WorldWideScience

Sample records for asia

  1. Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This document explores some of the examples of peatland restoration under different circumstances around the World in order to present an overview of the variety of benefits and inspiring ways in which peatland restoration can be delivered, and so avoid serious and costly consequences for society. Richard Lindsay wrote the Asia and Americas sections of this edited publication.

  2. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  3. ASIAS - Some History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASIAS effort builds on demonstrations that an open exchange of information contributes to improved aviation safety. ASIAS is a comprehensive effort, covering the...

  4. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  5. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  6. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  7. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  9. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The nuclear Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordonnier, I.; Tertrais, B.

    2001-01-01

    Since the demolition of the Berlin wall, Asia has become the theater of nuclear rivalry, with as main actors: india, Pakistan, China and South Korea. This book analyzes the geo-political situation in this region of the world and asks some important questions about the new strategic map of Asia: what is the impact of the development of nuclear activities on the security of Asia? Will the deployment of anti-missile defenses lead to a new weapons rush? Is there a nuclear warfare risk? (J.S.)

  11. Averting Crisis in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Lee-Jay

    1986-01-01

    Discusses issues related to population growth in Asia, considering various programs and their successes. Indicates that China has had the greatest recent success in reducing population growth (with its one-child family policy). (JN)

  12. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  13. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... 53 Designing Financial Systems in East Asia and Japan ..... 5.3 Weights for the industrial production index (%) ..... The demand for manufactured goods for this low level of consumption per capita also tends to be very low.

  14. Asia electricity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    Electricity demand in Asia has grown and continues to grow rapidly. Over 40 per cent of the world's growth in electricity output up to 2010 is expected to come from China and East and South Asia. The need to build the additional production capacity to meet demand is the driving force behind the major structural and institutional changes that are presently transforming the electricity sectors throughout the region. The Asia Electricity Study looks in detail at the current and future role of the electricity sectors in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. It analyses existing and planned electricity policies in areas such as financing regulation, environment and end-use efficiency. To build the region's power infrastructure will require large investments, well beyond what governments or multilateral lending institutions can provide. Consequently, mobilizing private sector participation in the process is vital. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are being allowed to enter what has, until recently, been a government-dominated field. State-owned utilities are being corporatized and/or privatized to improve their competitiveness. Developing the regulatory environment to match the changes taking place is a key challenge. The significant expansion of generation capacity in Asia will have implications well beyond the region. Changes in energy trade volumes and patterns, caused by the need to obtain fuel for power stations, will have an impact on the energy security of Asia and the world as a whole Similarly, fuel and technology choices will have important consequences for both the regional and global environment. (author)

  15. Demyelinating diseases in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Hirofumi; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to discuss the recent advances in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system in Asia. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asia is lower than that in Western countries, although it has been increasing recently. Meanwhile, there seems to be no major difference in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) prevalence in various regions or ethnicities. Thus, the ratios of NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) to MS are higher in Asia as compared with Western countries, indicating that the differential diagnosis between NMO/NMOSD and MS is a major challenge in Asia. Although the detection of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody is critical in distinguishing NMO/NMOSD from MS, some patients with NMO/NMOSD phenotype are seronegative for AQP4-antibody, and a fraction of those patients possess autoantibody against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The clinical profile of Asian MS seems to be essentially similar to that in Western MS after careful exclusion of NMO/NMOSD, although some unique genetic and/or environmental factors may modify the disease in Asians. MS prevalence has been low but is increasing in Asia. In contrast, NMO/NMOSD prevalence seems relatively constant in the world. Asian MS is not fundamentally different from Western MS, but some genetic and/or environmental differences may cause some features unique to Asian patients.

  16. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  17. Pleistocene Palaeoart of Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This comprehensive overview considers the currently known Pleistocene palaeoart of Asia on a common basis, which suggests that the available data are entirely inadequate to form any cohesive synthesis about this corpus. In comparison to the attention lavished on the corresponding record available from Eurasia’s small western appendage, Europe, it is evident that Pleistocene palaeoart from the rest of the world has been severely neglected. Southern Asia, in particular, holds great promise for the study of early cognitive development of hominins, and yet this potential has remained almost entirely unexplored. Asia is suggested to be the key continent in any global synthesis of ‘art’ origins, emphasising the need for a comprehensive pan-continental research program. This is not just to counter-balance the incredible imbalance in favour of Europe, but to examine the topic of Middle Pleistocene palaeoart development effectively.

  18. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Nuclear power in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association reports that Asia is the only region in the world where electricity generating capacity and specifically nuclear power is growing significantly. In East and South Asia, there are over 109 nuclear power reactors in operation, 18 under construction and plans to build about a further 100. The greatest growth in nuclear generation is expected in China, Japan, South Korea and India. As a member of the SE Asian community, Australia cannot afford to ignore the existence and growth of nuclear power generation on its door step, even if it has not, up to now, needed to utilise this power source

  20. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  1. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  2. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  3. Literacy in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the various facets and dimensions of literacy programs in South Asia indicates that literacy is viewed as a means of human resource development geared toward meaningful participation of all sectors in society, with individual programs varying according to the magnitude of illiteracy, national goals, linguistic setting, and regional…

  4. Peritoneal Dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Vickie Wai-Ki; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing demand of dialysis in Asia for end-stage renal failure patients. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries in Asia. The growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Asia is significant and seeing a good trend. With the enhanced practices of PD, the quality of care in PD in Asia is also improved. Overall, PD and hemodialysis (HD) are comparable in clinical outcome. There is a global trend in the reduction of peritonitis rates and Asian countries also witness such improvement. The socio-economic benefits of PD for end-stage renal failure patients in both urban and rural areas in the developed and developing regions of Asia are an important consideration. This can help to reduce the financial burden of renal failure in addressing the growing demand of patients on dialysis. Initiatives should be considered to further drive down the cost of PD in Asia. Growing demand for dialysis by an increasing number of end-stage renal failure patients requires the use of a cost-effective quality dialysis modality. PD is found to be comparable to HD in outcome and quality. In most countries in Asia, PD should be more cost-effective than HD. A 'PD-first' or a 'PD as first considered therapy' policy can be an overall strategy in many countries in Asia in managing renal failure patients, taking the examples of Hong Kong and Thailand. (1) PD is cheaper than HD and provides a better quality of life worldwide, but its prevalence is significantly lower than that of HD in all countries, with the exception of Hong Kong. Allowing reimbursement of PD but not HD has permitted to increase the use of PD over HD in many Asian countries like Hong Kong, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, as well as in New Zealand and Australia over the last years. In the Western world, however, HD is still promoted, and the proportion of patients treated with PD decreases. Japan remains an exception in Asia where PD penetration is very low. Lack of adequate education of

  5. Asia's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overholt, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    The book is a collection of seven papers by five specialists--two political scientists; a sociologist; and two specialists in the interaction between science and international affairs. They share a disregard for conventional boundaries between disciplines and for the emphasis on method over substance which have tended to fragment knowledge into ever-smaller and smaller fragments. The papers are: The Next Phase in Nuclear Proliferation Research, L.A. Dunn and W.H. Overholt; China as a Nuclear Power, J. D. Pollack; Nuclear Arms and Japan, Herbert Passin; Nuclear Proliferation in Eastern Asia, W. H. Overholt; India's Nuclear Program: Decisions, Intent, and Policy, 1950 to 1976, Onkar Marwah; India, Pakistan, Iran--A Nuclear Proliferation Chain, L. A. Dunn; and A U.S. Nuclear Posture for Asia, W. H. Overholt

  6. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    apparently to save ammunition, according to the BPP report . The attacks came after a battalion of Burmese troops had arrived at the border areas to...Manuel Pangilinan says. 17 It will be divided into five " strategic business units" (or SBU’s): commercial banking, which will include Hibernia and...065082 JPRS-SEA-84-173 14 December 1 984 Southeast Asia Report Reproduced From Best Available Copy 20000107 100 IIXTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 9

  7. Southern comfort in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, F.

    1997-08-01

    The role of entrepreneurs in the recent success of the electric power industry in Asia is discussed. A willingness to run economic risks and skilled negotiation are identified as key factors for success in the competitive and rapidly changing market. The pioneering work of build, operate, transfer (BOT) power projects have also contributed to economic growth, as has the sale of Asian utilities to large power corporations from USA. (UK)

  8. The denuclearization of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Mun Tae

    1987-12-01

    This book is comprised of 4 parts, which are antinuclear peace movement in Asia, the pacific of anger including A man's action moves the world and what happens in the pacific, what the cause of nuclearization is, including many reports about background and structure of nuclearization, How to fulfill the denuclearization through report such as denuclearization and demilitarization in the Philippines by Alexander Magner and Message from Longgaraf. The last reports Declaration of peace for the great pacific in the future.

  9. Growth & Governance in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Project Discussion Paper no.14/2001. Institute for East Asian Studies, Gerhard Mercator Univesitat Duisburg, 2001(b); Mohamad Abu Bakar , “Islam...Dieter Evers, ed., Modernisation in Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford, 1973; Muhammad Yusoff Hashim, The Malay Sultanate of Malacca. Kuala Lumpur...from the peasantry (educated in the Malay vernacular of SITC or Sultan Idris Training College) and strongly influenced by the left wing of the

  10. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  11. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  12. Labor migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  13. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  14. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  15. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  16. Closing the gap in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Bailly, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the market for independent power plants in Asia and the financing available for these projects. The topics of the article include making room for non-utility generation; the markets in India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand; third-party ownership, 1989 installed capacity, capacity additions 1989-1990, and the outlook for the market in Asia

  17. Japanese strategic thought toward asia

    CERN Document Server

    Rozman, Gilbert; Ferguson, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Japanese leaders and often the media too have substituted symbols for strategy in dealing with Asia. This comprehensive review of four periods over twenty years exposes the strategic gap in viewing individually and collectively China, Taiwan, the Korean peninsula, Russia, Central Asia, and regionalism.

  18. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...

  19. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  20. Southwest Asia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, T

    1984-06-01

    Southwest Asia, which support 1/3 of the world's population, is acutely aware of the consequences of rapid and excessive population growth. No other region has consciously devoted so much of its resources to stemming excessive population growth. India, with a population of 684 million, formulated a policy of population limitation in the 1950s. The 1980 government rededicated itself to voluntary family planning and rebuilt the broad coalition of an excellent infrastructure of government institutions, voluntary organizations, and international agencies. Government support for family planning clinics began in Bangladesh in the 1960s. A strong institutional structure has been established under the supervision of the National Population Council. Innovative approaches to family planning service delivery have been initiated by an admirable array of institutions. Pakistan's Population Welfare Plan provides substantial funds and an administrative structure to make maternal/child helath care and family planning services available in rural areas. Another welfare program encourages smaller families through projects to enhance the status of women by improving literacy, establishing rural industries, and advocating late marriage. Nepal has had to struggle with a poor administrative structure, grossly insufficient medical services, and an inadequate database for policy formulation. Family planning services are now a component of the overall health program. The family planning services of the pioneer Afghan Family Guidance Association, established in 1968, have been incorported into the national maternal/child health program. The present government of Iran views foreign assistance as an unacceptable form of persuasion and has phased out all international funded family planning programs. Sri Lanka is the only country in the region to have made the demographic transition to fertility decline. An impressive health infrastructure delivers family planning services at every level using

  1. Future Heat Waves In Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2017-12-01

    I will review recent work from my group on the impact of climate change on the intensity and frequency of heat waves in Asia. Our studies covered Southwest Asia, South Asia, East China, and the Maritime continent. In any of these regions, the risk associated with climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that the wet-bulb temperature is a useful variable to consider in describing the natural hazard from heat waves since it can be easily compared to the natural threshold that defines the upper limit on human survivability. Based on an ensemble of high resolution climate change simulations, we project extremes of wet-bulb temperature conditions in each of these four regions of Asia. We consider the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a moderate mitigation scenario. The results from these regions will be compared and lessons learned summarized.

  2. Nuclear power in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This editorial discusses the shifting dominance in the nuclear reactor technology from the USA to new leadership in East Asia. With the expanding economies and electricity demand, Design, construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants in east Asia will support nuclear engineers, technologist, manufacturing facilities, and potential weapons experts. In contrast, the cessation of construction of power reactors in the US is leading to deminished nuclear capabilities

  3. Currency crises: Is Asia different?

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Markus; Schweickert, Rainer

    1998-01-01

    International investors' enthusiasm with respect to growth prospects in Southeast Asia has been followed by panic. Both the outstanding economic performance of Southeast Asian economies and their ability to master adjustment challenges had led most observers of these economies to the conclusion that "Asia is different". In comparison with previous currency crises, the macroeconomic fundamentals (GDP growth, inflation, fiscal deficit, external indebtedness, domestic savings, export performance...

  4. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I K

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  5. Energy challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquet, V.

    2007-01-01

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation during the 60's and 70's

  6. Commercial Power of Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Sincai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, based on a detailed analysis of the main statistical foreign trade indicators of the emerging economies of the Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, outlines a series of characteristics of the foreign trade flows of the analysed economies from the ’50 up to the present. The accent is set on the period 1995-2006, which emphasizes two moments of crisis of the Asian trade: 1997-1998 and 2001. At the level of the analysed economies, it can be remarked a tendency of continuous growth of the share of the intra-regional trade flows in the total trade flows, mainly due to their participation in regional trade agreements, to the strenghtening of the regional production networks, to the role of China as engine of economic growth in the whole region and even at global level. On product category, the manufactures have the greatest share in the merchandise exports of the Asian emerging economies (especially office and telecom equipment, integrated circuits, automotive products, textiles and clothing, etc.. While China surpassed the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in the world trade in 2001 and that of Japan in 2004, the scenario presented in this paper indicates the surpass in 2007 of the share of Germany (second place in the world trade in 2005, the surpass of the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in 2009, and the surpass of the share of the group of the 8 Asian tigers and that of the USA as well in 2012. In the following decades, China might become the strongest world economy at the global level, but only if the sustainable development and the eradication of the social inequities will become de facto priorities of the Chinese officials. The actual negative externalities (costs of the Chinese economic growth, transferred on the environment and the society, will be object to another analyse.

  7. Nuclear nonproliferation strategy in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, F.W.

    1989-07-01

    The most immediate danger of a further spread of nuclear weapons in Asia is in South Asia, where both India and Pakistan have developed the means of producing nuclear explosive materials. In East Asia, North Korea appears to be in the early stages of a weapon-related nuclear program, and before the end of the century South Korea or Taiwan could revive their past efforts to move closer to a nuclear weapons capability. Over the longer run, Japan could conceivably decide to abandon its present strong opposition to the acquisition of nuclear Weapons. At present, the United States has largely separate approaches to the nuclear weapon proliferation problems in South Asia and in East Asia. This paper argues that these separate approaches should be strengthened and integrated into a broader regional nonproliferation strategy. This regional strategy would have three major strands: inducing India and Pakistan to agree not to produce nuclear weapons or test nuclear explosive devices for a specific period; bolstering the existing nonproliferation regime, principally by maintaining nonproliferation incentives and involving China more in the nonproliferation regime; and encouraging regional cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  8. Sumatera Air Asia Training Center (Arsitektur Metafora)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, William

    2015-01-01

    Sumatera Air Asia Training Center as Air Asia training facility’s construction have a propose to train the Air Asia air craft crew who will be the employee of the Air Asia Airlines.Beside the main function;training facility for the Air Asia Crew; the other airline’s crew can be train by a cooperation with Air Asia.The aircraft crew that can be train in this facility is pilot initial, pilot type-rating, pilot recurrent, ATPL, Flight attendant initial and recurrent..This facility ha...

  9. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  10. Central Asia in Asia: Charting growing trans-regional linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola P. Contessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the so-called ‘Asian Century’ unfolds, Central Asian countries are increasingly directing their foreign relations eastward. Meanwhile, Asian states are equally turning to Central Asia in their search for energy resources and new markets. This dual dynamic is giving rise to closer and deeper ties in three key areas. As far as infrastructures are concerned, various Asian powers have adopted Silk Road policies that see Central Asia as a fundamental transit route for their long-haul connectivity projects. In the field of trade, Central Asia's exchanges with other Asian countries have been growing steadily since the 1990s, in some cases even coming to rival, in comparative terms, exchanges with the West. Lastly, in terms of multilateralism, Central Asia is increasingly enmeshed in a web of overlapping institutions with a strong Asian identity, coexisting with the region's Western institutional references. The article then problematizes this emerging pattern by sketching out some of the possible ramifications that could stem from the sustainment and consolidation of these trends for the international order and the global balance of power.

  11. Integrasi Ekonomi Asia: Solusi Asia Menghadapi Krisis Global 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Hidayat

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available No economies throughout the region managed to escape from the "global economic crisis in 2008" that was initiated in the United States. This is a logical consequence of the global economy that has been rolling along. The world economy is increasingly becoming more integrated and interdependent with one another. Exposure stems from the economic crisis in the prolonged United States subprime mortgage financial crisis, and eventually dragged the European economy, and also Asia. The Asian region was only affected, but even if only the impact of course, was enough to overwhelm the Asian region since the crisis has a major impact on a country's foreign exchange reserves. Therefore, after the G-20 summit held in Washington on November 15, 2008, the three major Asian countries, namely China, Japan and South Korea held a summit in Fukuoka Japanese initiative, which was attended by the three heads of government. This summit was to bring fresh air for the Asian region, because in addition to having a positive impact on Asian stocks, it also provides a new self confidence that Asia has formed an alliance that would at least fortify themselves (region with the resulting stimulus policy. This initiative to find a solution is eventually expanded, and was welcomed by ASEAN countries, known as ASEAN Plus Three. Since in Asia there is already the East Asia Summit (East Asia Summit, the negotiations and the name of the group changed into the 6 partner countries of ASEAN. These six countries are Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and India.

  12. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Minagar, Alireza; Pourmand, Shadi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common chronic immune-mediated diseases of the human central nervous system and an important cause of non-traumatic neurologic disability among young population in several countries. Recent reports from East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia have proposed a low to moderate prevalence of MS in these countries. A literature review search was carried out in December 2014 in Medline, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane library to recover original population-based studies on MS epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia countries published between January 1, 1950 and December 30, 2014. We intended search strategies using the key words: multiple sclerosis, prevalence, incidence and epidemiology. Based on our inclusion criteria, 68 epidemiologic studies were included in this systematic review. The most extensively used diagnostic criteria in the studies were McDonald's criteria. Most studies were performed in a multi-center hospital setting. The female to male ratio varied and ranged from 0.7 in India to 9.0 in China. The mean age at disease onset ranged from the lowest age of 25.3 in Iran to the highest age of 46.4 in China. MS prevalence ranged from 0.77 in 100,000 populations in Hong Kong (1999) to 85.80 in 100,000 in Iran (2013). Advances in MS registries around the globe allow nationwide population-based studies and will allow worldly comparisons between the prevalence and incidence in different regions that are provided to monitor estimation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Glaciers of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  14. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  15. Measuring Pre-Service Teachers' Asia Literacy and Their Preparedness to Teach Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Christie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Asia literacy is a growing concern of the Federal Government in relation to the development of an Asia literate workforce. Despite 30 years of funded initiatives, the thought of teaching about Asia is a daunting one for pre-service teachers. This is due to the lack of Asia foci in university pre-service courses and complicated by the definition of…

  16. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  17. Indoor air problems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Respiratory disease and mortality due to indoor air pollution are amongst the greatest environmental threats to health in the developing countries of Asia. World-wide, acute respiratory infection is the cause of death of at least 5 million children under the age of 5 every year. The World Bank has claimed that smoke from biomass fuels resulted in an estimated 4 million deaths annually amongst infants and children. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Combustion in its various forms must head the list of pollution sources in Asia. Combustion of various fuels for domestic heating, lighting and cooking comprises the major source of internally generated pollutants and combustion in industrial plants, power generation and transportation is the major cause of externally generated pollutants. The products of pyrolysis and combustion include many compounds with well-known adverse health effects. These include gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroamines as well as respirable particulates of variable composition. The nature and magnitude of the health risks posed by these materials vary with season, climate, location housing, method of ventilation, culture and socio-economic status. The most important cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in Northern Asia is the domestic combustion of smoky coal. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common in many Asian countries. Roads traffic exhaust pollution is worse in the major cities of South East Asia than almost anywhere else in the world and this externally generated air pollution forms the indoor air for the urban poor. Despite all these major problems there has been a tendency for international agencies to focus attention and resources on the more trivial problems of indoor air encountered in the affluent countries of the West. Regulatory agencies in Asia have been too frequently persuaded that their problems of indoor air pollution are

  18. Asia: point of no return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Perhaps 1 million people in Asia are HIV positive (1% of the world's total). Even many more people are at risk since Asia has 50% of the world's population. Sexual transmission is the main mode of transmission. Yet people in Asia do not want to deal with sexual behavior. Thus high level political commitment is needed such has been done in Thailand which has set up a national AIDS committee. An AIDS expert predicts that by 1995 the number of HIV positive individuals in Asia will surpass the number of HIV positive individuals in all the developed countries. India, Myanmar, and Thailand where prostitution and intravenous (IV) drug use abounds (the Golden Triangle) suffer from the worst AIDS epidemics in the region. International sex tourism contributes greatly to both the heterosexual and homosexual spread of AIDS. In fact, the national AIDS committee in Thailand has begun a campaign to stop sex tourism, but as of September 1991, it had no effect. Further some sex businesses have attempted to stop the spread of AIDS. For example, 2 brothels in central Thailand have implemented a condom only policy for their clients. High rates of sexually transmitted diseases among prostitutes facilitate HIV transmission. This highlights the need for Asian countries to promote condom use. Not all of the Asian countries screen 100% of their blood and blood products. In fact, in India, commercial blood banks do not always screen donated blood since screening eats into their profits. Further unsterile needles are often used in medical facilities such as in India and Viet Nam. Hong Kong sells inexpensive sterile needles over the counter which may account for its low HIV positive rate among drug users. Despite the many problems in Asia which facilitate HIV transmission, tragedy can be averted if governments act at once.

  19. CNA Maritime Asia Project. Workshop Two: Naval Developments in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Latin America and the Mediterranean. Over time, the Pacific Fleet will become the most important fleet in Russia. It will receive most (if not all...this required them to assume commercial risk in starting programmes before the contracts were finalized. 8 Gray, op cit, p 48. 29 CNA Maritime Asia...Three times in early 2011, China Maritime Surveillance vessels and a Chinese fishing boat curtailed seismic survey ships operations in designated

  20. Integrasi Ekonomi Asia: Solusi Asia Menghadapi Krisis Global 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Hidayat

    2008-01-01

    No economies throughout the region managed to escape from the "global economic crisis in 2008" that was initiated in the United States. This is a logical consequence of the global economy that has been rolling along. The world economy is increasingly becoming more integrated and interdependent with one another. Exposure stems from the economic crisis in the prolonged United States subprime mortgage financial crisis, and eventually dragged the European economy, and also Asia. The Asian region ...

  1. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  2. Japan's Trade Policy with Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shujiro Urata

    2014-01-01

    Japan's economic relations with Asian countries have rapidly become increasingly close in recent years, mainly through trade and direct investment. In Asia, Japanese companies have pursued a gfragmentation strategy, h which refers to breaking down production processes and assigning each process, through direct investment, to the country or region suited to implement it most efficiently. As a result, when a certain product is manufactured, its intermediate materials and parts are actively trad...

  3. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  4. HIV/AIDS in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Brown, Tim; Phanuphak, Praphan

    HIV (ie, HIV-1) epidemics in Asia show great diversity, both in severity and timing. But epidemics in Asia are far from over and several countries including China, Indonesia, and Vietnam have growing epidemics. Several factors affect the rate and magnitude of growth of HIV prevalence, but two of the most important are the size of the sex worker population and the frequency with which commercial sex occurs. In view of the present state of knowledge, even countries with low prevalence of infection might still have epidemics affecting a small percentage of the population. Once HIV infection has become established, growing needs for care and treatment are unavoidable and even the so-called prevention-successful countries of Thailand and Cambodia are seeing burgeoning care needs. The manifestations of HIV disease in the region are discussed with the aim of identifying key issues in medical management and care of HIV/AIDS. In particular, issues relevant to developing appropriate highly active antiretroviral treatment programmes in the region are discussed. Although access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally, making it work effectively while simultaneously expanding prevention programmes to stem the flow of new infections remains a real challenge in Asia. Genuine political interest and commitment are essential foundations for success, demanding advocacy at all levels to drive policy, mobilise sufficient resources, and take effective action.

