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Sample records for asia transboundary water

  1. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification

  2. Evolution, opportunity and challenges of transboundary water and energy problems in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lidan; Zhou, Haiwei; Xia, Ziqiang; Huang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy. Based on the analysis of water and energy distribution characteristics in Central Asia as well as demand characteristics of different countries, the complexity of local transboundary water problems was explored by reviewing corresponding historical problems of involved countries, correlated energy issues, and the evolution of inter-country water-energy cooperation. With references to experiences and lessons of five countries, contradictions, opportunities, challenges and strategies for transboundary water-energy cooperation between China and Central Asia were discussed under the promotion of the Silk Road Economic Belt construction based on current cooperation conditions.

  3. Social and ecological aspects of the water resources management of the transboundary rivers of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normatov, P.

    2014-09-01

    The Zeravshan River is a transboundary river whose water is mainly used for irrigation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Sufficiently rich hydropower resources in upstream of the Zeravshan River characterize the Republic of Tajikistan. Continuous monitoring of water resources condition is necessary for planning the development of this area taking into account hydropower production and irrigation needs. Water quality of Zeravshan River is currently one of the main problems in the relationship between the Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and it frequently triggers conflict situations between the two countries. In most cases, the problem of water quality of the Zeravshan River is related to river pollution by wastewater of the Anzob Mountain-concentrating Industrial Complex (AMCC) in Tajikistan. In this paper results of research of chemical and bacteriological composition of the Zeravshan River waters are presented. The minimum impact of AMCC on quality of water of the river was experimentally established.

  4. Water resources in Central Asia - status quo and future conflicts in transboundary river catchments - the example of the Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Michael; Opp, Christian; Kulmatov, Rashid; Normatov, Inom; Stulina, Galina; Shermatov, Nurmakhmad

    2014-05-01

    Water is the most valuable resource in Central Asia and due to its uneven distribution and usage among the countries of the region it is also the main source of tension between upstream and downstream water users. Due to the rapidly shrinking glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alai mountains, the available water resources will, by 2030, be 30% lower than today while the water demand of the growing economies will increase by 30%. This will further aggravate the pressure on the water resources and increase the water deficit caused by an unsustainable water use and political agendas. These challenges can only be overcome by an integrated water resource management for the important transboundary river catchments. The basis for such an IWRM approach however needs to be a solid data base about the status quo of the water resources. To that end the research presented here provides a detailed overview of the transboundary Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan), the lifeline for more than 6 mln people. The Zarafshan River is well suited for this as it is not only one of the most important rivers in Central Asia but because the public availability of hydrological and ecological data is very limited, Furthermore the catchment is characterized by the same imbalances in the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus as most river systems in that region, which makes the Zarafshan a perfect model river for Central Asia as a whole. The findings presented here are based on field measurements, existing data from the national hydrometeorological services and an extensive literature analysis and cover the status quo of the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Zarafshan as well as the most important water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, arsenic, chromate, copper, zinc, fluoride, petroleum products, phenols and the aquatic invertebrate fauna). The hydrology of the Zarafshan is characterized by a high natural discharge dynamic in the mountainous upper parts of

  5. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and d

  6. New Approach to Monitor Transboundary Particulate Pollution over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. E.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Woo, J. H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; Lee, S. S.; Song, C. K.; Hong, Y. D.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM) pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). The area studied is Northeast Asia (including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan), where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite) through the Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May, 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117-265% compared to background average AOD (aerosol optical depth) at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. This paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  7. New approach to monitor transboundary particulate pollution over northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI. The area studied is northeast Asia including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan, where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite through Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for surface-level PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117–265% compared to background average AOD at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. The paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  8. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  9. "拓展亚洲国际河流跨境水与生态安全合作"国际学术研讨会在大理召开%International Workshop on "Expanding Trans-boundary Cooperation for Water and Environment Security in Asia's International Rivers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katri Makkonen; 赵歆

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Expanding Transboundary Cooperation for Water and Environment Security in Asia's International Rivers" was held on December 10-14, 2005, Dali, Yunnan, China. It was organized by Tsinghua University, the World Bank Institute (WBI), the United Nations University (UNU) and Asian International Rivers Center (AIRC). A total of over 60 scholars from the USA, Canada, Australia, Finland, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, India, Sri Lanka, Iran and China participated in this workshop. The topics include seeking reasonable utilization and sustainable conflict resolutions related to transboundary water resources, and transboundary eco-security maintenance; expanding cooperation between Asia and the rest of the world on international river issues, identifying potential opportunities; and possibility of a common research agenda for addressing environment changes in Mekong River Basin.

  10. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  11. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus and the Transboundary Context: Insights from Large Asian Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Keskinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The water-energy-food nexus is a topical subject for research and practice, reflecting the importance of these sectors for humankind and the complexity and magnitude of the challenges they are facing. While the nexus as a concept is not yet mature or fully tested in practice, it has already encouraged a range of approaches in a variety of contexts. This article provides a set of definitions recognizing three perspectives that see the nexus as an analytical tool, governance framework and as an emerging discourse. It discusses the implications that an international transboundary context brings to the nexus and vice versa. Based on a comparative analysis of three Asian regions—Central Asia, South Asia and the Mekong Region—and their related transboundary river basins, we propose that the transboundary context has three major implications: diversity of scales and perspectives, importance of state actors and importance of politics. Similarly, introducing the nexus as an approach in a transboundary context has a potential to provide new resources and approaches, alter existing actor dynamics and portray a richer picture of relationships. Overall, the significance of water-energy-food linkages and their direct impacts on water allocation mean that the nexus has the potential to complement existing approaches also in the transboundary river basins.

  12. Transboundary air pollution in East/Southeast Asia and geostationary measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, K.; Kasai, Y.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Miyazaki, K.; Takigawa, M.; Noguchi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Akimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    Accompanying with recent development of industry and economy in countries in Eastern/Southern/Southeastern Asia, emissions of air pollutants have been increasing significantly. Long-range, transboundary transport of these pollutants probably affects the atmospheric environment and the regional climate in this region. In Japan, although concentrations of ozone precursors have been decreasing in 1990s-2000s, surface ozone concentration has been gradually increasing and photochemical smog sometimes occurs not only in urban regions but also in remote areas. One of the causes of this ozone increase is considered to be transboundary transport of polluted air masses in East Asia. Geostationary (GEO) satellite observation of air pollutants over Asia is expected to contribute to understanding the photochemical and transport processes as well as the spatial and temporal variation of their emissions in this region. It can play crucial rolls for monitoring and predicting the transboundary pollution events. In this talk, some examples of transboundary pollution in East and Southeast Asia will be presented, and the detection possibility of these pollution events from GEO satellite will be discussed. Possible improvement of the model prediction of these pollution events by assimilating GEO satellite data will be also presented.

  13. The key indicators of transboundary water apportionment based on international laws and cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan; HE Daming; LI Yungang

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary water,more competitive utilization and uncertain availability under the globalization trend,the issue of its apportionment which directly impacts national benefits of each riparian state is becoming one of the important topics in the world.Water is scarce in China,the most important upstream state in Asia,and this task has to be thought over in the coming future.Based on “International Freshwater Treaties Database” (1820-2007) by Oregon State University,and publications and reports on transboundary water utilization and management since 1999,28 indicators of water apportionment adopted in 49 international treaties and cases in 1864-2002 are divided into 6 types,the spatial and temporal characteristics of the adopted indicators are analyzed in order to find the key indicator(s) of transboundary water apportionment.The major results include:the major adopted indicators,have significant differences among 5 regions/continents,the indicators at rank first and second place in the developed region (North America and Europe) according to the adopted times are “keeping minimum water flow” and “mean annual runoff”,but in the developing region (Asia,Africa and South America),the ranking order of the above two indicators is reversed; the major adopted indicators in the watersheds with insufficient water are “mean annual runoff”and “keeping minimum water flow”,the ones in the watersheds with sufficient water are “keeping minimum water flow” and “maximum water intake”; the international treaties signed from the first phase to the fourth phase,the developing process shows a progress of “fewer-increasing a lot-decreasing rapidly-equation basically”,the regional distribution of the treaties shifts mainly from the developed region to the developing one,especially to Asia and Africa; the major adopted indicators shifts from “keeping minimum water flow” and “mean annual runoff” in 1864-1945,to “keeping minimum water flow” and

  14. Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of co

  15. Large transboundary watersheds: Climate, water and streams of thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2001-05-01

    Water is a "fugitive" resource in the sense that it flows naturally from one place to another, from one reserve to another (e.g., groundwater to surface), and from one physical state (solid, liquid and gas) to another. Thus "trans-boundary" can mean many things including: transitions from wet to arid zones, from upstream to downstream, from one country or province to the next etc. The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (1992) defines "transboundary waters" to mean "any surface or ground waters which mark, cross or are located on the boundaries between two or more states". Emerging issues in water resources emanate from three categories of problems; (1) transboundary water availability; (2) transboundary groundwater allocation, management, and conservation; and (3) transboundary water quality. Transboundary fluctuations and changes in river flow can be attributed to (1) climate variations and change on several timescales, and, (2) physical and biological transformations of basin hydrology including increased storage, diversions, and landscape changes. Researchers and practitioners have identified numerous factors underlying international disputes involving river flows, including: the variability and uncertainty of supply, interdependencies among users, increasing over-allocation and rising costs, the increasing vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems to human activities, ways and means of supplying safe water facilities, and the mobilization of financial resources for water development and management. Many of these issues derive from general concerns in water resources management. How these concerns are met is strongly shaped by the choice of the spatial unit within which studies and management actions are conducted, by the way problems have been defined and changed over time, and by who benefits from defining problems in a particular way. In the following discussion the scales of human activities

  16. Alternative analysis of the transboundary air pollution problems in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won

    The recently increasing industrialization and urbanization in Northeast Asia has led to a large volume of air pollutants being emitted in this region. The growth rate of the total emissions is still increasing alarmingly. China has been the major contributor to the total emissions of air pollutants in Northeast Asia. Westerly winds, a unique regional meteorological phenomenon, prevail throughout the year, and the long- range transport of air pollutants is propelled by those winds. As a result, nations in Northeast Asia are very concerned about potential problems with long-range transport of air pollutants from foreign sources. This is because air pollutants emitted from one nation's ground facilities and mobile sources travel hundreds or even thousands of miles by the effects of air pressure and wind drift, and can bring damage to other nations' ecosystems and human health. For example, Korea is located in the eastern part of the region and it can be significantly affected by the air pollutants transported from China. This dissertation research deals with the transboundary air pollution problem between China and Korea. Among many problems related to transboundary air pollution, this study concentrates on the following two issues: (1)Firstly, the negative consequences of transboundary air pollution from China at industrial sites in Korea; and (2)Secondly, the prediction of the future impact of China's sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions on the air quality in Korea. The results of the case study in Chapter 3 show evidence of the negative impacts of the transboundary air pollution in Korea. The production loss in Korea is an example of the negative impact brought about by transboundary movement of Chinese air pollutants. The runs of the computer aided simulation model in Chapter 4 show projected emission trends in China and Korea until the year 2010. The simulation results show that the total amount of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in China and

  17. Transboundary water conflict resolution mechanisms: toward convergence between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayia, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Transboundary waters are expected be one of the biggest challenges for human development over the next decades. The growing global water scarcity and interdependence among water-sharing countries have created tensions over shared water resources around the world. Therefore, interest in studying transboundary water conflict resolution has grown over the last decades. This research focuses on transboundary water resources conflict resolution mechanisms. A more a specific concern is to explore the mechanisms of allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian states. The literature of transboundary water resources conflict has brought various approaches for allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian countries. Some of these approaches have focused on the negotiation process, such the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Other approaches have analysed the economic dimension of transboundary water disputes, in an attempt to identify optimal economic criteria for water allocation, such as the "social planner" approach and the "water market" approach. A more comprehensive approach has been provided by game theory that has brought together the economic and political dimensions of the water dispute management. The study attempts to provide a map for the relation between theory and practice in the field of transboundary water conflict resolution. Therefore, it explores the approaches that have been used to analyse real transboundary water disputes management. Moreover, it examines the approaches that have been suggested in literature as mechanisms of transboundary water conflict resolution. Finally, it identifies the techniques that have been used in practice to solve transboundary water conflicts and attempts to evaluate the sustainability of the resulting regulatory institutional arrangements.

  18. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  19. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  20. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has n

  1. Water Governance in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Assche, Van Kristof; Valentinov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    We develop a social systems theory perspective on Central Asian post-Socialist transition, placing particular emphasis on the coordination problems in transboundary water governance. The extensive Soviet water-energy infrastructure around the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers required coordination, bu

  2. Management of trans-boundary water resources: comparing Russian and American experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a comparative analysis of Russia and US’s experience of participation in international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management. The author showcases the work of Russian-Estonian Commission for Protection and Rational Use of Trans-Boundary Waters and the US-Canadian International Joint Commission. The Russian-Estonian Commission works in accordance with the principle of intergovernmentalism, whereas transnationalism is the founding principle of the ...

  3. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  4. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  5. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  6. A Methodology to Assess the Water Energy Food Ecosystems Nexus in Transboundary River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia de Strasser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The “nexus” is a potentially very appropriate approach to enhance resource efficiency and good governance in transboundary basins. Until now, however, evidence has been confined to isolated case studies and the nexus approach remains largely undefined. The methodology presented in this paper, developed for preparing a series of nexus assessments of selected river basins under the Water Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE, is a timely contribution to this ongoing debate. The nexus assessment of a transboundary basin has the objective of identifying trade-offs and impacts across sectors and countries and to propose possible policy measures and technical actions at national and transboundary levels to reduce intersectoral tensions. This is done jointly with policy makers and local experts. Compared to an Integrated Water Resource Management approach, the water energy food ecosystems nexus approach concurrently considers multiple sectors and their evolution. This offers the opportunity to better involve key economic sectors—energy and agriculture in particular—in the dialogue over transboundary water resource uses, protection and management.

  7. Will climate change exacerbate water stress in Central Asia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegfried, Tobias; Bernauer, Thomas; Guiennet, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    unstable Fergana Valley. Targeted infrastructural developments will be required in the region. If the current mismanagement of water and energy resources can be replaced with more effective resource allocation mechanisms through the strengthening of transboundary institutions, Central Asia will be able......Millions of people in the geopolitically important region of Central Asia depend on water from snow- and glacier-melt driven international rivers, most of all the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. The riparian countries of these rivers have experienced recurring water allocation conflicts ever since...... the Soviet Union collapsed. Will climate change exacerbate water stress and thus conflicts? We have developed a coupled climate, land-ice and rainfall-runoff model for the Syr Darya to quantify impacts and show that climatic changes are likely to have consequences on runoff seasonality due to earlier snow...

  8. Countries at Risk: Heightened Human Security Risk to States With Transboundary Water Resources and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, J. C.; Sullivan, G. S.; Paola, C.; Starget, A.; Watson, J. E.; Hwang, Y. J.; Picucci, J. A.; Choi, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Countries at Risk project is a global assessment of countries with transboundary water resources that are at risk for conflict because of high human security instability. Building upon Basins at Risk (BAR) research, our team used updated Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database georeferenced social and environmental data, quantitative data from global indices, and qualitative data from news media sources. Our assessment considered a combination of analyzing 15 global indices related to water or human security to identify which countries scored as highest risk in each index. From this information, we were able to assess the highest risk countries' human security risk by using a new human security measurement tool, as well as comparing this analysis to the World Bank's Fragile States Index and the experimental Human Security Index. In addition, we identified which countries have the highest number of shared basins, the highest percentage of territory covered by a transboundary basin, and the highest dependency of withdrawal from transboundary waters from outside their country boundaries. By synthesizing these social and environmental data assessments, we identified five countries to analyze as case studies. These five countries are Afghanistan, China, Iraq, Moldova, and Sudan. We created a series of 30 maps to spatial analyze the relationship between the transboundary basins and social and environmental parameters to include population, institutional capacity, and physical geography by country. Finally, we synthesized our spatial analysis, Human Security Key scores, and current events scored by using the BAR scale to determine what aspects and which basins are most at risk with each country in our case studies and how this concerns future global water resources.

  9. Trans-Boundary Haze Pollution in Southeast Asia: Sustainability through Plural Environmental Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saidul Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent haze in Southeast Asian countries including Singapore is largely attributable to rampant forest fires in Indonesia due to, for example, extensive slash-and-burn (S & B culture. Drawing on the “treadmill of production” and environmental governance approach, we examine causes and consequences of this culture. We found that, despite some perceived benefits, its environmental consequences include deforestation, soil erosion and degradation, global warming, threats to biodiversity, and trans-boundary haze pollution, while the societal consequences comprise regional tension, health risks, economic and productivity losses, as well as food insecurity. We propose sustainability through a plural coexistence framework of governance for targeting S & B that incorporates strategies of incentives, education and community resource management.

  10. Management of Trans-boundary Water Resources: Comparing Russian and American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a comparative analysis of Russia and US’s experience of participation in international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management. The author showcases the work of Russian-Estonian Commission for Protection and Rational Use of Trans-Boundary Waters and the US-Canadian International Joint Commission. The Russian-Estonian Commission works in accordance with the principle of intergovernmentalism, whereas transnationalism is the founding principle of the International Joint Commission in North America. Though the Russian-Estonian Commission is more efficient in water quality improvement in its area of responsibility, it is early still to claim that intergovernmental cooperation is more effective than transnational cooperation. However, it gives a reason to question the conclusions of the proponents of transnationalism in the international relations theory, who claim that the latter is more efficient. Practical significance of this paper is in the proposed recommendations for further modernization of international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management.

