included peer pressure, family influences, and face loss concerns. Facilitators included peer support, involvement in the criminal justice system, a perceived need for treatment, and culturally competent substance abuse treatment services. Family and peer influences may act as both facilitators and impediments. AAPI substance using populations face many of the same individual-level and structural and systems barriers to entry to treatment as other substance using populations. However, similar to other racial/ethnic minority groups, it is important to address cultural differences and develop culturally competent substance abuse treatments for the AAPI population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liang, Christopher T H; Fassinger, Ruth E
This study examined the role of four dimensions of collective self-esteem (CSE) as a moderator and mediator in the relationship between racism-related stress and psychological adjustment among 134 Asian American college students. CSE was not found to moderate the effects of racism-related stress on self-esteem problems, interpersonal problems, or career problems. However, the results of mediator analyses indicated that public CSE is a mechanism that explains the relationship between racism-related stress and self-esteem problems and interpersonal problems but not career problems. No other dimensions of CSE were found to be significant mediators. The implications for these findings for research and practice are discussed. 2008 APA
Kanukollu, Shanta N.; Mahalingam, Ramaswami
In this paper, we propose an interdisciplinary framework to study perceptions of child sexual abuse and help-seeking among South Asians living in the United States. We integrate research on social marginality, intersectionality, and cultural psychology to understand how marginalized social experience accentuates South Asian immigrants' desire to…
Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and treatment-seeking among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Xu, Yang; Okuda, Mayumi; Hser, Yih-Ing; Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos
To compare the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in contrast to non–Hispanic whites; and further compare persistence and treatment-seeking rates for psychiatric disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and non-Hispanic whites, analyses from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 1 (n =43,093) were conducted for the subsample of 1,332 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (596 men and 736 women) and 24,507 non-Hispanic whites (10,845 men and 13,662 women). The past 12-month prevalence for any psychiatric disorder was significantly lower in Asian American/Pacific Islander males and females than non-Hispanic white males and females. Asian American/Pacific Islander males were less likely than non-Hispanic white males to have any mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, whereas the prevalence of mood disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islander females did not differ from those of non-Hispanic white females. In some cases, such as drug use disorders, both male and female Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were more likely to have more persistent disorders than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic white females, Asian American/Pacific Islander females had lower rates of treatment-seeking for any mood/anxiety disorders. Although less prevalent than among non-Hispanic whites, psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. The lower treatment seeking rates for mood/anxiety disorders in Asian American/Pacific Islander females underscore the unmet needs for psychiatric service among this population. PMID:21238989
Jaacks, Lindsay M; Kapoor, Deksha; Singh, Kalpana; Narayan, KM Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K; Kadir, M Masood; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
Background Cardiometabolic diseases are increasing disproportionately in South Asia compared to other regions of the world despite high levels of vegetarianism. This unexpected discordance may be explained by differences in the healthfulness of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in South Asia versus the US. Objective (1) To compare the food group intake of vegetarians versus non-vegetarians in South Asia and the US and (2) to evaluate associations between vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high triglycerides, high LDL, low HDL, and high Framingham Heart Score). Design Using cross-sectional data from adults (20–69 years) in South Asia (CARRS 2010–2011; n=15,665) and the US (NHANES 2003–2006; n=2159), adherence to a vegetarian diet was assessed using food propensity questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and predicted margins (e.g. adjusted prevalence of the outcomes). Results One-third (33.0%; n=4968) of adults in the South Asian sample were vegetarian in contrast to only 2.4% (n=59) in the US sample. Among South Asians, compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians more frequently ate dairy, legumes, vegetables, fruit, desserts, and fried foods (all pvegetarians, vegetarians more frequently ate legumes, fruit, and whole grains, and less frequently ate refined cereals, desserts, fried foods, fruit juice, and soft drinks (all pvegetarians were slightly less frequently overweight/obese compared to non-vegetarians – 49% (95% CI: 45%, 53%) versus 53% (51%, 56%), respectively – while US vegetarians were considerably less frequently overweight/obese compared to non-vegetarians: 48% (32%, 63%) versus 68% (65%, 70%), respectively. Furthermore, US vegetarians were less likely to exhibit central obesity compared to non-vegetarians: 62% (43%, 78%) versus 78% (76%, 80%), respectively. Conclusions There is greater divergence between vegetarian and
... centuries, America's story has been tied to the Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed... honor all Americans who trace their ancestry to Asia and the Pacific Islands, we must acknowledge the...
Lee, Jung-Ah; Nguyen, Hannah; Park, Joan; Tran, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Huynh, Yen
Families of ethnic minority persons with dementia often seek help at later stages of the disease. Little is known about the effectiveness of various methods in supporting ethnic minority dementia patients' caregivers. The objective of the study was to identify smartphone and computer usage among family caregivers of dementia patients (i.e., Korean and Vietnamese Americans) to develop dementia-care education programs for them. Participants were asked various questions related to their computer or smartphone usage in conjunction with needs-assessment interviews. Flyers were distributed at two ethnic minority community centers in Southern California. Snowball recruitment was also utilized to reach out to the families of dementia patients dwelling in the community. Thirty-five family caregivers, including 20 Vietnamese and 15 Korean individuals, participated in this survey. Thirty participants (30 of 35, 85.7%) were computer users. Among those, 76.7% (23 of 30) reported daily usage and 53% (16 of 30) claimed to use social media. A majority of the participants (31 of 35, 88.6%) reported that they owned smartphones. More than half of smartphone users (18 of 29, 62%) claimed to use social media applications. Many participants claimed that they could not attend in-class education due to caregiving and/or transportation issues. Most family caregivers of dementia patients use smartphones more often than computers, and more than half of those caregivers communicate with others through social media apps. A smartphone-app-based caregiver intervention may serve as a more effective approach compared to the conventional in-class method. Multiple modalities for the development of caregiver interventions should be considered.
North American horticulture cultivates an astonishing diversity of ornamental species, from nearly every floristic region, but its landscapes are dominated by temperate species drawn from the Eastern Asiatic floristic region. The East Asiatic floristic region is one of the most diverse in the world...
Since the end of the Civil Rights era, a new paradigm has emerged for understanding race and racism in American society. This neoliberal hegemonic discourse argues that systemic racism ended with the abolishment of formal, juridical racism and that any continued investment in race is both unnecessary and deeply problematic. Critical race theorists…