  5. Sensible climates in monsoon Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H S; Kawamura, T

    1991-06-01

    This study identifies characteristics of the geographical distribution of sensible climates and their diurnal and annual variations, and presents a classification of bioclimates in monsoon Asia by using Kawamura's discomfort index formula. During the hottest month, tropical areas and areas in central and South China are uncomfortable for humans throughout the day and night, and temperate zones in lowlands are uncomfortable during the daytime. Tropical zones are uncomfortable all year long and temperate zones in lowlands are uncomfortable during summer. Four climatic types were distinguished in monsoon Asia. Climatic type I, hyperthermal throughout the year, occurs in the tropics south of latitude 20 degrees N. Climatic type II, hyperthermal in the hottest month and comfortable in the coldest month, extends over latitudes from 20 degrees to 30 degrees N except in the highlands. Climatic type III, hyperthermal in the hottest month and hypothermal in the coldest month, encompasses temperate zones of East Asia and subtropical arid areas of northwestern India. Climatic type V, comfortable in the hottest month and hypothermal in coldest month, occurs near the southeast coast of the Soviet Union and in the highlands of the Himalayas.

  6. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  7. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  8. International tuberculosis research collaborations within Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molton, James S; Singh, Shweta; Chen, Ling Jun; Paton, Nicholas I

    2017-09-07

    Asia bears more than half the global tuberculosis (TB) burden. Economic development in the region has increased available funding for biomedical research and opportunity for collaboration. We explored the extent of international tuberculosis research collaborations between institutions within Asia. We conducted a Pubmed search for all articles with tuberculosis in the title published during a 12 month period with at least one author affiliation listed in Asia, then identified international collaborations from institution websites and internet searches. We identified 99 international collaborations involving an institution within Asia, of which only 8 (8.1%) were collaborations between Asian institutions. The remainder were with institutions outside of Asia. The paucity of intra-Asian international research collaboration represents a lost opportunity to optimise regional research funding, capacity building and the development of an Asia-relevant TB research agenda.

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  10. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  11. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  12. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  13. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the North Atlantic rim. This anthology seeks to begin that task. It does so by suggesting that the kind of secularity described by Taylor is only one amongst others. By attending to the shifting relationship between proper religion and ‘bad faiths’; between politically valorised and embarrassing spiritual...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  14. Historicizing Queer Stories from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two recent studies in queer cultural criticism, Lucetta Kam’s Shanghai Lalas and J. Keith Vincent’s Two-Timing Modernity, offer contrastive accounts of the formation of queer subjectivities, identities, and historical memories in East Asia. These two works treat different societies and come from disparate disciplines: whereas Kam’s qualitative ethnography employs interviews with twenty-five lala (lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women in Shanghai, Vincent’s contemplative account offers insight into such topics as the betweenness of the homosocial and the homoerotic, the heterodiegetic tendencies of naturalism, and the Girardian triangle of internal mediation...

  15. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, and Pakistan, contains articles on Economics, Political Science...

  16. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Iran contains articles on Political Science, Economics, Regional...

  17. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Israel, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan contains articles on International, Regional, Political and Economic Issues...

  18. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Iran, contains articles on International Affairs, Politics...

  19. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report contains articles on the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan...

  20. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  1. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  2. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Tammi, Martti; Gribskov, Michael; Tan, Tin Wee

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-...

  3. Pedagogical Approaches and Strategies for Teaching Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Donovan C.

    2014-01-01

    Asia today is the center of tremendous growth. With the continued rise of China and the influential roles of Japan and South Korea in international affairs, it is no wonder that the 21st century has been dubbed the Asian century. Outside of these influential political actors, one also see the growing political significance of Southeast Asia in…

  4. Asia and Europe, knowledge economies in encounter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien van den Boom; Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2006-01-01

    With the rise of the knowledge-based economy in Asia, Western-dominated organizational literature is being exported to Asian countries. There is a huge interest from businesses and universities in China, Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and other countries in Asia and the Middle-East

  5. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring...

  6. Dynamics of Corporate Social Responsibility in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Rebecca Chunghee; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Asia through two related themes: research knowledge and ethical norms. ‘CSR in Asia’ research is shown to be growing, particularly in East Asia. Compared with Western CSR literature, it is shown to be dominated by empirical, parti...

  7. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-04-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia.

  8. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low…

  9. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  10. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others. (author)

  11. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies

  12. Diabetic Retinopathy in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Claire Xin Ying; Wong, Tien Yin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in middle-aged and elderly in the Asia-Pacific. It has been estimated that 51% of all those with blindness due to DR globally (n = 424,400) and 56% of those with visual impairment due to DR (2.1 million) come from the Asia-Pacific. Prevalence of DR among those with diabetes ranged from 10% in India to 43% in Indonesia within the Asia-Pacific. Awareness of DR among persons with diabetes ranged from 28% to 84%. Most common modifiable risk factors for DR in the Asia-Pacific were hyperglycemia, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Implementation of systematic screening programs for DR and advancement in telemedicine screening methods have increased patient coverage and cost-effectiveness, though there are still numerous factors impeding screening uptake in the low-middle income regions of the Asia-Pacific. Management and treatment of DR in the Asia-Pacific is mainly limited to traditional laser retinopexy, but it is suboptimal despite new clinical approaches such as use of intravitreal anti.vascular endothelial growth factor and steroids due to limited resources. Further research and data are required to structure a more cost-effective public healthcare program and more awareness-building initiatives to increase the effectiveness of DR screening programs. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  13. The future for distributed power in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwarpal, Vishvjeet

    2000-01-01

    The substantial potential market opportunities for on-site tailor-made cogeneration units in Asia generally is discussed. The article also looks at India, Australia, Japan and Indonesia in particular. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) Asian power and IPP developments; (ii) captive capacity and rationale; (iii) Asian captive capacity; (iv) captive power plants; (v) key drivers of CPPs in Asia; (vi) cogeneration plants; (vii) cogeneration application industries; (viii) biomass power for Asia (ix) key hurdles in cogeneration development; (x) future potential of cogeneration and (xi) country snapshots

  14. Domestic buffalo production in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Buffalo production has a crucial role to play in the rural farming systems of Asia. The region contains some 120 million water buffaloes, which provide draught power, milk, meat, hides and other by-products to the millions of peasant farmers. Despite the undisputed importance of buffaloes, there are several factors which limit realization of their full potential. Climatic and nutritional stresses as well as diseases which are inherently more acute in their native tropical environment often result in poor growth, low reproductive efficiency, poor milk yield and high mortality. In 1978, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a 5 year Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to determine the constraints to buffalo production in terms of nutrition, reproduction and disease. On the basis of the experience gained and the scientific results obtained during this programme, a second CRP (Phase II) was initiated in 1984 to address the more applied aspects of alleviating the constraints which limit the productivity of buffalo. These Proceedings report the results of the second 5 year programme of research. The papers are essentially a synthesis of those presented by the participants of the programme at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Rockhampton, Australia, from 20 to 24 February 1989. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Refinery boom in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruson, J.F.; Virondaud, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Asia demand for oil is increasing dramatically, particularly in the non OECD countries, which represent, today more than 15 % of the world oil market. The expected economic growth in these areas should contribute to a rise in oil demand by about 5.4 per year and hence to a significant increase of this share to 25 % in 2010; virtually a large part of this evolution will come from the transportation sector. The proceeding investments of the regional, refining industry are very high (some evaluations come to around 140 billion of dollars), all the more the protection of the environment takes an increasing significant place. Accordingly the most important challenge to be taken up by these countries will be to mobilize long term fundings to develop and adapt the capabilities of the refineries to meet the growth of gasoline and gas oil demand. The contribution of private operators or capital will be necessary, but will depend strongly on refining margin improvement and on progress of free market areas announced by several countries. (authors)

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This report covers international issues relating to the Near East: regional affairs, Palestinian affairs, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and the Republic of Yemen; and South Asia...

  17. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David

    2003-01-01

    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  18. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  19. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisa, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Iran and Pakistan, the articles are on Politics, Economics...

  20. Coal marketing in Asia: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, D.

    1996-01-01

    In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig

  1. Radtech Asia'95 radiation curing conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Radtech Asia'95 Radiation Curing Conference was held in November, 20-24, 1995 in Guilin, China. The subjects include chemistry, application, Measurement and Equipment, and Material modification. Out of 86 titles, some 30 papers are in INIS scope

  2. Distance Education Technologies in Asia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-10

    Nov 10, 2010 ... Book cover Distance Education Technologies in Asia ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) deserves our ... results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  3. Asia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asia is undergoing rapid and historic change. ... Our work in Bangladesh supports women's advancement and helps residents respond to ... Our work in Indonesia focuses on technology, the environment, and sustainable forest management.

  4. Increasing millet production in South Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asia, which has put the emphasis on cash crops and cereals ... aims to increase production and consumption of minor ... practices. They will then develop sustainable agriculture tool kits to help farmers to increase millet production in these.

  5. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Israel, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Pakistan, contains articles on Politics, Economics, Regional Affairs and Military Affairs...

  6. Vasijas conectadas: Asia Occidental y Asia Oriental en la Geopolítica de China

    OpenAIRE

    Yitzhak Shichor

    2016-01-01

    Las regiones de Asia Oriental y Asia Occidental (Oriente Medio) son normalmente tratadas en la literatura académica como dos asuntos separados y distintos dentro de la política exterior china. Los estudios acerca de la política de China en Asia Oriental apenas si mencionan Oriente Medio, mientras que los estudios de Oriente Medio apenas mencionan Asia Occidental. Pero de hecho ambas regiones no sólo están interconectadas en la visión geopolítica de Chin...

  7. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  8. United States interests in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Gulf of Malacca in the 10 Bhupinder Singh , ―The Indian Ocean and regional Security‖ (Punjab: B.C...Qaida in Afghanistan. Swati Parashar of the South Asian Analysis Group says that, US led anti terrorist operations cannot exclude South Asia...23 Swati Parashar, ―The U.S and South Asia: From Tactical Security Relationship Towards a Strategic Partnership,‖ 2006, http

  9. Collaborative work between the West and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-12-01

    The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  10. Governance in Southeast Asia: Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Eduardo T.; Mendoza, Magdalena L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze governance systems in Southeast Asia and proposes some policy suggestions that can improve governance practices in the region. It also discusses the links between governance and official development assistance and the role of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. To put the discussion on governance systems in a proper context, the paper discusses the governance and growth nexus in Southeast Asia; describes the operating governance systems in Southeast As...

  11. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  12. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  13. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  14. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  16. BAHAYA LATEN INFEKSI GONORE DAN KLAMIDIA DI ASIA SELATAN & ASIA TENGGARA, DI INDONESIA DAN KOTA MANADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Pirade

    2014-04-01

    menempati urutan tertinggi. Wilayah Asia Selatan dan Asia Timur-Selatan (juga disebut Asia Tenggara adalah wilayah dengan prevalensi Gonore dan Klamidia terbesar. Prevalensi Gonore di tahun 1995 dan 1999 yaitu 29.11 dan 27.2 juta penduduk wilayah Asia Selatan dan Asia Tenggara. Klamidia, di tahun 1995 dan tahun 1999 yaitu 40.48 dan 42.89 juta penduduk wilayah Asia Selatan dan Asia Tenggara. Di Indonesia sendiri, pada 11 area penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prevalensi Gonore dalam wilayah Indonesia menunjukkan rata-rata prosentasenya 20%-40% dari keseluruhan STI pada wanita beresiko tinggi terkena STI. Sedangkan infeksi oleh Klamidia prosentasenya 15%- 45% dari keseluruhan STI pada wanita beresiko tinggi terkena penyakit kelamin. Prosentase Gonore dan Klamidia di Kota Manado rata-rata 15-30%. Tingginya prevalensi infeksi Gonore dan Klamidia di Asia Tenggara, ternyata diikuti juga dengan tingginya perkembangan infeksi Gonore dan Klamidia di Indonesia dan Kota Manado.

  17. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  18. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  19. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  20. Southeast Asia activity on the rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.; Johnston, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region has gained favor in the increasingly competitive global market for drilling funds and technology. The level of activity in the region contrasts to the U.S., where political, fiscal, and geological conditions have caused an industry-wide depression. Consolidation and restructuring of the oil industry have also affected the Asia-Pacific area, but not as adversely as North America. The shifting focus of most U.S. oil companies to the international sector has increased attention on Southeast Asia. The number of production-sharing contracts and exploration licenses in the region has increased to almost 800, covering an area of 7 million sq km

  1. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  2. Risks of nuclear crisis in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, Camille

    2015-01-01

    The author first recalls the history of the emergence of a nuclear Asia, its evolution during and after the Cold War. As Asia appears to be a region combining phenomena of proliferation and of arms race, the author outlines the multiple possibilities of emergence of a nuclear crisis in this region: possibility of conflict between Pakistan and India, the unpredictable behaviour of North Korea, a crisis between China and Taiwan or China and Japan that might result in a US commitment. The author then identifies some peculiarities of Asian nuclear challenges: a context of arms race with rather opaque nuclear postures and doctrines of Asian countries, development of antimissile capacities and of autonomous ballistic programmes in different Asian countries, project of development of anti satellite weapons by China. For all that, nuclear deterrence appears not to be surely operative in Asia

  3. Natural disaster and mental health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.

  4. MAPA DE LOS CONFLICTOS DE ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor muestra los principales focos de conflicto y tensión en una región, Asia-Pacífico, que está llamada a liderar políticamente y económicamente el mundo. Este presente siglo es el siglo de Asia y por ello los conflictos mostrados son el principal obstáculo para que Asia ostente el poder hegemónico en el futuro. La situación de inestabilidad en Pakistán y su vecina Afganistán y la evolución económica de China y su relación con sus vecinos regionales determinará la evolución de esta región estratégica.

  5. Crises in Asia or crisis of globalisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter, Heribert

    1998-01-01

    The crises in Southeast and East Asia have started a new round of debate on the benefits and disadvantages of globalisation. We have to ask whether the crises in Asia were the result of failures in national economic policy or whether they were the consequence of ill-constructed global financial markets. It can be concluded that the crises were caused by a number of factors, both internal and external, but that the decisive shifts came from actors on international financial markets as well as ...

  6. Foreign direct investments in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöholm, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has been of large importance in economic growth and global economic integration over the last decades. South East Asia has been part of this development with rapidly increasing inflows of FDI. However, there are large variations over time and between countries in the region as regard to the policies towards FDI, and in actual inflows of FDI. This chapter aims at examining the size of FDI in South East Asia and the trends in it. The main determinants of FDI in Southea...

  7. Far East Asia | Page 88 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... has shown that, as more and more people go online in Asia, digital privacy is increasingly ... An IDRC-funded project in Asia found that distance education can be as ... education in delivering quality teaching and a good learning experience.

  8. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  9. Indonesia's Transformation and the Stability of Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel

    2001-01-01

    ... and straits, Indonesia is the key to Southeast Asian security. Therefore, Indonesia's choices and its evolution will frame the future of Southeast Asia and influence the balance of power in the broader Asia-Pacific region...

  10. Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia: Community of ... evidence-based policy development, decision-making, and practice in South Asia. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  11. Using technology to deliver quality education in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-08

    Jun 8, 2016 ... Using technology to deliver quality education in Asia ... Entrepreneurship has been a major driver of growth and job creation in Southeast Asia. ... to provide access to health services, especially to vulnerable populations.

  12. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  13. South Asia | Page 192 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although economic growth has reduced poverty in much of Asia, rural and ... These pressures strain the infrastructure and fray human relations, ultimately hampering development. ... Our regional office for Asia is located in New Delhi, India.

  14. South Asia | Page 191 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although economic growth has reduced poverty in much of Asia, rural and ... These pressures strain the infrastructure and fray human relations, ultimately hampering development. ... Our regional office for Asia is located in New Delhi, India.

  15. South Asia | Page 195 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although economic growth has reduced poverty in much of Asia, rural and ... These pressures strain the infrastructure and fray human relations, ultimately hampering development. ... Our regional office for Asia is located in New Delhi, India.

  16. Far East Asia | Page 182 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although economic growth has reduced poverty in much of Asia, rural and ... These pressures strain the infrastructure and fray human relations, ultimately hampering development. ... Our regional office for Asia is located in New Delhi, India.

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-28

    manufacturing soap , soft drinks, candy, a few plastics products, canned meats, reinforced concrete, olive oil. furniture, cooking oil, milk and dairy products...of mango, citrus, fig, Christ’s- thorn. grape, pomegranate, and guava . as well as date palm suckers. JPRS-NEA-89-057 28 August 1989 SOUTH ASIA 65

  18. Central Asia | Page 160 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... et l'introduction de cultures à rendement élevé, les agriculteurs punjabi se sont ... Although it occupies just 1.5% of India's land mass, Punjab now grows more ...

  19. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  20. Financing Technological Upgrading in East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Mubarik, Shujaat; Yap, Xiao-Shan

    2017-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion on the drivers of economic growth in East Asia. While most studies recognize that capital accumulation and macroeconomic management were critical in hastening growth, few have examined systematically and comparatively how policy frameworks – spearheaded through

  1. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular

  2. Central Asia | Page 104 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Démarginalisation des travailleurs pauvres par le droit. Language French. Read more about Legal Empowerment of the Working Poor. Language English. Read more about Water Security in Periurban South Asia : Adapting to Climate Change and Urbanization. Language English.

  3. Single port VATS: recent developments in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter S Y; Capili, Freddie; Ng, Calvin S H

    2016-03-01

    Single port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is the most recent evolution in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. With increasing global popularity, the single port VATS approach has been adopted by experienced thoracic surgeons in many Asian countries. From initial experience of single port VATS lobectomy to the more complex sleeve resection procedures now forming part of daily practice in some Asia institutes, the region has been the proving ground for single port VATS approaches' feasibility and safety. In addition, certain technical refinements in single port VATS lung resection and lymph node dissection have also sprung from Asia. Novel equipment designed to facilitate single port VATS allowing further reduce access trauma are being realized by the partnership between surgeons and the industries. Advanced thoracoscopes and staplers that are narrower and more maneuverable are particularly important in the smaller habitus of patients from Asia. These and similar new generation equipment are being applied to single port VATS in novel ways. As dedicated thoracic surgeons in the region continue to striving for excellence, innovative ideas in single incision access including subxiphoid and embryonic natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (e-NOTES) have been explored. Adjunct techniques and technology used in association with single port VATS such as non-intubated surgery, hybrid operating room image guidance and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy are all in rapid development in Asia.

  4. Forestry research in Asia and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Chamberlain; Erin Moore

    1992-01-01

    Much research has been done in Asia and the Pacific that might help Pacific Island countries produce more biomass and better manage their natural resources. National forestry research institutes throughout the region have examined many important aspects of forestry. Not all research findings are directly transferable between countries, but research methods and results...

  5. The Humanities in Asia: Recommendations of Reischauer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlin, Norberta

    This paper draws from the writings of Edwin O. Reischauer to support its arguments that high school and college curricula should be extended to include Asian culture, particularly the humanities of China, Japan, India, and medieval Islam. The following literature selections are proposed and highlighted: (1) India and Southeast Asia: the "Ramayana"…

  6. Security in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group began by discussing the meaning of security in terms of its comprehensive, cooperative and human dimensions. In doing so, the members of the Group focused on major issues which could endanger regional stability and non-proliferation. In order to identify the major problems and sources of tension, it was agreed that the Group would concentrate on two sub-regions, namely, East Asia and South East Asia and then to compare these briefly with South Asia and Latin America, the aim being to identify common security concerns. The discussion was framed in terms of: (i) evaluating the adequacy of the existing institutional framework for security cooperation; (ii) evaluating linkages between economic development and security; and (iii) seeking ways to reduce tension and to increase security in the region. Discussion was focused on the broad subject of security risks and challenges as well as opportunities for effective cooperative security in the Asia Pacific region. Attention was devoted to ways of changing Cold War mentalities, which still hinder the normalization process and the achievement of comprehensive security cooperation among the countries in the region

  7. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in

  8. Collective Security in Europe and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-02

    Minister Hisashi Owada carried by Kyodo, November 18, 1991, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, (FBIS), Daily Report-East Asia, November 18, 1991...Report-Soviet Union, December 5, 1991, p. 54. For a Japanese view, see Hiroshi Kimura , "Gorbachev’s Japan Policy: The Northern Territories Issue

  9. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-14

    something with our way of spelling our country in English. Being a person who believes in numerology , I couldn’t resist listening to what a numerologist...told me once. He said that ’Sri Lanka’ as spelt that way in English is numerologically not positive JPRS-NEA-90-043 14 August 1990 SOUTH ASIA 73 for

  10. Central Asia | Page 177 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is the outcome of the collaborative PANdora research and development ... $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. ... role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  11. School Physics Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Chin Pin; Tee, Tan Boon

    1978-01-01

    Traces physics curriculum innovation in Southeast Asia since the 1950s. The unique features of such innovation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand are highlighted. Forecasts for the future of physics education in part of the world are also discussed. (Author/HM)

  12. Shifting Patterns of Student Mobility in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, Asia--traditionally one of the largest exporters of mobile students--has experienced major changes in student mobility within higher education. As the worldwide competition for international students has escalated, many Asian countries have adopted a wide range of mechanisms and strategies in facilitating student mobility.…

  13. Consumer Issues and Consumer Protection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)

  14. Central Asia | Page 105 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asie centrale. Read more about Sécurité hydrique dans les régions périurbaines de l'Asie du Sud - adaptation aux changements climatiques et urbanisation. Language French. Read more about Innovations for Inclusive Knowledge-based Economies in Asia - Phase II. Language English. Read more about L'innovation au ...

  15. Central Asia | Page 100 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Soutenir des politiques d'alimentation plus saine en Asie du Sud-Est. Language French. Read more about Supporting Healthier Food Policies in Southeast Asia. Language English. Read more about Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy. Language English ...

  16. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  17. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    anshory

    Development Studies (CEDS), Padjadjaran University, for his excellent research assistance. ... Malaysia, and Philippines) are the most vulnerable to climate change. 2. ... system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), ... national administrative areas in seven countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., ...

  18. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    by China. Even in 1994, the then-Malaysian Defense Minister Najib was careful to play down the security role of ASEAN as he still saw it as being... Razak Baginda. "Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Security: Towards Multilateralism Amid Uncertainty?" Military Technology (April 1994): 10- 16

  19. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... ... of the distribution of enterprises by size across Asia, including India, Japan, ... enterprise development and its overall impact on the economy. ... His main areas of research interest are industry, poverty, labour, and employment, ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  20. The present state of social science research in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    The first pan-Asia conference ‘Status and Role of Social Science Research in Asia, Emerging Challenges and Policy Issues’ (New Delhi, 13-15 March 2014), with representatives from 24 countries in Asia and some non-Asian countries, was intended to assess the present state of social science research in

  1. Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala, J.; Amann, M.; Gyarfas, F.; Schoepp, F.; Boudri, J.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Li Junfeng,; Dai Lin, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Gupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation

  2. South Asia | Page 99 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Asia. Asie du sud. Read more about Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology in South Asia. Language English. Read more about La nanotechnologie en Asie du Sud : renforcement des capacités et encadrement des technologies. Language French. Read more about La ...

  3. South Asia | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding : Toward an Integrated Psychological Approach. Language English. Read more about Information Society Innovation Fund Asia. Language English. Read more about Information Society Innovation Fund Asia (ISIF Asia). Language French. Read more about Liens ...

  4. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  5. South Asia | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  6. Far East Asia | Page 189 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  7. Far East Asia | Page 107 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  8. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN EAST ASIA AND SOUTH ASIA: AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-01-01

    Many recent FDI studies have focused on the effects of corruption on FDI inflows. Theoretically, corruption can act as either a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs, which should impede FDI, or a helping hand by “greasing” the wheels of commerce in the presence of weak regulatory framework, which should facilitate FDI. This study analyzes the impact of corruption on FDI inflows in East Asia and South Asia – two regions that have recently received huge FDI inflows. Using ...

  9. Central Asia's raging waters the prospects of water conflict in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, William B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...

  10. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia, LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    1941 - 1991 JPRS Repor East Asia Southeast Asia LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure mom m £C QUALITY »ra^r...prostitution, will be impris- oned for three to five years. Article 124. Incest . Anyone who has sexual intercourse with parents, step- parents...This consists of facts which indicate whether there have been actions dangerous to society, the guilt of the per- sons who undertook the

  11. Financial Shenanigans : Evidence from Developing Countries In East Asia and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Siew Yean

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the reported cases involved in financial shenanigans which subject to the enforcement actions by the authorities of selected developing countries in East Asia and South Asia between 2010 and 2012. The scope of this study includes the attempts used and causes of the financial shenanigans. This study finds that the most common attempt used by the sample companies is overstating the revenue and follows by manipulation of expenses and discretionary accounting. Revenue and ...

  12. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-lslamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly.