  11. The integration of water quality into transboundary allocation agreements Lessons from the southwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Lynne Lewis

    2000-01-01

    There is now a fairly substantial literature that addresses transboundary water allocation both at the international and interstate level. However, most of this literature deals almost exclusively with the question of allocation and ignores quality considerations. At the same time, there is a growing literature on trans boundary pollution control and upstream/downstream externalities. What is missing is an attempt to integrate quality consideration into allocation agreements. This paper exami...

  12. A market-based approach to share water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived as efficient, as well as equitable, in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. In this methodology (i) a hydro-economic model is used to efficiently allocate scarce water resources to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges are equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users. The amount of monetary compensation, for each water user, is determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The technique ensures economic efficiency and may lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness.

  13. The Characteristics of Long-range Transboundary Inorganic Secondary Aerosols in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. J.; Carmichael, G. R.; Woo, J. H.; Qiang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent particle matter episodes greatly influence air quality in Northeast Asia. According to many studies, a major reason is long-range transport of air pollutant. Large amount of emission of chemical compounds aggravate air pollution in the region. Emitted air pollutants mainly come from industrialized regions along the East China coast. It can be transported over downwind region by the prevailing westerlies. The long-rang transported fine particle certainly attributes to air quality in downwind region, but there are many unknowns on the quantity, transport pattern, and secondary aerosol production mechanism despite the fact with many studies have been performed. Major contributors of PM2.5 are inorganic secondary aerosols, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, in Korea. Especially high relative contributions of inorganic secondary aerosols appear for westerly wind cases. The main pathway of production of inorganic secondary aerosols is produced by converting from SO2 and NOx during the long-range transport but the contribution varies dramatically depending on season and wind pattern. Sulfate is consistently the primary contributor of PM2.5 still now but we should more concern nitrate because that NOx emissions of China is increasing steeply since 2000 by leading powerplant, industry, and transport, despite downward trend of SO2. In order to better understand regional air quality modeling of the long-range transport, international study, MICS-Asia phase III, has been initiated with many researchers. We will present chemical characteristics of PM2.5 long-range transport during westerly wind cases focused on secondary aerosol, tracking their transport pattern, and production pathway. Results using CMAQ with the modeling domain covering Northeast and Southeast China, Korea, and Japan with 15km resolution will be discussed.

  14. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  15. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006 in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem. We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA with values up to 600 μg m−3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA concentration slightly

  16. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration slightly increased. The

  17. Equitable utilisation and effective protection of sharing transboundary water resources:international rivers of western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and; 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4% of the national land area,28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17countries that have riparian relationships with western China, most of which are water-short countries. All are listed by UN ESCAP as countries with potential water crisis. The co-operative development and coordinated management of international rivers in western China is an important step toward the implementation of the national Great Western Development program. Taking into account of the national strategy and object hierarchy, as well as the development demand of the western region, it is necessary to pursue the multi-disciplinary study of the equitable allocation,utilisation, and eco-environment protection of transboundary water resources in the region. Such efforts will undoubtedly provide scientific evidence and support for the decision-making of the environmental protection and ecological construction and management in the western regions, the enforcement of the sub-regional economic co-operation, mitigation of trans-boundary conflicts, and enhancing bio-diversity conservation.

  18. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  19. Sharing Water on the Iberian Peninsula: A Europeanisation Approach to Explaining Transboundary Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Europeanisation perspective to the policy change evident in the 1998 Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Waters of the Spanish-Portuguese Basins (Albufeira convention. The 'top-down' Europeanisation framework is applied here to a case involving simultaneous, joint adaptation to European Union (EU policy in terms of two states negotiating a transborder agreement that encompasses institutional changes required by that policy. This study provides an analysis of transnational policy change in an area of vital importance in international relations, namely, shared freshwater resources. It finds that while the Europeanisation framework may be applied effectively to transboundary adaptation (not just cross-country comparison and goes a long way in explaining cooperation on the Iberian Peninsula, it is incomplete in its consideration of other influences within and beyond 'Europe', from the global to the local levels.

  20. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socioecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable economic development requires balancing of marginal costs from catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from freshwater/coastal ecosystem appreciation. Hence we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across natio...

  1. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  2. Modeling for transboundary water resources planning and allocation: the case of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Juízo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available International water resources agreements for transboundary rivers in southern Africa are generally founded in system analysis models for water planning and allocation. The Water Resources Yield Model (WRYM developed in South Africa has so far been the only model applied in official joint water resources studies aimed to form water-sharing agreements. The continuous discussion around the model performance and growing distress over it being South African, where it was originally developed, while South Africa is one of the interested parties in the process, results in an increased controversy over the system analysis results that are often only meant to guide in selecting the options for water resources management in a given set of scenarios. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the model performance of two other models; WAFLEX and WEAP21 in the Umbeluzi River Basin system where the WRYM was previously applied as part of a Joint River Basin Study. A set of basin development scenarios was equally tested in the three models and the results compared. The results show that the three models all are possible tools for system analysis of river basins in southern Africa, although the structure and complexity of the models are different. The obtained level of satisfaction for specific water users could, however, vary depending on which model was used, which causes uncertainties. The reason for the diverse results is the structurally different ways of describing allocation and prioritization of water in the three models. However, the large degrees of freedom in all system models cause even larger uncertainty in the results since the model developer can, intentionally or unintentionally, direct the results to favor certain water user. The conclusion of this study is therefore that the choice of model does not per se affect the decision of best water allocation and infrastructure layout of a shared river basin. The chosen allocation and

  3. An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Boyer, Dana; Singh Nagpure, Ajay; Fang, Andrew; Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik; Cohen, Elliot; Rao-Ghorpade, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    This paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment. Delhi’s community-wide food demand includes household consumption by socio-economic-strata, visitors- and industrial food-use. This demand depends 90%, 76%, and 86% on trans-boundary supply of FEW, respectively. Supply chain data reveal unique features of trans-boundary FEW production regions (e.g. irrigation-electricity needs and GHG intensities of power-plants), yielding supply chain-informed coupled energy-water-GHG footprints of FEW provisioning to Delhi. Agri-food supply contributes to both GHG (19%) and water-footprints (72%–82%) of Delhi’s FEW provisioning, with milk, rice and wheat dominating these footprints. Analysis of FEW interactions within Delhi found >75% in-boundary water-use for food is for urban agriculture and >76% in-boundary energy-use for food is from cooking fuels. Food waste-to-energy and energy-intensity of commercial and industrial food preparation are key data gaps. Visualizing supply chains shows >75% of water embodied in Delhi’s FEW supply is extracted from locations over-drafting ground water. These baseline data enable evaluation of future urban FEW scenarios, comparing impacts of demand shifts, production shifts, and emerging technologies and policies, within and outside of cities.

  4. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  5. Mountain Water Tower and Ecological Risk Estimation of the Mesta-Nestos Transboundary River Basin (Bulgaria-Greece)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Mesta-Nestos river basin in Bulgaria and Greece is a case study for transboundary decision-making support in south-eastern Europe and a show-case for the development of methodologies and information-gathering for the integrated regional planning of water resources. Land-use conflicts in this water-scarce region cover a wide spectrum of activities like agricultural irrigation, drinking water production, diversions for industrial water, and risk of pollution from mining, to name a few examples.Measurements of the water quality were carried out in the upper basin. Results will be illustrated by the example of the environmental situation in the alpine region of the Pirin National Park as well as in the Razlog Basin with a stronger anthropogenic impact and pollution around a former uranium mine near the village of Ele(s)nica. The social and economic development of this transboundary region is a recently established priority for the future. It will mean an increase in water usage and more stress for the water resources if regional impacts of global climate change are verified. Problem-focused management of the catchment area as a whole on the basis of proved geo-data sets is needed for the future.

  6. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing cooperation about. However, the knowledge on how they should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships leading to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship of institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expedience of the institutional arrangements. The study shows that overall due to external as well as internal institutional factors the ICPE proved relatively successful, and as such it also provides insights into how institutions matter: The commission served as platform for joint problem solving by identifying priorities for action. These international obligations increased the power of national administrations and their access to funds. At the same time, the Commission's reporting to the public served as an enforcement mechanism. However, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity. It was high where the main responsibility for action was with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model. It was practically non existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where the success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. From a

  7. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  8. Transboundary Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions in Southeast Asia and Contribution to Local Air Quality During the 2006 Fire Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) that originated in Indonesia using WRF-Chem. Our study addressed 3 research questions: (1) Can the WRF-Chem model reproduce observations of both aerosol and CO concentrations in this complex region? (2) What is the evolution in the chemical composition of the aerosol fire plume during its atmospheric transport? and (3) What is the relative contribution of these fires to air quality in the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore? To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors). We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with ground-based measurements of both CO and PM10. However, the comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD. In the past, modeling studies using only AOD as a constraint have often boosted fire emissions to get a better agreement with observations. In our case, this approach would seriously deteriorate the difference with ground-based observations. Finally, our results show that about 21% of the total mass loading of ambient PM10 during the July-October study period in Singapore was due to the influence of biomass and peat burning in Sumatra, with an increased contribution during high burning periods. The composition of this biomass burning plume was largely dominated by primary organic carbon. In total, our model results indicated that during 35 days aerosol concentrations in Singapore were above the threshold of 50 μg m-3 day-1 (WHO threshold). During 17 days this deterioration was due to Indonesian fires, based on the difference between the simulations with and without fires. Local air pollution in combination with recirculation of air masses was probably the main

  9. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  10. A South African Perspective on a Possible Benefit-Sharing Approach for Transboundary Waters in the SADC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Turton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of benefit-sharing is emerging in the international discourse on transboundary water resource management with greater intensity than a decade ago. While it sounds simple, the concept is complex and benefits are difficult to quantify and thus the concept remains unconvincing to potentially sceptical negotiating partners. Any discourse on water resource management is based on a core logic. This paper tries to distil some elements of a proposed benefit-sharing approach, presenting an alternative core logic, showing how these differ from what can be thought of as the traditional paradigm. This work is linked to ongoing research at the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, into benefit-sharing and processes of policy harmonisation, within the context of developing countries.

  11. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  12. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Keskinen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-energy-food nexus is promoted as a new approach for research and policy-making. But what does the nexus mean in practice and what kinds of benefits does it bring? In this article we share our experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake area. We conclude that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong. We also identify and discuss two parallel dimensions for the nexus, with one focusing on research and analysis and the other on integrated planning and cross-sectoral collaboration. In our study, the nexus approach was particularly useful in facilitating collaboration and stakeholder engagement. This was because the nexus approach clearly defines the main themes included in the process, and at the same time widens the discussion from mere water resource management into the broader aspects of water, energy and food security.

  13. Upravlenie transgranichnymi vodnymi resursami: sravnitel'nyj analiz rossijskogo i amerikanskogo opyta [Management of Trans-boundary Water Resources: Comparing Russian and American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a comparative analysis of Russia and US’s experience of participation in international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management. The author showcases the work of Russian-Estonian Commission for Protection and Rational Use of Trans-Boundary Waters and the US-Canadian International Joint Commission. The Russian-Estonian Commission works in accordance with the principle of intergovernmentalism, whereas transnationalism is the founding principle of the International Joint Commission in North America. Though the Russian-Estonian Commission is more efficient in water quality improvement in its area of responsibility, it is early still to claim that intergovernmental cooperation is more effective than transnational cooperation. However, it gives a reason to question the conclusions of the proponents of transnationalism in the international relations theory, who claim that the latter is more efficient. Practical significance of this paper is in the proposed recommendations for further modernization of international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management.

  14. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    -cooperative environment with which different institutional setups and incentive systems can be studied so to identify reasonable ways to reach desirable, Pareto--optimal allocation outcomes. Preliminary results from an application to the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia will be presented and discussed. The Syr Darya River is a classic example of a transboundary river basin in which basin-wide efficiency gains identified in optimization studies have not been sufficient to induce cooperative management of the river by the riparian states.

  15. Monitoring Lake Victoria Water Quality from Space: Opportunities for Strengthening Trans-boundary Information Sharing for Effective Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Nyaga, J. W.; Irwin, D.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    converted to croplands. On-going dissemination of our findings together with capacity building efforts with the three main fishery and research institutions working in the lake, will enable informed decision making for the water management of LV. Enhanced capacity in trans-boundary water resources research is critical for successful decision making.

  16. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  17. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  18. Transboundary water resources management and livelihoods: interactions in the Senegal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Beltrando, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 90 % of wetlands provide ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers are increasingly regulated to provide hydroelectricity and irrigated agriculture. Modifications of flows create new hydrological conditions that affect floodplains ecology and peoples' livelihoods. In the Senegal river valley, large dams were built during the 1980's to secure water resources after a decade of water scarcity in the 1970's: Manantali in the upper basin with a reservoir of 12km3 and Diama close to estuary to avoid saltwater intrusion during dry season. Senegal river water resources are known under the supervision of Senegal River Basin Development Organization (OMVS), which defines water allocation between different goals (electricity, irrigation, traditional activities). This study, based on the concept of socio-hydrology, analyses socio-ecological changes following thirty years of dam management. The work enlightens adaptation mechanisms of livelihoods from people living along the river floodplain and feedback on water ressources. The study uses a mixed method approach, combining hydrological analyses, literature review and data collection from surveys on stakeholders and key informants level in the middle Senegal valley. Our results suggest that in all the Senegal river valley, socio-ecological changes are driven by new hydrological conditions. If dam management benefit for peoples with electrification and development of an irrigated agriculture, it has also emphasized the floodplain degradation. Flooded area has decline and are more irregular, causing an erosion of floodplain supporting services (traditional activities as fishing, grazing and flood-recession agriculture). These conditions reduce peoples' livelihood possibilities and irrigation is the only regular activity. As a feedback, irrigated agriculture increases withdrawals in the river and, recently, in aquifers posing a new uncertainty on water

  19. Water-energy nexus in the Sava River Basin: energy security in a transboundary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eunice; Howells, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Resource management policies are frequently designed and planned to target specific needs of particular sectors, without taking into account the interests of other sectors who share the same resources. In a climate of resource depletion, population growth, increase in energy demand and climate change awareness, it is of great importance to promote the assessment of intersectoral linkages and, by doing so, understand their effects and implications. This need is further augmented when common use of resources might not be solely relevant at national level, but also when the distribution of resources spans over different nations. This paper focuses on the study of the energy systems of five south eastern European countries, which share the Sava River Basin (SRB), using a water-food(agriculture)-energy nexus approach. In the case of the electricity generation sector, the use of water is essential for the integrity of the energy systems, as the electricity production in the riparian countries relies on two major technology types dependent on water resources: hydro and thermal power plants. For example, in 2012, an average of 37% of the electricity production in the SRB countries was generated by hydropower and 61% in thermal power plants. Focusing on the SRB, in terms of existing installed capacities, the basin accommodates close to a tenth of all hydropower capacity while providing water for cooling to 42% of the net capacity of thermal power currently in operation in the basin. This energy-oriented nexus study explores the dependency on the basin's water resources of the energy systems in the region for the period between 2015 and 2030. To do so, a multi-country electricity model was developed to provide a quantification ground to the analysis, using the open-source software modelling tool OSeMOSYS. Three main areas are subject to analysis: first, the impact of energy efficiency and renewable energy strategies in the electricity generation mix; secondly, the potential

  20. 中国跨境水资源的脆弱性及其影响因子%Transboundary water vulnerability and its drivers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彦; 何大明

    2009-01-01

    Competitive use of transboundary freshwater resources is becoming one of the key factors influencing regional peace and political relationship among states. In China, 18 major international river basins are concentrated in three regions, of which the total annual outflow at the border is 7320×108 m3, occupying 26.8% of the total annual runoff of China, and the inflow at the border is only 172×108 m3. In this paper, we analyzed the major drivers affecting shared water vulnerability in China, namely: (1) changes in physical conditions affecting the availability of water; (2) competing objectives between economic development and ecological conservation; (3) lack of emergency response mechanisms; (4) unsound administrative in-stitutions; and (5) shortcomings in the development of regional cooperation based on trans-boundary waters. We concluded by identifying four pathways for reducing vulnerability: (1) encouraging scientific research cooperation; (2) constructing information-sharing channels; (3) establishing early-warning mechanisms; and (4) promoting further coordination and negotia-tion.

  1. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  2. Integrated Approach to Transboundary Waters Management, such as a Rivermouth and a Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, B.K.; Yoo, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea); Kang, D.S.; Nam, J.H. [Korea Maritime Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Estuaries and coastal lagoons (estuarine environments) are typical transitional ecosystems between land and sea, where sea water is mixed with fresh water. It is well known that estuarine environments are very valuable ecosystems because of their unique ecological functions and geographical features, as well as socioeconomic values. These precious estuaries, however, have become severely deteriorated and damaged by human activities through watersheds and intensive coastal developments. In this respect, this study aims to develop integrated management strategies for protection, improvement, and restoration of estuarine environments that would support sustainable uses of those precious natural resources. This study found that regardless of their ecological value, estuaries and coastal lagoons in Korea have deteriorated due to a lack of appropriate management systems and imprudent development and utilization. Furthermore, considering the fact that destruction of the estuaries has been caused by national development projects, the study urges the Korean government to change its development-oriented policies on estuaries and coastal lagoons to more sustainable ones so that future generations may enjoy the benefits from healthy natural estuaries and coastal lagoons. The Korean government, thus, needs to declare that it will no longer promote any development-oriented policy that might destroy valuable estuaries and coastal lagoons, in preparing for the 2002 WSSD which will be held in South Africa in 2002. (author). 175 refs., 72 figs., 95 tabs.

  3. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sh. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin, based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socio-economics. Glacial lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, the decline of ecosystems and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.