  13. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-islamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly

  14. Towards a sustainable Asia. Environment and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This series of books are the output of the research project called ''Sustainable Development in Asia (SDA)'', which was initiated by the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA). They are comprised of one synthesis report, which entitled ''Towards a Sustainable Asia: Green Transition and Innovation'', and four thematic reports on natural resources, energy, the environment and climate change, and culture from particular perspectives of agriculture. They aim to: (1) investigate common sustainability issues faced by all Asian countries, including population increase, poverty alleviation, pollution control, ecological restoration, as well as regional problems, such as water shortage in West and Central Asia, energy security in Northeast Asia, development model and transformation in East Asia; (2) analyze and summarize of best practices towards sustainable development in Asia; (3) bring forward suggestions and policy options for promoting green transition, system innovation and sustainable development of Asia. With best practice guidelines for a sustainable Asia, this series of reports, for the first time systematically address the common challenges and regional problems in regard to Asia's natural resources use, pollution reduction and climate protection, sustainable energy development, and innovations for environment-friendly and culture-compatible agriculture. They will provide handy and useful information to researchers, government policy makers and the general public who have concerns about Asia's sustainable development. AASA is a scientific and technological organization in Asia, established in 2000, comprising of 26 member academies all over Asia. Its vision is to provide a forum for the discussion of all issues relevant to science and technology development and its application on national level within Asia. (orig.)

  15. Gender and access to education in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Swarna

    1987-12-01

    Attention has been focused in recent years by international agencies and national governments in Asia on the need to extend educational opportunity and to universalize at least the first level of education. The resource constraints of economically developing societies have militated against reaching these goals. Statistics of gender-based enrolment at all three levels of education show that equal access of women to education even at the first level is an almost illusory goal for six countries in South Asia. Gender disparities in educational participation are seen to be minimal in other countries except in vocational education. It is argued that while economic difficulties are a major constraint to educational opportunity, patriarchal social structures have also operated as a significant barrier in economically disadvantaged countries.

  16. Dynamic nuclear development in Pacific Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillessen, U.

    1996-01-01

    The gigantic wave of industrialization in Pacific Asia is based on a reliable supply of electricity whose expansion is being planned long in advance. In this context, nuclear power serves to reduce the dependence on, mostly imported, fossil fuels. Seventy nuclear power plants are in operation, twelve are under construction, and at least another 65 are planned by the year 2020. Also current nuclear research programs have been designed with long term objectives in mind. In times of moratoria and intentions to opt out in Western Europe it is perhaps worthwhile to look beyond the borders of cantons and federal states. The situation of nuclear power worldwide, especially in Pacific Asia, clearly reveals one thing: There is no opting out. (orig.) [de

  17. Pipelines to power South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholes, W

    1994-07-01

    European, North American and Australian pipeline companies are busy building pipelines to transport natural gas to power stations throughout South East Asia. Many countries, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, have economies expanding at more than eight percent a year. Cambodia and Laos are awaiting energy development. Myanmar will not only benefit from the global economic expansion but from the flourishing economies of nearby Thailand and Malaysia which are now investing in neighbouring countries, while their national petroleum companies are starting to operate worldwide. It is the ever expanding rush of industrialisation, urbanisation and the move to raise living standards throughout the region that is accelerating the need for more power stations, both gas and coal-fired, throughout South East Asia. (author)

  18. 'Why is there no NATO in Asia?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    from political psychology — a prospect–threat alliance model — to account for the variation in US alliance strategy toward Europe and Asia after World War II. Through setting the threat level as a reference point for leaders’ prospects of gains or losses, we suggest: (1) high threats frame decision......-makers in a domain of losses, and multilateral alliances become a favorable alliance choice because states are more likely to take the risk of constraining their freedom of action in return for more help from multiple allies as well as for avoiding further strategic losses; (2) low threats position leaders...... in a domain of gains, and bilateral alliances win out because states are risk-averse in terms of maintaining their freedom of action in seeking security through alliances with fewer allies. US alliance policy toward Asia after World War II is a within-case analysis that tests the validity of the prospect...

  19. Statistical indicators for Asia and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This quarterly publication provides up-to-date monthly data for assessing the demographic and economic trends in countries or areas in Asia and the Pacific region. Part 1 gives regional tables for populations, life expectancy, death rate, birth rate, literacy, industrial production index, index numbers of agricultural production, cereal production, international trade, and GDP. Country tables gives a finer breakdown of figures for each of 28 countries which includes production and exports of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity. The document is produced by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. It has an ISBN of 92-1-119694-9 and a UN report number ST/ESCAP/1513.

  20. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  1. Pipelines to power South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, W.

    1994-01-01

    European, North American and Australian pipeline companies are busy building pipelines to transport natural gas to power stations throughout South East Asia. Many countries, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, have economies expanding at more than eight percent a year. Cambodia and Laos are awaiting energy development. Myanmar will not only benefit from the global economic expansion but from the flourishing economies of nearby Thailand and Malaysia which are now investing in neighbouring countries, while their national petroleum companies are starting to operate worldwide. It is the ever expanding rush of industrialisation, urbanisation and the move to raise living standards throughout the region that is accelerating the need for more power stations, both gas and coal-fired, throughout South East Asia. (author)

  2. South Asia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les questions relatives à la taille des entreprises manufacturières sont au coeur des débats en matière de stratégies de développement. Dans leur livre, intitulé Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia: Size Structure and Economic Growth, Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar proposent une interprétation des trajectoires de ...

  3. Non-proliferation efforts in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    1994-01-01

    Southern Asia is one of the most volatile regions in the world because of inter-State and intra-State conflicts. Security in the region highly depends on the rival capabilities of the involved states, Pakistan, India, China. Increased Confidence building and nuclear transparency are becoming more significant issues in attaining stability in the region, although non-proliferation efforts in this region have attained little headway

  4. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  5. Turkey and Stability in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    military growth. China will try to expel the United States from the region, and then conflict is inevitable . Liberals think that the economic...ascendance in East Asia. Realists view the rise of China as a reason for conflict and power struggle in the region; a rising power inevitably leads to an... conflict is inevitable because, according to Kenneth Neal Waltz, “a state that is amassing instruments of war, even for its own defensive, is cast

  6. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  7. Stroke in Asia: a global disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S

    2014-10-01

    Although stroke is a world-wide problem, the burden of stroke is particularly serious in Asia; its mortality is higher than in Europe or North America. The situation in Asia is dichotomized. Stroke mortality and case fatality has been declining in northern-eastern countries such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and urbanized areas of China. This is attributed to both the risk factor control and stroke care improvement. However, declining stroke incidence is rarely observed, which is in part due to rapidly aging population. As a result, there is an increase in the number of stroke survivors who require long-term, costly care. The extremely low birth rate and relatively insecure social health system markedly increases the caregiver burden. The problem in southern Asian countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia is more fundamental. With the improving control of infectious diseases, life expectancy is prolonged. However, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking become prevalent, and are poorly controlled. Stroke neurologists, organized stroke centers, and diagnostic tools are insufficient, which has resulted in high stroke fatality and mortality. Throughout Asia, the most urgent priority should be the primary stroke prevention through promoting a healthy lifestyle, e.g. low salt intake, regular physical exercise, stopping smoking, government sectors should take a stronger initiative to accomplish this. The rapidly aging populations and stroke burden will shrink the economy and destabilize the society, not only in Asia but also globally unless appropriate efforts are promptly initiated, this may result in a global disaster. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  8. Education, globalization, and income inequality in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    This study considers how education and globalization affect income inequality in Asia, with unbalanced panel data. The evidence supports the validity of Kuznets' inverted-U hypothesis for the connection between income level and income inequality. However, when more variables are integrated into the model, the consistency of the inverse U-shaped curve becomes weaker. The empirical results suggest that educational variables are highly influential in affecting income distribution. Our analysis i...

  9. Climate Investment Opportunities in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2017-01-01

    South Asia is home to three of the top five countries in terms of vulnerability to climate change globally.It thus urgently needs climate investment to enhance resilience and unlock opportunities for low carbon growth. The region is one of the fastest growing regions in the world; however, estimates suggest that climate impacts could reduce its annual gross domestic product by an average o...

  10. Fiscal Policy and Growth in Developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdon, Arnelyn May; Estrada, Gemma Esther; Lee, Minsoo; Park, Donghyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we empirically explore the relationship between fiscal policy and economic growth in developing Asia. The region's overall level of taxes and government spending are substantially lower than those prevailing in advanced economies. Nevertheless, there are conceptual grounds why fiscal policy, including the composition of taxes and government spending, can have a significant effect on growth, as our empirical analysis shows. In line with economic theory, property taxes have a more...

  11. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  12. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Type.-Holotype male, Chiang Mai Prov., Thailand, 1933, O.R. Causey (on slide, Type in USNM). Southeast Asia Records.-- INDONESIA: Sulawesi (North...Kapit Dist., Nanga Pelagus (Traub). SINGAPORE: Kg. Chantek Bahru (Colless); Nee Soon (Colless). THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Causey); Chiang Rai (Causey...THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Notonanda, Scanlon). Cholburi, Bangphra,(Scanlon). Khon Kaen Prov., Ban Phai and Chum Phae (Manop R.). Loei Prov., Dan Sal, Ban

  13. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. 540pp. (DS35.2 .M65 2011) Myers, Stephen C. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address... Undesirable Multilateral Security Order?" Pacific Review 24, no. 2 (May 2011): 137-158. Taylor & Francis "The Quality of Democracy in Asia Pacific...2009): 205-219. Sage Turner, Mark, Sonam Chuki, and Jit Tshering. "Democratization by Decree: The Case of Bhutan." Democratization 18, no. 1 (February

  14. Penerapan Business Continuity Pada Bank Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Keefe Darius

    2017-01-01

    Banks are financial institutions that have a major impact on the economic system and can affect people's lives. Hence, regulators concerned in organizing business continuity of the banking industries. PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. (BCA) represents businesses in the banking sector that can not escape from the natural and man threats which can interfere the bank's business. This case study presents a glimpse of how the business continuity run in BCA. Moreover, business continuity in banking can n...

  15. Malaysia : the lucky man of Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Ismail, Mohd Nazari

    2001-01-01

    Malaysia has been labelled the Lucky Man of Asia due to its wealth of natural resources, such as tin, rubber, palm oil, pepper, tropical timber, petroleum and a very fertile soil. There is no doubt that this richness has helped Malaysia to achieve impressive growth rates over the last decades, but history has taught us that large endowments of natural resources by far are sufficient to generate development. Since the early 1970s Malaysia has led a relatively successful racial integration poli...

  16. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-21

    helping Iraq and Iran to finance their reconstruction. We are ready to consider all viable proposals, he added. On the impact of introducing higher...Retailers Cooperative protested the Voice and Vision [ Televison ] programs. JPRS-NEA-89-022 21 March 1989 47 SOUTH ASIA Part of this letter said: The ...People’s Party administration ignores this fact, its impact would cause the the people to start thinking that the former administration was better than

  17. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future.

  18. Bond financing for renewable energy in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Thiam Hee; Tao, Jacqueline Yujia

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the financing gap for renewable energy (RE) projects in Asia is critical to ensure that the rapidly increasing energy needs could be met sustainably. This paper explores the cause of the financing gap in Asia and proposes the use of bond financing to address the financing gap. Specifically, three fixed income instruments, namely local currency denominated (LCY) corporate bonds, asset backed project bonds and financial green bonds, will be assessed. Whilst the potential for these three instruments to mobilize large flows of private sector financing is great, key supportive policies aimed at reducing the capital market bias for conventional power generation technologies and supportive RE policies are required. Another key aspect would be the necessary deepening of local and regional fixed income markets before such capital market instruments are able to play a big role. - Highlights: •This study looks at the current financing gap and RE financing landscape in developing Asia. •LCY corporate bonds, asset backed projects bonds and financial green bonds could help to address the financing gap for RE in the region. •Policy recommendations for building the fixed income market for RE projects are provided.

  19. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Panel discussion: LNG's future in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Tadahiko

    1992-01-01

    The panelists convened to: (1) identify and evaluate the role which LNG is likely to play in the changing energy scene; (2) to examine the future supply and demand structure of the LNG trade; (3) to discover the key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade; and (4) to find solutions to these problems. The panelists identified and outlined growing opportunities for LNG utilization in Asia during the next two decades. They shared the opinion that the structure of the supply and demand balance for LNG in Asia will shift during the next decade, providing considerable room for new projects. The key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade are the lack of: long-distance transmission networks and an efficient competitive market pricing mechanism for LNG in the Asian region. The major importers in the region are keen on developing a range of new long-term supply alternatives, not simply within the Asia-Pacific region, but also from a wider perspective. These alternatives include: financing the expansion of production from existing facilities, development of new fields, and construction of long-distance pipelines

  2. Nuclearisation in South Asia: reactions and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, B.M.; Hexamer, Eva-Maria

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses the core issues, problems and challenges that confront the Nuclear South Asia. It is a patent fact that both India and Pakistan are now nuclear weapon states. Critical to this fact is the question of threat perceptions, the peculiar national psyche in India and Pakistan, domestic settings in both countries and unresolved bilateral disputes including Kashmir. It is at this crucial juncture, a galaxy of scholars and specialists in this book dispassionately examine alternative security paradigms essential for the de-escalation of nuclear threat not only to the peace, security and stability of the South Asia region but also to other volatile regions including the international peace, in general. Departing from the traditional understanding of and approaches to the nuclear question in South Asia, the book focuses on threat perceptions, sociopsychological problems, and political and cultural factors which go a long way in determining the nuclear behaviour of India and Pakistan. The contributors have also examined in depth the reactions and responses of great powers-US, Russia, China and Japan-to the recent nuclear tests of India and Pakistan. Some of them have also taken into account the fallout of these tests in economic, strategic, security, military, political and cultural terms. This book should prove immensely useful as a reliable guide to top policy-makers, nuclear decision-makers, strategic analysts as well as for academics and scholars engaged in nuclear, defence and strategic studies

  3. The Asia 2 specific signal peptide region and other domains in fusion protein genes characterized Asia 1 and Asia 2 canine distemper viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Serageldeen; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Maeda, Ken; Kai, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV) was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H) gene, the fusion (F) protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had not been identified. So, the sequence analysis of F gene was carried out to elucidate the genotypic varaitons among Asian isolates. Results The phylogenetic analysis of F and H gene sequences from fourteen CDV isolates obtained from diseased dogs in Japan and Thailand indicated that the F genes had a new initiation codon and extra 27 nucleotides upstream of the usual open reading frame (ORF) and the F proteins had extra 9 amino acids at the N-terminal position only in Asia 2 isolates. On the contrary, the Asia 1 isolates had three extra putative N-glycosylation sites (two sites in the signal peptide region and one site in the F1 region) except for two strains of Th12 and Ac96I (two sites in signal peptide region) adding to four putative N-glycosylation sites that were conserved among all Asian isolates and Onderstepoort strain. In addition to this difference in N-glycosylation sites, the signal peptide region had a great diversity between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Also, characteristic amino acids were detected for some strains. Conclusion Asia 2 isolates were distinguished from other CDV lineages by the extra 27 nucleotide sequence. The signal peptide region of F gene gives a remarkable differentiation between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Strains Th12 and Ac96I were differentiated from other Asia 1 strains by the F protein glycosylation sites. PMID:19807927

  4. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  5. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Iqra Anugrah; Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University

    2014-01-01

    "Three recent works provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies." (author's abstract). Review of: 1. Ford, Michele (ed.): Social Activism in Southeast Asia. Series: Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia. London, New York: Routledge 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-63059-7. 2. Petras, James...

  6. Is Long-Term Food Insecurity Inevitable in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article questions two widely accepted claims on long-term food insecurity in Asia, the world's (heterogeneous) region with the largest number of undernourished individuals. The first claim is that food production may not grow as fast as the pace of population growth in Asia, which will reach 5 billion by 2050. The second claim is that an unstoppable emergence of a middle class in Asia will dramatically change the composition of food demand. On the first claim, the region's contribution t...

  7. Trade in Services and Investment Flows in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Chadha; Geethanjali Nataraj

    2008-01-01

    Despite being a group of contiguous countries South Asia is one of the least integrated regions in terms of intra-regional investment and trade relations. The share of services in GDP of South Asian countries has increased substantially with South Asia exhibiting a high revealed comparative advantage in commercial services and more particularly in other services including computer and information technology enabled services. Analysis of the FDI inflows in South Asia reveals that the number of...

  8. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  9. NMHC emissions from Asia: sources and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Chan, J. C.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Takigawa, M.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Recent rapid industrialization and economic growth in Asia changed the industrial structure, land use, and people's lifestyle resulting in a dramatic change in the amount and composition of the gas emissions from Asia. Because emissions can be transported very rapidly once convected to the free troposphere, Asian emissions can affect both local and regional air quality and climate. To access the impact of changing emission from Asia, an airborne observation campaign PEACE (the Pacific Exploration of Asian Continental Emission) phase-A and B were conducted in January and April - May 2002, respectively, sponsored by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). The concentrations of NMHCs (nonmethanehydrocarbons) and halocarbons were obtained by whole air sampling and subsequent gas chromatography analyses in the laboratory. Quantified onboard the aircraft were CO, CO2, O3, NO, NO2, NOy, H2O, SO2, aerosols, and condensation nuclei. The experiment was conducted in the vicinity of Japan and PEACE-A and B represent the local winter and spring weather conditions. The trace gas distributions in the lower troposphere were often influenced by local pollution (i.e. from Japan, Korea) while those of the long-range transport (i.e. from Europe) were occasionally seen in the upper troposphere. This is confirmed by the airmass age estimation using the ratios of short-lived gases (i.e. C2H4) vs. more stable compounds (i.e. CO). Emissions from China were distinguished using data obtained from ground-based sampling and measurements. Transport from China was seen both in the lower troposphere and upper troposphere. Some case studies on source identification will be discussed.

  10. DISTANCE AND BLENDED LEARNING IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin OZARSLAN,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance learning (ODL is one of the most important trends in education in Asia as well as all around the world. This book reviews ODL/ICT developments in schools, colleges, universities, open schooling, workplace training, professional development and non-formal adult and community education. It examines ODL and ICT experiences, successes and failures of Asian education and training.This is one of the comprehensive books on distance education applications in Asia. It is written by Colin Latchem and Insung Jung. Colin Latchem is an Australian-based consultant in open and distance learning. Insung Jung is Professor of Education, Media & Society at the International Christian University in Tokyo. The book's broader audience is anyone who is interested in ODL. If you are looking for on developments in ODL in Asia, this book is primarily for you. The book is consisted of 266 pages (+xiv covering 12 chapters with a conclusion part in each chapter.These conclusion parts provide a critical look at that chapter‘s issue Topics covered in the book are as follows: Technology, E-readiness And E-learning Readiness, Open Schooling, SchoolNets and Information and Communications Technology (ICT Integration in Classrooms, Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, Workplace Training, Professional Development and Non-Formal Adult and Community Education, New Providers and New Markets, ICT Integration In and Beyond the School, Instructional Design, Learner Support and Assessment in E-Learning, Leadership for Educational Change and Innovation, Quality Assurance and Accreditation, Staff Training and Development, Research, Publication and Translating Research into Practice.

  11. Acid precipitation in Europe and Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, Valter

    2000-01-01

    The article surveys acid precipitation problems in the region, discusses the sources, the pollutant composition and distribution, the work with the RAINS models as well as the organisation of and the results of joint incentives in the region. The acidification problems in China and some of the Norwegian participation efforts are reviewed. The author points out that much of the acidic precipitation and the environmental problems in Eurasia are due to the use of coal rich in sulphur, that the energy and environmental policies differs throughout the region because of differences in ecology and development levels and that Asia is far more heterogeneous than Europe as to the conditions for co-ordinated efforts against acid precipitation. The differences in economy, geopolitical situation, environmental policies etc. are larger than in Europe and a considerable international effort will be required in order to succeed. Should the regional model RAINS-Asia be used as basis for further co-ordinated efforts on acid precipitation thorough evaluations on costs and advantages are needed. The conditions and need for modelling as basis for international agreements between Asiatic countries are not the same as in Europe. Finally international development organisations have and will continue to play an important part in the work for reducing acid precipitation in Asia. The Asiatic countries may also greatly benefit in the battle against acid precipitation from the experiences of the industrialised countries. However, Asiatic countries will have to meet the major costs of emission reduction themselves. The main question is what emphasis will be put on the long term environmental profits and on the need for rapid economic growth of materially impoverished people. Other development directions than those used by the industrialised countries, seems to be needed

  12. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-23

    HINDU 14 Jun] 9 Regional Affairs Hypochondria Seen in Conduct of Mideast Policy [THE HINDU 10 Jun] 10 Progress in Defense Ties To Israel Seen...because of "last-minute difficulties." Regional Affairs Hypochondria Seen in Conduct of Mideast Policy 92AS1194A Madras THE HINDU in English 10 Jun 92... hypochondria is more evident in West Asia than elsewhere. Among the cases that can be cited is the "flat" denial by the Minister of State for External

  13. Developments in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Reaz

    1992-01-01

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  14. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  15. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  16. Asia y la Conferencia de Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Medina, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    La Conferencia de Bandung (abril de 1955) encarnó el deseo y la necesidad de los pueblos afroasiáticos, recién descolonizados, por fi jar una posición neutral ante el nuevo confl icto conocido como la Guerra Fría (1947-1991), liderado por los dos grandes bloques de poder: los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y la ex Unión Soviética. En ese sentido, pretendemos analizar el contexto histórico que dio origen a la participación de los pueblos asiáticos –fundamentalmente del Asia meridional, orienta...

  17. Radiation protection activities and status in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohal, P.

    1993-01-01

    The status of radiation protection practices in Asian countries is monitored by different means, e.g. the IAEA technical cooperation activities, by an overall assessment of conditions in a country by RAPAT missions, and on the basis of data collected through various regional activities. The radiation protection situation in Asia is very heterogeneous. There is a group of countries with very well developed radiation protection practices and advanced in the application of the Basic Safety Standards, but the majority of Asian member states still need improvement, several lacking the necessary fundamental infrastructure for radiation protection

  18. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  19. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  20. 1st International AsiaHaptics conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hideyuki; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed not only at haptics and human interface researchers, but also at developers and designers from manufacturing corporations and the entertainment industry who are working to change our lives. This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International AsiaHaptics conference, held in Tsukuba, Japan, in 2014. The book describes the state of the art of the diverse haptics- (touch-) related research, including scientific research into haptics perception and illusion, development of haptics devices, and applications for a wide variety of fields such as education, medicine, telecommunication, navigation, and entertainment.

  1. Developments in South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Reaz [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1993-12-31

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  2. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  3. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  4. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott B. Halstead

    2006-01-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65 000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II ampli...

  5. Representation of Central Asia and Traveling Self in Vambery’s Travels in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Gholi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the nineteenth century Arminius Vambery, an anglophile travel writer, in the guise of a mendicant dervish with a group of Tartar pilgrims departs to secluded and sealed Central Asia. After six months travel in the Khanates of Central Asia, he undertakes a journey to England where he offers his observations to the Royal Geographical Society and publishes his travelogue, Travel in Central Asia. Despite its literary merits and connection with British imperialism, the travelogue has not been scrutinized separately by the scholars of travel writing. To fill the gap, this article by drawing on the theories of post-structuralism: Orientalism and Postcolonialism, endeavors to unveil the political agenda behind the travel writer’s representation of his travelees, destination, and his own traveling self. Additionally, it argues that the travel writer in dialogue with other Western travel writers to deterritorialize his traversed region or justify the prospective presence of Britain in Central Asia, represents his journey destination as the locus of barbarity, a region under the grip of despotic rulers, as well as an area with frozen time, while to exhibit his Eurocentrism, he portrays his traveling subject as the a suffering hero and a benign traveler.

  6. Nuclear safety cooperation in Southeast Asia. Lessons from Asia's regional networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajano, Julius Cesar I.

    2017-01-01

    Debate has been ongoing among key stakeholders on whether South-east Asia should use or reject nuclear power. However, there are still significant regional concerns over nuclear safety and security in South-east Asia. As some ASEAN countries plan to pursue nuclear power, they need to create and maintain a pool of local nuclear professionals with actual relevant experience in the nuclear industry. While the IAEA does not influence a country's decision on introducing nuclear power, it supports Member States' efforts to evaluate all options towards making a knowledgeable decision. Nuclear safety is the responsibility of every nation that utilizes nuclear technology. National governments are responsible for regulations that govern how safety at nuclear facilities is maintained, as well as to reduce radiation risks, including emergency response and recovery actions. But nuclear energy has transboundary/ regional implications if nuclear safety in each member state is not strengthened. ASEAN countries share a common goal in achieving high level of public safety and confidence in nuclear and radiation related issues. Can regional cooperation help ASEAN Member-States strengthen nuclear safety? The paper examines the importance of regional cooperation on nuclear energy governance and the role of regional organisations in Asia in strengthening nuclear safety cooperation and emergency preparedness and response in Southeast Asia. (author)

  7. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN EAST ASIA AND SOUTH ASIA: AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent FDI studies have focused on the effects of corruption on FDI inflows. Theoretically, corruption can act as either a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs, which should impede FDI, or a helping hand by “greasing” the wheels of commerce in the presence of weak regulatory framework, which should facilitate FDI. This study analyzes the impact of corruption on FDI inflows in East Asia and South Asia – two regions that have recently received huge FDI inflows. Using GLS methodology with 1995-2011 panel data, this study finds that the impact of corruption on FDI is significantly negative and robust, which validates the “grabbing hand” hypothesis. It is also found that, even after accounting for the economic fundamentals, East Asia seems to enjoy a locational advantage in attracting FDI vis-à-vis South Asia. These results further our knowledge of the FDI dynamics, which policymakers should find helpful in devising pro-FDI strategies.

  8. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  9. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  10. Gauging gas sector opportunities in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The future prospects for use of liquefied natural gas in Asia were examined, combined with a description of the opportunities and risks of investing in the Asian energy sector. It was concluded that the marked increase in energy demand makes market development for natural gas in Asia similar to what it was in North America several decades ago. Rapid economic development has increased the value of electricity, and natural gas is seen as the ideal fuel to generate it, as well as helping to combat local air pollution. Some of the barriers to expanded natural gas use include structural problems resulting from government action (or inaction), lack of an efficient distribution system and stable pricing for natural gas. Nevertheless, interest is growing, and however slowly, progress is inevitable At the same time, it should be emphasized that while the prospects are good for the domestic gas sector, there is yet no country where a foreign firm has been permitted to bring natural gas into the country, either by pipeline, or as liquid natural gas. 7 figs

  11. Rusia, China, India y Asia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Blank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La próxima entrada de India en la Organización de Cooperación de Shanghái puede ser importante para Delhi pero no puede deshacer el factor crítico de que China se está convirtiendo cada vez más en el actor extranjero más relevante en Asia Central y que Rusia está dependiendo de China hasta el punto de que su Ministerio de Defensa ha buscado formalmente una alianza con China en contra del terrorismo, «las revoluciones de colores» y los Estados Unidos. China está ganando en la competición por la influencia sobre Asia Central, India apenas es competitiva allí y Rusia está perdiendo terreno paulatinamente, principalmente debido a sus propios fracasos para acrecentar su capacidad económica-política, incluso antes de invadir Ucrania. Las consecuencias de esa jugada tan solo han acelerado el proceso de su creciente dependencia de China.

  12. Gas markets and pricing in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashayekhi, A.; Law, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The issues of natural gas market development and pricing are reviewed within the context of specific Asian countries where gas plays an important role. Within Southeast Asia, Malaysia's Penninsular Gas Utilization project signals a new era in pipeline gas trade with an agreement to supply Singapore. There is now also an opportunity to extend Malaysian pipeline supplies to Thailand, which is actively seeking natural gas from neighboring countries. The prospects for LNG are dominated by the high growth markets of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. LNG trade has tended to bind the region together through close economic ties. Due to the increasing damand within the supplier countries themselves and their close neighbors, it is likely that LNG consumers will increasingly need to look beyond their traditional Southeast Asian suppliers in the future, perhaps to higher cost LNG schemes outside the region. In Southeast Asia, reduction of the high volumes of associated gas currently flared from the Bombay High Field in India will not only make big contribution to meeting the country's future gas demand, but will also prove environmentally beneficial. Pakistan, in order to control its developing gas markets, has raised gas prices to consumers substantially, with beneficial effects on supply and demand. In Bangladesh, economic pricing has been important in allocating gas resources efficiently. At both the regional and global level, the link between gas use and the environment is becoming stronger, raising the question of relating gas and energy prices to environmental costs and benefits

  13. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  14. Taking CERN physics to South Asia

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2015-01-01

    CERN physicists travelled to South Asia last month to bring a plethora of particle physics events to schools, universities and public venues. The initiative was the first of its kind in the region, and brought CERN particle physics to a new audience in Nepal and India.   Kathmandu University students take part in an ATLAS virtual visit. On 19 December 2014, students from Kathmandu University and Tribhuvan University, Nepal and 16 schools in Punjab, India took part in a joint virtual visit to ATLAS. The visit, which was the first of its kind in South Asia, followed a two-day Masterclass in particle physics that took place simultaneously in the two countries. The Masterclass was organised as a part of Physics Without Frontiers, an International Centre for Theoretical Physics project in partnership with CERN. Besides the Masterclass, physics workshops led by ATLAS physicists Kate Shaw, Joerg Stelzer and Suyog Shrestha were held for high school students and science teachers in three different d...

  15. COPD in Asia: where East meets West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan C; Ng, Tze P

    2008-02-01

    COPD is a global health concern, and is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, it is currently the sixth leading cause of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality of the disease is predicted for the coming decades. These increases are mainly linked to the epidemic of tobacco exposure and indoor and outdoor air pollution in Asian countries. The burden of COPD in Asia is currently greater than that in developed Western countries, both in terms of the total number of deaths and the burden of disease, as measured in years of life lost and years spent living with disability. The types of health-care policies and the practice of medicine vary considerably among the regions of Asia and have an impact on the burden of disease. Treatment aims in Asian countries are based on evidence-based management guidelines. Barriers to the implementation of disease management guidelines are related to issues of resource conflict and lack of organizational support rather than cultural differences in medical practice. To reduce this burden of COPD in Asian countries, there is a need for a multifaceted approach in improving awareness of prevalence and disease burden, in facilitating accurate diagnosis of COPD among chronic respiratory diseases, in championing health policies that reduce the burden of the main risk factors for COPD and in the wider use of evidence-based management for COPD.

  16. Crimean Crisis and Military Balance in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshu Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the Crimean Crisis goes on, many analysis have been focusing on the dynamics among parties of Ukraine, the EU, the US and Russia. Very few noticed another important strategic impact the Crisis may cause: the Chinese military rebalancing in East Asia. China has been increasingly confident in assuming both political and military power in the East Asian region. The confidence resulted in the South China Sea disputes with ASEAN countries, “Anti-Secession Law” against Taiwan, and the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands Dispute with Japan. Behind such confidence of China, the EU has consistently been exporting defence products to China since the end of the Cold War; Ukraine, although sometimes reluctantly, has also been backing China along the process of building up a stronger navy as well as other defense industry construction; Russia has traditionally been supplying China with a wide range of military hardware. It can be noticed that the Crimean Crisis involved three out of four countries and region that have been behind China’s rise. How will the Crimean Crisis influence China’s rebalance in East Asia then? The answers stay opaque. This paper will attempt to answer the questions.

  17. South Asia energy security: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Singh, Bhupendra

    2013-01-01

    South Asia has witnessed a growing imbalance between energy demand and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence. Energy endowments differ among the South Asian countries. However, access to the significant energy resources in the neighboring countries is denied, which increases the cost of energy supply and reduces energy security of the individual countries and of the region as a whole. The countries in the region could benefit significantly only by strengthening the mechanism of energy trade through improved connectivity. Therefore, greater cooperation within South Asia could be one of the most effective ways to deal with this Regional Energy deficit and ensure Energy Security of the Region. - Highlights: • No South Asian country is going to be able to meet its energy needs domestically. • Fostering cross border energy trade and promotion of investments opportunities are key solutions. • India’s neighbors have huge potential in hydroelectricity. • Co-operation among nations to tap the energy resource can be a win–win situation for all. • However it faces certain challenges

  18. US POLICY TOWARDS CENTRAL ASIA UNDER TRUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Alred

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available U.S. policy faces numerous challenges in Central Asia, such as the decreasing U.S. military and economic resources in the region; Russian and Chinese hostility to a long-term U.S. military presence in Eurasia; restrictions on religious and other freedoms due partly to counterterrorism concerns; limited U.S. involvement in the region compared to other external players (like Japan as well as Russia and China; an undeveloped U.S. policy regarding regional multinational institutions; and the indifference and ignorance of U.S. business toward regional commercial opportunities beyond the energy sector. However, advocates of “America First” in the Trump administration do not see these threats as sufficiently serious to garner U.S. military intervention beyond occasional training, equipping, and intelligence sharing. Terrorism, drug trafficking, economic isolation, and human rights restrictions in Central Asia do not present an immediate existential threat to the United States, sowing ambivalence over the future of U.S. foreign policy in the region.

  19. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-12-12

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20-23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. Marking the 10th Anniversary of APBioNet, this InCoB 2008 meeting followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India) and Hong Kong. Additionally, tutorials and the Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) immediately prior to the 20th Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) Taipei Conference provided ample opportunity for inducting mainstream biochemists and molecular biologists from the region into a greater level of awareness of the importance of bioinformatics in their craft. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication herein, grouped into thematic areas. As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, the papers fall into thematic areas, illustrating the specific contributions made by APBioNet to global bioinformatics efforts.

  20. Heterogeneity of Rabies Vaccination Recommendations across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Buchy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries bear the greatest burden of the disease, with a majority (59% of rabies-related deaths occurring in Asia. In order to promote best practices, we summarized national human vaccination guidelines across this region, to highlight differences and similarities and to discuss the aspects that would benefit from updates. National management guidelines for rabies were retrieved from various sources to extract information on rabies pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, and PEP, booster vaccination, and route of administration. Rabies guidelines recommendations for wound management and PrEP across Asia are broadly aligned to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. For PEP, the 5-dose Essen, and the 4-dose Zagreb are the regimens of choice for intramuscular (IM, and the Thai Red Cross regimen for intradermal (ID, administration. Several national guidelines have yet to endorse ID vaccine administration. Most guidelines recommend rabies immunoglobulin in category III exposures. Booster recommendations are not included in all guidelines, with limited clarity on booster requirement across the spectrum of risk of rabies exposure. In conclusion, national recommendations across Asian countries differ and while some guidelines are closely aligned to the WHO recommendations, resource-saving ID administration and use of rational abbreviated schedules have yet to be endorsed.

  1. Satellite outreach in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Communication by satellite is rapidly changing information exchange in Asia, especially for rural areas. The integrated education planned for satellite networks includes family planning as part of general development. A series of conferences has already been held successfully via satellite for family planning associations who are members of the East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. These included a conference on nursing training. In India the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) made history during its 1-year trial. By 1981 the entire nation is to be linked by satellite. The question is whether the television education will truly change rural life or whether it will become merely a diversion. In Indonesia, satellites were chosen as the fastest way to obtain interisland communication. The Domsat system links the entire 13,000-island archipelago and is already being used for emergency communications. The system, which was developed in 1 1/2 years by the Hughes Aircraft Corporation will be used for teaching basic health, hygiene, and family planning. It will be several years before Domsat is fully operational, but it bears watching.

  2. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  3. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  4. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  5. Knowledge Production with Asia-Centric Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae

    2017-01-01

    Taiwanese cultural critic Kuan-Hsing Chen has elaborated and promoted an "Asia and the rest" worldview for over a decade. His "opus magnum" "Asia as Method" argues for a paradigm shift to observe Asian reality with a de-imperialized, de-colonized, and de-Cold War mentality. The work has produced academic discussions…

  6. Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia | Dell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Due to the high humidity and temperatures throughout the year, fungal leaf diseases such as Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum have had a huge impact on the eucalypt plantation industry in South-east Asia. Often poor ...

  7. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  8. A Multicultural Social Studies Series. Book 2. Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene; Sung, Robert

    This text is designed for students continuing in the Chinese Bilingual Pilot Program, ESEA Title VII, at the seventh grade level. The text introduces different cultural aspects and general knowledge of Asia, and is divided into twenty-five lessons, having the following headings: Glimpses of Asia; Monsoon; Malaysia; Borneo; Asian Countries; Caste…

  9. Far East Asia | Page 69 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Startup : Philippine Community eCentres Network. Language English. Read more about Mise sur pied d'un réseau philippin de télécentres communautaires. Language French. Read more about Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia. Language English.

  10. Governance, corruption, and trade in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  11. Atmospheric transport of ozone between Southern and Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, T; Beig, G; Dentener, F J; Wild, O

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the effect of pollution transport between East Asia and South Asia on tropospheric ozone (O3) using model results from the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). Ensemble mean O3 concentrations are evaluated against satellite-data and ground observations of surface O3 at four stations in India. Although modeled surface O3 concentrations are 1020ppb higher than those observed, the relative magnitude of the seasonal cycle of O3 is reproduced well. Using 20% reductions in regional anthropogenic emissions, we quantify the seasonal variations in pollution transport between East Asia and South Asia. While there is only a difference of 0.05 to 0.1ppb in the magnitudes of the regional contributions from one region to the other, O3 from East Asian sources affects the most densely populated parts of South Asia while Southern Asian sources only partly affect the populated parts of East Asia. We show that emission changes over East Asia between 2000 and 2010 had a larger impact on populated parts of South Asia than vice versa. This study will help inform future decisions on emission control policy over these regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S.; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region

  13. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Coby S C; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H

    2006-09-15

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region.

  14. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively su...... sustainable development for Arctic communities under globalization....

  15. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  16. Information Society Innovation Fund Asia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Information Society Innovation Fund Asia. IDRC's Pan Asia Networking (PAN) program initiative has about 10 years experience with small grants funding. The small grants modality has allowed PAN to sample the region for research priorities, emerging research issues and players, and has resulted in innovative ...

  17. Pirates, ports, and coasts in Asia: historical and contemporary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; Osseweijer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pirates, Ports and Coasts in Asia aims to fill in some of the historical gaps in the coverage of maritime piracy and armed robbery in Asia. The authors highlight a variety of activities ranging from raiding, destroying and pillaging coastal villages and capturing inhabitants to attacking and taking

  18. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  19. Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia : Building a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia : Building a Community of Experts. This grant will allow the Association for ... to other evaluation practitioners in the region. It is expected that the project will help strengthen evaluation in South Asia, leading to more effective and efficient development interventions.

  20. South Asia | Page 72 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asie du sud. Read more about Toward Détente in Media Piracy. Language English. Read more about Recherche d'une détente dans le dossier du piratage des médias. Language French. Read more about ONI-Asia - censure et surveillance numériques. Language French. Read more about OpenNet Initiative - Asia ...

  1. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia). Recently, capacity development has regained a central place on the agenda of many donor organizations, including IDRC. The challenge is to measure the results of capacity development initiatives. In Asia, there are a few ongoing efforts to document ...

  2. The Rise of Asia and strategic questions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, G.; Roborgh, S.; Sweijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of Asia will shape the global landscape of the 21st century and have profound implications for the way Europeans live and do business. Against the background of changes in the global balance of power, demographic shifts, and growing resource scarcity, Asia´s advance will challenge Western

  3. A Global Conceptual History of Asia, 1860-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contributors to this volume explore the changing concepts of the social and the economic during a period of fundamental change across Asia. They challenge accepted explanations of how Western knowledge spread through Asia and show how versatile Asian intellectuals were in introducing European...... concepts and in blending them with local traditions....

  4. Water Security in Periurban South Asia : Adapting to Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adapting to climate change and water security in Asia : proceedings from the Regional Meeting for IDRC-funded partners in Asia working on climate change ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le ...

  5. Central Asia | Page 87 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology in South Asia. Language English. Read more about La nanotechnologie en Asie du Sud : renforcement des capacités et encadrement des technologies. Language French. Read more about La situation de la femme à ...

  6. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  7. South Asia | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asie du sud. Read more about Building emerging leaders in communications policy in Africa and Asia. Language English. Read more about Transformer les chaînes de valeur en avantages sociaux en Asie du SudEst. Language French. Read more about Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia. Language ...

  8. Far East Asia | Page 110 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about L'initiative Samdrup Jongkhar, un modèle de développement intégré écologiquement responsable. Language French. Read more about Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Language English. Read more about Soutien aux processus ...

  9. Far East Asia | Page 105 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Renforcement des capacités de recherche et de l'élaboration de politiques fondées sur des données probantes en Afghanistan et en Asie centrale. Language French. Read more about Microwork and Virtual Production Networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.

  10. Far East Asia | Page 108 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts with researchers and other actors, local communities address and learn from ...

  11. Asia Research News features IDRC-funded projects | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 juin 2014 ... From combating chronic malnutrition to improving health care for women, exploring the causes of violence in cities, or understanding the needs of small and medium enterprises, the 2014 edition of Asia Research News provides a snapshot of IDRC-funded research in Asia.

  12. South Asia | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology in South Asia. Language English. Read more about La nanotechnologie en Asie du Sud : renforcement des capacités et encadrement des technologies. Language French. Read more about Gestion des forêts et des ...

  13. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

  14. State policies and internal migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberai, A S

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to identify policies and programs in Asia that are explicitly or implicitly designed to influence migration, to investigate why they were adopted and how far they have actually been implemented, and to assess their direct and indirect consequences. For study purposes, policies and programs are classified according to whether they prohibit or reverse migration, redirect or channel migration to specific rural or urban locations, reduce the total volume of migration, or encourage or discourage urban in-migration. Discussion of each type of policy is accompanied by a description of its rationale and implementation mechanism, examples of countries in Asia that have recourse to it, and its intended or actual effect on migration. Several countries in Asia have taken direct measures to reverse the flow of migration and to stop or discourage migration to urban areas. These measures have included administrative and legal controls, police registration, and direct "rustication" programs to remove urban inhabitants to the countryside. The availability of public land has prompted many Asian countries to adopt schemes that have been labeled resettlement, transmigration, colonization, or land development. These schemes have been designed to realize 1 or more of the following objectives: to provide land and income to the landless; increase agricultural production; correct spatial imbalances in the distribution of population; or exploit frontier lands for reasons of national security. 1 of the basic goals of decentralized industrialization and regional development policies has been the reduction of interregional disparities and the redirection of migrations from large metropolitan areas to smaller and medium sized towns. To encourage industry to move to small urban locations initial infrastructure investments, tax benefits, and other incentives have been offered. Policies to reduce the overall volume of migration have frequently included rural

  15. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... Europe and South Asia. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf may have adopted more moderate foreign policy towards India after experiencing fear of imminent nuclear war during the ten month mobilised crisis in 2002 as Nikita Khrushchev did forty years earlier. I argue that the stability-instability...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War...

  16. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenek, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ''next Asia,'' if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region's enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies

  17. Asia's changing role in global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Toufiq A

    2008-10-01

    Asia's role in global climate change has evolved significantly from the time when the Kyoto Protocol was being negotiated. Emissions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas, from energy use in Asian countries now exceed those from the European Union or North America. Three of the top five emitters-China, India, and Japan, are Asian countries. Any meaningful global effort to address global climate change requires the active cooperation of these and other large Asian countries, if it is to succeed. Issues of equity between countries, within countries, and between generations, need to be tackled. Some quantitative current and historic data to illustrate the difficulties involved are provided, and one approach to making progress is suggested.

  18. Northeast Asia regional energy infrastructure proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Gulidov, Ruslan; Kalashnikov, Victor; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in the countries of Northeast Asia has spurred a massive increase in the need for energy, especially oil, gas, coal, and electricity. Although the region, taken as a whole, possesses financial, technical, labor, and natural resources sufficient to address much of the region's needs now and into the future, no one country has all of those attributes. As a result, over the past two decades, there has been significant interest in regional proposals that would allow sharing of resources, including infrastructure to develop and transport energy resources from the Russian Far East to South Korea, China, and Japan, and cooperation on energy-efficiency, renewable energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle as well. In this article we review some of these proposals, identify some of the factors that could contribute to the success or failure of infrastructure proposals, and explore some of the implications and ramifications of energy cooperation activities for energy security in the region.

  19. Status of RIB facilities in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities in Asia are presented. In China, in-flight separation type facilities are in operation at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou and the other at Tandem facility in China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. The storage-ring facility is proposed and approved in Lanzhou. In India, the Variable Energy Cyclotron Facility in Calcutta start to construct an ISOL-type facility. In Japan, in-flight separation type facilities are working at Research Center for Nuclear Physics in Osaka, and at RIKEN. Also a separator start its operation in medical facility in Chiba. In RIKEN, the construction of RI Beam Factory has been started. An ISOL-type facility is proposed in the Japan Hadron Facility in KEK. Table I summarize these facilities

  20. 19th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This PALO volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 19th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2015), held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 22-25, 2015. The IES series of conference is an annual event that was initiated back in 1997 in Canberra, Australia. IES aims to bring together researchers from countries of the Asian Pacific Rim, in the fields of intelligent systems and evolutionary computation, to exchange ideas, present recent results and discuss possible collaborations. Researchers beyond Asian Pacific Rim countries are also welcome and encouraged to participate. The theme for IES 2015 is “Transforming Big Data into Knowledge and Technological Breakthroughs”. The host organization for IES 2015 is the School of Information Technology (SIT), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), and it is technically sponsored by the International Neural Network Society (INNS). IES 2015 is collocated with three other conferences; namely, The 6th International Confere...

  1. Teaching South Asia beyond Colonial Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Caton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the methodological innovations of Subaltern Studies in the 1980s and 1990s, most historians’ familiarity with South Asian history is limited to the colonial or modern period. While the subalternist view is undoubtedly useful, it does not provide much help in thinking about what came before or after the colonial period. This limited context may prove to be a problem for a non-specialist constructing a full course in South Asian history or adding South Asia content to a course that seeks to break down area studies or nation-state boundaries. This article provides a starting point for such an enterprise. It reviews the South Asian history textbooks available in the market and identifies some of the scholarship that would suit courses or units organized by theme or by a larger Asian geography. It also reviews some of the collections of primary sources that could be used in such coursework.

  2. The Asia/Pacific chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.

    1993-01-01

    The year of the Rooster may herald interesting change for the Asia/Pacific region. Local dynamics are shifting away from Japan, the traditional motor of the region, now in recession toward China, which is increasingly catching the imagination of investors. Japan's lead in major petrochemicals has eroded since restructuring of domestic industry. Ten years ago Japan was the location for 76% of Asian ethylene capacity, according to Chem Systems. It also held 89% of styrene capacity, 69% of polyolefins, and 62% of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Today it accounts for only 46% of Asian ethylene, 53% of styrene, 40% of polyolefin, and 37% of PVC capacity. Another country to watch is Vietnam many companies are waiting for sanctions to lift on US investment. When they do, this country of rich oil reserves but per capita income of only $200, will look to petrochemicals as a source of foreign investment

  3. Globalisation and international migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1998-03-01

    "The present paper attempts to summarise the major contemporary trends in international migration in Asia and how this is related to the rapid demographic transition occurring across most of the region. The diversity of types of mobility is one of the striking features of Asian international migration and developments in each major type [are] discussed in the paper. It is then argued that there are elements within the Asian migration system that give it a momentum which to some extent operates outside of the influence of economic and political trends. Finally some emerging issues in Asian international migration are briefly addressed. These include the scale and effects of remittances, the feminisation of migration, undocumented migration, increasing government involvement and brain drain issues." (EXCERPT)

  4. Rabies in Asia: the classical zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains a constant threat to humans throughout much of Asia. The dog is the main reservoir and vector with wildlife playing a very minor role. No Asian country or region has been declared rabies free by WHO in over two decades and there is evidence of canine rabies spread to new regions during the past 10 years. We now have the knowledge and technology to control canine rabies. The main barrier in managing this costly endemic is lack of motivation by authorities to address this issue along with regional inability of public health and livestock (agriculture) officials to tackle this issue in cooperation and coordination. Rabies is one of the first recognized zoonoses and a model for a true "One Health" management goal where human; veterinary, and government officials must work together in harmony to defeat this disease.

  5. Gout: an Asia-Pacific update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Binoy J; James, Reeta

    2017-04-01

    Even though, Hippocrates recognized gout as an affection of older men and a product of high living long back in 5th century BC, this painful condition promises to accompany humanity to the 21st century. The incidence is progressively rising and females are also affected in the modern era. There are also regional and ethnic variations in the incidence, the genetics of which is being studied. The recommended best therapy for the acute attacks and long term prophylaxis has improved remarkably in the recent years. However, patients are often treated inadequately and risk factors for their disease are not well explored in daily practice. Although well designed long term studies of current and newer treatment are welcomed, educating doctors especially the primary care physicians who manage majority of gout cases, in optimizing the currently available management options would improve the present care. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. The Ancient Tatar States in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Klyashtorny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the earliest stages of the history of the Tatars. The origins of the Tatars are traced from the collapse of both the Han Empire and the Empire of Xiongnu and are considered during the subsequent periods preceding the emergence of the empire of Genghis Khan. The author argues that the Tatar state appeared long before the Mongol era, providing information on the resettlement of the Tatars in the 9th and 10th centuries, which explains why a century later the Mongols, who occupied the same space, were called the “Tatars” in the Turkic and Muslim environment, as well as in China. This Turkic desig­nation of the Mongols took root not only in Central Asia and the Middle East but also in Russia and Western Europe.

  7. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. A look at Asia's changing youth population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, P; Kabamalan, M; Westley, S B

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a recent East-West Center study on demographic and social changes among young people aged 15-24 years in 17 countries in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Nearly every country in Asia has experienced fertility decline. Decline began in Japan and Singapore during the 1950s, followed by declines in Hong Kong, South Korea, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Brunei, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, and China during the 1960s. Declines occurred during the 1970s in Indonesia, India, and Myanmar. A "youth bulge" occurred about 20 years later due to declines in infant and child mortality. This bulge varies by country with the timing and magnitude of population growth and subsequent fertility decline. The proportion of youth population rises from 16% to 18% about 20 years after the beginning of fertility decline and declines to a much lower stable level after several decades. The bulge is large in countries with rapid fertility decline, such as China. Governments can minimize the effects of bulge on population growth by raising the legal age at marriage, lengthening the interval between first marriage and first birth, and increasing birth intervals. School enrollments among adolescents are rising. In South Korea, the population aged 15-24 years increased from 3.8 to 8.8 million during 1950-90, a rise of 132% compared to a rise of 653% among school enrollments. It is expected that the number of out-of-school youths will decline from 5.1 to 3.6 million during 1990-2025. Youth employment varies by gender. Policies/programs in family planning and reproductive health will need to address the changing needs of youth population.