  4. Fishing for space: Socio-spatial relations of Indian trawl fishers in the Palk Bay, South Asia, in the context of trans-boundary fishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Palk Bay, in South Asia is witnessing a complex socio-ecological crisis. This crisis is intrinsically tied to the modernization of fisheries in the region, the civil war in Sri Lanka and the politics of ethnic identity. This crisis now manifests itself in the form of a fishing conflict between the I

  5. 亚洲国际河流研究进展%Research progress on international rivers in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彦; 何大明

    2006-01-01

    With the regional population growth, socioeconomic development, more and more attention has been paid to issues on the shared water allocation and the transboundary eco-security conservation during the development of water resources in the international rivers. In this paper, the existing major problems on transboundary waters in different sub-regions of Asia, such as water shortage, transboundary waters pollution, fragile eco-environment are discussed. Then, the key scientific issues to be concerned in the next study progress on the basis of the analyses of the new research directions and focus fields are raised: (1) unpredicted changes of the hydrologic and water system, and their impacts on the allocation of the sharing waters by global changes; (2) models of the international cooperation on the international rivers on the studies of international and national water laws or regulations, policies, the relative experiences and the case studies; (3) quantificational assessment on environmental flow, available water,and the comprehensive functions and values of the international watercourse system; (4) studies on transboundary aquatic bio-diversity maintenance, transboundary pollution supervision and treatment under the rules and principles accepted by the riparian states; (5) issues on transboundary compensation at the rules of "payments for using", "payments for harm" and "compensation for benefit"; (6) using advanced 3S techniques to promote the integrated watershed development and management; and so on.

  6. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  7. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  8. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Katalyn A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; De Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 millimeters per year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kimometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 millimeters per year equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  9. Valuing environmental water pulses into the Incomati estuary: Key to achieving equitable and sustainable utilisation of transboundary waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengo, D. José; Kachapila, Albert; Zaag, Pieter van der; Mul, Marloes; Nkomo, Sakhiwe

    Upstream developments in the Incomati river basin, shared by South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique, have altered downstream flows significantly. The frequency of small floods into the estuary has been reduced dramatically. This change in the flow regime has impacted on the state of the environment downstream, and the Incomati estuary in particular. The estuary requires fresh water pulses that naturally occur, and the resulting seasonal flooding of the plains. Resource-poor rural households depend on the goods and services that the estuary and flood plains provide such as wood, charcoal, building materials, fish and shrimp, wetland farming, and tourism. Alteration of the flow regime into the estuary has a negative impact on the state of the environment and hence on the goods and services the estuary yields; a phenomenon the people living near the estuary are keenly aware of. The article estimates the value of the goods and services that the estuary currently provides, that is under the conditions of a changed flow regime. A linear relationship is then assumed between fresh water pulses into the estuary and the goods and services it provides, so that the order of magnitude of the economic value of fresh water pulses into the estuary may be approximated. Various development scenarios in the Incomati basin are then considered, that have different upstream and downstream impacts on water availability, and the basin-wide benefits and costs are compared. The paper concludes that the principle of sharing the benefits derived from the water resources, rather than the water itself, as proposed by authors such as [Sadoff, C.W., Grey, D., 2002. Beyond the river: the benefits of cooperation on international rivers. Water Policy 4, 389-403], may be a feasible approach only if the less tangible benefits and functions, especially those of the environment, are assigned an appropriate value and corresponding priority.

  10. Historical Snow Cover and Water Resources Change in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, H.; Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a vital source of river runoff in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. Decrease of seasonal snow cover is one of the major consequences of climate change in central Asia. To quantify the historical snow cover change, its relationship to global and regional atmospheric processes, and its impact on water resources, a new database for cryospheric research in central Asia has been created in Asiacryoweb.org. It serves a data portal for snow cover, glacier, meteorology, hydrology and ice core data in central Asia, as well as a platform for further research collaborations. We analyze the historical snow cover change using data derived from AVHRR and MODIS images in 1986 - 2008. The results suggest that the snow cover extent in central Asia has declined significantly in general. We found significant decrease of seasonal snow cover in alpine regions surrounding major mountains (Tienshan, Pamir and Altai-Sayan) in summer; while in winter, northern part of Kazakhstan Steppe, mountains in Altai-Sayan and peripheral regions of Tienshan and Pamir mountains have seen significant strong increase of snow cover. Analysis of the relationship between snow cover extent and climate pattern indices shows a significant negative relationship between snow cover in Pamir mountains and Altai-Sayan mountains with Eastern Atlantic Pattern, and a significant negative relationship between snow cover in northern Aral-Caspian desert, Tienshan and the East Atlantic / West Russia pattern. And the Polar / Euraisa Pattern has a positive relationship with snow in Kazakhstan Steppe, Pamir, and Tienshan. The changing snow cover regime will affect not only the amount but also the timing of available water melting from snow.

  11. TRANSBOUNDARY HAZE POLLUTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Yordan Gunawan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades the Southeast Asia Countries have been affected by haze pollution which is caused by human activities in burning land/forest for plantation and/or agriculture. Indonesia is one of the major sources of the haze pollution in the region. The pollution does not stop at national borders only, but also causing transboundary pollution to the neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. As a reaction of this environmental crisis, ASEAN Agreement on transboundary Haze Pollut...

  12. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  13. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  14. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  15. Hydropolitics and Conflict Management in Transboundary River Basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mianabadi, H.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis set out to develop methodologies that promote cooperation, peace and development instead of conflict and violence in transboundary water resources management. In particular, its objectives were the following: o To examine and understand the complexity of water systems and water conflict

  16. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  17. Nash Equilibria of Transboundary Pollution Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Mouche, van P.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the Nash equilibrium existence and uniqueness problem for transboundary pollution games. There is special attention for the equilibrium set E for effective compact transboundary pollution games with continuous strictly concave production functions, continuous convex damage cost functio

  18. International cooperation problems on transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan%哈萨克斯坦跨界河流国际合作问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓铭江

    2012-01-01

    哈萨克斯坦是中亚地区的“大国”,与四周比邻的国家均存在跨界水体联系,有44%的地表水来自邻国.跨界河流水资源开发利用与生态环境保护问题,是涉及国家政治、经济、安全、外交大局的重大战略问题.通过分析哈国地表水分布特点,简要回顾总结了与其邻国在跨界河流方面的合作情况;对哈国所担忧的水安全问题及采取的主要对策,进行了深入剖析,并就跨界河流管理未来的合作路径、跨界河流利用未来的分水原则、哈俄跨界河流水污染未来的解决途径、中亚国家间解决咸海危机的前提条件等问题,进行了分析讨论;指出对共享水资源的管理既可以成为中亚地区和平的力量,也可能成为冲突的因素,管理这种相互依存的资源是当今国际社会面临的一项关系人类发展的重大挑战.研究哈萨克斯坦跨界河流国际合作及其对核心利益问题的观点、认识、所采取的不同策略,对于处理好中哈跨界河流问题具有积极现实意义.%Kazakhstan is a great nation in Central Asia area; it has transboundary water body relation with surrounding neighboring countries, 44% of the surface water from neighboring countries. Water resources development and utilization in transboundary rivers and ecological environment protection that are major strategic problems involved with national politics, economy, security and foreign overall situation. This article systematically analyzes distribution feature of the surface water in Kazakhstan, briefly reviews the cooperation with its neighboring countries in the aspect of transboundary rivers, profoundly analyzes the main countermeasures adopted for the anxious issue of water safety, analytically discusses the problems such as future cooperation path for the management of transboundary rivers, future distributive principle for water utilization of transboundary rivers, future solution for the water

  19. Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Transboundary Jhelum River Basin of Pakistan and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan’s economy is significantly reliant on agriculture. However, Pakistan is included in the most water-stressed countries in the world, and its water resources are considerably vulnerable to climate variability and climate change. Therefore, in the present study, the water resources of the Jhelum River basin, which provides water to 6 million hectares of land of Pakistan and hydropower production, were assessed under the scenarios A2 and B2 of HadCM3. A hydrological model, Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS, was set up, calibrated, and validated for the Jhelum basin, and then streamflow was simulated for three future periods: 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2099. The simulated streamflow of each period was compared with the simulated streamflow of the baseline period (1971–2000 to find the changes in the following indicators: mean flow, low flow, median flow, high flow, and center-of-volume dates (CVDs. The results of the study showed an increase of 10%–15% in the mean annual flow as compared to the baseline flow at the end of this century. Winter, spring, and autumn showed an increase in streamflow at most of the sites in all three periods. However, summer (the monsoon season in the basin showed decreased streamflow at most of the sites. Maximum increase at Azad Pattan was projected in winter in the 2080s, with about 37%–39% increase in flow under both scenarios. Low and median flows were projected to increase, but a decline in high flow was detected in the future under both scenarios. It was also concluded that half of the annual flow in the basin will pass by the Azad Pattan site one week earlier than it does now. On the whole, the Jhelum basin would face more temporal and magnitudinal variations in high, low, and mean flows relative to present conditions. This shows that without a consideration of climate change impacts, proper utilization and management of water resources in the basin will be more difficult.

  20. Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavkat Rakhmatullaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan favor the reservoirs’ operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan.

  1. Temporal variation of the water budget in Central Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, K.; Taylor, P. A.; Szeto, K.

    2009-05-01

    Water budget terms for Central Southwest Asia (CSWA) have been computed using National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data for 60-years from 1948-2007 and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) reanalysis for the 44-year period from 1958-2001. First, observational rainfall data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) and the Iran Meteorological Organization (IMO) were compared with Global Prediction Climate Centre (GPCC) version-4 data. GPCC rainfall data appear close to the observational data of the region. GPCC rainfall data have then been used for comparison with both NCEP and ERA-40 reanalysis data sets and it was found that NCEP is closer to GPCC than ERA-40 for this region. The domain under study is located from 45-75E and 25-40N including parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and Kazakhstan. For realistic results only land areas has been used in the study. In the ERA-40 reanalysis data, evapotranspiration may have been overestimated in the system noting that evaporation exceeds rainfall. NCEP computes more precipitation than evaporation with moisture flux into the area providing the balance. This suggests that the ERA-40 data set is not suitable for computing water budget terms in this particular region. Moisture flux convergence is computed by using four daily readings (00, 06, 12 and 18z) up to 300 hPa. Finally, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) techniques are used to divide the domain into six areas and we discuss the temporal variation of rainfall for each area. The main contribution of rainfall in most of the areas is due to western disturbance weather systems moving from west to east. Also the area at the extreme southeast is getting rain though southwest monsoon in the month of July August. It is observed that rainfall decreases significantly after 1980 as a result of a dedcrease in moisture flux convergence.

  2. DILEMMA AND COUNTERMEASURE ON THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUITABLE AND REASONABLE UTILIZATION OF TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES%跨界水资源公平合理利用原则的困境与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锡生; 曾彩琳

    2012-01-01

    公平合理利用原则是国际水法的一项基本原则,它的内涵体现为权利义务的一致性,即各国有在其领土内利用跨界水资源的权利,同时又要承担不剥夺其他国家在其领土内利用跨界水资源的义务和不对跨界水资源进行损害和浪费的义务。从理论上看,对保护跨界水资源及协调跨界水资源利用冲突有重要的意义。但由于公平合理利用原则目前尚存在评价标准不明确、保障制度不完备等内在缺陷,以致其在实践中经常陷于难以适用的困境。要摆脱公平合理利用原则的适用困境,应以权利义务相一致的原理为指导,进一步明确“公平合理利用”的评价标准,厘清必要的用水优先权顺序,使公平合理利用原则具有可操作性。同时,应建立起受益补偿制度、公众参与制度、损害预警制度等有利于公平合理利用原则实现的保障制度。%The principle of equitable and reasonable utilization is a basic principle of international water law and its content reflects the consistency of rights and obligations, that is to say, countries have the right to use transboundary water resources in their own territory,but at the same time also have the obligation not to hamper other countries utilizing and not to damage and waste transboundary water resources. In theory, its application has important significance to the protection of transboundary water resources and the coordination of conflict in the use of transboundary water resources. But in practice, because of some inherent defects such as unclear evaluation criteria and incomplete security system, the principle of equitable and rea- sonable utilization often encountered the difficulties how to apply theory to reality. To get rid of dilemma of the principle, under the guidance of the theory of the consistency of rights and obligations, the evaluation criteria of "equitable and reasonable utilization" should

  3. TRANSBOUNDARY HAZE POLLUTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Gunawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the Southeast Asia Countries have been affected by haze pollution which is caused by human activities in burning land/forest for plantation and/or agriculture. Indonesia is one of the major sources of the haze pollution in the region. The pollution does not stop at national borders only, but also causing transboundary pollution to the neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. As a reaction of this environmental crisis, ASEAN Agreement on transboundary Haze Pollution was signed. The Agreement recognizes that transboundary haze pollution which resulted from land and/or forest fires should be mitigated through concerted national efforts and international cooperation. As of June 2013, all the ASEAN countries, except Indonesia, have ratified the agreement. However Indonesia hopes to ratify the haze agreement by 2015. The study is normative legal reserach with Statute Approach and Case Approach. By using the qualitative descriptive method, this study will discribe the ransboundary haze pollution in details which could be seen in some international laws concerning law of state responsibility as for Draft Articles on State Responsibility and 1997 ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. The result shows that Indonesia needs to do the action, not onlyin term of how to combat the forest fires with the deployment of personnel from ASEAN, but also preventing issue of it, namely by making the rule of law which effectively penalize the forest burning. Most of these problems can be overcome only if Indonesia ratified the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution.

  4. Research on Inter-governmental Cooperative Mechanism in Trans-boundary Water Environment Conservation%跨界水环境保护中的政府间合作机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培; 张风春; 张晓岚

    2013-01-01

    Development of an effective inter-governmental horizontal cooperative mechanism is an important solution to improve the trans-boundary water environment management in China.Much efforts has been performed and desired results have been achieved in the international trans-boundary water co-management,cooperation among different ministries in China,trans-boundary water cooperation among local governments,and departmental cooperation inside one government.At present,the horizontal cooperation among governments is carried out through the agreements,planning,joint action,and joint conference,and these methods generally involve different departments of the government.The content of the cooperation includes the law,policy,institution,and information sharing,monitoring and assessment.However,due to the existing problems in the law,cooperative mechanism,and technical support,the inter-governmental horizontal cooperative mechanism did not act significantly effectively in China and the contamination in trans-boundary surface water is still severe.Therefore,several countermeasures were proposed in this paper,including the improvement of system and structure of the cooperative mechanism,strengthening of the core content of cooperative mechanism,enrichment of realization solutions of cooperative mechanism,and improvement of the secure conditions of cooperative mechanism.%建立有效的政府间横向合作机制是完善我国跨界水环境管理的重要途径.我国已经在国际跨界水域共管、国家层面上的部际合作、地方政府间的跨界水域合作以及地方政府内部部门间的合作等方面做了大量的尝试并取得了理想的效果.目前,我国各类政府间横向合作主要是通过协议、计划、联合行动、联席会议等方式开展,而且一般都有政府部门的参与.合作的内容从法律、政策、机构到信息共享与监测和评价,非常广泛.由于尚存在着法律、协调机制、科技支撑等方面的

  5. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants.

  6. “水外交”视角下的中国和下湄公河国家跨界水资源合作%Transboundary Water Cooperation between China and the Lower Mekong Countries from the Perspective of Water Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张励; 卢光盛

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of transboundary cooperation on water resource and scramble for Water Power in-creasing steadily among countries,some international agencies and countries have begun to attach importance to Water Diplomacy and regard it as one of the important means to maintain foreign relations. The issues between Chi-na and the lower Mekong Countries on the transboundary development of the water resource of the Mekong River ur-gently need to be solved through Water Diplomacy. After drawing outline for the research on Water Diplomacy,this article attempts to define Water Diplomacy as the diplomatic means implemented with actions on technical and so-cial levels by one country's government concerning( transboundary or not)collaborative projects on water and de-velopment and exploitation of Soft Water Products. Then taking the definition as breakthrough,the article illumi-nates the problems on the transboundary water cooperation by China with the lower Mekong countries through analy-zing three cases,and meanwhile points out that some reasons contribute to the inadequate implementation of Water Diplomacy by China. In this article,we believe that,in order to resolve internal and external dilemma for exploi-ting the Mekong River,China should improve the Water Diplomacy system,establish community mutually beneficial from transboundary water cooperation,use Integrated Water Resources Management and services of third-party evaluation agencies,and exert more engaging Water Diplomacy.%在跨界水资源合作与国家间“水权力”矛盾与日俱增的背景下,国际机构和部分国家开始重视“水外交”,并将其视为处理对外关系的重要方式之一。中国与下湄公河国家在湄公河跨界水资源开发中的争端也急需通过“水外交”来解决。本文在对“水外交”研究脉络进行梳理的基础上,尝试性地将“水外交”定义为“一国政府围绕(跨界与非跨界)水合作

  7. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation-water demand in South Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Hester; Siderius, Christian; Mishra, Ashok; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight into these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the s

  8. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  9. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  10. Study on trans-boundary water resource conflict based on behavioral geography%基于行为地理的跨界水资源冲突研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范虹; 牛文娟; 牛富

    2014-01-01

    According to the different characteristics caused by geographical location differences of the left and right(LR) banks along a river and upstream and downstream (UD) of the river,the evolutionary game mathematical model of the trans-boundary water resource conflict of the LR banks and the UD of river were established to study the generation mechanism of trans-boundary water resource conflict on the basis of behavioral geography theory. The study shows that the water resource conflict of LR banks and that of UD have different water resource conflict evolutionary laws,so different management strategies should be adopted for the two kinds of water resource conflicts. LR bank evolutionary game has two evolutionary stable strategies(conflict, conflict and negotiation,negotiation). In LR bank evolutionary game,it is the relative benefits of both sides but not the absolute benefits of the individuals to decide the evolutionary direction of the game. In UD evolutionary game,“conflict,conflict”is un-stable strategy and“conflict,negotiation”is the unique evolutionary stable strategy. Increasing negotiation costs and decreasing conflict costs will lead to a proportion growth of the individuals adopting conflict action.%基于行为地理学理论,根据跨界水资源冲突中左右岸和上下游的冲突由于冲突主体地理位置差异而呈现不同特点,建立了左右岸和上下游跨界水资源冲突演化博弈数理模型,研究跨界水资源冲突事件产生机理。理论研究和数值分析表明:上下游水资源冲突与左右岸水资源冲突具有不同的发展演化规律,需要在水资源冲突管理的实践中对上下游水资源冲突和左右岸水资源冲突采取不同的管理策略;左右岸演化博弈有(冲突,冲突)和(协商,协商)两个演化稳定策略,博弈双方个体的相对收益而不是个体在博弈中的收益对博弈演化的方向有重要的影响。在上下游演化博弈中

  11. A Regional Strategy for the Assessment and Management of Transboundary Aquifer Systems in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Rivera, A.; Tujchneider, O.; Guillén, C.; Campos, M.; Da Franca, N.; May, Z.; Aureli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has developed a regional strategy for the assessment and management of transboundary aquifer systems in the Americas as part of their ongoing cooperative assistance to help neighboring countries sustain water resources and reduce potential conflict. The fourth book in the series of publications sponsored by UNESCO and OAS documents this strategy. The goal of this strategy is the collective understanding, developing, managing, and protecting of the transboundary aquifers in the Americas This strategy includes technical, social, and governance recommendations for an integrated resource management of groundwater based on flexible arrangements that not only manage but also demand social participation in solving problems, consider changes in land use and water use and promote the increase of water sustainability for all transboundary neighbors. The successful implementation of this strategy starts with sharing information of the status and use of land and water as well as intergovernmental partnerships to link science and policy with existing instruments for managing the water resources. International organizations such as UNESCO and OAS also can help facilitate the development of transboundary agreements and establish cooperation on transboundary aquifers between neighbors. The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has been successful in creating a network of partners from 24 countries and in translating existing aquifer knowledge into a meaningful strategy for the American hemisphere. The strategy aims to explain and develop the role of science and the informed-decision approach. Examples from North and South America show how the process has begun to develop for selected transboundary aquifers. These include the Milk River basin between the US and Canada, the Rio Grande and Colorado River basins between the US and Mexico, and the Guarani River basin in South America.