  9. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, H.

    2002-07-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  10. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri

    2002-08-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  11. On the fog variability over south Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, F.S. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Koernich, H.; Tjernstroem, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, The Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of ''cross-over temperature'' combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards. (orig.)

  12. Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wastnidge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.

  13. Sediment Properties along Gradients of Siltation in South-East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp-Nielsen, Lars; Vermaat, J.; Wesseling, I.

    2002-01-01

    sediment properties, SE Asia, siltation, resuspension, iron, calcium, seagrass, corals, mangroves, mudflats......sediment properties, SE Asia, siltation, resuspension, iron, calcium, seagrass, corals, mangroves, mudflats...

  14. Epidemiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Asia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic and geographical differences are important factors in studying disease frequencies, because they may highlight the environmental or genetic influences in the etiology. We retrieved the studies which have been published regarding the epidemiologic features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Asia, based on the definitions of GERD, study settings, publication years and geographical regions. From the population-based studies, the prevalence of symptom-based GERD in Eastern Asia was found to be 2.5%-4.8% before 2005 and 5.2%-8.5% from 2005 to 2010. In Southeast and Western Asia, it was 6.3%-18.3% after 2005, which was much higher than those in Eastern Asia. There were robust epidemiologic data of endoscopic reflux esophagitis in medical check-up participants. The prevalence of endoscopic reflux esophagitis in Eastern Asia increased from 3.4%-5.0% before 2000, to 4.3%-15.7% after 2005. Although there were only limited studies, the prevalence of extra-esophageal syndromes in Asia was higher in GERD group than in controls. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus was 0.06%-0.84% in the health check-up participants, whereas it was 0.31%-2.00% in the referral hospital settings. In summary, the prevalence of symptom-based GERD and endoscopic reflux esophagitis has increased in Asian countries. However, the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in Asia has not changed and also still rare. PMID:21369488

  15. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  16. [The population and economic problems of South Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J

    1983-07-29

    South Asia, which includes Central South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Southwest Asia, had a comparatively higher population growth rate during the 30-year postwar period because of the overall backward economy and strong religious tradition. From the viewpoint of economics, the high population growth in South Asia has slowed down economic growth, increased the foreign trade imblance, and worsened poverty. Secondly, the rapid population growth has overburdened the area's educational system. The illiteracy rate has been going up continuously because of inadequate funds available for education. Thirdly, young labor is lacking in skills, training, and work experience, and related productivity has declined. Consequently, profits, the investment capability, and wages are also declining. The problems of the oversupply of labor, unemployment, and poverty have also become increasingly serious. In addition, the rapid population growth has intensified the pressure on the food supply and worsened the average nutrition of the general public. In recent years, countries in South Asia have been trying to deal with various problems caused by the rapid population growth. Measures have been taken to control the population growth, with a redistribution of the population to places outside cities, and export labor to oil-producing nations of the Middle East and Africa in order to solve the problem of the domestic labor surplus and earn more income for the foreign exchange. Countries in South Asia need more time and effort to achieve a balance between the population growth and economic development.

  17. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslin, S I; Wahap, N A; Han, O W

    2014-01-01

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA

  18. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  19. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaspy, D.T. [Southern Energy, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  20. The nuclear Asia; L'Asie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordonnier, I.; Tertrais, B

    2001-07-01

    Since the demolition of the Berlin wall, Asia has become the theater of nuclear rivalry, with as main actors: india, Pakistan, China and South Korea. This book analyzes the geo-political situation in this region of the world and asks some important questions about the new strategic map of Asia: what is the impact of the development of nuclear activities on the security of Asia? Will the deployment of anti-missile defenses lead to a new weapons rush? Is there a nuclear warfare risk? (J.S.)

  1. The economics of greenhouse gas mitigation in developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleluia Reis, Lara; Emmerling, Johannes; Tavoni, Massimo; Raitzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Developing Asia has the world's fastest greenhouse gas emissions growth. This study uses an economy-energy-climate model to assess the effects of Paris Agreement pledges on Asia, in comparison with business as usual (BAU) and more ambitious scenarios. Results confirm that pledges must be strongly increased in ambition to achieve the Paris Agreement's goal of less than 2 degrees Celsius (2êC) warming. The policy costs of Asia's pledges are found to be less than 1% of gross domestic product (GD...

  2. Asia's energy future: The case of coal - opportunities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the author presents his views about the changing energy mix in Asia to the year 2020, and why the importance of coal will continue. The topics of the paper include Asia's energy mix compared with the rest of the world including nuclear power, hydropower, solar and wind energy, oil, coal, and natural gas; the economics of coal and natural gas; coal production and consumption; new energy sources; Asia's energy mix in the year 2020; resource depletion and conclusions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Evolution of the clinical trial landscape in Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathindranath S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shourav Yathindranath,1 Amar Kureishi,2 Simranjit Singh,3 Spencer Yeow,3 Grace Geng,4 Karen Wai,1 Audrey Ho,1 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee5 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, 2Drug Development Asia, 3Strategic Planning Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 4People’s Republic of China Site Services, Quintiles, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore Introduction: Asia Pacific has and continues to be one of the fastest-growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. This growth has a carry-over effect of driving pharmaceutical research and development investment in the region. Coupled with this, there have been multiple initiatives conducted by governments and other research focused organizations and societies in the region to help support this growth in research. In this report, we discuss the latest developments in pharmaceutical research and development in Asia Pacific and how these various initiatives have made an impact. Methods: An extensive search of the major clinical trial registries, along with the literature and Internet review of the recent developments in clinical trials, was performed comparing two time periods – 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. Results: In overall numbers, the clinical trial industry in Asia Pacific has remained stable when comparing the two time periods, with stable volumes of clinical trial numbers and site numbers. However, on closer inspection, a dynamic change in geography, nature, and therapeutic areas of the trials being conducted is observed. Japan, South Korea, People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan continue to be major clinical trial destinations. Developing countries, such as Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines, have seen rising standards of living and medical care; this is starting to impact their contribution to trials. Also, there are an increasing number of local trials in Asia Pacific with a bigger role

  4. Know your epidemic, know your response: targeting HIV in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Curth, Nadja; Bridge, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the HIV epidemic in Asia, the context within which the epidemic is evolving, and the key actions to address the challenges faced by countries and risk groups. HIV epidemics across Asia are predominantly concentrated among most-at-risk populations. Although...... prevention and treatment services. In order to reach the Millennium Development Goal of halting and reversing the spread of HIV by 2015 and to achieve universal access to HIV treatment, these barriers must be overcome across Asia. High-impact programs must be targeted at those in need, with continuous...

  5. Tissue banking in Asia Pacific region: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Mandy, Foong Shi Yun; Ning, Tan; Kaiying, Wang

    2018-04-25

    Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific regions is driven by two main forces-firstly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via Regional Co-operative Agreement projects and secondly by the Asia Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB). This overview is written in three sections: (1) History of tissue banking in individual country in the region. (2) History of APASTB. (3) History of IAEA programme in Asia Pacific region. The current status and future of the tissue banking programme in the region will be discussed.

  6. Variations of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.

  7. Nuclear power in Asia: Experience and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Kun

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries have developed ambitious energy supply programs to expand their energy supply systems to meet the growing needs of their rapidly expanding economies. Most of their new electrical generation needs will be met by coal, oil and gas. However, the consideration of growing energy demand, energy security, environmental conservation, and technology enhancement is inducing more Asian countries toward the pursuit of nuclear power development. At present, nuclear power provides about 30% of electricity in Japan, and about 40% of electricity in Korea. These and other Asian countries are presumed to significantly increase their nuclear power generation capacities in coming years. Korea's nuclear power generation facilities are projected to grow from 12 gigawatt in 1998 to 16.7 gigawatt by 2004. On the other hand, China and India have now installed nuclear capacities of about 2 gigawatt, respectively, which will increase by a factor of two or more by 2004. The installed nuclear capacity in the Asian region totalled 67 gigawatt as of the end of 1997, representing about sixteen percent of the world capacity of 369 gigawatt. Looking to the year 2010, it is anticipated that most of the world's increase in nuclear capacity will come from Asia. It is further forecasted that Asian nations will continue to expand their nuclear capacity as they move into the 21st century. For example, China plans to develop additional 18 gigawatt of nuclear power plants by the year 2010. Nuclear power is also of particular interest to a number of emerging Asian countries in view of environmental conservation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in particular. Nuclear power appeals to some countries because of its high technology content. The strength in an advanced technology, such as the technological capability related to nuclear power, contributes to the overall development of the corresponding country's engineering base, enhancement of industrial infrastructure and expansion of

  8. Aridity of Central Asia through the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Zhou, H.; Rodda, C.; Joswiak, D.; Takeuchi, N.; Fujita, K.; Kurbatov, A.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics of aridity in Central Asia for over the past 12,000 years has been analyzed using deep ice core records recovered from the Siberian Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers. An analysis of aridity in the 20-21 centuries based on the long-term meteorological observations complements the paleo- climate reconstruction. The goal of our research is to examine an aridity (at low and high temperatures) in Central Asia as a complex of characteristics including air temperature-precipitation relationship (Koppen, 1918, Geiger, 1961, Mezencev, 1973), intensity of dust loading and biomass burning. The stable isotope ratio, soluble ionic and insoluble particulate geochemical components and oxalate preserved in ice were considered in relation to climatic and environmental changes; and to determine the main aerosol sources using ground- and upper-level meteorological data. Multivariate statistical methods were employed for examination of the main geo-chemical components responsible for the preserved aridity variability. Insoluble particle concentrations preserved in the ice core were affected mainly by precipitation regimes and wind speed. Concentration of all size particles was found to be negatively correlated with monthly temperatures indicating low temperatures during the dry particle deposition. Two abrupt depletions in stable isotope records, i.e., Younger Dryas and Centurial Sever Drought (CSD), occurred during cold, dry, windy periods of intensified dust storms in large desert areas. When climate became colder and drier, the Central Asian deserts extended, wind speeds increased loading mineral dust to atmosphere, which formed inversion while the convection processes and precipitation occurrence were limited. Warmer and wetter conditions are associated with less dust loading that occurred during the Holocene climate optimum, medieval warm and modern warm periods. The sudden climate transitions are accompanied by the most intensifying mineral dust loading. From the

  9. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through

  10. Central Asia, Euro-centrism and Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article should not be dismissed as yet another attempt to construct a renewed round ofrevisionism in history. On the contrary, it aims to explore the possibility of scaling down the dominant Eurocentric epistemology that served as a basis for a stereotypical frame of knowledge about Central Asia. The majority of researchers of the region do not deem the need to review the scale of contradictory clashes created by the notion of Eurocentrism. The latter is reflected in numerous articles about the frozen (and sadly deadlock dilemma on why and how were the lands of Tajiks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs divided. By publishing conventional analyses on the region's "clumsy separation", experts illustrate their subaltern, narrowly framed by the colonial world, knowledge and hence, remain as gravestones of the Eurocentric methodology. In the process of such explication, the most important role is allocated to the modern culture, which encouraged the formation of the paradox, represented to us via the paraphrased Soviet aphorism: modernity and coloniality are twin brothers. The initiation of the process of decolonizing the mind within the five republics of the region is possible. One of the solutions involves recognizing the integrity of the pluralist-cycled culture and philosophy of the region. The proposed act will allow shrinking the focus on the knowledge within the limited national units and frames (thus, lessening the degree of'fetishism of the national identity', and rather creating conditions for designing the "bridge", linking different cultures, ideologies and institutional spaces in Central Asia, as a transnational intellectual matrix. The aforementioned theory will provide a basis and structure for empirical facts, and, therefore, drive the researchers from merely constituting to critically thinking, and consequently, inspire to come upon new approaches and fields of study, connecting them with the existing, colonial experiences. It is

  11. Women as decision and policy makers. Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The focus of this news brief is on the Community-based Sustainable Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project promoted in Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, and the Philippines. The project emphasizes women's involvement as policy makers and evaluators. The aim is to involve women at all project levels as part of an effort to correct gender imbalances. Programs are being directed toward sustainability. Women are placed in positions at each level of the tiered system of steering committees, which range from local village committees to central committees. Men may still retain the top positions, but women are given decision making power at the highest levels of policy and program development and implementation. The Asia region is challenged by quality of care issues related to reproductive health services. Program expansion is proceeding into rural areas with outreach services and fee charging. Projects are community-based, which means mobilization of community people. The community approach is suitable to an Asian culture that does not adhere to strict rules of privacy. Women's groups are eager to discuss sensitive issues such as contraception and to offer personal experiences and solutions to problems. Mass meetings and individual counseling sessions are available. IEC materials are available to the Asian FP/MCH program from JOICFP. Some of these materials promote the concept of the Asian community spirit as a building block of development. The Asian approach is an alternative to Western models and may be valid for other regions.

  12. Asia needs political commitment to fight AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    Delegates from China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam to a Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) workshop in Bangkok urged their governments to give priority to the prevention of HIV and AIDS. There are already approximately 3 million people infected with HIV in Asia. Their numbers should increase by 1-2 million by the year 2000. However, devoid of any prevention measures, 2-5 million more people could instead become infected over the same period. Thailand, where many people have adopted condom use and the patronage of brothels and prostitutes has declined, was noted as a success story at the workshop in preventing the further spread of HIV. The level of risky sexual behavior in Thailand has declined to such an extent that HIV case projections made in 1991 for the year 2000 have been revised to a lower number. An estimated more than 100,000 people are infected with HIV in Indonesia, a country in which the epidemic may grow to 2.5 million cases by 2000 unless successful prevention programs are implemented.

  13. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs.

  14. Fertility targets and policy options in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatao, R A

    1984-11-01

    The 3rd Asian and Pacific Population Conference in Colombo in 1982 recommended that countries review and modify existing demographic targets and goals for reducing birth and death rates in order to attain low levels as early as possible and to attain replacement level by the year 2000. The demographic goals of selected Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines are assessed and compared to World Bank population projections. It also discusses the underlying rationale for setting fertility targets, and considers what government actions could make them more achievable. 6 stages for controlling population are distinguished: 1) collection and publication of reliable demographic data; 2) enunciation of an official policy to reduce population growth; 3) development of appropriate institutions to integrate demographic projections into economic plans; 4) promotion of family planning; 5) provision of incentives and disincentives, including elimination of all implicit and explicit subsidies for child bearing; and 6) restitution of birth quotas requiring permission for each child born. Principles to maintain and accelerate fertility declines to meet demographic targets include creating appropriate and equitable development policies, increasing the standard of family planning programs, confronting organizational problems, providing easier and more equal access to contraceptive methods, exploring innovative approaches to encourage smaller families and making a firm political commitment to population control. Rapid fertility decline will also require financial commitment. Willingness to spend the necessary amounts, and the capacity to spend them as well, will determine whether the countries of Asia enter the next century in control of their population.

  15. The genus Cuscuta L. in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Aistova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of published data, herbarium collections  and  our  own  research  the  overview  of  the spread  of  7  dodder  species  (genus  Cuscuta  on  the territory of  of the Russian Far East and East Asia is given. The  history  of  research  dodders  on  the  territory  of  the Russian Far East, ecological and spreading peculiarities are described. Certain eurytopic species (C. campestris Yunck., C. japonica Choisy and C. europaea L. growing on the territory of the Russian Far East have plasticity and  rapid  adaptive  response  for  changing  ecological and  geographical  conditions.  C.  epilinum  Weihe, C. epithymum (L. Nathh., C. tinei Insenga have not been naturalized in the Russian Far East.

  16. Emergency medicine as a specialty in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jen Heng; Lim, Swee Han; Ho, Hiu Fai; Ramakrishnan, T V; Jamaluddin, Sabariah Faizah; Mesa-Gaerlan, Faith Joan C; Tiru, Mohan; Hwang, Sung Oh; Choi, Wai-Mau; Kanchanasut, Somchai; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Avsarogullari, Levent; Shimazu, Takeshi; Hori, Shingo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to examine the similarities and differences in areas of EM development, workload, workforce, and capabilities and support in the Asia region. Emerging challenges faced by our EM community are also discussed. The National Societies for Emergency Medicine of Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Turkey participated in the joint Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Asian Conference of Emergency Medicine (ACEM) Special Symposium held in October 2013 at Tokyo, Japan. The findings are reviewed in this paper. Emergency medicine (EM) has over the years evolved into a distinct and recognized medical discipline requiring a unique set of cognitive, administrative and technical skills for managing all types of patients with acute illness or injury. EM has contributed to healthcare by providing effective, safe, efficient and cost-effective patient care. Integrated systems have developed to allow continuity of emergency care from the community into emergency departments. Structured training curriculum for undergraduates, and specialty training programs for postgraduates are in place to equip trainees with the knowledge and skills required for the unique practice of EM. The practice of EM still varies among the Asian countries. However, as a region, we strive to continue in our efforts to develop the specialty and improve the delivery of EM.

  17. Energy security and sustainability in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Williams, James H.; Savage, Timothy; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    'Energy Security' has typically, to those involved in making energy policy, meant mostly securing access to oil and other fossil fuels. With increasingly global, diverse energy markets, however, and increasingly transnational problems resulting from energy transformation and use, old energy security rationales are less salient, and other issues, including climate change and other environmental, economic, and international considerations are becoming increasingly important. As a consequence, a more comprehensive operating definition of 'Energy Security' is needed, along with a workable framework for analysis of which future energy paths or scenarios are likely to yield greater Energy Security in a broader, more comprehensive sense. Work done as a part of the Nautilus Institute's 'Pacific Asia Regional Energy Security' (PARES) project developed a broader definition of Energy Security, and described an analytical framework designed to help to compare the energy security characteristics - both positive and negative - of different quantitative energy paths as developed using software tools such as the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) system.

  18. Business travel in Asia: blood tests required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, S

    1988-03-01

    Travellers to Asian countries face growing hostility as potential carriers of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Visitors who plan to stay in China, India, the Philippines, or South Korea for more than 1 year must prove that they are AIDS-free. In addition, all foreign students who enter China and India must carry documents indicating that they tested negative for the AIDS virus. The upcoming Olympics poses a special health problem for South Korea, which has not so far required AIDS testing for short-term visitors. A World Health Organization consultation on AIDS infection and international travel has raised questions about the feasibility of an AIDS screening program. The estimated direct cost per traveller for AIDS testing would be US$10-20. Even if all foreign travellers were to be screened, 2 problems could still allow AIDS to enter these countries: black marketing of false health certificates and failing to test foreign nationals who have been abroad. Moreover, a restrictive screening policy for international travellers could result in a decline in tourism and international commerce. Business people who intend to travel to Asia for extended periods of time are advised to check with embassies before their departure to find out what AIDS-related clearances may be required.

  19. Health promotion in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, N S

    1998-01-01

    The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka."

  20. RESOURCES OF MUSICAL EDUCATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feza TANSUĞ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay also gives an idea of recent research trends and topics in music education in Central Asia. It consists of five parts including teaching music history, teaching epics, teaching songs and instrumental music, teaching traditional instruments, and dictionaries and language resources. Because of the extraordinary increase in the number of books published recently, a careful selection has been made in order to keep the references section to an acceptable length. Hence, the bibliography does not embody all of the works of a single author on the topic. This essay covers books and textbooks dealing with the music of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic—two neighboring countries with strong common historical roots and closely related musical traditions. In addition to reviewing textbooks published in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic, this article includes some relevant works by Russian authors. However, the extensive body of works authored by Central Asian scholars abroad was excluded from this essay. It contains references only in Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Russian languages.

  1. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only approximately 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women.

  2. Asia-Pacific POPIN workshop on Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This brief article announces the accomplishments of the ESCAP Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (DESIPA) in conjunction with the Asia-Pacific POPIN Internet (Information Superhighway) Training Workshop in popularizing useful new computer information technologies. A successful workshop was held in Bangkok in November 1996 for 18 people from 8 countries in the Asian and Pacific region, many of whom were from population information centers. Participants were taught some techniques for disseminating population data and information through use of the Internet computer facility. Participants learned 1) how to use Windows software in the ESCAP local area network (LAN), 2) about concepts such as HTML (hypertext mark-up language), and 3) detailed information about computer language. Computer practices involved "surfing the Net (Internet)" and linking with the global POPIN site on the Internet. Participants learned about computer programs for information handling and learned how to prepare documents using HTML, how to mount information on the World Wide Web (WWW) of the Internet, how to convert existing documents into "HTML-style" files, and how to scan graphics, such as logos, photographs, and maps, for visual display on the Internet. The Workshop and the three training modules was funded by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The POPIN Coordinator was pleased that competency was accomplished in such a short period of time.

  3. Forecasting of Currency Crises in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Young Song

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a forecasting system for currency crisis in East Asia based on a signaling approach. Our system uses 15 monthly indicators of five East Asian countries including Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand that were severely hit by the currency crisis in 1997. We investigate the performance of the system through deploying out-of-sample forecasting for the periods both before and after the 1997 East Asian currency crisis. Unlike the existing research based on the signaling approach, our out-of-sample forecasting does not fix the in-sample period. The out-of-sample forecasting between July 1995 and June 1997 shows that prior to breakout of the crisis, several indicators including real exchange rates and exports sent frequent warnings to all crisis-hit East Asian countries except the Philippines. This may indicate that a signaling-based early warning system for currency crisis could have been an useful method of forecasting the East Asian crisis. On the other hand, we also find that our forecasting system often generates warning signals during the out-of-sample period between July 1999 and June 2001. Since we have not observed any currency crisis in this region after 1998, these are all false alarms, indicating that our system may be seriously exposed to the type II error. We can, however, mitigate this problem if we adjust the optimal critical values of indicators depending on the preferences of forecasting system manager.

  4. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-wei

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues.

  5. Dietary Guidelines for the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu; Low, Wah Yun; Liqian, Qiu; Guldan, Georgia S; Hokama, Tomiko; Nanishi, Keiko; Oy, Sreymom; Tang, Li; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program. It may also be of value in reminding public health practitioners, educators, administrators, and policy makers of current nutrition issues. It may additionally be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs and regulations. The main areas of nutrition that are included in the Guidelines are eating a variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, and nuts. Choose fish, poultry, and meats grown in a sustainable way. Appropriate growth, including avoiding obesity, and physical activity are important. Breastfeeding is the basis of infant nutrition and nutrition of mothers is an important public health measure. Negative factors in the Asian diet include salt, refined sugar, alcohol and fats. The APACPH Dietary Guidelines will need to be kept under review and modified to meet regional differences in food supply. The Guidelines will be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs, addressing both acute and chronic diseases.

  6. Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... It is transmitted to humans and animals when they consume raw or undercooked fish. ... environment when contaminated feces enter local water sources. ... Emerging Disease Research Initiative (Eco EID) in Southeast Asia.

  7. Better jobs for Asia | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... But can working conditions keep pace? ... Countries across Asia are searching for the right combination of rules and incentives to stimulate and ... IDRC also invests in research leadership in the region, so a new generation ...

  8. An Interview to the High Rank Managers of VW Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> Person’s introduction John Boley, (Editorial Consultant of CHINA AUTO) Dr. Bernd Leissner (President, VW Asia-Pacific) Mr. Walter Hanek, (Managing director, VW Group China Import)About the cost of production

  9. Digital Privacy in Asia | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... data storage capability coupled with the rise of social media and Internet business ... In Asia, home to the greatest number of Internet and mobile users, privacy ... impact on the interaction between citizen, government and the private sector.

  10. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... hemisphere, and to a high degree in Europe, while processing and production of fur garments now more and more takes place in Asia. The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialization within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia...... trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export...

  11. Linguistic Phylogenies Support Back-Migration from Beringia to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoli, Mark A.; Holton, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America. PMID:24621925

  12. Far East Asia | Page 187 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    E-commerce in Asia has been receiving considerable attention as a result of the ... social, methodological, and security issues related to this emerging business ... the state-of-practice and trends in information and communication technologies ...

  13. Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ... This grant will allow a consortium of research centres in China, Indonesia, Thailand ... Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang.

  14. Is corporate Asia ready for the green economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the concept of a ‘green economy’, and its relevance in Asia. It explores the roles that policymakers, investors, corporates and accountants need to play to facilitate the transition to a green economy. Publisher PDF

  15. Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The gender dimension of enterprise development in South Asia is also a significant factor, ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... social inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower women and girls.

  16. An Education in Entertainment – Possible Trends in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Entertainment Industry has been used interchangeably with the term Creative Industries and also has been suggested to be part of the creative industries. The creative industries seeks to provide commercially viable artistic and creative products, known as intellectual property, and in the process of such provision, contributes to the nation’s creative economy. From an education perspective in Southeast Asia, two observations can be made. Firstly, the focus of education in relation to the entertainment industry has always been technical. Secondly, the introduction of the concepts of the creative industries in Southeast Asia has spurred new trends in the education of the entertainment industry. Outside of Southeast Asia, there have been a growing number of academic programs in the field of Entertainment. From within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has taken the lead to introduce two new trends in the entertainment education – entertainment management and entertainment arts.

  17. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Giri, C.; Long, J.; Abbas, S.; ManiMurali, R.; Qamer, F.M.; Pengra, B.; Thau, D.

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions...

  18. Hematology laboratory standardization: a plan for harmonization in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratvej, A; Tatsumi, N; Funahara, Y

    1999-01-01

    Hematology laboratory is generally required in the hospital. At the macroscale, hematology laboratories have served a large number of population. In Asia, more than 3,000 million people are potentially to use the hematology laboratory service, particularly the complete blood count. Since 1970s, automated technology has been introduced to Asia and as years passed by, technology diversity is increasing. However, there are considerable number of hematology laboratories that have no automated machine. They are still relied on manual technology which is still variable in spectrophotometer for hemoglobin determination, centrifuge for hematocrit and diluting pipet for cell counting. In particular, blood smear preparation and interpretation are very difficult to control for standardization from person to person and laboratory to laboratory. Different methodology and a large population in the huge geographical area in Asia, the agreement of standard criteria is greatly important. This report has shown strategy and action plan to reach the goal of hematology laboratory standardization in Asia.

  19. LNG: in Asia, the demand should double by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In a well-documented study, ''Asia Gas Study'', published by the end of the first semester of 1996, the International Energy Agency (IEA) anticipated the doubling of the LNG demand from Asia, because of a more rapid growth of gas industry than for other energy industries. The regional gas trade should even triple by 2010. This study is the first from IEA about Asia and focusses on 6 key-countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. About 7% of the worldwide natural gas reserves belong to Asia but this self-sufficiency will fall rapidly. This paper summarizes the forecasting and uncertainties of natural gas demand from Japan, South Korea, China and India by the year 2010. LNG producers such as Brunei and Australia but also Papua-New Guinea, Vietnam, Alaska and Middle East are ready to supply the Asian demand. (J.S.)

  20. Confidence-building measures in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Huasun

    1991-01-01

    The regional confidence-building, security and disarmament issues in the Asia-Pacific region, and in particular, support to non-proliferation regime and establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones are reviewed

  1. Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  2. Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the last decade, Asia has witnessed rapid growth in the feminization of migration. For example, during that period, more than 100 000 Vietnamese women migrated to other countries to work and a similar ... University of Western Ontario.

  3. Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the last decade, Asia has witnessed rapid growth in the feminization of migration. For example, during that period, more than 100 000 Vietnamese women migrated to other countries to work and a similar ... University of Western Ontario.

  4. Radiometric flow injection analysis with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    Radiometric Flow Injection Analysis of a radioactive ([sup 131]I) sample is described. For analysis an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.

  5. Stepping Stones: Engaging with youth in South Asia – PANOS ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... new ways of preventing sexual violence by working with young people in educational and ... of sexual violence in five countries in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, ... violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive development.

  6. Making Evaluation Matter: Writings from South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... ... South Asia's Community of Evaluators to advance evaluation practices in the region. ... a space and platform to stimulate dynamic exchange and interaction ... health, nutrition, and rights and social justice-oriented programs.

  7. Heart failure as a general pandemic in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Miura, Masanobu; Nochioka, Kotaro; Sakata, Yasuhiko

    2015-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is an epidemic in healthcare worldwide, including Asia. It appears that HF will become more serious in the near future, with the epidemiological transition and ageing of the population. However, in contrast to Western countries, information on HF epidemiology is still limited in Asia, particularly in South Asia. In this review, we will briefly summarize available information regarding the current and future burden of HF in Asia, which indicates the importance of both primary prevention of underlying diseases of HF and secondary prevention, including management of ischaemic HF, HF with preserved EF, and HF in the elderly. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  8. OpenNet Initiative - Asia : Digital Censorship and Surveillance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... or "shielding children from pornography and exploitation," several states and ... Burmese protesters used the Internet to convey uncensored images, videos and ... ONI-Asia to network a group of research teams exploring the social, cultural, ...

  9. Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building Capacity in ICT Policy ... LIRNEasia seeks to build capacity for evidence-based interventions in the public policy process by persons attuned to the ... Project status.

  10. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia) ... for evaluating both the process and outcome of capacity development efforts in CBNRM. ... Cluster Case Studies Planning Workshop, Beijing, September 21-23, 2006; ...

  11. Women and militarization in South Asia: Media Research Fellowships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Women and militarization in South Asia: Media Research Fellowships ... of the research institutes and senior media personnel in May 2014. ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  12. Pentecostalismo global y religión en Asia (Global Pentecostalism and Religion in Asia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Allan Anderson

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo trataré de describir una importante característica del cristianismo y la religión en Asia, acerca de lo cual se ha escrito relativamente poco. Se ha descrito al Pentecostalismo como la religión mundial de más rápido crecimiento del siglo XX, habiendo crecido, en solo un siglo, en más de quinientos millones aquellos que se identificarían con él en alguna de sus diferentes formas: una estadística que ha sido muy usada, pero imposible de verificar. No obstante, su nivel de creci...

  13. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  14. Moving Toward a Regional Safeguards System in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Griggs, James R.

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the nuclear nonproliferation challenges of South Asia, it is useful to examine the similar past nonproliferation problems in South America. The nuclear rapprochement between Argentina and Brazil involved several developments in progression. We conclude that two developments are particularly applicable to the India/Pakistan problem: technical cooperation and a regional safeguards system. This paper reviews the history of Argentina/Brazil rapprochement, discusses application to India/Pakistan, and proposes specific actions to move South Asia toward regional stability.

  15. Challenges and Opportunities for the Obama Administration in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Asia. Specifically, the 19th century vision of an integrated network of rail lines connecting the former Soviet and Tsarist empires, Iran, India...rear to Afghanistan. In this fashion we would help Central Asia meet the challenges of ex- tremism, of economic decline due to the global eco- nomic...Callwell ( Victorian England’s leading theorist of small wars) wrote, “theory cannot be accepted as conclusive when practice points the other way.”28

  16. Corruption, shadow economy and income inequality: evidence from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Saibal; Saha, Shrabani

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies for Latin America show that as the size of the informal economy grows, corruption is less harmful to inequality. We investigate if this relationship is equally compelling for developing countries in Asia where corruption, inequality and shadow economies are considerably large. We use Panel Least Square and Fixed Effects Models for Asia to find that both 'Corruption Perception Index' and 'ICRG' index are sensitive to a number of important macroeconomic variables. We ...

  17. Impact of Population Aging on Asia's Future Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donghyun; Shin, Kwanho

    2011-01-01

    First, the expert contributors argue, Asia must find ways to sustain rapid economic growth in the face of less favorable demographics, which implies slower growth of the workforce. Second, they contend, Asia must find ways to deliver affordable, adequate, and sustainable old-age economic security for its growing elderly population. Underpinned by rigorous analysis, a wide range of concrete policy options for sustaining economic growth while delivering economic security for the elderly are the...

  18. Perilous Human Security in South Asia: Are There Ways Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    South Asia Source: UNFPA: State of World Population 2010. http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/ site /global/shared/swp/2010/swop_2010_eng.pdf (accessed on Jan...21819 and 74806 tons respectively. FAOSTAT, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, http://faostat.fao.org/ site /342/default.aspx...Strategic Environment, 10-11. 84 Aun Porn Moniroth, “Economic Integration in East Asia – Cambodia’s Experience” in East Asian Visions, ed. Indermit Gil

  19. Transitivity System on Air Asia News in the Jakarta Post

    OpenAIRE

    Rini, Rizka Novita

    2015-01-01

    Transitivitas adalah alat yang digunakan untuk menemukan makna ideational dalam suatu wacana. Saat awal penulisan makalah ini, berita mengenai kecelakaan pesawat AirAsia QZ8501 yang terjadi pada tanggal 28 Desember 2014, menjadi topik hangat yang sering dibicarakan. Hal ini disebabkan karena kecelakaan tersebut adalah kecelakaan pertama yang terjadi dalam penerbangan AirAsia sejak 2001. Hal itulah yang menjadi penyebab kenapa berita ini dipilih untuk dianalisis. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan unt...

  20. Dynamics of the Asia-Pacific oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific could become the world's largest oil market with an estimated 10 million b/d new demand by 2010. At the same time less Asian crude will be available for the world market. Refinery expansion is likely to be insufficient and imports of refined products will rise. The Asia-Pacific market could be the world's largest middle distillate importer and a major centre of trade for essentially every other petroleum product and form of commercial energy. (Author)

  1. A Global Conceptual History of Asia, 1860-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contributors to this volume explore the changing concepts of the social and the economic during a period of fundamental change across Asia. Case studies show how adopting Western words reflected regional concepts of economy and society. Overall, contributors challenge accepted explanations of how...... Western knowledge spread through Asia and show how versatile Asian intellectuals were in introducing European concepts and in blending them with local traditions....

  2. Autochthonous blastomycosis of the adrenal: first case report from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Sreehari, Sreekala; Velayudhan, Kandan; Biswas, Lalitha; Babu, Rachana; Ahmed, Shabeer; Sharma, Neelakanta; Kurupath, Vasanth P; Jojo, Annie; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Karim, Shamsul; Biswas, Raja

    2014-04-01

    Systemic endemic mycoses, such as blastomycosis, are rare in Asia and have been reported as health risks among travelers who visit or reside in an endemic area. Adrenal involvement is rarely seen in blastomycosis and has never been reported from Asia. We report the first case of blastomycosis with bilateral involvement of the adrenals in a diabetic patient residing in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

  3. Interim Report by Asia International Grid Connection Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omatsu, Ryo

    2018-01-01

    The Asia International Grid Connection Study Group Interim Report examines the feasibility of developing an international grid connection in Japan. The Group has investigated different cases of grid connections in Europe and conducted research on electricity markets in Northeast Asia, and identifies the barriers and challenges for developing an international grid network including Japan. This presentation introduces basic contents of the interim report by the Study Group.

  4. Fiscal Year 2013 Comprehensive Oversight Plan for Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    exclusively a Southwest Asia country. Source: International Organization for Standardization, ISO 3166-1-Alpha-2 Country Codes. FY 2013 COPSWA...the Continental U.S. Other/Multiple = Not exclusively a Southwest Asia country. Source: International Organization for Standardization, ISO 3166-1...rolling stock  R4D of equipment and supplies  R4D of medical equipment and supplies (including hazmat and pharmacy items)  Readiness of the Army

  5. The democratizing potential of the Internet in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kevin J

    1997-01-01

    This thesis argues that the Internet is likely to he a strong, positive facilitating factor for the transition to and consolidation of democracy for states in Southeast Asia. U.S. policy makers intent on promoting democracy in Southeast Asia should consider the Internet's potential as a tool for promoting democratization. A review of the existing democratization literature, coupled with quantitative analysis of the societal impact of computer networking technologies, suggests that the level o...

  6. Building Maritime Security in Southeast Asia: Outsiders Not Welcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Najib Razak , has called for greater vigi- lance and intelligence sharing to combat piracy and prevent terrorism along the Malacca Strait.21 To improve...part a reward for its partnership in the war on terrorism. Weatherbee, International Rela- tions in Southeast Asia, p. 37. 18. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun...Abd Razak , “The Security of the Straits of Malacca and Its Im- plications to the South East Asia Regional Se- curity” (speech, Seoul, 13 March 2007

  7. Derivatives and Global Capital Flows: Applications to Asia

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Kregel

    1998-01-01

    There are four factors involved in the current financial crisis in Asia that have caused surprise. Since the Latin American debt crisis was thought to have been aggravated by the dominance of syndicated private bank lending, borrowers were encouraged to increase private direct investment flows. The stability of capital flows to Asia was used as an example. Yet, the Asian crisis appears to have been precipitated by the reversal of short-term private bank lending. Second, the flows of capital t...

  8. Idiosyncratic Features of the Contemporary Regional Economic Architecture in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip K. Das

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the characteristic features of contemporary policy-led regionalism in Asia. It identifies the positive and negative features associated with the free trade agreements that have proliferated in Asia during the first decade of the 21st century. There has been a marked transformation in Asia's regional architecture in a short span of a decade-and-a-half. The mode and conduct of multilateral trade has been signifThe objective of this article is to examine the characteristic features of contemporary policy-led regionalism in Asia. It identifies the positive and negative features associated with the free trade agreements that have proliferated in Asia during the first decade of the 21st century. There has been a marked transformation in Asia's regional architecture in a short span of a decade-and-a-half. The mode and conduct of multilateral trade has been significantly transformed during recent years and Asia could not possibly remain immune to this transformation. The importance of regionalism in multilateral trade has increased steadily. In addition, the trade-investment-services nexus has developed and grown increasingly important. As business firms now manufacture parts of their products across the border, bilateral trade agreements (BTAs, regional trade agreements (RTAs and free trade agreements (FTAs of the contemporary period need to take into account the new kind of trade barriers that have been created due to the changing mode of trade. The contemporary regional agreements need to be designed to facilitate the new modes of conducting business and trade. It was understood rather late in Asia that the 'WTO-Plus' FTAs are more functional and result-oriented than their predecessors.

  9. Challenge and response: HIV in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J M; Mahathir, M; Nath, L M

    1996-11-04

    Inexorably, the epicentre of the global HIV pandemic is moving from Africa to Asia. Despite many years of much-publicised analysis of the African epidemic, most countries in Asia and many in the Pacific have not introduced the public health strategies known to minimise the spread of HIV. What must be done now, and how can the developed countries in the region, such as Australia, assist their neighbours?

  10. Nuclear energy in Asia and regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing concern in East Asia about regional cooperation in the field of nuclear power. At the APEC conference in Osaka in 1995, APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) established an Energy Research Center. The center has started to perform joint research forecasts on energy supply and demand for the region. Japan proposed the inauguration of a Conference on Nuclear Safety in Asia at the Moscow Nuclear Energy Summit in 1996. The first conference was held in Tokyo that year. This year, the conference will be held in Seoul. Japan's Atomic Energy Commission sponsors the International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia every year. This year marks the eighth conference. The outstanding feature of this year's conference was that so many countries stressed regional cooperation. South Korea proposed the installation of a regional online radiation monitoring system. The Philippines asserted the need for a cooperative mechanism on the lines of ASIATOM. Why is so much concern now being focused on nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? What kind of regional cooperation is necessary, and what kind is possible? What are the unique features of nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? These are the points addressed in this paper. (author)

  11. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  12. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  13. Why Does Population Aging Matter So Much for Asia? Population Aging, Economic Growth, and Economic Security in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    Asia as a whole is experiencing a rapid demographic transition toward older populations, though different countries are at different stages of this region- wide trend. We document Asia's aging population, describe the region's old-age support systems, and highlight the regional socioeconomic implications of the transition for those support systems. Aging populations present two fundamental challenges to Asian policymakers: (1) developing socioeconomic systems that can provide economic securit...

  14. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP was a sink, estimated at −104 ± 150 Tg C yr−1 during 2007–2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be −191 ± 193 Tg C yr−1 during the period of 2000–2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1 the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration of −220 ± 186 Tg C yr−1 (2 the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of −14 ± 50 Tg C yr−1, which resulted from a sink of −16 Tg C yr−1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr−1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3 the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr−1; and (4 the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr−1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr−1 for the 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land–atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr−1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C yr−1

  15. Does interdependence alleviate proliferation risks in Asia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    As the extension Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty ended with its unlimited extension without any modification of the treaty obligation of the nuclear-weapon states to nuclear disarmament, the prospect of the regime to incorporate those suspected nuclear powers in Asia, namely India, Pakistan and Israel, has become dark. In this paper the problem of proliferation risk centred in India is analysed. It is well known that India was the first to criticize the Non-Proliferation Treaty regime as highly discriminating between the five nuclear haves and the rest. As was always the case, India's point is logically persuasive and consistent. However, it is also true that the logical or legal point of view does not always solve the problem. Therefore, we look at the regional and international political constellation in which any assertion has to be constructed. At present there is very little possibility that this region will become nuclear-free. This is because the horizontal proliferation, that has seemingly taken place here, is the result of a 'nuclear chain reaction', starting with a minor nuclear-weapon state, China. However, the economic upsurge in the region now throws the nuclear chain-reactions into the background. It has come to a standstill and the future of nuclear proliferation here will have to be decided by global nuclear disarmament, as there is no motivation on the side of the two Asian giants to agree on the reduction in their nuclear arsenals, though under American pressure, another suspected nuclear power, Pakistan, may have to give up its nuclear development plan

  16. Russia’s Failure in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Blank

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rusia quiere ser vista como una potencia asiática y entiende que necesita de las inversiones extranjeras a gran escala para lograr tal objetivo. Sin embargo, pocos países asiáticos comparten la misma visión, ello debido principalmente al fracaso de Moscú a la hora de desarrollar su región del Extremo Oriente, o por lo menos de presentarse como un actor relevante para las preocupaciones de sus socios y potenciales socios. Especialmente en relación con Corea del Sur y Japón, Rusia ha sido incapaz no sólo de convertir a su Extremo Oriente en un objetivo de inversión atractivo, sino que no ha respondido a sus principales intereses políticos convirtiendo a Rusia en un destino para inversiones o valorizando su posición como interlocutor en las conversaciones a seis bandas sobre la proliferación en Corea del Norte. Tampoco ha respondido a los deseos de los empresarios japoneses de un clima de inversiones estable, o a los intereses de Japón con respecto al contencioso territorial. Como resultado de todo ello, Rusia no ha logrado optimizar los beneficios potenciales que podrían derivarse de sus lazos con estos países. Por tanto, no le queda más que un socio en Asia, China, y por las características de tal asociación, ello conlleva una creciente dependencia de China, muy lejos de una asociación en igualdad y de un estatus independiente y competitivo como una potencia asiática.

  17. The molecular epidemiology of HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Takebe, Y; Ou, C Y; Yamazaki, S

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was introduced readily into Asia and has quickly spread between Asian states through both parenteral and sexual modes of transmission. Only 1 year after Thailand's epidemic wave among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in 1988, the virus spread to the adjacent Myanmar and Malaysia, and another year later IDUs were infected in parts of India and China bordering Myanmar. Several methods can be used to quantify the genetic diversity, divergence, or variation within or between subtypes, genotypes, or isolates. Consensus sequences, representing the most common nucleotide in the genome, are often generated for comparison. 8 subtypes A through F, H, and O have been described for HIV-1 based on the genetic similarities and differences in the env gene or viral envelope. Subtype A and D have been found primarily in central and western Africa. Subtype B is predominant in Europe, the Western hemisphere, Japan, and Australia. Subtype C has been found mostly in southern Africa, the Central African Republic, and India. Subtype E was first identified in Thailand and recently in the Central African Republic. Subtype F has been found in Romania and is a rare variant in Brazil. Isolates from Gabon and the Russian Federation were designated subtype H. An "outlier" subtype O containing 2 human and 2 chimpanzee isolates has been identified in Cameroon and Gabon. Sequencing of the relatively conserved gag gene of geographically diverse HIV-1 isolates yielded a classification with 7 subtypes A-D and F-H. Other topics discussed include genome characterization, comparison with foreign isolates, segregation by mode of transmission, and biologic properties of HIV-1 variants in Thailand; regional diversity of HIV-1 subtypes and substantial spread of HIV-2 in India; as well as HIV transmission and infections in Japan, Australia, Cambodia, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, and in states created out of the former Soviet Union.

  18. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  19. Emerging Pollutant of Concern: Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Asia with Particular Preference to Southeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia countries were developing countries, with the rapid development for a better living condition leads to longer life expectancy, which increased total population. It may result in increased the demand of pharmaceutical in domestic use and or in hospital. Although most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs met the local authority’s regulatory requirement, there are still many pharmaceutical compound incompletely removed and discharge to the water stream and enter the environment. Recently many studies and researches have published on the occurrence and source as well as the fate of pharmaceuticals all over the world including Asia. As part of Asia region, Southeast Asia countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Cambodia, and Lao PDR seem has lack of research knowledge and information regarding this emerging pollutant issues compared to developed Asia country as China, Korea and Hong Kong. In this paper, it will review recent studies occurrences (surface and wastewater on most common pharmaceuticals with several recommendations to overcome and thus summarise the actual situation in Southeast Asia.

  20. Stock Investors’ Confidence on Low-Cost and Traditional Airlines in Asia During Financial Crisis 2007-2009 : Evidence from Air Asia and Singapore Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chin Fei; Tay, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The birth of low-cost carriers (LCC) in recent years, have added a new dimension to the aviation business, especially in Asia. There have been several success stories of these LCCs, compared with conventional full-serviced carriers. Two renowned airlines in Asia, Air Asia and Singapore Airlines have been chosen as our sample companies for the purpose of this research paper. Air Asia will represent the LCC segment, while Singapore Airlines is the proxy for traditional carriers. These two class...

  1. Validation of Hotspots Detected by Satellites in Sentinel Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Sentinel Asia (SA) initiative is a collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in the Asia- Pacific region. It aims to: "EImprove safety in society by ICT and space technology "EImprove speed and accuracy of disaster preparedness and early warning "EMinimize the number of victims and social/economic losses. SA is a voluntary initiative led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share disaster information in near-real-time across the Asia-Pacific region. Wildfire is a major and recurring phenomenon that has a serious impact on property and human health, affecting many countries in the Asia region. Compared to other disasters in the area, it does not necessarily cause many immediate fatalities. However, it causes serious impact on property and human health due to smoke. Furthermore, its effects are of great relevance both at a regional and global level, and accordingly bear substantial influence on global warming. Responding to requirements from Asian countries, under Sentinel Asia a dedicated Wildfire Working Group (WG) has been established to apply remote sensing technology to the management of wildfire. Having accurate information on the location and intensity of the fires, and subsequent control of wildfire, are therefore very important and urgent tasks across the region. SA primarily addresses the issue of near-real-time information distribution on wildfires in the region. Concerning hotspot data obtained by satellites, it is essential to validate and improve its accuracy. In the framework of Sentinel Asia Wildfire WG, various approaches to hotspot detection, including MOD14 algorithm for MODIS hotspots, were studied, and their validations were carried out, comparing them with active fires extracted from satellite imagery and ground truth data in Chiengmai, Thailand and in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  2. How Will Air Quality Change in South Asia by 2050?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Barth, Mary C.; Pfister, G. G.; Delle Monache, L.; Lamarque, J. F.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Tilmes, S.; Ghude, S. D.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Naja, M.; Walters, S.

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to unhealthy air causes millions of premature deaths and damages crops sufficient to feed a large portion of the South Asian population every year. However, little is known about how future air quality in South Asia will respond to changing human activities. Here we examine the combined effect of changes in climate and air pollutant emissions projected by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 and RCP6.0 on air quality of South Asia in 2050 using a state-of-the-science Nested Regional Climate model with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). RCP8.5 and RCP6.0 are selected to represent scenarios of highest and lowest air pollution in South Asia by 2050. NRCM-Chem shows the ability to capture observed key features of variability in meteorological parameters, ozone and related gases, and aerosols. NRCM-Chem results show that surface ozone and particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter will increase significantly by midcentury in South Asia under the RCP8.5 but remain similar to present day under RCP6.0. No RCP suggest an improvement in air pollution in South Asia by midcentury. Under RCP8.5, the frequency of air pollution events is predicted to increase by 20-120 days per year in 2050 compared to the present-day conditions, with particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter predicted to breach the World Health Organization ambient air quality guidelines on an almost daily basis in many parts of South Asia. These results indicate that while the RCP scenarios project a global improvement in air quality, they generally result in degrading air quality in South Asia.

  3. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C

    2014-07-01

    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. Asia from Space: New Ideas for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    which lack radial drainage. Numerous other differences can be identified. As a normal component of the modern fluvial environment, megafans must exist in the subsurface. Megafan size, predictable channel patterns of the formative river, and the gradation from coarser to finer sediments from apex to toe of megafans are characteristics that ought to assist in understanding subsurface patterns of hydrocarbon host rocks, and possibly source rocks as well. We show examples from various producing basins. A roughness map of Asia, based on an algorithm developed for Mars, shows megafan landscapes to be dominated by short baseline roughness and low slopes, consistent with megafan-dominated plains worldwide. Interestingly, this a unique signature for a larger continental landform.