  12. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation water demand in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemans, H.; Siderius, C.; Mishra, A.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-08-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight in these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple-cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double-cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest subnational statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The representation of seasonal land use and more accurate cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (Rabi) and summer (Kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the Rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply vs. rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia, improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple-cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  13. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation-water demand in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemans, Hester; Siderius, Christian; Mishra, Ashok; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-05-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight into these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation-water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest state-level statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The improvements in seasonal land use and cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation-water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation-water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (rabi) and monsoon summer (kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply versus rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation-water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  14. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation water demand in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biemans

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight in these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple-cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double-cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest subnational statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The representation of seasonal land use and more accurate cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (Rabi and summer (Kharif irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the Rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply vs. rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia, improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple-cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  15. Research Agenda for Understanding Transboundary Ecosystem Changes and Eco-security in Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The longitudinal range-gorge region (LRGR) in Southwestern China, characterized by longitudinal mountain ranges and deep valleys,includes the basins of four major international rivers:, the Yuanjiang-Red, Lancang Mekong, Nujiang Salween and Irrawaddy. This region is classified as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and provides an important ecological and economic corridor linking China and Southeast Asian countries. Over the past half century, it has served as a resource base for timber and minerals needed to fuel economic development, which resulted in rapid and drastic changes in ecosystem and species diversity. Proposed and ongoing development programs, such as China's Great Western Development campaign, Greater Mekong Subregional Economic Cooperation (GMS)and China-ASEAN free trade zone development ("10+1"), threaten to bring unprecedented disturbance to the region's ecosystems. Present and emerging threats to eco-security have caught tremendous attention worldwide. Therefore, studies on such problems are critical for enhancing ecosystem health and transboundary eco-security.This paper indicates several multi-disciplinary and cross-sector studies on transboundary resources in this region that will meet three major national needs: 1) identifying core scientific issues of ecological development and infrastructure construction in high plateau and mountainous areas for the Western Development campaign; 2) developing maintenance mechanisms and control methodologies for transboundary eco-security and resource base development; 3) providing scientific grounds for multi-lateral diplomacy, trade and economic cooperation, and conflict resolution as part of China's opening-up to south Asia. The key subjects to be solved include dynamics and major drive forces of this area, ecological effects caused by major projects construction, and transboundary eco-security and its controlling. The research projects proposed in this article will develop theories on ecosystem

  16. Beyond the Transboundary River: Issues of Riparian Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, P. K.; Sankhua, R. N.

    2013-11-01

    The issues of riparian countries sharing transboundary waters spans decades, and has been greatly strengthened by its collaboration with partner agencies. International cooperation on shared water resources is critical, especially in water scarce regions experiencing the impacts of over-consumption and pollution. Where, river basins are transboundary, this requires regular and structured consultation, coordination and cooperation among all states sharing the catchment. Rapid and unsustainable development of river basins and their wetlands has led to the disruption of natural hydrological cycles. In many cases this has resulted in greater frequency and severity of flooding, drought and pollution. Appropriate transnational planning, protection and allocation of water to wetlands are essential to avoid disaster and enable these ecosystems to continue to provide important goods and services to local communities. Integrated river basin management takes into account policies and measures for the multifunctional use of rivers on a catchment scale and associated institutional changes. The implementation of these involves a number of steps such as definition of aim, construction of conceptual model, selection of variables, comparison with selection criteria, database assessment, and indicator selection division of tasks and responsibilities for river basin management with regard to the development of indicators, data collection, and their application in decision-making. This work presents issues pertaining to the pressure to the river, the state of the river ecosystem, the impact to goods and services provided by the river, and the societal response.

  17. Conceptual framework for analysis of water-resources management in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, B.T.; Hufschmidt, M.M.

    1984-10-01

    Effective and efficient water resources management to meet the increasing demands for food, energy, and domestic and industrial water is an imperative for Asian countries. As a basis for analyzing Asian water resource management problems, a three-element conceptual framework is presented: (1) water resources management as a system, composed of a set of facilities, operating rules, and incentives applied to water resources through an institutional arrangement; (2) water resources management as a process involving several stages beginning with planning and continuing with design, construction, operation, and maintenance; and (3) water resources management as a set of linked activities and tasks required to produce the desired outputs. Using this framework to assess performance, it is possible to analyze the linkages among water resources problems, water resources management, and water resources organizations and administrative arrangements. Examples are presented of such linkages as applied to problems of erosion and sedimentation, flooding, salinity, water demand-supply imbalances, and water pollution. Brief analytical summaries of eight critical water resources management problems in Asia are presented, along with an illustration of the complexity of water resources organization and administration, using Thailand as the example. 36 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Influences of recent climate change and human activities on water storage variations in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haijun; Chen, Yaning

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change is an indicator of climate change. Therefore, it is helpful to understand how climate change impacts water systems. In this study, the influence of climate change on TWS in Central Asia over the past decade was analyzed using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites and Climatic Research Unit datasets. Results indicate that TWS experienced a decreasing trend in Central Asia from 2003 to 2013 at a rate of -4.44 ± 2.2 mm/a, and that the maximum positive anomaly for TWS (46 mm) occurred in July 2005, while the minimum negative anomaly (-32.5 mm) occurred in March 2008-August 2009. The decreasing trend of TWS in northern Central Asia (-3.86 ± 0.63 mm/a) is mainly attributed to soil moisture storage depletion, which is driven primarily by the increase in evapotranspiration. In the mountainous regions, climate change exerted an influence on TWS by affecting glaciers and snow cover change. However, human activities are now the dominant factor driving the decline of TWS in the Aral Sea region and the northern Tarim River Basin.

  19. South Asia river flow projections and their implications for water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mathison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is a region with a large and rising population and a high dependance on industries sensitive to water resource such as agriculture. The climate is hugely variable with the region relying on both the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM and glaciers for its supply of fresh water. In recent years, changes in the ASM, fears over the rapid retreat of glaciers and the increasing demand for water resources for domestic and industrial use, have caused concern over the reliability of water resources both in the present day and future for this region. The climate of South Asia means it is one of the most irrigated agricultural regions in the world, therefore pressures on water resource affecting the availability of water for irrigation could adversely affect crop yields and therefore food production. In this paper we present the first 25 km resolution regional climate projections of river flow for the South Asia region. ERA-Interim, together with two global climate models (GCMs, which represent the present day processes, particularly the monsoon, reasonably well are downscaled using a regional climate model (RCM for the periods; 1990–2006 for ERA-Interim and 1960–2100 for the two GCMs. The RCM river flow is routed using a river-routing model to allow analysis of present day and future river flows through comparison with river gauge observations, where available. In this analysis we compare the river flow rate for 12 gauges selected to represent the largest river basins for this region; Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins and characterize the changing conditions from east to west across the Himalayan arc. Observations of precipitation and runoff in this region have large or unknown uncertainties, are short in length or are outside the simulation period, hindering model development and validation designed to improve understanding of the water cycle for this region. In the absence of robust observations for South Asia, a downscaled ERA-Interim RCM

  20. Hydrologic effects of land and water management in North America and Asia: 1700–1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Haddeland

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic effects of land use changes, dams, and irrigation in North America and Asia over the past 300 years are studied using a macroscale hydrologic model. The simulation results indicate that the expansion of croplands over the last three centuries has resulted in 2.5 and 6 percent increases in annual runoff volumes for North America and Asia, respectively, and that these increases in runoff to some extent have been compensated by increased evapotranspiration caused by irrigation practices. Averaged over the year and the continental scale, the accumulated anthropogenic impacts on surface water fluxes are hence relatively minor. However, for some regions within the continents human activities have altered hydrologic regimes profoundly. Reservoir operations and irrigation practices in the western part of USA and Mexico have resulted in a 25 percent decrease in streamflow in June, and a 9 percent decrease in annual runoff volumes reaching the Pacific Ocean. In the area in South East Asia draining to the Pacific Ocean, land use changes have caused an increase in runoff volumes throughout the year, and the average annual increase in runoff is 12 percent.

  1. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the disto

  2. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the dist

  3. Contemporary changes of water resources, water and land use in Central Asia based on observations and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Prousevitch, A.; Sokolik, I. N.; Lammers, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Water is a key agent in Central Asia ultimately determining human well-being, food security, and economic development. There are complex interplays among the natural and anthropogenic drivers effecting the regional hydrological processes and water availability. Analysis of the data combined from regional censuses and remote sensing shows a decline in areas of arable and irrigated lands and a significant decrease in availability of arable and irrigated lands per capita across all Central Asian countries since the middle of 1990thas the result of post-Soviet transformation processes. This change could lead to considerable deterioration in food security and human system sustainability. The change of political situation in the region has also resulted in the escalated problems of water demand between countries in international river basins. We applied the University of New Hampshire - Water Balance Model - Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems (WBM-TrANS) to understand the consequences of changes in climate, water and land use on regional hydrological processes and water availability. The model accounts for sub-pixel land cover types, glacier and snow-pack accumulation/melt across sub-pixel elevation bands, anthropogenic water use (e.g. domestic and industrial consumption, and irrigation for most of existing crop types), hydro-infrastructure for inter-basin water transfer and reservoir/dam regulations. A suite of historical climate re-analysis and temporal extrapolation of MIRCA-2000 crop structure datasets has been used in WBM-TrANS for this project. A preliminary analysis of the model simulations over the last 30 years has shown significant spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and water availability for crops and human across the region due to climatic and anthropogenic causes. We found that regional water availability is mostly impacted by changes in extents and efficiency of crop filed irrigation, especially in highly arid areas of Central Asia

  4. Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD, in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy.

  5. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, F.; Scheer, W.; Thomsen, S.

    2012-01-01

    revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing....../freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still...

  6. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia to Himalayas and further inland Tibetan Plateau. The monitoring network will be continuously operated to provide basis for defining the transboundary air pollution and their impact on the environments and ecosystems over the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. On the Water Hazards in the Trans-Boundary Kosi River Basin%科西河跨境流域水旱灾害与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂胜; 陈宁生; Narendra Khanal; 韩大为

    2012-01-01

    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges that passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world ( from 8 848 m of Mount Jolmo Lungma( Mt. Everest) to 60 m of the Ganges plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacier-lake outburst, debris flow, landslide, flood, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socioeconomics. Glacier-lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man- made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Droughts; tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Rapid population increase, decline of ecosystems and climate changes have further exacerbated water related hazards in the region. Finally, the paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures.%科西河流域是恒河的一个重要支流,地跨中国、尼泊尔和印度3个国家,流域面积7.15万km^2,流域具有世界上最大的高差(从海拔8848m的珠穆朗玛峰到海拔60m的恒河平原),最为完整的气候、土壤和植被带谱。流域发育有罕见的多类型水旱灾害,主要有冰湖渍决、洪水、干旱、水土流失等。通过实地调查这一代表性跨界流域的水文、气象、地质、地貌、土壤植被和区域社会经济等基本特征并结合已有的研究资料,揭示流域冰湖溃决、洪水、干旱等水旱灾害的特征和时空发育规律。流域冰湖渍决灾害集中于科西河流域上级支流,灾害

  8. Investigating Incursion of Transboundary Pollution into the Atmosphere of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate matter (PM in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during November 2013 to April 2014 were found 7-8 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value. Probability of contribution of transboundary sources to this PM pollution was investigated through different approaches. Ninety-six-hour backward trajectories with every 3-hour interval were computed and clustered into 06 groups based on angle distance matrix. Probabilities of individual cluster to be associated with different ranges of coarse and fine particles were studied. Gazipur station near Dhaka city was found to have 68% probability of receiving PM10 concentration higher than 150 μg/m3 when air masses followed the route of Middle East through the Himalayan valley to the station. This channel was identified as the main route of PM transport to Bangladesh during dry season. Transboundary source-regions were spotted by concentration weighted trajectory (CWT method and also by the monthly average aerosol optical depths (AOD over South Asia. North-western Indian regions, Nepal and its neighboring areas, and Indian state of West Bengal were identified as the most probable zones that might have contributed to PM pollution in Gazipur, Dhaka. November to January was the high time the station had experienced fine particles from those transboundary regions.

  9. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly used as tools for characterising the subsurface and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark a combination of an airborne transient electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m giving a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, deep and shallow buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological elements mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area thus providing important information on the fresh-saltwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although, the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore is strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity here, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological elements within the area. The effects of future sea level rise on the groundwater system and chemical status are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and assessing their control on the groundwater salinity distribution.

  10. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.

  11. The Influence of Summertime Convection Over Southeast Asia on Water Vapor in the Tropical Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contributions of Southeast Asian convective source regions during boreal summer to water vapor in the tropical stratosphere are examined using Lagrangian trajectories. Convective sources are identified using global observations of infrared brightness temperature at high space and time resolution, and water vapor transport is simulated using advection-condensation. Trajectory simulations are driven by three different reanalysis data sets, GMAO MERRA, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR, to establish points of consistency and evaluate the sensitivity of the results to differences in the underlying meteorological fields. All ensembles indicate that Southeast Asia is a prominent boreal summer source of tropospheric air to the tropical stratosphere. Three convective source domains are identified within Southeast Asia: the Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (MON), the South China and Philippine Seas (SCS), and the Tibetan Plateau and South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Water vapor transport into the stratosphere from these three domains exhibits systematic differences that are related to differences in the bulk characteristics of transport. We find air emanating from SCS to be driest, from MON slightly moister, and from TIB moistest. Analysis of pathways shows that air detrained from convection over TIB is most likely to bypass the region of minimum absolute saturation mixing ratio over the equatorial western Pacific; however, the impact of this bypass mechanism on mean water vapor in the tropical stratosphere at 68 hPa is small 0.1 ppmv). This result contrasts with previously published hypotheses, and it highlights the challenge of properly quantifying fluxes of atmospheric humidity.

  12. Cultural Politics and Transboundary Resource Governance in the Salish Sea

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    Emma S. Norman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the cultural politics of water governance through the analysis of a new governing body created by indigenous leaders in the Pacific Northwest of North America – The Coast Salish Aboriginal Council. This paper investigates how the administrative structures and physical boundaries of water governance are both socially constructed and politically mobilised. The key moments explored in this article are closely linked to the power dynamics constituted through postcolonial constructions of space. Inclusion of cultural politics of scale will, arguably, provide a more nuanced approach to the study of transboundary environmental governance. This has important implications for the study of natural resource management for indigenous communities, whose traditional homelands are often bifurcated by contemporary border constructions.

  13. Exploring the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in Spatial Water Assessments: A Case of Water Shortage in Monsoon Asia

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    Aura Salmivaara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage (availability per capita is a key indicator of vulnerability to water scarcity. Spatial datasets enable the assessment of water shortage on multiple scales. The use of river basins and subbasins as analysis and management units is currently commonplace. An important but less acknowledged fact is that spatial assessments are strongly influenced by the choice of the unit of analysis due to the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP. Climate conditions, agricultural activities, and access to groundwater also influence water availability and demand. In this study, a total of 21 different criteria were used to define areal units of analysis, i.e., zonings, for which water shortage was calculated. Focusing on Monsoon Asia, where water scarcity is a pressing problem, we found that zoning had a considerable impact, resulting in up to three-fold differences in the population under high water shortage (<1000 m3/cap/year, ranging from 782 million to 2.11 billion. In most zonings, however, the Indus and Yellow River Basins and northwest parts of India and China are under high water shortage. The study indicates that a multizonal and multiscale analysis is needed to minimize skewed or even misleading information that might be produced when using only one zoning.

  14. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United States – Mexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  15. Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

    2013-07-01

    Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948-2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB), the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS) and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP) in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976-1995 and lower values in 1950-1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The atmospheric

  16. Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948–2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB, the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976–1995 and lower values in 1950–1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens

  17. Research on Countermeasures on Collaborative Governance of Trans-boundary Basin Water Pollution%跨行政区流域污染协同治理的实现路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜

    2016-01-01

    跨行政区流域污染协同治理是对政府主导型、市场自决型和社区自治型治理体系失灵的回应.协同治理机制不是自发实现的 ,它受到多方因素的制约 ,各级各地政府之间的利益冲突、企业社会责任的缺失、社会环境监管能力不强、政府组织结构权力分散和协调能力不强共同构成了跨行政区流域污染协同治理的制约因素.如何克服制约因素带来的负面效应是跨行政区流域污染协同治理能否实现的保障 ,提出从完善流域生态补偿和区际利益协调、科学设置政府绩效评估指标、强化企业环境污染法律责任追究、健全环境公益诉讼制度和重组流域治理组织结构等方面构建多元主体之间的平衡稳定的协同治理机制.%The collaborative governance of trans-boundary pollution is response to the failure of government leading ,market autono-my and community autonomy management system .Collaborative governance of trans-boundary pollution is not spontaneous ,it needs certain conditions .Interest conflicts between governments ,the lack of corporate social responsibility ,and the incapacity of social en-vironmental regulatory ,the decentralization of government structure and the insufficient capacity coordinated together constraint the basin trans-boundary pollution collaborative governance .How to overcome the negative effect of those restriction factors influence the collaborative governance of basin trans-boundary pollution ,need to improve basin ecological compensation and interregional inter-est coordination ,scientific setting government performance evaluation indicators ,legal responsibility should be investigated for enter-prise environmental pollution ,improve the system of environmental public interest litigation and reorganization of the basin manage-ment organization structure to build a diverse and stable collaborative governance mechanism .

  18. Optimal extraction of small-scale surface water storage in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendrarajah, S.; Warr, P. G.; Jakeman, A. J.

    1992-05-01

    This paper analyzes the optimization of water storage of small-scale dams (tanks) found in the semiarid regions of Asia. The focus is on monsoonal water storage in small tank systems in Sri Lanka, and in particular on optimal extraction for supplementary irrigation under double cropping, also allowing for nonirrigation uses of storage. The problem of intraseasonal allocation of storage for irrigation is solved by deterministic dynamic programming (DP) using simulated crop response functions. An approach to solving the optimal interseasonal allocation problem is demonstrated by operating in sequence the DP models for the two seasons. An important feature is the generation and use of seasonal water response functions with respect to each cropping season ensuring optimality in both crop area and intraseasonal distribution of irrigation. The determination of the scarcity value of water in this framework is also illustrated. Our results show that in most years both the optimal conservation of storage from the wet season and the optimal area of irrigation in the dry season are much higher than the current practice.

  19. Feasibility of large-scale water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Peña-Arancibia, J. L.; Sardella, C. S. E.

    2012-04-01

    The Asian-Pacific region (including China, India and Pakistan) is home to 51% of the global population. It accounts for 53% of agricultural and 32% of domestic water use world wide. Due to the influence of Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean circulation patterns, the region experiences strong inter-annual variations in water availability and occurrence of drought, flood and severe weather. Some of the countries in the region have national water monitoring or forecasting systems, but they are typically of fairly narrow scope. We investigated the feasibility and utility of an integrated regional water monitoring and forecasting system for water resources, floods and drought. In particular, we assessed the quality of information that can be achieved by relying on internationally available data sources, including numerical weather prediction (NWP) and satellite observations of precipitation, soil moisture and vegetation. Combining these data sources with a large scale hydrological model, we produced monitoring and forecast information for selected retrospective case studies. The information was compared to that from national systems, both in terms of information content and system characteristics (e.g. scope, data sources, and information latency). While national systems typically have better access to national observation systems, they do not always make effective use of the available data, science and technology. The relatively slow changing nature of important Pacific and Indian Ocean circulation patterns adds meaningful seasonal forecast skill for some regions. Satellite and NWP precipitation estimates can add considerable value to the national gauge networks: as forecasts, as near-real time observations and as historic reference data. Satellite observations of soil moisture and vegetation are valuable for drought monitoring and underutilised. Overall, we identify several important opportunities for better water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region.

  20. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  1. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-08

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  2. Recent glacial retreat in High Asia in China and its impact on water resource in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Tandong; WANG; Youqing; LIU; Shiying; PU; Jianchen; S

    2004-01-01

    Under the impact of climatic warming, the glaciers in the High Asia in China have been retreating continuously with negative glacial mass balance in recent several decades. The retreat became more intensive in the past 10 years. The spatial pattern of the glacial retreat in the High Asia in China is that the smallest magnitude of retreat is in the inland of the Tibetan Plateau, the magnitude increases from the inland to the margin of the Tibetan Plateau, and the largest magnitude at the margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The glacial retreat in the High Asia in China has an important impact on the water resource of the arid regions in Northwest China. This study shows that the glacial retreat in the 1990s has caused an increase of 5.5% in river runoff in Northwest China. In the Tarim River basin, the increase of river runoff is higher than 5.5%.

  3. MENEKAN LAJU PENYEBARAN KOLERA DI ASIA DENGAN 3SW (STERILIZATION, SEWAGE, SOURCES, AND WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Anggaraditya Anggaraditya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penyakit taun atau kolera (juga disebut Asiatic cholera adalah penyakit menular di saluran pencernaan yang disebabkan oleh bakterium Vibrio cholerae. Kolera ditemukan pada tahun 1883 karena infeksi Vibrio cholerae, bakteri berbentuk koma. Penemuan ini ditemukan oleh bakteriologi Robert Koch (Jerman, 1843-1910.Penyebab kolera, adalah bakteri Vibrio cholerae, yang merupakan bakteri gram negatif, berbentuk basil (batang dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak, memiliki struktur antogenik dari antigen flagelar H dan antigen somatik O, gamma-proteobacteria, mesofilik dan kemoorganotrof, berhabitat alami di lingkungan akuatik dan umumnya berasosiasi dengan eukariot. Pada orang yang feacesnya ditemukan bakteri kolera mungkin selama 1-2 minggu belum merasakan keluhan berarti, Tetapi saat terjadinya serangan infeksi maka tiba-tiba terjadi diare dan muntah dengan kondisi cukup serius sebagai serangan akut yang menyebabkan samarnya jenis diare yg dialamiCara pencegahan dan memutuskan tali penularan penyakit kolera adalah dengan prinsip sanitasi lingkungan, terutama kebersihan air dan pembuangan kotoran (feaces pada tempatnya yang memenuhi standar lingkungan. Lainnya ialah meminum air yang sudah dimasak terlebih dahulu, cuci tangan dengan bersih sebelum makan memakai sabun/antiseptik, cuci sayuran dangan air bersih terutama sayuran yang dimakan mentah (lalapan, hindari memakan ikan dan kerang yang dimasak setengah matang. Kolera memang sudah menjadi momok yang menakutkan di dunia, dan belajar dari negara-negara di Asia yang sudah pernah mengalami wabah kolera, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa pengobatan dengan vaksin tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan.Selain karena tidak menjangkau seluruh warga miskin di sebuah negara, harga vaksin kolera juga dirasa cukup memberatkan anggaran negara-negara yang sedang berkembang di Asia.Cara yang dirasa paling tepat dalam menekan laju penyebara kolera adalah 3SW (Sterilization, Sewage, Sources, and Water

  4. Transboundary Resources, Consent and Customary Law - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Dutfield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This brief commentary focuses on the unresolved access and benefit sharing (ABS challenges of transboundary resources and situations where getting prior informed consent is not possible. In the absence of the global mechanism envisaged by the Nagoya Protocol, satisfactory ABS deals can still be struck but these are unlikely to be either common or effective in generating substantial benefits for the indigenous peoples. The commentary closes by underlining the moral imperative of ensuring that traditional knowledge and genetic resource users comply with the laws and customary practices established by indigenous groups rather than simply impose their own norms. However, there are many legal and conceptual obstacles to be overcome first.

  5. The role of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-International Hydro-logical Programme in sustainable water resources management in East Asian countries%联合国教科文组织国际水文计划项目在东亚可持续水资源管理中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小丽; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, IHP (International Hydrological Programme) has been actively operating as a UNESCO's (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) international scientific cooperative programme in water research, water resources manage- ment, education and capacity-building, and the only broadly-based science programme of the UN (United Nations) system in this region. By a number of initiatives and networks, the IHP has progressively carried out activities on the quantity and quality of global/regional wate resources, transboundary water resources management, mitigation of water related hazard, and water education. While addressing comprehensive areas over water challenges, greater emphasis has been placed on the role of water resources management for sustainable de- velopment and with respect to the expected changes in climate and environmental conditions. WWAP (World Water Assessment Programme) and its major product WWDR (World Water Development Report) in East Asia are under the framework of IHP which supports field ori- ented activities on monitoring freshwater, developing case studies, enhancing national as- sessment capacity, and facilitating decision making processes. In light of transboundary wa- ters in IHP, RSC (Regional Steering Committee) plays a focal role for facilitating regional cooperation in the Southeast and East Asia and Pacific States. Furthermore, ISI (International Sediment Initiative) and IFI (International Flood Initiative) have significant roles, respectively, for the management of erosion and sedimentation in line with river system or reservoir man- agement, and for the flood management focusing on capacity building of each country in East Asia. There are other major areas of concern under UNESCO's IHP programme in East Asia, specifically in aspects including, mitigating water conflicts on transboundary aquifers through ISARM (International Shared Aquifer Resources Management), water management of arid areas

  6. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  7. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  8. Natural attenuation of mining pollutants in the transboundary Save River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, M. L.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Atlhopheng, J.; Ringrose, S.

    The objective of the study was to investigate the role played by the natural environment in protecting the transboundary Save River from the impacts of metals derived from phosphate mining at Dorowa. The study is a follow up study from a previous one that noted that there is natural attenuation at Dorowa. Water and sediment samples were collected in the Save River and the streams that drain the Dorowa dumps. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the cations (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cu 2+, Co 2+, Fe 2+, Ni 2+, Zn 2+, Pb 2+, Sn 2+, Mn 2+, Cd 2+) in the samples. Major anions Cl -, SO42- and NO3- were analyzed by standard chromatography whilst CO32- and HCO3- were determined by titration. pH was measured on site. Geochemical modeling of the water composition was conducted with Visual Minteq. The results show that natural attenuation is being achieved through precipitation of solids from the water and subsequent deposition onto the sediments. Six of the metals are almost completely precipitated (Cu 99.99%, Fe 99.39%, Ni 91.24%, Pb 99.87%, Sn 99.99% and Zn 88.66%). However Mn, Co and Cd remain in solution. Thus the natural environment is protecting the Save River which is a transboundary river from the impacts of mining through precipitation of the metals. Users downstream of Dorowa mine are therefore not being affected by mining pollution. This study demonstrates that besides being a legitimate and important user of water, the natural environment can also play a significant role in protecting water quality by attenuating metals naturally. By analyzing costs incurred in several places where alternative methods are employed to remediate metal related pollution the study concludes that natural remediation at Dorowa is saving the nation in environmental costs. Therefore the paper advocates for appreciation of the role that the natural environment plays in protecting ecosystems from the impact of human developments and environmental costs

  9. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Urban Air of Fukuoka, Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Hara, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies providing quantitative information regarding secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the least understood subject in atmospheric chemistry, are important to evaluating secondary transboundary pollution. To obtain quantitative information of long-range transported SOA in the air of Fukuoka, we conducted simultaneous field studies during December 2010 and March 2012 at a rural site in northern Kyushu and at an urban site in Fukuoka City. During the studies, we collected airborne particulate matter (PM) on filters and extracted the low-volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) component, which is possibly dominated by SOA, from the filter samples and analyzed it to determine the carbon concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio. Under the assumption that the LV-WSOC at Fukuoka had both transboundary and local origins, we then applied end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) to the stable carbon isotope ratio data from both sites to estimate the fraction of LV-WSOCs from these origins in the Fukuoka air. Indep...

  10. Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent

  11. Simulating carbon and water cycles of larch forests in East Asia by the BIOME-BGC model with AsiaFlux data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ueyama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Larch forests are widely distributed across many cool-temperate and boreal regions, and they are expected to play an important role in global carbon and water cycles. Model parameterizations for larch forests still contain large uncertainties owing to a lack of validation. In this study, a process-based terrestrial biosphere model, BIOME-BGC, was tested for larch forests at six AsiaFlux sites and used to identify important environmental factors that affect the carbon and water cycles at both temporal and spatial scales.

    The model simulation performed with the default deciduous conifer parameters produced results that had large differences from the observed net ecosystem exchange (NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE, and evapotranspiration (ET. Therefore, we adjusted several model parameters in order to reproduce the observed rates of carbon and water cycle processes. This model calibration, performed using the AsiaFlux data, significantly improved the model performance. The simulated annual GPP, RE, NEE, and ET from the calibrated model were highly consistent with observed values.

    The observed and simulated GPP and RE across the six sites are positively correlated with the annual mean air temperature and annual total precipitation. On the other hand, the simulated carbon budget is partly explained by the stand disturbance history in addition to the climate. The sensitivity study indicates that spring warming enhances the carbon sink, whereas summer warming decreases it across the larch forests. The summer radiation is the most important factor that controls the carbon fluxes in the temperate site, but the VPD and water conditions are the limiting factors in the boreal sites. One model parameter, the allocation ratio of carbon between aboveground and belowground, is site-specific, and it is negatively correlated with the annual climate of annual mean air temperature and total precipitation. Although

  12. Simulating carbon and water cycles of larch forests in East Asia by the BIOME-BGC model with AsiaFlux data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ueyama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Larch forests are widely distributed across many cool-temperate and boreal regions, and they are expected to play an important role in global carbon and water cycles. Model parameterizations for larch forests still contain large uncertainties owing to a lack of validation. In this study, a process-based terrestrial biosphere model, BIOME-BGC, was tested for larch forests at six AsiaFlux sites and used to identify important environmental factors that affect the carbon and water cycles at both temporal and spatial scales.

    The model simulation performed with the default deciduous conifer parameters produced results that had large differences from the observed net ecosystem exchange (NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE, and evapotranspiration (ET. Therefore, we adjusted several model parameters in order to reproduce the observed rates of carbon and water cycle processes. This model calibration, performed using the AsiaFlux data, substantially improved the model performance. The simulated annual GPP, RE, NEE, and ET from the calibrated model were highly consistent with observed values.

    The observed and simulated GPP and RE across the six sites were positively correlated with the annual mean air temperature and annual total precipitation. On the other hand, the simulated carbon budget was partly explained by the stand disturbance history in addition to the climate. The sensitivity study indicated that spring warming enhanced the carbon sink, whereas summer warming decreased it across the larch forests. The summer radiation was the most important factor that controlled the carbon fluxes in the temperate site, but the VPD and water conditions were the limiting factors in the boreal sites. One model parameter, the allocation ratio of carbon between belowground and aboveground, was site-specific, and it was negatively correlated with the annual climate of annual mean air temperature and total precipitation

  13. Quantifying the Impact of a Transboundary Streamflow Agreement on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, J.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Many groundwater aquifers in important agricultural areas are exploited beyond their sustainable limits. Groundwater overuse can reduce streamflow across political boundaries, leading to transboundary management challenges. Although conflicts over transboundary water resources do arise, these conflicts can also prompt improved aquifer management. Portions of the Republican River Basin, which overlies the High Plains Aquifer in the central United States, have been under court-ordered groundwater restrictions to meet interstate streamflow requirements since 2004, following the 2002 Kansas v. Nebraska and Colorado Supreme Court case. We examined the impacts of these restrictions on groundwater levels, pumping volume, agricultural productivity, and streamflow in the Nebraska portion of the basin to assess how transboundary agreements can affect groundwater sustainability in agricultural systems. We synthesized available data for 1990-2014 to analyze trends before and after restrictions went into effect in 2004. After controlling for climate covariates, we found that restrictions reduced pumping volumes in the study area, resulting in increased streamflow across the Nebraska-Kansas border. Furthermore, restrictions appear to have reversed the declining trend in groundwater storage. Notably, this reversal contrasts with continuing decline in the unrestricted Kansas portion of the basin, suggesting the court-ordered restrictions have altered the sustainability trajectory of this region. The impacts of pumping restrictions on regional agricultural yields and productivity are examined. Our analysis of this system suggests that by setting external limits on resource use, enforceable transboundary water agreements can stimulate sustainable groundwater management and counter local incentives for overextraction.

  14. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios--internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population--to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region's population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  15. Impact of biomass burning on surface water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-03-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric N on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episode in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large tracts of the region. In this work, we determined the composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during haze and non-haze periods to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between haze and non haze periods. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The mean dry atmospheric fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP observed during hazy and non-hazy days were 4.77±0.775 and 0.3±0.082, and 0.91±0.471 and 0.046±0.01, respectively. The mean wet deposition fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP were 12.2±3.53 and 0.726±0.074, and 2.71±0.989 and 0.144±0.06 for hazy and non-hazy days, respectively. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  16. Harmful Algal Blooms in Asia: an insidious and escalating water pollution phenomenon with effects on ecological and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Glibert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs, those proliferations of algae that causeenvironmental, economic, or human health problems, are increasing in frequency,duration, and geographic extent due to nutrient pollution. The scale of the HABproblem in Asia has escalated in recent decades in parallel with the increase in useof agricultural fertilizer, the development of aquaculture, and a growing population.Three examples, all from China but illustrative of the diversity of events and theirecological, economic, and human health effects throughout Asia, are highlightedhere. These examples include inland (Lake Tai or Taihu as well as offshore (EastChina Sea and Yellow Sea waters. The future outlook for controlling these bloomsis bleak. The effects of advancing industrialized agriculture and a continually growingpopulation will continue to result in more nutrient pollution and more HABs—-and more effects - in the foreseeable future.