  5. Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Errol Wei'en; Li, Xiang; Tham, Yih-Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glaucoma prevalence and disease burden across Asian subregions from 2013 to 2040. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 population-based studies of 1318 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases in 66,800 individuals and 691 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) cases in 72,767 individuals in Asia. Regions in Asia were defined based on United Nations' (UN) classification of macro-geographic regions. PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched for population-based glaucoma prevalence studies using standardised criteria published to 31 December 2013. Pooled glaucoma prevalence for individuals aged 40-80 years was calculated using hierarchical Bayesian approaches. Prevalence differences by geographic subregion, subtype and habitation were examined with random effects meta-regression models. Estimates of individuals with glaucoma from 2013 to 2040 were based on the UN World Population Prospects. In 2013, pooled overall glaucoma prevalence was 3.54% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.83 to 6.28). POAG (2.34%, 95% CrI 0.96 to 4.55) predominated over PACG (0.73%, 95% CrI 0.18 to 1.96). With age and gender adjustment, PACG prevalence was higher in East than South East Asia (OR 5.55, 95% CrI 1.52 to 14.73), and POAG prevalence was higher in urban than rural populations (OR 2.11, 95% CrI 1.57 to 2.38). From 2013 to 2040, South Central Asia will record the steepest increase in number of glaucoma individuals from 17.06 million to 32.90 million compared with other Asian subregions. In 2040, South-Central Asia is also projected to overtake East Asia for highest overall glaucoma and POAG burden, while PACG burden remains highest in East Asia. Across the Asian subregions, there was greater glaucoma burden in South-Central and East Asia. Sustainable public health strategies to combat glaucoma in Asia are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. Globalisasi dan Keberagamaan di Asia: Pemikiran Kwok Pui-Lan—Teologi Poskolonial Feminis Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odniel Hakim Gultom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this article is to present the phenomenon of globalization about cultural change (and economic that gives effect to the "religion" and religious practice. Secularization as part of globalization and modernization, affecting cultural relations and "religion" in the region. Forms of religious practices which was appointed as the impact of globalization is privatization, fundamentalisasi, and the commodification of religion. Kwok Pui-Lan as an Asian postcolonial feminist theologians criticize globalization as a form of colonization with a new face that oppresses women and children. In the context of Asia with a diversity of religious and extreme poverty, how theology can provide a role in public life. Religion can not be separated from other social relations (especially cultural as stated classic secularization theory. Thus the award to religious pluralism and inter-faith spirituality to be very important to build religiosity that appreciate coexsistence.

  7. A Decade of Combination Antiretroviral Treatment in Asia: The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Asian countries have seen the expansion of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the past decade. The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) was established in 2003 comprising 23 urban referral sites in 13 countries across the region. We examined trends in treatment outcomes in patients who initiated cART between 2003 and 2013. Time of cART initiation was grouped into three periods: 2003-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. We analyzed trends in undetectable viral load (VL; defined as VL treatment outcomes, with older age and higher CD4 counts being associated with undetectable VL. Survival and VL response on cART have improved over the past decade in TAHOD, although CD4 count at cART initiation remained low. Greater effort should be made to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis and linkage to care and treatment, to achieve greater improvements in treatment outcomes.

  8. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  9. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Amann, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Carmichael, G.; Chadwick, M.; Cinderby, S.; Haugland, T.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Hordijk, L.; Kuylenstierna, J.; Shah, J.; Shrestha, R.; Streets, D.; Zhao, D.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Europe and North America, air pollution in Asia is increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air quality problems and higher acidic depositions. In 1989, an east-west group of scientists initiated a multi-institutional research project on Acid Rain and Emissions Reduction in Asia, funded for the past two years by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Phase I, covering 23 countries of Asia, focused on the development of PC-based software called the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation Model (RAINS-ASIA). A 94-region Regional Energy Scenario Generator was developed to create alternative energy/emission scenarios through the year 2020. A long-range atmospheric transport model was developed to calculate dispersion and deposition of sulfur, based upon emissions from area and large point sources, on a one-degree grid of Asia. The resulting impacts of acidic deposition on a variety of vegetation types were analyzed using the critical loads approach to test different emissions management strategies, including both energy conservation measures and sulfur abatement technologies. 14 refs., 7 figs

  10. Mercury pollution in Asia: a review of the contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Feng, X B; Qiu, G L; Shang, L H; Li, Z G

    2009-09-15

    This article describes the mercury contaminated sites in Asia. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury (Hg), responsible for over half of the global emission. Based on different emission source categories, the mercury contaminated sites in Asia were divided into various types, such as Hg pollution from Hg mining, gold mining, chemical industry, metal smelting, coal combustion, metropolitan cities, natural resources and agricultural sources. By the review of a large number of studies, serious Hg pollutions to the local environment were found in the area influenced by chemical industry, mercury mining and gold mining. With the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain), economic (e.g. swift growth) and social factors (e.g. high population density), more effort is still needed to understand the biogeochemistry cycle of Hg and associated health effects in Asia. Safer alternatives and cleaner technologies must be developed and effectively implemented to reduce mercury emission; remedial techniques are also required to restore the historical mercury pollution in Asia.

  11. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  12. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckman, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region

  13. The Asia Pacific natural gas market: Large enough for all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.; Inchauspe, Julian; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Among natural gas producing nations, there has been some concern about how the Asia Pacific will meet future demand for energy. We argue that natural gas, both regional and global, will play a vital role. Estimates of potential gas consumption in the region are analyzed and used to develop consensus projections to 2030. These consumption profiles are compared with gas supply estimates including indigenous, pipeline and LNG for the Asia Pacific market. From this analytical framework, we find that demand will be sufficiently large to accommodate supplies from diverse sources including North America, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia, and the Asia Pacific itself. An important policy implication is that gas producing and consuming nations should benefit from promoting gas trade and not be concerned about a situation of potential lack of demand coupled with oversupply. - Highlights: • Estimates of gas consumption in the Asia Pacific (AP) in 2030 are presented. • Compared with supply estimates for AP including indigenous, pipeline, and LNG. • Find that demand in AP large enough to accommodate supply from all regions. • Nations should promote gas trade policy and not be overly concerned about oversupply

  14. Monetary Cooperation in East Asia: Major Issues and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Won Ryou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the launch of the euro in 1999 made the possibility and desirability of introducing a regional currency union in East Asia a point of debate. At present, the empirical findings and policy implications of previous studies are mixed. We are still in need of theoretical and empirical studies that capture the salient features of East Asia, and give us reliable recommendations for incentive structures, configurations and policy instruments in monetary cooperation in its various stages. This paper aims to review major conceptual and empirical issues relevant to monetary cooperation in East Asia, including proposals for a regional cooperative framework for exchange rate stability or forming a currency union in the region. East Asian countries have no experience with any type of monetary cooperation and all we have are hypothetical predictions. Nevertheless, East Asian countries may be on the brink of an historical evolution to economic and monetary integration, as Europe was half a century ago. The progressive integration of markets in East Asia has conferred a commonality of economic interest upon the countries in the region. As the economic structures of East Asian countries converge with one another through closer ties of trade, investment and finance, the necessity for monetary cooperation will be more likely to emerge in the future. Monetary cooperation in East Asia will be a long process. East Asian countries should make efforts to build collective institutions in the beginning.

  15. Overview of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Initiatives in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ankur; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Suri, Kunal; Mishra, Sundeep; Iqbal, Romaina; Virani, Salim S

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Industrialization and economic growth have led to an unprecedented increment in the burden of CVD and their risk factors in less industrialized regions of the world. While there are abundant data on CVD and their risk factors from longitudinal cohort studies done in the West, good-quality data from South Asia are lacking. Several multi-institutional, observational, prospective registries, and epidemiologic cohorts in South Asia have been established to systematically evaluate the burden of CVD and their risk factors. The PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP), the Kerala Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), and Trivandrum Heart Failure registries have focused on secondary prevention of CVD and performance measurement in both outpatient and inpatient settings, respectively. The Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE), Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS), and other epidemiologic and genetic studies have focused on primary prevention of CVD and evaluated variables such as environment, smoking, physical activity, health systems, food and nutrition policy, dietary consumption patterns, socioeconomic factors, and healthy neighborhoods. The international cardiovascular community has been responsive to a burgeoning cardiovascular disease burden in South Asia. Several collaborations have formed between the West (North America in particular) and South Asia to catalyze evidence-based and data-driven changes in the federal health policy in this part of the world to promote cardiovascular health and mitigate cardiovascular risk.

  16. Asia-Pacific malaria is singular, pervasive, diverse and invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Malaria in the Asia-Pacific region has been targeted for elimination by the year 2030. This article asks the question, "by what means?" in the context of proven technical strategies and tools against key challenges imposed by the distinct character of the Asia-Pacific malaria problem. The misperception of malaria in the Asia-Pacific region as a less serious but otherwise essentially similar problem to African malaria lulls us into rote application of the same tools and strategies. Those now mitigating the harm done by malaria in Africa will not suffice to eliminate malaria in the Asia-Pacific region - these tasks and the problems are fundamentally distinct. This article describes the singular characteristics of Asia-Pacific malaria and the bearing of those upon the technical strategy of malaria elimination. Most of the tools needed for that endeavour do not yet exist and spirited calls for elimination within the next 14years may discourage the patience and investments needed to conceive, optimise and validate them. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Outlook and challenges to coal in Asia: 1994--2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1996-02-01

    The two key threats to coal's long term dominance in Asia are: (1) its uneven distribution of reserves and lack of adequate rail transportation infrastructure, and (2) growing environmental concerns about coal-related pollution. Even with increased attention to emissions control for coal, continued growth in coal consumption is expected to result in further deterioration of the environment in Asia for another one to two decades. China will remain the largest polluter in Asia, but it's believed it will become Asia's largest user of emissions control technology by 2015. The authors have subjectively weighed the above constraints to increased coal use in preparing the projections of the future role of coal in the Asian region. This paper shows past trends in coal production and consumption, plus projections of coal production, consumption and trade over the 1994--2015 period. The projections in this paper are useful as a general indicator of long term patterns in Asia. However, there are too many uncertainties about economic growth rates and energy and environmental policies to suggest that the projections will be accurate for every economy. This paper concludes with the preliminary results of research under way, which suggests that increasing economic wealth in China is the most important factor in solving China's coal-related pollution problems

  18. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  19. Powerful women leaders rise in Asia despite gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the years, Asia has produced some of the worlds most formidable women leaders, including Indira Ghandi, Madame Mao, Benazir Bhutto, and Corazon Aquino. The list continues with South Asia's leaders, prime ministers, opposition leaders, and vice-presidents, however, such an impressive list does not reflect true equality nor enlightened gender politics. According to Sonny Lo, sociology professor at Hong Kong University, no Asian political system observes true gender equality. It is noted that these Asian leaders rose into prominence after the death or imprisonment of their fathers or husbands. Nevertheless, the elections of Anson Chan and life-long dissident Annette Lu, signal the emergence of a new model for women leaders in Asia. Still, Lo emphasizes that this new trend is merely a reflection of civil service equal opportunity rules. Lo adds that even Taiwan President Chen Sui-Bian's all-women cabinet does not reflect the nation's sentiment, but a wish to project an image.

  20. International trade and specialisation between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major......, that there is a major international trade of both fur skin and fur garments between Europe and Asia, and that the international specialisation in this sector is high.......The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialisation within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions...

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Implications for Asia-Pacific Oncology Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Boyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a prominent malignancy in the Asia-Pacific region. Despite considerable knowledge about it's scope and nature this malignancy remains incurable. This manuscript reviews the epidemiology of this cancer, its pathogenesis, risk factors, potential prevention, surveillance, treatment, and the oncology nurses' role relative to this malignancy. A literature search from the past decade was performed using the PubMed and CINAHL databases using the search terms “hepatocellular carcinoma,” “Asia,” and “nursing issues”. Themes such as etiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis were included in this synthesis which has particular relevance to oncology nurses within the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. Eco-industrial initiatives in Asia : issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, A.S.F. [Industrial Ecology Asia Network, (China)

    2002-07-01

    This Power Point presentation discusses the impact of industry urban-suburban relocation. This relocation to industrial zones is on the rise in Asia, where there are now approximately 4,000 industrial estates, resulting from export-oriented businesses, cluster-based activities and collective management systems. Eco-industrial parks are zones that promote sustainable development through the combined benefits of environmental, social and economic initiatives. Eco-industrial parks enact environmental management laws and initiate eco-industrial development projects. Asia is diverse in access to natural resources, economics, politics, and level of development and access to natural resources. The paper describes how eco-business and a recycling-oriented economic society is being adopted in countries in Asia including China, Japan, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and India. tabs., figs.

  3. The Asia-Pacific oil market : prospects for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2004-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region is among the fastest growing oil markets for which analysts predict healthy growth rates due to high energy demands from developing countries such as China. Increased oil demand will mean new refining capacity needs and increased supplies of crude oil. The indigenous crude supply in the Asia-Pacific region is limited and unable to meet the region's needs. Imports are therefore expected to rise continuously. Although the Middle East will continue to be the dominant player in meeting these growing oil needs, Canada has an opportunity to diversify the supply source and play a significant role in meeting the energy needs of the Asia-Pacific region. tabs., figs

  4. Asia energy mixes from socio-economic and environmental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thavasi, V.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable clean energy is the top social, economic, and environmental agenda of political leaders, policy makers, enlightened business executives, and civil society in Asia. Strong economic growth in Asia has caused a great demand for energy which has resulted in an enormous increase in CO 2 emissions. The association of Southeast Asian nations (ASEAN), India, China, South Korea and Japan are the most important regions in Asia as their economies have been growing steadily. These countries though heavily dependent on fossil fuels have stepped up their measures towards low-carbon society amid domestic affordability challenges and changing global mindset. This report highlights the current energy scenario in these countries and their effort towards an affordable and sustainable clean energy future. The energy policy to enhance energy security and improve environmental sustainability is also explicated in this article. (author)

  5. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmy Bin Agam

    1992-01-01

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  6. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, T.

    2001-01-01

    There are 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world. Of these, 95 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 36 reactors currently under construction in the world, 19 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 44 planned reactors in the world, 36 are in this region. At the start of the 'New Nuclear Century' the Asia-Pacific region has become the main area for growth and innovation in nuclear power. This paper describes the nuclear power developments in each country and examines the status of the construction programme and the planned projects. Countries included are China, India, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan. New projects include the HTR in China, Advance Breeder Water Reactors in Japan, KEDO in the DPRK and the Advance Pressurised Water Reactor in the Republic of Korea

  7. Managing risk in Asia's oil and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The business environment and economic outlook for Asia's energy business was discussed. This paper focused on the risks in Asia's oil and gas business. It was predicted that the economic crisis may deepen in 1998/99 before recovering by 2000 at the earliest. Key risk factors were cited as further currency devaluations, deterioration of the banking sector and social unrest. At the same time, it was also predicted that within 4-6 years, economic growth rates in Asia will be higher than in the rest of the world. Currently, the main risks associated with the energy industry are currency collapse, highly leveraged buyers and sellers, politics, different types of joint venture partners, each type representing a different type of risk, demise of the old networks, reluctance to accept the reality of the economic collapse and to deal with the collapse the only way that may be effective. figs

  8. Security trends in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong

    1992-01-01

    The drastic world changes are less conspicuous in Asia-Pacific region than in it was the case in Europe, although they must be considered as stabilizing factors as well as sustained economic dynamism. Due to these changes some progress was achieved in world disarmament and arms control. But this is considered only a first step, there remains a long way to go. In the case of Asia-Pacific, possessors of largest nuclear arsenals and most sophisticated conventional arms need to further reduce their forces, support the proposals of setting up nuclear-weapon-free zones and commit themselves to no-first-use of nuclear weapons and non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states. Their fulfilment of these demands would undoubtedly contribute towards the prevention of a new round of the arms race and to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Asia-Pacific region

  9. Conservation biology in Asia: the major policy challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jeffrey A; Kapoor-Vijay, Promila; Zhi, Lu; Olsvig-Whittaker, Linda; Sheikh, Kashif M; Smith, Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    With about half the world's human population and booming economies, Asia faces numerous challenges to its biodiversity. The Asia Section of the Society for Conservation Biology has identified some key policy issues in which significant progress can be made. These include developing new sources of funding for forest conservation; identifying potential impacts of energy alternatives on the conservation of biodiversity; curbing the trade in endangered species of plants and animals; a special focus on the conservation of mountain biodiversity; enhancing relevant research; ensuring that conservation biology contributes to major international conventions and funding mechanisms; using conservation biology to build a better understanding of zoonotic diseases; more effectively addressing human-animal conflicts; enhancing community-based conservation; and using conservation biology to help address the pervasive water-deficit problems in much of Asia. These challenges can be met through improved regional cooperation among the relevant stakeholders.

  10. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  12. Air pollution in eastern Asia an integrated perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuemei; Brasseur, Guy

    2017-01-01

    This book, written by an international group of experts from China, Europe and the USA, presents a broad and comprehensive analysis of the chemical and meteorological processes responsible for the formation of air pollutants in eastern Asia, and in particular for the development of severe pollution episodes observed primarily during winter in the northeastern part of China. With the rapid population growth, economic development and urbanization occurring in Asia, air pollution has become a major environmental problem in this part of the world. The book is organized around six distinct parts. The first part of the volume offers a general perspective on issues related to air pollution including persistent haze events in eastern and southern Asia. The second part presents an overview of air pollution sources (i.e., anthropogenic and biomass burning sources). The third part analyzes in-situ observations of chemical species in China, while the fourth part focuses on space observations of gas-phase and aerosol spec...

  13. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Arndt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention

  14. Uranium resources potential for Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.

    1988-01-01

    Only four countries in Asia, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and Turkey, reported having uranium resources in response to a Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD/International Atomic Energy Agency questionnaire circulated before preparation of the report on Uranium: Resources, Production and Demand (the 'Red Book'). The reasonably assured resources (RAR) of these countries, which are recoverable at costs of up to US $130/kg U, amount to 67,690 t U or 3% of the total for the World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area (WOCA). It is believed that the largest uranium resources in Asia are in China; however, no official published figures are available to substantiate this fact. Within the framework of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) it was estimated that the speculative resources (SR) for Asia and the Far East outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area (CPEA) are of the order of 300,000 t U. This is 4.7% of the total for WOCA. With the exception of Proterozoic unconformity related deposits, all types of uranium deposits and occurrences are known to exist in Asia. Most deposits are of the vein and sandstone hosted types. Several published reports indicate that deposits in China are mainly of the volcanic type and those associated with granitic intrusion. For undiscovered deposits, probably India and China have the best possibility of finding deposits of the Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate and Proterozoic unconformity related types. In South-East Asia the deposits most likely to be found are those associated with Mesozoic granites and those in the intramontane basin sediments adjacent to these intrusions. The less known acid volcanic type is also a possibility. Only in China, India and Pakistan does there appear to be the possibility of finding calcrete type deposits. Uranium can still be recovered as a by-product of the phosphate rocks, monazite placer deposits and carbonatite known in many parts of Asia. (author). 21 refs

  15. Connections between Central Asia and Mediaeval Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Heršak

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of Croat visions of self-origin, especially in relation to the Central Asian or Central Eurasian world. Located on the southern rim of the Pannonia plain, which constitutes a type of continuity of the great Eurasian steppe, the area of Croatia has many times in the past been exposed to diverse incursions of nomadic peoples from the East. True, the oldest expansions from the East in the context of initial Indo-Europeanisation (i.e. effects on the aeneolithic Vučedol culture, etc. cannot yet be included in such a scheme. The “Scythian-Cimmerian phenomenon” in the early Iron Age marks the first appearance of this model in regard to the Croatian area. Towards the end of historical Antiquity, Yazygs and other Sarmatians arrived from the East, and later the movement of the Huns created the stereotype through which contemporaries envisioned the following incursions of Bulgars and Avars, closed connected to the Slavic migrations, the arrival of the Hungarians and later the Tatar-Mongol invasion. Although essentially different, the subsequent Ottoman Turk expansion – which was to have significant ramifications for Croatia – also constituted an aspect of the total picture of relations with Asia. At the beginning of the Ottoman invasion, the old phrase dating from the Mediaeval Crusades, antemurale Christianitatis, was applied to Croatia. This had double significance. On the one hand it confirmed ties with the Western Christendom, but on the other hand the very term antemurale (“forewall, bulwark” implies an external position, hence a certain conceptual shift of Croatia toward the Orient. In the next part of the paper, the authors examine various legends pertaining to Croat origins. The oldest were registered by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI Porphyrogenitus. This included the account of the invitation made by the emperor Heraclius to the Croats and the story of the arrival of the Croats under the

  16. The comparison of petroleum contractual systems in Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partowidagdo, W.

    1993-01-01

    The earnings from oil and gas sales are a very important source of income for some countries in Asia Pacific Region. The hydrocarbons are also important source of energy for almost all of the countries in the region. Most governments in this region invite foreign companies to their countries to supply the risk capital for petroleum exploration and development in exchange for a direct share in the potential profit. In this study, a comparison of different hydrocarbon fiscal systems and profitability in Asia Pacific Region is presented

  17. Diversification and autonomy: axes in Argentine rapprochement to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Rubiolo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 onwards, with the change of presidency in Argentina and the consolidation of the internal recovery, the orientation of foreign policy acquires more autonomist nuances. It is in this scenario that the links with less developed countries - or of the South - should be understood, including the ties with the economies of Southeast Asia. Our objective in this work is to analyze the current state of Argentina’s bilateral ties with Southeast Asia - with special emphasis on the Philippines -analyzing these bonds as an alternative for insertion within a strategy of selective diversification and extension of margins of autonomy.

  18. CHINA’S STRATEGY OF ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U.S.recently launched strategy of rebalancing to Asia worsens the atmosphere forChina’s energy security and increases the risks for energy transportation from Africa and theMiddle East. The diversification of energy sources is a reasonable strategic choice, so the importance of the Eurasian continent forChinaincreases. Central Asia does not play anymore a supporting role in the agenda ofChina’s energy security strategy. It is rather becoming a region of major strategic importance.

  19. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  20. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  1. Unlocking India’s Strategic Potential in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    war. Nearly 4 decades since, Islamabad has struggled to ensure do- mestic security amid militant attacks, some of which bear the hallmarks of...see Huasheng, pp. 131-138. 79. Jagannath P. Panda , “India’s New Look at Central Asia Policy: A Strategic Review,” in Laruelle, Huchet, et al., pp...Central Asia,” in Dash, p. 8. 99. Peyrouse, Monsoon, p. 197. 100. Stobdan, pp. 48-54. 101. Panda , p. 116. 102. Kavalski, pp. 102-103. 98 103. Peyrouse

  2. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  3. Website Usability in Asia “From Within”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    As the number of website users in Asia grows, there is an increasing need to gain an overview of human–computer interaction (HCI) research about users and websites in that context. This article presents an overview of HCI research on website usability in Asia “from within,” which outlines...... discusses the results and the need for a greater sensitivity to what is “local” and “from within” in HCI research and what this can add to the existing literature on website usability....

  4. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia: Prevention strategy and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-06-28

    To review all of epidemiological and etiological aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and examined the prevention of this disease in Asia. We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We were chosen articles that published previously, from PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane database and Scopus. The key words used in this research were as follows: HCC in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. We selected those papers published before 2014 that we considered to be most important and appropriate. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. More than 70% of all new cases of liver cancer were diagnosed in Asia, a region that 75% of all those chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world. Chronic HBV infection is the main cause of HCC in Asia, where the virus is endemic and vertical transmission is common. Japan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Pakistan are exception because of high prevalence of HCV infection in these regions. The prevalence of this cancer is high in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, But Middle Eastern countries are characterized as moderate prevalence rate of HCC region and Central Asia and some part of Middle Eastern countries are known as low prevalence rate of HCC. In addition of HBV and HCV the other factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be responsible for a low prevalence of HCC in Asian countries. Currently available HCC therapies, chemotherapy, surgical are inefficient, mainly due to usually late diagnosis and high recurrence rates after surgical resection, and usually end with treatment failure. Liver transplantation also remains as a difficult strategy in patients with HCC. Thus prevention of HCC by treating and prevention HBV and HCV infection, the major causative agents of HCC, and the other risk factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity

  6. Status of the civilian nuclear industry in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Alexandre; Laconde, Thibault

    2011-01-01

    The main nuclear actors in Asia are China, South Korea, India and Japan. The authors indicate the share of nuclear energy in their energy mix, the number of operating reactors, the total installed power, and the number of projects. Then, for each of these four countries, and for Pakistan and Taiwan, they propose a brief history of the nuclear program and briefly present its current status. They also evoke the official reactions after the Fukushima accident. Finally, they briefly discuss some issues for the development of civilian nuclear industry in Asia: uranium supplies, nuclear waste processing, development of a national nuclear sector

  7. Policy trends of strategic environmental assessment in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, Dennis; Agamuthu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SEA policy trends in Asia indicate a proliferation of SEA legislation. • Primary SEA problem is its limited integration in strategic decision making. • Notable SEA progress is the emerging awareness on the need for SEA. • Main SEA prospects is in international regional cooperation on SEA. • SEA paradigm shift requires linkages of structural and non-structural policy instruments. - Abstract: This paper provides an overview on the policy trends of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. SEA is promoted as a system of incorporating environmental considerations into policies, plans and programmes (PPP). SEA has evolved from an alternative of environmental impact assessments (EIA) to a potential environmental policy integration (EPI) tool in national policy planning. Nevertheless, SEA trends in Asia require a re-examination on its role and effectiveness to avoid SEA implementation in Asia mimicking SEA developments in Europe without customizing its application to local conditions in Asia. Policy trends of SEA in Asia indicate that it is currently an important environmental policy consideration for countries in the region with the formulation of SEA legislations in Hong Kong, China, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam and Indonesia. Nevertheless, SEA implementation also has been impeded by challenges in realizing practical SEA public participation especially in countries with traditionally high cultural power distance dynamics such as China, Indonesia and Vietnam. Meanwhile, countries such as Japan and Pakistan have voluntarily implemented SEA elements such as public participation without legislative provisions while countries such as Thailand, Philippines, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are resisting the adoption of SEA. The primary problem of SEA implementation in Asia has been its limited integration in strategic decision making due to the highly political nature of policy planning framed within the cultural context of Asian countries. Notable

  8. Secularism, decolonisation, and the Cold War in South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    The intensifying conflicts between religious communities in contemporary South and Southeast Asia signify the importance of gaining a clearer understanding of how societies have historically organised and mastered their religious diversity. Based on extensive archival research in Asia, Europe,

  9. State and change of Dryland East Asia (DEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiquan Chen; Ranjeet John; Guanghua Qiao; Ochirbat Batkhishig; Wenping Yuan; Yaoqi Zhang; Changliang Shao; Zutao Ouyang; Linghao Li; Ke Guo; Ge Sun

    2013-01-01

    Dry land East Asia (DEA) refers to a region with 4.81 million square kilometers (km²) and includes Mongolia and four provinces/regions in Northern China (hereafter called "administrative units" ): Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. This introduction chapter provides an overview of the DEA region from three perspectives: 1) geography,...