  17. Growing more food with less water: how can revitalizing Asia's irrigation help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherji, A.; Facon, T.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Molden, D.; Chartres, C.

    2012-01-01

    Asia accounts for 70% of the world's irrigated area and is home to some of the oldest and largest irrigation schemes. While these irrigation schemes played an important role in ensuring food security for billions of people in the past, their current state of affairs leaves much to be desired. This p

  18. Impact of biomass burning on ocean water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained considerable attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric macro nutrients on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episodes in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large parts of the region. In this work, we determined the chemical composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during hazy and non-hazy days to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between hazy and non-hazy days. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The estimated mean dry and wet atmospheric fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total nitrogen (TN) were 12.72 ± 2.12 and 2.49 ± 1.29 during non-hazy days and 132.86 ± 38.39 and 29.43 ± 10.75 during hazy days; the uncertainty estimates are represented as 1 standard deviation (1σ) here and throughout the text. The estimated mean dry and wet deposition fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total phosphorous (TP) were 0.82 ± 0.23 and 0.13 ± 0.03 for non-hazy days and 7.89 ± 0.80 and 1.56 ± 0.65 for hazy days. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  19. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns.

  20. Transboundary EIA in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koivurova, Timo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how transboundary environmental impact assessment (TEIA is organised in an area where international borders are close to each other, that is, in North Calotte/Kola Peninsula. It shows that a dense set of international legal obligations requires the region’s states to undertake TEIA. The paper examines the important question how TEIA can be done in an ideal manner in the region via the available best practise documents, such as the Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic document adopted by the predecessor of the Arctic Council, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. Our argument is that best practises can be used in evaluating how individual cases are undertaken, such as the TEIA over the so-called Kaunisvaara project located in Pajala municipality (northern Sweden, close to the Finnish border (chapter 4. Our conclusion is that TEIA should be undertaken by the region’s nation-states by applying the main international TEIA convention, the so-called Espoo Convention, but also by adhering to the best practise documents that give guidance how to perform a TEIA in Arctic conditions.

  1. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentai Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in the inland arid area of Central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang has recently received heightened concerns over soil water erosion, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Data from the national soil erosion survey of China (1985–2011 and Xinjiang statistical yearbook (2000–2010 was used to analyze the trend, intensity, and serious soil water erosion regions. Results showed that the water erosion area in Xinjiang was 87.6×103 km2 in 2011, mainly distributed in the Ili river valley and the northern and southern Tian Mountain. Soil erosion gradient was generally slight and the average erosion modulus was 2184 t/(km2 a. During the last 26 years, the water erosion area in Xinjiang decreased by 23.2%, whereas the intensity was still increasing. The driving factors from large to small impact included: population boom and human activities>vegetation degradation>rainfall and climate change>topography and soil erodibility>tectonics movement. Soil water erosion resulted in eco-environmental and socioeconomic losses, such as destroying farmland and grassland, triggering floods, sedimentation of reservoirs, damaging transportation and irrigation facilities, and aggravating poverty. A landscape ecological design approach is suggested for integrated control of soil erosion. Currently, an average of 2.07×103 km2 of formerly eroded area is conserved each year. This study highlighted the importance and longevity of soil and water conservation efforts in Xinjiang, and offered some suggestions on ecological restoration and combating desertification in arid regions of Central Asia.

  2. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Water Management in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael P; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Bogaard, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In a large study on early crop water management, stable carbon isotope discrimination was determined for 275 charred grain samples from nine archaeological sites, dating primarily to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. This has revealed that wheat (Triticum spp.) was regularly grown in wetter conditions than barley (Hordeum sp.), indicating systematic preferential treatment of wheat that may reflect a cultural preference for wheat over barley. Isotopic analysis of pulse crops (Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum and Vicia ervilia) indicates cultivation in highly varied water conditions at some sites, possibly as a result of opportunistic watering practices. The results have also provided evidence for local land-use and changing agricultural practices.

  3. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  4. Source apportionment of atmospheric water over East Asia - a source tracer study in CAM5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric water tracer (AWT) method is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) to quantitatively identify the contributions of various source regions to precipitation and water vapour over East Asia. Compared to other source apportionment methods, the AWT method was developed based on detailed physical parameterisations, and can therefore trace the behaviour of atmospheric water substances directly and exactly. According to the simulation, the northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is the dominant oceanic moisture source region for precipitation over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern China (SCN) in summer, while the north-western Pacific (NWP) dominates during other seasons. Evaporation over the South China Sea (SCS) is responsible for only 2.7-3.7 % of summer precipitation over the YRV and SCN. In addition, the Indo-China Peninsula is an important terrestrial moisture source region (annual contribution of ˜ 10 %). The overall relative contribution of each source region to the water vapour amount is similar to the corresponding contribution to precipitation over the YRV and SCN. A case study for the SCS shows that only a small part ( ≤ 5.5 %) of water vapour originates from local evaporation, whereas much more water vapour is supplied by the NWP and NIO. In addition, because evaporation from the SCS represents only a small contribution to the water vapour over the YRV and SCN in summer, the SCS mainly acts as a water vapour transport pathway where moisture from the NIO and NWP meet.

  5. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  6. Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

    2010-12-01

    rockslide-formed Lake Gojal and of the region’s glacier dynamics seen by satellite to show the promise of remote sensing to address disaster management and hazard identification. However, the biggest role of remote sensing should be in the identification of hazard-prone situations, such as areas where landslides or the development of dangerous glacier lakes is likely. Increased satellite surveillance and deployment of air- and land surface-borne sensor platforms, and in some cases surface or subsurface watercraft, may aid the characterization of the landscape, identify geologic and climatic instabilities, and identify vulnerabilities among the people and infrastructure. A broad-based remote sensing program should fit within a coherent regional/international approach to the key related issues of natural hazards, water resources, urban planning, food security, hydropower, and environmental conservation. Notably, these issues all are interlinked to transboundary hydrology and climate change.

  7. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  8. Potential effects of climate change and variability on watershed biogeochemical processes and water quality in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyung; Duan, Lei; Kim, Bomchul; Mitchell, Myron J; Shibata, Hideaki

    2010-02-01

    An overview is provided of the potential effects of climate change on the watershed biogeochemical processes and surface water quality in mountainous watersheds of Northeast (NE) Asia that provide drinking water supplies for large populations. We address major 'local' issues with the case studies conducted at three watersheds along a latitudinal gradient going from northern Japan through the central Korean Peninsula and ending in southern China. Winter snow regimes and ground snowpack dynamics play a crucial role in many ecological and biogeochemical processes in the mountainous watersheds across northern Japan. A warmer winter with less snowfall, as has been projected for northern Japan, will alter the accumulation and melting of snowpacks and affect hydro-biogeochemical processes linking soil processes to surface water quality. Soils on steep hillslopes and rich in base cations have been shown to have distinct patterns in buffering acidic inputs during snowmelt. Alteration of soil microbial processes in response to more frequent freeze-thaw cycles under thinner snowpacks may increase nutrient leaching to stream waters. The amount and intensity of summer monsoon rainfalls have been increasing in Korea over recent decades. More frequent extreme rainfall events have resulted in large watershed export of sediments and nutrients from agricultural lands on steep hillslopes converted from forests. Surface water siltation caused by terrestrial export of sediments from these steep hillslopes is emerging as a new challenge for water quality management due to detrimental effects on water quality. Climatic predictions in upcoming decades for southern China include lower precipitation with large year-to-year variations. The results from a four-year intensive study at a forested watershed in Chongquing province showed that acidity and the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in soil and surface waters were generally lower in the years with lower precipitation, suggesting year

  9. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moreno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, and hourly Streaker with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE samples collected continuously for six weeks reveal the chemistry of successive waves of natural mineral desert dust ("Kosa" and metalliferous sulphatic pollutants arriving in western Japan during spring 2011. The main aerosol sources recognised by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of Streaker data are mineral dust and fresh sea salt (both mostly in the coarser fraction PM2.5–10, As-bearing sulphatic aerosol (PM0.1–2.5, metalliferous sodic particulate matter (PM interpreted as aged, industrially contaminated marine aerosol, and ZnCu-bearing aerosols. Whereas mineral dust arrivals are typically highly transient, peaking over a few hours, sulphatic intrusions build up and decline more slowly, and are accompanied by notable rises in ambient concentrations of metallic trace elements such as Pb, As, Zn, Sn and Cd. The magnitude of the loss in regional air quality due to the spread and persistence of pollution from mainland Asia is especially clear when cleansing oceanic air advects westward across Japan, removing the continental influence and reducing concentrations of the undesirable metalliferous pollutants by over 90%. Our new chemical database, especially the Streaker data, demonstrates the rapidly changing complexity of ambient air inhaled during these transboundary events, and implicates Chinese coal combustion as the main source of the anthropogenic aerosol component.

  10. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  11. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  12. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components

  13. Modelling Climate Change Impacts on the Seasonality of Water Resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Quy Giang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4°C in the 2090s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season. The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ±25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season.

  14. Modelling climate change impacts on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Pham Quy; Toshiki, Kosuke; Sakata, Masahiro; Kunikane, Shoichi; Vinh, Tran Quoc

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4(°)C in the 2090 s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season). The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090 s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ± 25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090 s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season.

  15. Towards An Integrated Fire Management Framework Using Space-Based Application In Asia-Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hendri; Loh, Timothy; Tiwaree, Ram S.; Lee, Khiam Jin; Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao

    2011-01-01

    The integrated fire management framework using space-based application has been developed to reduce the consequences of fire disaster, particularly in developing countries, least developed countries (LDCs), small island developing states (SIDs) and land-locked developing countries (LLDCs) in Asia and the Pacific. Since 1982/1983 and 1997/1998, the two recorded forest fires in the world created much suffering in Asia and the Pacific region, while the resulting transboundary atmospheric polluta...

  16. Morphological Characteristics and Water-Use Efficiency of Siberian Elm Trees (Ulmus pumila L. within Arid Regions of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Eun Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L. is one of the most commonly found tree species in arid areas of northeast Asia. To understand the morphological and physiological characteristics of Siberian elms in arid regions, we analyzed leaves from seven study sites (five arid or semi-arid and two mesic in China, Mongolia and the Republic of Korea, which covered a wide range of average annual precipitation (232 mm·year−1 to 1304 mm·year−1 under various aridity indexes (AI and four different microenvironments: sand dune, steppe, riverside and forest. The traits of Siberian elms varied widely along different annual precipitation (P and AI gradients. Tree height (H, leaf size (LS and stomatal area per unit leaf area (AS/AL decreased with increasing AI, whereas leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA and water-use efficiency (WUE increased significantly. In addition, trees at the five arid sites showed significant differences in LS, LMA and AS/AL but not in H and WUE. Thus, our study indicated that indigenous Siberian elm trees in arid areas have substantially altered their morphological and physiological characteristics to avoid heat stress and increase water conservation in comparison to mesic areas. However, their changes differed depending on the surrounding microenvironment even in arid areas. Trees in sand dunes had a smaller LS, higher LMA, thicker leaf cuticle layer and higher stomatal density and AS than those in steppes and near a riverside.

  17. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  18. 8th Annual report 1999. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 1998/99 including: - a short summary of previous data assessments - a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network - a documentation of the scientific strategies to carry out data assessment on two priority topics: - assessment of heavy metal pools and fluxes - assessment of cause-effect relationships for understorey vegetation - a description of the WATBAL-model for estimating monthly water balance components, including soil water fluxes. (orig.)

  19. Optimizing water management practices for enhancing rice production and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Asia: The food-water-climate nexus approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Yang, J.; Ren, W.

    2015-12-01

    Rice fields, supporting over half of the global population, consumed around 30% of the freshwater used for global crop growth and identified as one of the major methane (CH4) sources. Asia, in where 90% of rice is consumed, took over 90% of the total CH4 emission from the global rice field. With the increasing water scarcity and rapidly growth population, it is urgent to address how to simultaneously maintain or even increase food production, reduce water consumption, and benefit climate. In this study, we used a process-based model (Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model), which has the capability to simultaneously simulate the carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes and storages within the terrestrial ecosystem, and also the exchanges of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, to quantify the magnitude, spatial and temporal variation of rice production and CH4 emissions under different water management practices. Simulated results have been evaluated against field observations, inventory-based and atmospheric inversion estimates. By implementing a set of experimental simulations, the results could provide insights for reasonable implementation of optimum water management practices, which is also crucial for policy maker to make trade-off decisions to increase yield and reduce GHG emissions through effective mitigation strategies.

  20. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  1. Legal aspects of transboundary movements of spent catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuttke, J. [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Long years of world-wide effort to control transboundary movements of waste, espe-cially waste exports from industrial states to developing countries have led to the establishment of a comprehensive regulatory system, comprised of international, European and national laws that are often revised and modified. The Federal Republic of Germany is a Party State to the Basel Convention and the OECD as well as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  2. Tropical organic soils ecosystems in relation to regional water resources in southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Tropical organic soils have functioned as natural sinks for carbon, nitrogen, slfur and other nutrients for the past 4000 years or more. Topographic evolution in peat swamp forests towards greater oligotrophy has concentrated storage of the limited nutrient stock in surface soils and biota. Tropical peat systems thus share common ecosystem characteristics with northern peat bogs and certain tropical oligotrophic forests. Organic matter accumulation and high cation-exchange-capacity limit nutrient exports from undisturbed organic soils, although nutrient retention declines with increasing eutrophy and wetland productivity. Peat swamps are subject to irreversible degradation if severely altered because disturbance of vegetation, surface peats and detritus can disrupt nuttrient cycles and reduce forest recovery capacity. Drainage also greatly increases exports of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and leads to downstream eutrophication and water quality degradation. Regional planning for clean water supplies must recognize the benefits provided by natural peatlands in balancing water supplies and regulating water chemistry.

  3. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  4. Water Productivity Mapping (WPM Using Landsat ETM+ Data for the Irrigated Croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabirjan Isaev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this paper was to espouse methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM using high spatial resolution Landsat remote sensing data. In a world where land and water for agriculture are becoming increasingly scarce, growing “more crop per drop” (increasing water productivity becomes crucial for food security of future generations. The study used time-series Landsat ETM+ data to produce WPMs of irrigated crops, with emphasis on cotton in the Galaba study area in the Syrdarya river basin of Central Asia. The WPM methods and protocols using remote sensing data consisted of: (1 crop productivity (ton/ha maps (CPMs involvingcrop type classification, crop yield and biophysical modeling, and extrapolating yield models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2 crop water use (m3/ha maps (WUMs (or actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET developed through Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB model; and (3 water productivity (kg/m3 maps (WPMs produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs. The SSEB model calculated WUMs (actual ET by multiplying the ET fractionby reference ET. The ETfraction was determined using Landsat thermal imagery by selecting the “hot” pixels (zero ET and “cold” pixels (maximum ET. The grass reference ET was calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data. The WPMs for the Galaba study area demonstrated a wide variations (0-0.54 kg/m3 in water productivity of cotton fields with overwhelming proportion (87% of the area having WP less than 0.30 kg/m3, 11% of the area having WP in range of 0.30-0.36 kg/m3, and only 2% of the area with WP greater than 0.36 kg/m3. These results clearly imply that there are opportunities for significant WP increases in overwhelming proportion of the existing croplands. The areas of low WP are spatially pin-pointed and can be used as focus for WP improvements

  5. Precipitation variability in High Mountain Asia from multiple datasets and implication for water balance analysis in large lake basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Huang, Bo; Ke, Linghong; Ye, Qinghua

    2016-10-01

    For the period 1979-2011, eight gridded monthly precipitation datasets, including GPCP, CMAP-1/2, TRMM, PREC/L, APHRODITE, NCEP-2 and ERA-Interim, are inter-compared with each other and station observations over High Mountain Asia (HMA). The precipitation variability from the first six gauge-based or merged analysis datasets agree better with each other than with the two reanalysis data. The long-term trend analysis of GPCP, CMAP-1, PREC/L and APHRODITE precipitation datasets consistently reveals moderate increases in the inner and northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and northwest Xinjiang, and obvious decreases in the southeast TP. However, in the Himalayas and Karakorum, there are large discrepancies among different datasets, where GPCP and APHRODITE precipitation datasets show significant decreases along the Himalayas while other datasets show strong spatial heterogeneity or slight variations. The larger uncertainties in the rugged area may be largely attributed to scarce station observations, as well as the stronger snow-induced scattering by microwave measurement. To assess which precipitation datasets tend to be more suitable for hydrologic analysis in HMA, we further investigate the accuracy of precipitation estimates at basin scale by comparing with gauge-based observations, and examine the coherences of annual lake water budgets and precipitation variability over four large closed lake catchments. The results indicate that two reanalysis precipitation datasets show evidently weaker correlations with station observations; the other six datasets perform better in indicating inter-annual variations of lake water budgets. It suggests that these merged analysis precipitation datasets, especially for GPCP, CMAP-1/2 and PREC/L, have the potential in examining regional water balances of the inner basins in HMA.

  6. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste.

  7. Trans-boundary secondary organic aerosol in western Japan indicated by stable carbon isotope ratio of low volatile water-soluble organic carbon and signal at m/z 44 in organic aerosol mass spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hara, Keiichiro; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Sato, Kei; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Hikida, Toshihide; Shimono, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in the winter of 2010 at two rural sites and an urban site in western Japan, and filter samples of total suspended particulate matter were collected every 24-h and analyzed for concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) of low volatile water-soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC). Concentration of major chemical species in fine aerosol (<1.0 micron) was also measured in real time by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers. Oxidation state of organic aerosol was evaluated using the proportion of signal at m/z 44 (fragment ions of carboxyl group) to the sum of all m/z signals of organic mass spectra (f44). Analyses show a high correlation between LV-WSOC and m/z 44 concentrations, suggesting that the LV-WSOC is substantially composed of water soluble carboxylic acids in the fine aerosol. Plots of delta13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 exhibit systematic trends at the rural sites and random variation at the urban site. The systematic trends qualitatively agree with a simple binary mix...

  8. The Rise and Implications of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Southeast Asia through an Environmental Justice Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Middleton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article maps the rise of the water-energy-food 'nexus' as a research, policy and project agenda in mainland Southeast Asia. We argue that introducing the concept of environmental justice into the nexus, especially where narratives, trade-offs and outcomes are contested, could make better use of how the nexus is framed, understood and acted upon. With funding from high-income country donors, it is found to have diffused from a global policy arena into a regional one that includes international and regional organisations, academic networks, and civil society, and national politicians and government officials. The nexus is yet to be extensively grounded, however, into national policies and practices, and broad-based local demand for nexus-framed policies is currently limited. The article contends that if the nexus is to support stated aspirations for sustainable development and poverty reduction, then it should engage more directly in identifying winners and losers in natural resource decision-making, the politics involved, and ultimately with the issue of justice. In order to do so, it links the nexus to the concept of environmental justice via boundary concepts, namely: sustainable development; the green economy; scarcity and addressing of trade-offs; and governance at, and across, the local, national and transnational scale.

  9. Asia-Pacific mussel watch for emerging pollutants: Distribution of synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers in Asian and US coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shinohara, Ryu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Kim, Eun Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Frank, Donnell; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.

  10. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fraser Cumming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dataset resulted in higher abundances and occurrences of many diatom taxa thereby allowing a more accurate quantification of the optima of diatom taxa to TP in comparison to previous smaller calibration datasets. Robust diatom-based TP inference models with a moderate predictive power were developed using weighted-averaging regression and calibration. Information from the calibration dataset was used to interpret changes in the diatom assemblages from the north and south basins of Osoyoos Lake, in conjunction with fossil pigment analyses. Osoyoos Lake is a large salmon-bearing lake that straddles the British Columbia-Washington border and has undergone cultural eutrophication followed by recovery due to substantial mitigation efforts in managing sources of nutrients. Both diatom assemblages and sedimentary pigments indicate that eutrophication began c. 1950 in the north basin and c. 1960 in the southern basin, reaching peak levels of production between 1960 and 1990, after which decreases in sedimentary pigments occurred, as well as decreases in the relative abundance and concentrations of diatom taxa inferred to have high TP optima. Post-1990 changes in the diatom assemblage suggests conditions have become less productive with a shift to taxa more indicative of lower TP optima in concert with measurements of declining TP, two of these diatom taxa, Cyclotella comensis and Cyclotella gordonensis, that were previously rare are now abundant.

  11. A Short-review: Semi-enclosed Coastal Seas in the Southeast Asia : From the Viewpoint of Water Mass Residence Time

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of remnant function and residence time are reviewd. Then, the characteristics of semi-enclosed coastal seas in the Southeast Asia such as Hurun Bay in Indonesia, the Banpakong estuary in Thailand, and the Sulu Sea in the Philippines are discussed based on the concept of water mass residence time. The concept of residence time is very useful to investigate the environmental problems such as eutrophication in the semi-enclosed coastal sea.

  12. Data sharing in international transboundary contexts: The Vietnamese perspective on data sharing in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Hang Ngo; Wehn, Uta

    2016-05-01

    Transboundary data sharing is widely recognised as a necessary element in the successful handling of water-related climate change issues, as it is a means towards integrated water resources management (IWRM). However, in practice it is often a challenge to achieve it. The Mekong River Commission (MRC), an inter-governmental agency established by Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam, has adopted IWRM in its water strategy plan in order to properly manage the transboundary waters of the Mekong River. In this context, data sharing procedures were institutionalised and have been officially implemented by the four member countries since 2001. This paper uses a systematic approach to identify the extent of data sharing and the factors influencing the willingness of key individuals in the Vietnam National Mekong Committee and its Primary Custodians to share data. We find that the initial objectives of the Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing (PDIES) have not been fully achieved and, further, that Vietnam has much to gain and little to lose by engaging in data sharing in the MRC context. The primary motivation for data sharing stems from the desire to protect national benefits and to prevent upstream countries from overexploiting the shared water resources. However, data sharing is hindered by a lack of national regulations in the Vietnam context concerning data sharing between state agencies and outdated information management systems.

  13. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  14. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions, be it exhaust gases or aerosols, stem from multitude of sources and may survive long-range transport within the air masses they were emitted into. So they follow regional and global transport pathways varying under different climatological regimes. Transboundary transfer of pollutants occurs this way and has a significant impact on the ecological situation of the territories neighbouring those of emission sources, as found in a few earlier studies examining the environmental monitoring data [1]. In this study, we employ a relatively facile though robust technique for estimating the transboundary air and concomitant pollutant fluxes using actual or climatological meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. Practically, we assume pollutant transfer being proportional to the horizontal transport of air enclosed in the lower troposphere and to the concentration of the pollutant of interest. The horizontal transport, in turn, is estimated using the mean layer wind direction and strength, or their descriptive statistics at the individual transects of the boundary of interest. The domain of our interest is the segment of Russian continental border in East Asia spanning from 88° E (southern Middle Siberia) to 135° E (Far East at Pacific shore). The data on atmospheric pollutants concentration are available from the Russian monitoring sites of the region-wide Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) Mondy (Baikal area) and Primorskaya (near Vladivostok). The data comprises multi-year continuous measurement of gas-phase and particulate species abundances in air with at least biweekly sampling rate starting from 2000. In the first phase of our study, we used climatological dataset on winds derived from the aerological soundings at Russian stations along the continental border for the 10-year period (1961-1970) by the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) [3

  15. Assessment of temporal hydrologic anomalies coupled with drought impact for a transboundary river flow regime: The Diyala watershed case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Scholz, Miklas

    2014-09-01

    Recent increases in human activities in shared river basins have unquestionably raised concerns about potential hydrological impacts, especially impacts of dams and large-scale water withdrawal schemes in the highlands. Anthropogenic pressures twinned with drought impacts have exacerbated water management challenges. This article assesses the cumulative consequences of upstream anthropogenic pressures and drought spells on temporal river flow regimes for the downstream country. The size and complexity of problems confronting transboundary river watersheds makes it necessary to use a representative example basin to study the problems and potential solutions. The Diyala (Sīrvān) river basin, which shares dozens of transboundary watersheds between Iraq and Iran, has been selected as a representative case study. A subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) was utilised and climate variability was considered in assessing the combined effect of various forms of upstream human-river regulations and climatic conditions on natural flow regimes in the downstream state. Findings indicated that the anthropogenic river-regulation coupled with the impact of drought periods have noticeably modified the natural flow paradigm. The yearly average runoffs, which are no longer available for the downstream country, have soared to very high levels, particularly over the last fifteen years. More adverse impacts were detected in the non-rainy season. Findings reveal also that damming and considerable water diversion to large-scale irrigation projects in the upstream state are the main regulations affecting the management of shared water resources in the downstream country.

  16. Trophic State Evolution and Nutrient Trapping Capacity in a Transboundary Subtropical Reservoir: A 25-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Davi Gasparini Fernandes; Benassi, Simone Frederigi; de Falco, Patrícia Bortoletto; do Carmo Calijuri, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Artificial reservoirs have been used for drinking water supply, other human activities, flood control and pollution abatement worldwide, providing overall benefits to downstream water quality. Most reservoirs in Brazil were built during the 1970s, but their long-term patterns of trophic status, water chemistry, and nutrient removal are still not very well characterized. We aimed to evaluate water quality time series (1985-2010) data from the riverine and lacustrine zones of the transboundary Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil/Paraguay). We examined total phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll a concentrations, water transparency, and phytoplankton density to look for spatial and temporal trends and correlations with trophic state evolution and nutrient retention. There was significant temporal and spatial water quality variation ( P chlorophyll a concentrations tended to be lower in the lacustrine zone and decreased over the 25-year timeframe. Reservoir operational features seemed to be limiting primary production and phytoplankton development, which exhibited a maximum density of 6050 org/mL. The relatively small nutrient concentrations in the riverine zone were probably related to the effect of the cascade reservoirs upstream of Itaipu and led to relatively low removal percentages. Our study suggested that water quality problems may be more pronounced immediately after the filling phase of the artificial reservoirs, associated with the initial decomposition of drowned vegetation at the very beginning of reservoir operation.

  17. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  18. Trans-Boundary Haze Pollution in Southeast Asia: Sustainability through Plural Environmental Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Saidul Islam; Yap Hui Pei; Shrutika Mangharam

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent haze in Southeast Asian countries including Singapore is largely attributable to rampant forest fires in Indonesia due to, for example, extensive slash-and-burn (S & B) culture. Drawing on the “treadmill of production” and environmental governance approach, we examine causes and consequences of this culture. We found that, despite some perceived benefits, its environmental consequences include deforestation, soil erosion and degradation, global warming, threats to biodiversity, ...

  19. Effects of Ocean Climate on Transboundary Movement of Coastal Pelagic Resources Between the EEZs of Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Garcia, J.; Sanchez, C.; Lo, N. C.; Charter, R.

    2007-05-01

    Interannual to multidecadal changes in ocean climate directly impact access to transboundary coastal pelagic resources between fisheries operating in U.S. and Mexican waters. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the scale of year-to-year shifts in the distribution of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) with data from 2002 and 2003. One of the purposes of this initiative is to provide a template for collaborative research to guide regional policy development for responsible and sustainable utilization of the shared resource. This work is based on coordinated quarterly ocean surveys run by Mexican (the IMECOCAL program=Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California) and U.S. scientists (the CalCOFI program=California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) allowing us to evaluate the annual state of the pelagic ecosystem from northern California to southern Baja California. The subject of this study is the "subarctic stock" of the Pacific sardine which is centered off California in the U.S. and extends southwards to the region off central Baja California. Estimates of sardine biomass in U.S. and Mexican waters, based on the rates of egg production measured during the IMECOCAL and CalCOFI surveys of April 2002 and April 2003, show order of magnitude differences in the relative proportions of biomass in the Mexican EEZ that is associated with the contrasts in ocean climate resulting from the regional effects of El Niño during April 2003. Results indicate a significant northward shift of the sardine stock off Mexico during 2003: we estimate that approximately 20 percent of the total biomass of the stock was located in the Mexican EEZ during spring of 2002 while the shift in ocean climate resulted in the presence of only 2 percent of the biomass of the stock in Mexican waters during April, 2003. A second, more southerly sardine stock extended from southern to central Baja California in April, 2003, but it was out of reach of the fleet

  20. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Alvarez, Kelly [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kuwae, Michinobu [Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009–2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the {sup 210}Pb constant rate of supply model and {sup 137}Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100 years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. - Highlights: • Historical trend of Pb pollution was recorded in six Japanese Lakes. • Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios were determined for sediment cores. • High [Pb] and less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios

  1. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  2. The disappearing Environmental Kuznets Curve: a study of water quality in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yoon Loong Andrew; Lewis, Lynne

    2013-12-15

    The literature is flush with articles focused on estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for various pollutants and various locations. Most studies have utilized air pollution variables; far fewer have utilized water quality variables, all with mixed results. We suspect that mixed evidence of the EKC stems from model and error specification. We analyze annual data for four water quality indicators, three of them previously unstudied - total phosphorus (TOTP), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4) and nitrites (NO2) - from the Lower Mekong Basin region to determine whether an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is evident for a transboundary river in a developing country and whether that curve is dependent on model specification and/or pollutant. We build upon previous studies by correcting for the problems of heteroskedasticity, serial correlation and cross-sectional dependence. Unlike multi-country EKC studies, we mitigate for potential distortion from pooling data across geographically heterogeneous locations by analyzing data drawn from proximate locations within a specific international river basin in Southeast Asia. We also attempt to identify vital socioeconomic determinants of water pollution by including a broad list of explanatory variables alongside the income term. Finally, we attempt to shed light on the pollution-income relationship as it pertains to trans-boundary water pollution by examining data from an international river system. We do not find consistent evidence of an EKC for any of the 4 pollutant indicators in this study, but find the results are entirely dependent on model and error specification as well as pollutant.

  3. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  4. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  5. Los retos de la cooperación regional en Asia central: Más sombras que luces en la gestión de los recursos hídricos compartidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Campins Eritja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSS’s model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production. On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

  6. Research into fisheries equity and fairness—addressing conservation burden concerns in transboundary fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Q.; Campbell, B.; Bailey, M.L.; Molenaar, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and management of transboundary fisheries must account for diverse national interests while adopting compromises necessary to develop and implement robust conservation and management measures. The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement requires states to ensure that conservation and manag

  7. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René

    2016-04-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  8. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations sati...

  9. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  10. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  11. Satellite-Based Observations of Inter-annual Variation of Vegetation Water Content and Productivity in Northern Asia During 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Braswell, B. H.; Zhang, Q.; Boles, S.; Frolking, S.; Moore, B.

    2002-05-01

    The terrestrial biosphere was largely carbon neutral during the 1980s, but became a much stronger net carbon sink in the 1990s. It is also thought that the unusually large carbon sink in the early 1990s can be largely attributed to climate variability. We analyzed multi-temporal images (1-km spatial resolution, 10-day composites) from the SPOT-4 VEGETATION (VGT) sensor over the period of April 1, 1998 to September 30, 2001 to characterize spatial and temporal variations of vegetation and water indices for Northern Asia (40oN - 75oN, and 45oE - 179oE). Three remote sensing proxies were derived from the VGT data: Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). We calculated anomalies of NDWI, NDVI and EVI at different temporal scales, i.e., 10-day, monthly, seasonal and plant growing season (April to September), and compared these with inter-annual variations in precipitation and temperature from the National Climate Data Center Global History Climate Network. Both anomalies of precipitation and NDWI over plant growing season (April to September) for Northern Asia were highest in 1998 but declined from 1999 to 2001. NDVI and EVI anomalies did not correlate well with each other overall. The EVI anomaly over plant growing season (April to September) was highest in 1998, and declined from 1999 to 2001,while the NDVI anomaly over plant growing season was lowest in 1998 and highest in 2000 for North Asia. The EVI includes information from the VGT blue band to account for the effects of residual atmospheric contamination (e.g., aerosols) and soil/vegetation background, while the NDVI does not. Large fires occurred in eastern Russia and Northeastern China in 1998 and may have increased the atmospheric aerosol burden; high precipitation in that year may have been associated with increased atmospheric water vapor. Both of these effects would lower the NDVI value in 1998. This continental-scale study

  12. Climate politics in the Lower Mekong Basin. National interests and transboundary cooperation on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard Lange, R.; Moerck Jensen, K.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to intensify water security concerns in international river basins. UNFCCC and DAC-donors have been important generators of political attention to the climate agenda among governments in the Mekong Basin in relation to regional cooperation, national policy-making and capacity building. However, the formal commitment to climate action is not necessarily reflected in the everyday business of development. In this paper we use a political economy approach to understand when and how climate change becomes a political priority for the governments of Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and for transboundary cooperation. Uneven distribution of climate hazards and vulnerabilities create different national risk perceptions and commitment to climate action. Donor funding and national development strategies are also strong drivers of climate action and inaction. Climate change is sometimes used as a scapegoat for domestic policy failures and as a tool to acquire donor funding. We recommend prioritizing climate action in the context of immediate development challenges and 'no regrets' interventions that are likely to enhance adaptive capacity and governments' commitment. (Author)

  13. The Practice of Transboundary Decision Making on the Incomati River: Elucidating Underlying Factors and their Implications for Institutional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill H. Slinger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Incomati River Basin is shared by Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland. In August 2002, the groundbreaking "Tripartite Interim Agreement on Water Sharing of the Maputo and Incomati Rivers" (the IncoMaputo agreement was signed. Following reports that the use, availability, and adequacy of information posed problems for future decision making on this transboundary river, the Delft University of Technology initiated a 6-month study in 2003 in which 25 southern African researchers and officials were interviewed. The Joint Incomati Basin Study (Phase I from 1992-1995, and Phase II from 2000-2001 formed a central component in the investigation, because it was viewed by the parties involved as a successful experience that paved the way for the IncoMaputo agreement. Knowledge of the role that information played in this process and how decision making occurred was collated and analyzed. Network theory provided the guiding theoretical framework in interpreting the results. A number of problems related to information use in decision making were identified. More importantly, a web of underlying causes was identified, such as cultural and language differences, differences in perception, inadequacy of stakeholder involvement, variability in political commitment, lack of capacity, absence of operational experience, the weak mandate of the international decision-making body, and the paradoxical South African-Mozambican relationship. Two groups of factors in this web were identified as needing to change if the management of this transboundary river is to comply with the IncoMaputo agreement, namely the situational or institutional factors and the cognitive factors (particularly the perceptions each country holds of the other and the way they treat one another. Our analysis shows that, contrary to current international practice, when designing international institutional arrangements for water management, the sociopolitical interface should be considered

  14. Transboundary geothermal resources of the Mura-Zala basin: a need for joint thermal aquifer management of Slovenia and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Nador

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Large transboundary Upper Miocene geothermal sandy aquifers which are widely utilized by both countries forbalneological and direct heat purposes exist in the Slovenian-Hungarian border region. In NE Slovenia the totaldirect heat use was 382 TJ in 2010, while in SW Hungary it was 648 TJ, including utilization from basement reservoirs.The total installed capacity of the 13 Slovenian users was 38.8 MWt, while that of the 29 Hungarian userswas 70.6 MWt. Utilisation takes place without harmonized management strategies which might endanger the longtermsustainability of these systems. We aimed to overcome this by delineating a transboundary thermal groundwaterbody (TTGWB Mura-Zala with an aerial extent of 4,974 km2 and with vertical extent between depths 500–2,200 m, which was done based on detailed geological, hydrological, geochemical and geothermal models as wellas numerical modelling. The regional groundwater flow in the Mura-Zala TTGWB is from west to east in general,the modeled cross-border flow is approximately 50 l/s. At present, thermal water abstraction rates from the Mura/Újfalu Fm. (61.8 l/s in the Slovenian and 67.3 l/s in the Hungarian part of the TTGWB does not endanger the goodregional quantity status of the water body, and this should be maintained by allowing a maximum increase of thermalwater abstraction 3.5 times higher than today. However, to achieve target numbers for an increased proportionof geothermal energy in the total energy mix in both countries, we suggest that increase of thermal efficiency andre-injection should be prioritized apart from the higher thermal water abstraction with setting up limit of themaximum allowable drawdown.