  10. National Target for South Asia Specialists. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Foreign Language and International Studies, New York, NY.

    The South Asia Panel of the National Council on Foreign Languages and International Studies reports on the need for specialists in the languages and cultures of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives. Two categories of specialists are discussed: (1) individuals in government, mission, etc., in…

  11. South Asia | Page 112 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the beginning of this century, gibbons could have travelled from China to Singapore by swinging from tree to tree. The past 50 years, however, have seen the forests of Southeast Asia largely disappear. The reasons for this devastation are still poorly understood, but the results are tragically all too visible. Increased soil ...

  12. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Asia, and to determine if the barriers are consistent throughout the continent. Methods: Article ... negative perceptions towards screening, aversion to test results, financial constraints, time constraints, ... smoking, physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet. [4]. Despite .... people, were partly attributable to the cultural aversion ...

  13. South Asia | Page 106 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For observers elsewhere in the world, the most striking feature of distance education (DE) in Asia is the mega-universities and mega-schools that have added many millions to the global tally of distance learners in recent decades. These are institutions such as China's radio and television universities (now called the Open ...

  14. Future fuel choices in Asia - the economics of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The greatest opportunities for foreign private sector involvement in gas-based power in Asia exist in the less developed countries. Factors contributing to these opportunities include rapid economic growth, increased environmental concern, the need for private sector finance and technology to sustain economic growth, an excess of under-developed gas reserves and continued advances in the efficiency of gas turbine combined cycle power generation. A tripling of gas demand is expected in Asia over the period 1992 to 2000 in meeting 100-120 GW of the new power capacity of 700 GW necessary to sustain planned economic growth. Supply costs are likely to be high, however. Despite the current excess of undeveloped reserves in Asia, these will not be sufficient to meet the demand, will be relatively expensive to develop and are often remote from the market centres. Greater dependence on liquefied natural gas from outside the region is inescapable. The economics of gas-fired production is also threatened by the prospective emergence of more efficient coal-based technologies. A fundamental change in gas contracting practices, recognizing the long term incremental avoided cost of power utilities, is needed in the face of high supply costs. The role of the private sector is crucial to the realisation of the fundamental environmental and technical advantages of gas-based power in Asia but there are difficulties to be overcome in the investment framework before a significant expansion in private projects can occur. (7 figures) (UK)

  15. Institutionalizing Evaluation Training in Universities in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The long-term objectives are to strengthen evaluation skills in the context of the development challenges in South Asia, and to support a culture of innovation, experimentation and research in academic institutions. The overall goal is to contribute to more accountable and effective development research, policy and ...

  16. The future of refining industry is in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The decision of Total Group to close down the refining activity of its Flandres' site at Dunkerque (France) is a testimony of the deep restructuring that is affecting this sector. The migration of the refining activity towards Middle-East and Asia has started several years ago. The World capacities are increasing: in 2009 4.36 billion tons of petroleum products were refined in the world, representing a 1.9% rise with respect to 2008. 661 refineries exist in the world, among which 6 were inaugurated in 2009, 115 are located in Europe and 12 in France. The bad health of the European refining activity is beneficial to Middle and Asia where investments in new production capacities follow on from one another. From now to 2030, these areas will benefit from 70% of the worldwide investments compared to 11% only for Europe and North America. The decline of the European refining industry is directly linked to decay of the automotive fuel consumption and to the increase of the diesel fuel share with respect to gasoline. On the other hand, Asia, and in particular China and India, follow the exactly opposite trend thanks to their population and economic growths. Therefore, European oil companies try to invest in Asia and are looking for new production capacities in China and India. (J.S.)

  17. The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    and maci]ine tools, petrol - chemicals, agro-processing and textiles. ’’~ 14 THE NEW GREAT GAME IN MUSLIM CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan is well endowed...Algeria, Tunisia , and Morocco---are keeping a wary eye. But at the popular level, this pan-Islmnism has the potential to attract a considerable amount of

  18. Monetary policy efficiency in the economies of Central Asia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Isakova, Asel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 11-12 (2008), s. 525-553 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy * Central Asia * dollarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1147_str_525_553_-_isakova.pdf

  19. Climate variations of Central Asia on orbital to millennial timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Spötl, Christoph; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Sinha, Ashish; Wassenburg, Jasper A; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Li, Xianglei; Yi, Liang; Peng, Youbing; Lv, Yanbin; Zhang, Pingzhong; Votintseva, Antonina; Loginov, Vadim; Ning, Youfeng; Kathayat, Gayatri; Edwards, R Lawrence

    2016-11-11

    The extent to which climate variability in Central Asia is causally linked to large-scale changes in the Asian monsoon on varying timescales remains a longstanding question. Here we present precisely dated high-resolution speleothem oxygen-carbon isotope and trace element records of Central Asia's hydroclimate variability from Tonnel'naya cave, Uzbekistan, and Kesang cave, western China. On orbital timescales, the supra-regional climate variance, inferred from our oxygen isotope records, exhibits a precessional rhythm, punctuated by millennial-scale abrupt climate events, suggesting a close coupling with the Asian monsoon. However, the local hydroclimatic variability at both cave sites, inferred from carbon isotope and trace element records, shows climate variations that are distinctly different from their supra-regional modes. Particularly, hydroclimatic changes in both Tonnel'naya and Kesang areas during the Holocene lag behind the supra-regional climate variability by several thousand years. These observations may reconcile the apparent out-of-phase hydroclimatic variability, inferred from the Holocene lake proxy records, between Westerly Central Asia and Monsoon Asia.

  20. Food Sovereignty and Uncultivated Biodiversity in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2007 ... In the food systems of South Asia, the margin between cultivated and ... and guides the reader into new territory, where food, ecology, and culture converge. ... Based on extensive field research in India and Bangladesh, with and by ... Le CRDI se joint au Forum économique mondial afin de présenter les ...

  1. Far East Asia | Page 93 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... et l'introduction de cultures à rendement élevé, les agriculteurs punjabi se sont ... Although it occupies just 1.5% of India's land mass, Punjab now grows more ...

  2. Far East Asia | Page 67 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the Dynamics of Vulnerability in the Earthquake of October 2005 (Pakistan). Language English. Read more about Promoting Trade in Services in the Middle East and North Africa : Pilot Project. Language English.

  3. Bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific: a 2007 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Gribskov, Michael; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-01-01

    We provide a 2007 update on the bioinformatics research in the Asia-Pacific from the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998. From 2002, APBioNet has organized the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2007 Conference was organized as the 6th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Aug. 27-30, 2007 at Hong Kong, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea) and New Delhi (India). Besides a scientific meeting at Hong Kong, satellite events organized are a pre-conference training workshop at Hanoi, Vietnam and a post-conference workshop at Nansha, China. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. We have organized the papers into thematic areas, highlighting the growing contribution of research excellence from this region, to global bioinformatics endeavours.

  4. Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Ahsan, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the economic and social impact of international migration on labor sending and labor receiving countries in the East Asia region. More specifically, the book seeks: (a) to examine the impact of international migration on key development indicators, including poverty, investment, labor force participation, labor productivity and wages; (b) to evaluate ...

  5. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  7. Assets for Children: Experiences in Asia and Implications for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Sherraden, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of national and local governments view child development accounts (CDAs) as an innovative policy tool for social and economic development. This article reviews the global landscape of CDAs, presents three CDA policy cases from Asia, analyzes main themes and discusses potential implications for China. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Corporate governance and corruption : A comparative study of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijayati, Nureni; Hermes, Niels; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The weak corporate governance framework in Indonesia, as in other countries in Southeast Asia, was deemed a crucial factor in deepening the financial and economic crisis in the late 1990s. Over a decade after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries have made

  9. South Asia | Page 90 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Language French. Read more about Economics for the Environment: Research Capacity Building in South Asia. Language English. Read more about Occasions et difficultés associées aux activités commerciales dans les zones ...

  10. Pollen of Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from SE Asia, especially Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parnell, J.

    2003-01-01

    Pollen of 57 species of Syzygium from SE Asia were surveyed by SEM. The grains are all ± triangular in polar view, uniformly small (mean diameter 10.4 μm) with few surface sculpturing features. All species examined exhibit a distinct apocolpium and, usually, apocolpial field. The presence of an

  11. KETERKAITAN DINAMIS PASAR SAHAM INDONESIA DAN ASIA PASIFIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Suparmun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect and identify short-term dynamic linkages between Indonesian stock market andAsia-Pacific stock markets during the period of January 2nd, 2003 until December 31st, 2009 by using theimpulse response function analysis and forecast error variance decomposition. The period was divided intosub-period of before, during, and after the global financial crisis. The results showed that Indonesian stockmarket responded positively to each shock caused by the Asia-Pacific stock markets. The response becamestronger during crisis sub-period. This condition proved a significant increase of short-term dynamic linkagesbetween Indonesian stock market and other Asia Pacific during the global financial crisis. After crisis sub-period, many Asian-Pacific stock markets’ shocks were responded negatively by Indonesian stock market.Australian, China and Hong Kong stock markets were the top three in share among the countries of the AsiaPacific contributing to influence the Indonesian stock market movements

  12. Global Currents, Musical Streams : European Opera in Colonial Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    yamomo, meLê

    2017-01-01

    The advancement of the new transportation and communications technologies in the nineteenth century changed the landscape of the trade between Asia and Europe. Steam transportation, the telegraph, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 heightened the pace of material trade and labour migrations

  13. Urban population and economic growth: South Asia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Sarker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously economic growth was generally discussed in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI, educational growth, savings, investments, inflation as well as trade openness of a nation. Very recently it has been identified that population is one of the major determinants of economic growth of a nation. In the recent years, the study of urbanization has gained a matter of concern in developing countries as it has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. South Asian countries are one of the emerging economics and growing at a faster rate over the past few years. At the same time, population of South Asia is growing at a significant rate. Therefore the study has attempted to identify the causal relationship between urban population and economic growth in South Asia using a panel data analysis. The study makes use of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Phillips-Perron (PP, Pesaran as well as Fisher methods for panel unit root test. The panel Pedroni cointegration test suggests that there is long run relationship between the variables. The further panel Vector Error Correction Model (VECM suggests that there is long run causality running from urban population growth to economic growth in South Asia. The study concludes that the growth of urban population can have significant impact on economic growth in South Asia in the long run.

  14. Far East Asia | Page 183 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tim Unwin, titulaire de la chaire UNESCO en TIC pour le développement et professeur de géographie, Royal Holloway, Université de Londres ... For observers elsewhere in the world, the most striking feature of distance education (DE) in Asia is the mega-universities and mega-schools that have added many millions to the ...

  15. Origin and distribution of Sporothrix globosa causing sapronoses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Tarek A A; Kadasa, Naif M S; Al Zahrani, Hassan S; Ahmed, Sarah Abdallah; Feng, Peiying; Gerrits van den Ende, Albertus H G; Zhang, Yu; Kano, Rui; Li, Fuqiu; Li, Shanshan; Song, Yang; Dong, Bilin; Rossato, Luana; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Hoog, Sybren de

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the main sources and epidemiological patterns and speculate on the evolutionary origin of Sporothrix globosa in Asia. Case and case series literature on sporotrichosis in Asia from January 2007 onwards were reviewed using meta-analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of relevant S. globosa was carried out on the basis of concatenated sequences of ITS, TEF3 and CAL. A haplotype network of CAL sequences of 281 Sporothrix isolates was analysed to determine the population structure of S. globosa. Nearly all cases of sporotrichosis caused by S. globosa in Asia were human. In contrast to the remaining pathogenic Sporothrix species, feline transmission was exceptional; nearly all regional cat-associated cases were caused by Sporothrix schenckii. While the latter species was highly variable and showed recombination, S. globosa seemed to be a clonal offshoot, as was Sporothrix brasiliensis. The origin of the segregants was located in an area of high variability in S. schenckii with a relatively high frequency of Asian strains. In Asia, S. globosa was the prevalent species. The low diversity of S. globosa suggested a recent divergence with a founder effect of low variability from the variable ancestral species, S. schenckii.

  16. Distance Education Technologies in Asia | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 nov. 2010 ... For observers elsewhere in the world, the most striking feature of distance education (DE) in Asia is the mega-universities and mega-schools that have added many millions to the global tally of distance learners in recent decades. These are institutions such as China's radio and television universities (now ...

  17. The Olympic Games: Showcases of Internationalism and Modernity in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Kietlinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Huebner. Pan-Asian Sports and the Emergence of Modern Asia, 1913-1974. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2016. 416 pp. $42 (paper. Jessamyn Abel. The International Minimum: Creativity and Contradiction in Japan's Global Engagement, 1933-1964. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2015. 344 pp. $54 (cloth.

  18. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region

  19. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  20. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  1. Long-range transport and deposition of sulfur in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.L.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The long range transport of sulfur in Asia is analyzed through the use of a multi-dimensional acid deposition model. The air quality of this region is heavily influenced by the combination of Asia's growing population, its expanding economy, and the associated systems of energy consumption and production. These factors combined with a shift to using indigenous coal as the primary fuel source for the region, will result in increased emissions of pollutants into the environment. By the year 2020 sulfur emissions from Asia are projected to exceed the combined emissions from Europe and North America. The authors have estimated sulfur deposition in Asia on a one-by-one degree spatial resolution in the region from Pakistan to Japan and from Indonesia to Mongolia using a 3-layer Lagrangian model. Deposition in excess of 10 g S/m 2 is predicted in south-central China. The relationship between emission source and receptor has been developed into a deposition matrix and examples of the source-receptor relationship are presented. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Observed regional distribution of sulfur dioxide in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, G.R.; Ferm, M.; Adikary, S.; Ahmad, J.; Mohan, M.; Hong, M.S.; Chen, L.; Fook, L.; Liu, C.M.; Soedomo, M.; Tran, G.; Suksomsank, K.; Zhao, D.; Arndt, R.; Chen, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Increased use of coal for energy in Asia has led to increased SO 2 emissions. SO 2 concentrations have been measured for one year at forty-five locations throughout Asia using passive samplers. Duplicate samples were exposed at each site for one month intervals. The sites were selected to provide background information on the distribution of SO 2 over wide geographical regions, with emphasis on the regional characteristics around areas estimated to be sensitive to sulfur deposition. The annual mean values ranged from less than 0.3 μg/m 3 at Tana Rata, located at 1545 m on the Malaysia Peninsula, Lawa Mandau (Borneo), Malaysia, and Dhankuta, Nepal, to values greater than 20 μg/m 3 at Luchongguan (Guiyang) China, Babar Mahal, Nepal, and Hanoi, Vietnam. In general high concentrations were measured throughout China, with the highest concentrations in the heavy industrial areas in Guiyang. The concentrations in east Asia around the Korea peninsula were ∼ 5 μg/m 3 . The concentrations in the southeast Asia tropics were low, with no station in Malaysia and Indonesia having average concentrations exceeding 1.7 μg/m 3 . The observed SO 2 concentrations were found to display a distinct seasonal cycle which is strongly influenced by the seasonality of winds and precipitation patterns. 3 refs., 3 figs

  3. Information and Networks in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Information and Networks in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: Strengthening Research Capacity ... credible, high-quality evidence on the influence of digital initiatives in the areas of ... use of digital information networks and economic growth, democratic reform, and increased educational opportunities in developing countries.

  4. Far East Asia | Page 96 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Toward an Innovation-led Development Path in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Vers un développement axé sur l'innovation aux Philippines. Language French. Read more about Evaluating a Real-Time Bio Surveillance Program : Pilot Project.

  5. Far East Asia | Page 114 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Femmes et gouvernance locale - exploration de nouvelles possibilités. Language French. Read more about Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la ...

  6. Far East Asia | Page 43 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Diet-related Policy Options in Pakistan to Promote the Intake of Healthy Foods. Language English. Read more about La dévalorisation des filles au ...

  7. Central Asia | Page 21 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and Learning. Language English. Read more about Toward an Innovation-led Development Path in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Vers un développement axé sur l'innovation aux Philippines.

  8. A Global Conceptual History of Asia, 1860-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contributors to this volume explore the changing concepts of the social and the economic during a period of fundamental change across Asia. Case studies show how adopting Western words reflected regional concepts of economy and society. Overall, contributors challenge accepted explanations of how...

  9. Far East Asia | Page 72 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Institutionnalisation et élargissement de la protection sociale en Asie. Language French. Read more about TIC et microentreprises en milieu urbain : optimisation des possibilités de développement économique. Language French. Read more about ICTs and Urban Micro ...

  10. Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) builds the resilience of vulnerable populations and their livelihoods in these hot spots by supporting collaborative research on climate change adaptation to inform policy and practice. CARIAA takes a unique approach by organizing research ...

  11. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  12. Globalization, English Language Policy, and Teacher Agency: Focus on Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on English teachers in Asia in the context of globalization, the global spread of English and the emergence of English as an "Asian language." It highlights the dilemmas facing these teachers in meeting the growing social demands of English proficiency in a technology-influenced, managerial and neoliberal education…

  13. New trends in the anthropology of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question, is there such an entity as a separate field of the anthropology of Southeast Asia? Has the crisis in anthropology in the 1970s and ‘the literary turn’ of the 1980s led to a renewed interest in area studies? A number of topics that originally belonged to the field

  14. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  15. Artemisia communities in arid zones of Uzbekistan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov A. Kapustina; Montserrat Torrell; Joan Valles

    2001-01-01

    Central Asia, and particularly the former Soviet Middle Asian countries, with more than 180 taxa (45 endemics), is one of the centers of origin and speciation of the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae, Anthemideae). Several species of this genus, mainly belonging to subgenus Seriphidium (Besser) Rouy, are shrubs that dominate the landscape and form large communities in...

  16. ICT Infrastructure in Emerging Asia: Policy and Regulatory Roadblocks

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-06

    Feb 6, 2008 ... This book brings together scholars, practitioners, former regulators, and policymakers to address the problem of expanding information and communication technology (ICT) connectivity in emerging Asia. It centrally engages the widespread claim that technology by itself — independent of policy and ...

  17. How can Small Countries in South Asia benefit from Biotechnology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will help small developing countries in South Asia develop ... and Development) countries and emerging economies like India and China. The second concerns a plan to implement agro-biotechnology businesses based on tissue ... in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  18. ASIA: Half the Human Race. A Viewer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, Terry E., Ed.; Willey, Fay

    This publication is a viewer's guide for a 1979 CBS summer television series on Asia. It is also designed to be used independently of the TV series. The TV series included a mixture of lectures and interviews, complemented by examples of Asian art, music, and dance. The guide supplements each of the thirty programs in the series with maps,…

  19. In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures | Ganguli | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures. Ishani Ganguli. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 50-51. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  20. Gender and Citizenship in the Information Society in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender and Citizenship in the Information Society in Asia. It has been suggested that women in the developing world have the most to gain from an information society. However, evidence of the positive impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on gender equality and empowerment has been inconclusive ...

  1. Phylogenetic tests of distribution patterns in South Asia: towards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The last four decades have seen an increasing integration of phylogenetics and biogeography. However, a dearth of phylogenetic studies has precluded such biogeographic analyses in South Asia until recently. Noting the increase in phylogenetic research and interest in phylogenetic biogeography in the region, we ...

  2. From supercontinents to surface environment: Geological records from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, E.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Yang, Qiong-Yan

    2018-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Asian Earth Sciences stems from the 2016 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and 13th international conference presentations on Gondwana to Asia held at Trivandrum, India during 18-22 November 2016, covering a wide range of topics from supercontinents to life and surface environment with the Asian region in focus.

  3. Water Security in Periurban South Asia : Adapting to Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chargé(e) de projet. Prof. Ashutosh Kumar Shukla. Institution. Nepal Engineering College. Pays d' institution. Nepal. Site internet. http://www.nec.edu.np. Extrants. Études. Communication strategy in action research on water security in four South Asian peri-urban locations : CCW Asia Regional Partners Meeting, June ...

  4. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  5. Pandora's Box: A new model for education in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Many who have only experienced face-to-face education in an ... In fact, in Asia, distance education using information and communication technologies (ICTs) is ... Part of the problem is that students in the countryside must move to the city to get an education. ... Mobile phones connect producers to markets.

  6. Does Africa grow slower than Asia and Latin America?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we address the question whether countries on the African continent have lower average growth rates in real GDP per capita than countries in Asia and Latin America. In contrast to previous studies, we do not aggregate the data, nor do we a priori assign countries to

  7. Some thoughts on nuclear cooperation in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaloeis, Azhar

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes some thoughts of the author on the importance of the role of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region in giving significant contributions to the development of the individual countries and to the region as a whole. The paper focuses on the role of nuclear science and technology and the importance of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, in particular to meet the challenges and opportunities in the new millennium. The paper starts off with a brief discussion on some important aspects of the Asia-Pacific region in view of its strategic location and its vast potential in terms of human and natural resources. Some of the major needs, challenges and opportunities in association with a future vision are briefly presented in terms of areas of activities that can be supported by the application of nuclear science and technology. The paper then discusses some ideas on how to further strengthen the nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by some concluding remarks and suggestions. (author)

  8. South Asia | Page 194 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is the outcome of the collaborative PANdora research and development ... $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. ... role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  9. Far East Asia | Page 184 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avec un revenu annuel d'environ 200 dollars US par habitant, la République ... examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  10. South Asia | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avec un revenu annuel d'environ 200 dollars US par habitant, la République ... examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  11. South Asia | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With an annual income of approximately $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of ... the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  12. Asia-Pacific Journal for Student Affairs (AJSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS) serves as a global network of student affairs and services workers that encourages sharing, cooperation, research, exchanges, and attendance at each other's conferences. The Vice President and. General Secretary of IASAS attended the 2016 Asia ...

  13. "EurAsia" parimad palad tulid Euroopast / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise võistlusprogrammi EurAsia võiduteosest, Sergei Loznitsa mängufilmist „Minu õnn”, (Ukraina - Holland - Saksamaa - Prantsusmaa) ja parima režissööri auhinna pälvinud Chris Krause eestiainelisest filmis "Polli päevikud"(Saksamaa - Austria - Eesti). Artikli lõpus loetletud filmifestivali auhinnasaajad

  14. Reforming Security Sector Governance South Asia | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In South Asia, security discourse has traditionally been confined to government circles, with no room for voices from civil society. ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...

  15. South Asia | Page 73 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asie du sud. Read more about Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia. Language English. Read more about Migration transnationale des Vietnamiennes en Asie. Language French. Read more about Renforcement des capacités institutionnelles et de la programmation du CRTD.A (Liban). Language French.

  16. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast As...... Asian titans in Myanmar and finally the conclusion wraps...

  17. South Asia | Page 113 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As such, it is a tremendously valuable resource for the policymakers, government leaders, and public sector managers. — Hyeun-Suk Rhee (Director, Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development, Incheon, Republic of Korea). Read more about Digital Review of Asia ...

  18. South Asia | Page 112 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As such, it is a tremendously valuable resource for the policymakers, government leaders, and public sector managers. — Hyeun-Suk Rhee (Director, Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development, Incheon, Republic of Korea). Read more about Digital Review of Asia ...

  19. Far East Asia | Page 187 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hyeun-Suk Rhee (Director, Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development, Incheon, Republic of Korea). Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language English. Les exemples présentés dans Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture illustrent la ...

  20. Pathways to Institutionalizing and Extending Social Protection in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis (1999), the Ford Foundation initiated a research program on Social Protection in Asia. This program contributed to a growing ... to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.