  15. Assessing the Roles of Regional Climate Uncertainty, Policy, and Economics on Future Risks to Water Stress: A Large-Ensemble Pilot Case for Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Strzepek, K. M.; Gao, X.; Fant, C. W.; Blanc, E.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Paltsev, S.; Arndt, C.; Prinn, R. G.; Reilly, J. M.; Jacoby, H.

    2013-12-01

    The fate of natural and managed water resources is controlled to varying degrees by interlinked energy, agricultural, and environmental systems, as well as the hydro-climate cycles. The need for risk-based assessments of impacts and adaptation to regional change calls for likelihood quantification of outcomes via the representation of uncertainty - to the fullest extent possible. A hybrid approach of the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework provides probabilistic projections of regional climate change - generated in tandem with consistent socio-economic projections. A Water Resources System (WRS) then tracks water allocation and availability across these competing demands. As such, the IGSM-WRS is an integrated tool that provides quantitative insights on the risks and sustainability of water resources over large river basins. This pilot project focuses the IGSM-WRS on Southeast Asia (Figure 1). This region presents exceptional challenges toward sustainable water resources given its texture of basins that traverse and interconnect developing nations as well as large, ascending economies and populations - such as China and India. We employ the IGSM-WRS in a large ensemble of outcomes spanning hydro-climatic, economic, and policy uncertainties. For computational efficiency, a Gaussian Quadrature procedure sub-samples these outcomes (Figure 2). The IGSM-WRS impacts are quantified through frequency distributions of water stress changes. The results allow for interpretation of: the effects of policy measures; impacts on food production; and the value of design flexibility of infrastructure/institutions. An area of model development and exploration is the feedback of water-stress shocks to economic activity (i.e. GDP and land use). We discuss these further results (where possible) as well as other efforts to refine: uncertainty methods, greater basin-level and climate detail, and process-level representation glacial melt-water sources. Figure 1 Figure 2

  16. Assessing the benefits of Transboundary Protected Areas: a questionnaire survey in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Jamie W; Vasilijević, Maja; Cuthill, Innes

    2015-02-01

    There are more than 3000 protected areas (PAs) situated on or near international boundaries, and amongst them there is an increasing trend towards the establishment of transboundary cooperation initiatives. Proponents of Transboundary PAs (TBPAs) highlight the potential for biodiversity protection through spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, there have been few formal studies that assess these benefits. It is possible that the relaxation of boundary controls to optimise transboundary connectivity may increase the risk of impacts from invasive species or illegal human incursion. We sought to investigate the validity of these proposed benefits and potential risks through a questionnaire survey of 113 PAs, of which 39 responded and met our inclusion criteria. 82% felt that transboundary cooperation has benefits for biodiversity and, across PAs, the self-reported level of transboundary communication was positively associated with some improved spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, 26% of PAs reported that they never communicated with their internationally adjoining protected area, indicating unrealised potential for greater gains.

  17. Evaluating the impacts of climate and land-use change on the hydrology and nutrient yield in a transboundary river basin: A case study in the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Sesan, and Srepok).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Thuy; Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Datta, Avishek; Kawasaki, Akiyuki

    2017-01-15

    Assessment of the climate and land-use change impacts on the hydrology and water quality of a river basin is important for the development and management of water resources in the future. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of climate and land-use change on the hydrological regime and nutrient yield from the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Srepok, and Sesan) into the 3S River system in Southeast Asia. The 3S Rivers are important tributaries of the Lower Mekong River, accounting for 16% of its annual flow. This transboundary basin supports the livelihoods of nearly 3.5 million people in the countries of Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. To reach a better understanding of the process and fate of pollution (nutrient yield) as well as the hydrological regime, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water quality and discharge in the 3S River Basin. Future scenarios were developed for three future periods: 2030s (2015-2039), 2060s (2045-2069), and 2090s (2075-2099), using an ensemble of five GCMs (General Circulation Model) simulations: (HadGEM2-AO, CanESM2, IPSL-CM5A-LR, CNRM-CM5, and MPI-ESM-MR), driven by the climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways): RCP4.5 (medium emission) and RCP8.5 (high emission) scenarios, and two land-use change scenarios. The results indicated that the climate in the study area would generally become warmer and wetter under both emission scenarios. Discharge and nutrient yield is predicted to increase in the wet season and decrease in the dry. Overall, the annual discharge and nutrient yield is projected to increase throughout the twenty-first century, suggesting sensitivity in the 3S River Basin to climate and land-use change. The results of this study can assist water resources managers and planners in developing water management strategies for uncertain climate change scenarios in the 3S River Basin.

  18. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  19. Comparative analysis of two hydrological models with different glacier parameterisations for climate impact assessment and water resources management in the Syrdarya Basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Abror; Duethmann, Doris; Agaltseva, Natalya; Merkushkin, Alexander; Pak, Alexander; Kriegel, David; Huss, Matthias; Güntner, Andreas; Merz, Bruno; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Mannig, Birgit; Paeth, Heiko; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2014-05-01

    Central Asian river basins in general and zones of run-off formation in particular are currently experiencing the impact of increasing temperatures and changes in precipitation. The headwaters thus exhibit negative glacier mass balances, decreasing glacierisation, changes in snow cover characteristics and changing runoff response. These changes are likely to intensify in future under the changing climate. Both hydropower industry and irrigated agriculture in the downstream areas strongly depend on the water amount, its seasonal and long-term distribution. This fact calls for an effort to reliably assess water availability in the runoff formation zone of Central Asia in order to improve water management policy in the region. One of the approaches to assessment of water resources is the evaluation of climate scenarios with the climate-and-hydrology model chain. Application of several models allows reducing the modeling uncertainty and proceeding with more robust water balance components assessment. We present the comparison of the two hydrological models AISHF (Automated Information System for Hydrological Forecasting) developed at the Centre for Hydrometeorology of Uzbekistan and WASA run at GFZ Potsdam, implemented for the Naryn and Karadarya basins (Syrdarya). These models use different parameterization and calibration schemes. Whereas in the AISHF model glacier dynamics is considered in scenarios of glacier area loss, the WASA model simulates continuous glacier mass balance, glacier area and volume evolution based on meteorological drivers. Consideration of initial glacier volume and its temporal dynamics can be essential for climate impact assessment in transient model simulations. The impact of climate change scenarios, developed with the regional climate model REMO at the University of Würzburg, are compared with respect to total discharge dynamics and runoff contributions from glacier, snowmelt and rainfall. Implications of water availability assessment

  20. The effects of aerosols on water cloud microphysics and macrophysics based on satellite observations over East Asia and the North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Michibata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of the microphysics and macrophysics of water clouds from East Asia to the North Pacific, using data from satellite observations. Our goals are to clarify differences in microphysics and macrophysics between land and oceanic clouds, seasonal differences unique to the mid-latitudes, characteristics of the drizzling process, and cloud vertical structure. In pristine oceanic areas, fractional occurrences of cloud optical thickness (COT and cloud droplet effective radius (CDR increase systematically with an increase in drizzle intensity, but in polluted land areas these characteristics of the COT and CDR transition are not as evident. Additionally, regional and seasonal differences are identified in terms of drizzle intensity as a function of the liquid water path (LWP and cloud droplet number concentration (Nc. The correlations between drizzle intensity and LWP, and between drizzle intensity and Nc are both more robust over oceanic areas than over land areas. We also demonstrate regional and seasonal characteristics of the cloud vertical structure. As a result, we find aerosol–cloud interaction mainly occurs around the cloud base in polluted land areas during the winter season. In addition, a difference between polluted and pristine areas in the efficiency of cloud droplet growth is confirmed. These results suggest that water clouds over the mid-latitudes exhibit a different drizzle system to those over the tropics.

  1. The effects of aerosols on water cloud microphysics and macrophysics based on satellite-retrieved data over East Asia and the North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Michibata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of the microphysics and macrophysics of water clouds from East Asia to the North Pacific, using data from active CloudSat radar measurements and passive MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS retrievals. Our goals are to clarify differences in microphysics and macrophysics between land and oceanic clouds, seasonal differences unique to the midlatitudes, characteristics of the drizzling process, and cloud vertical structure. In pristine oceanic areas, fractional occurrences of cloud optical thickness (COT and cloud droplet effective radius (CDR increase systematically with an increase in drizzle intensity, but these characteristics of the COT and CDR transition are less evident in polluted land areas. In addition, regional and seasonal differences are identified in terms of drizzle intensity as a function of the liquid water path (LWP and cloud droplet number concentration (Nc. The correlations between drizzle intensity and LWP, and between drizzle intensity and Nc, are both more robust over oceanic areas than over land areas. We also demonstrate regional and seasonal characteristics of the cloud vertical structure. Our results suggest that aerosol–cloud interaction mainly occurs around the cloud base in polluted land areas during the winter season. In addition, a difference between polluted and pristine areas in the efficiency of cloud droplet growth is confirmed. These results suggest that water clouds over the midlatitudes exhibit a different drizzle system to those over the tropics.

  2. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  3. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  4. Year-round observations of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Sapporo aerosols: implication for significant contributions from terrestrial biological sources in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, C. M.; Kawamura, K.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Fu, P.

    2013-03-01

    High aerosol loadings are prevalent in the atmosphere of East Asia, where the aerosols impact the Earth's climate system and human health; however, their sources and seasonal variations are not clearly understood. To better understand the sources of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Northeast Asia, we studied atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Sapporo, northern Japan for one-year period. SO42- (average 3.47 ± 1.03 μg m-3) was found as the most abundant ionic species, which accounted for on average 43 ± 15% of the measured total ionic mass followed by Cl- (13 ± 12%) ≈ NO3- ≈ Na+ > NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > MSA-. Among the metals determined, Ca was found as the most abundant (45 ± 5.2%) followed by Fe (27 ± 4.5%), Al (21± 3.1%), Zn (3.2 ± 1.7), Ti, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, As, Cr and Cd. Based on factor analysis, linear relations of selected species with biomarkers, and backward air mass trajectories, we found that long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust (∼ 33%) from arid regions of Mongolia and/or Northeast China is a major source for Sapporo aerosols as well as terrestrial biogenic emissions (≥ 24%) including microbial activities and biomass burning mostly from distant source region(s) (e.g. Siberia). We also found that the contributions of soil dust to the aerosols maximized in early spring whereas those of vegetational emissions maximized in spring/summer. Contributions of microbial activities to aerosols peaked in autumn whereas forest fires/biomass burning peaked in autumn/winter. On the contrary, fossil fuel combustion/industrial activities and oceanic emissions to Sapporo aerosols are suggested to be rather minor. This study also suggests that fungal spores contribute to some trace metals (i.e. Ni, Cu, As) while pollen contributes to Zn in aerosols.

  5. The fog problem in Central Asia - Deficiencies in international community research to support water and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froebrich, J.; Wegerich, K.

    2007-01-01

    Central Asian water planning following international policy recommendations and `blue prints¿ has caused more harm rather than benefiting local communities. International research has not been sufficient to contribute in practical terms to water and food security. This paper reflects potential facto

  6. 跨国界流域重金属污染溯源体系框架初步构建%Initial framework construction of sources identification system of heavy metal pollution in trans-boundary river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 张立; 杨常青; 魏亮; 国冬梅

    2015-01-01

    通过调研国内外水环境污染溯源的主要研究方法,结合我国跨国界流域重金属污染和监管的现状,提出构建以空间溯源为主线、行业溯源和成分溯源作为重要补充的跨国界流域重金属污染溯源技术体系,综合运用基于最优搜索理论的优化监测排查法、主成分分析和因子分析法,对跨国界流域内的重金属污染源的空间位置、行业类型及工艺环节等多个方面进行分析定位,旨在为我跨国界流域污染控制和外事协调管理提供重要依据。%Based on investigation of the internal and external research on water pollution source identification methods, combined with heavy metal pollution and regulatory status of trans-boundary river, a framework of sources identification for heavy metal pollution in Chinese trans-boundary water was constructed, which regards space identification as the main line, industry and component identification methods as the important supplementary. Optimization of monitoring investigation method based on optimal search theory, principal component analysis and factor analysis was applied to identify the comprehensive locating of the spatial position, industry type and process of heavy metal pollution sources in the trans-boundary river, which provides a scientific basis for trans-boundary water pollution control and foreign coordination.

  7. Conflicting policy beliefs and informational complexities in designing a transboundary enforcement monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, Remi; Hoppe, Robert; Vries, W.T.; Georgiadou, Yola

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a crowd sourced geospatial decision support system to monitor wildlife crime, in 2005, a team of scientists at the United Nations University (UNU) designed a GIS-based transboundary monitoring system, called Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS). The tool was intende

  8. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Interwies

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  9. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Rosa, J. de la; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Chiari, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2013-01-01

    The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and M

  10. Chasing the Spillovers: Locating Protected Areas in a Trans-Boundary Fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Janmaat, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can positively impact upon marine biodiversity and fisheries returns. Increased fish densities inside MPAs can positively affect catches outside these areas. We examine MPA placement in a transboundary fishery when nations are, and are not, cooperative. We apply a diffe

  11. The impacts of CO2 capture on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.; Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Gijlswijk, R. van; Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a first assessment of the impacts of the implementation of CO2 capture technologies in the Dutch power sector on the transboundary air pollution (SO2,NOX,NH3,NMV OC,PM10 and PM2.5) levels in 2020. Results show that for the power sector SO2 emissions will be v

  12. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lott, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particular

  13. Relationship between trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning in Southeast Asia using satellite and emission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Maya; Kuji, Makoto

    2012-11-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the biggest regions of biomass burning with forest fires and slash-and-burn farming. From the fire events, a large amount of air pollutants are emitted such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and aerosol (black carbon; BC). Biomass burning generally causes not only local, but also transboundary air pollution, and influences the atmospheric environment in the world accordingly. However, impact of air pollutants' emissions from large-scale fire in Southeast Asia is not well investigated compared to other regions such as South America and Africa. In this study, characteristics of the atmospheric environment were investigated with correlative analyses among several satellite data (MOPITT, OMI, and MODIS) and emission inventory (GFEDv3) in Southeast Asia from October 2004 to June 2008 on a monthly basis. As a result, it is suggested that the transboundary air pollution from the biomass burning regions occurred over Southeast Asia, which caused specifically higher air pollutants' concentration at Hanoi, Vietnam in spring dry season.

  14. ASIAS - Some History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASIAS effort builds on demonstrations that an open exchange of information contributes to improved aviation safety. ASIAS is a comprehensive effort, covering the...

  15. Hydrogeological typologies of the Indo-Gangetic basin alluvial aquifer, South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.; Zahid, A.

    2017-02-01

    The Indo-Gangetic aquifer is one of the world's most important transboundary water resources, and the most heavily exploited aquifer in the world. To better understand the aquifer system, typologies have been characterized for the aquifer, which integrate existing datasets across the Indo-Gangetic catchment basin at a transboundary scale for the first time, and provide an alternative conceptualization of this aquifer system. Traditionally considered and mapped as a single homogenous aquifer of comparable aquifer properties and groundwater resource at a transboundary scale, the typologies illuminate significant spatial differences in recharge, permeability, storage, and groundwater chemistry across the aquifer system at this transboundary scale. These changes are shown to be systematic, concurrent with large-scale changes in sedimentology of the Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial aquifer, climate, and recent irrigation practices. Seven typologies of the aquifer are presented, each having a distinct set of challenges and opportunities for groundwater development and a different resilience to abstraction and climate change. The seven typologies are: (1) the piedmont margin, (2) the Upper Indus and Upper-Mid Ganges, (3) the Lower Ganges and Mid Brahmaputra, (4) the fluvially influenced deltaic area of the Bengal Basin, (5) the Middle Indus and Upper Ganges, (6) the Lower Indus, and (7) the marine-influenced deltaic areas.

  16. Year-round observations of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Sapporo aerosols: implication for significant contributions from terrestrial biological sources in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Pavuluri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High aerosol loadings are prevalent in the atmosphere of East Asia, where the aerosols impact the Earth's climate system and human health; however, their sources and seasonal variations are not clearly understood. To better understand the sources of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Northeast Asia, we studied atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Sapporo, northern Japan for one-year period. SO42− (average 3.47 ± 1.03 μg m−3 was found as the most abundant ionic species, which accounted for on average 43 ± 15% of the measured total ionic mass followed by Cl− (13 ± 12% ≈ NO3− ≈ Na+ > NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > MSA−. Among the metals determined, Ca was found as the most abundant (45 ± 5.2% followed by Fe (27 ± 4.5%, Al (21± 3.1%, Zn (3.2 ± 1.7, Ti, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, As, Cr and Cd. Based on factor analysis, linear relations of selected species with biomarkers, and backward air mass trajectories, we found that long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust (∼ 33% from arid regions of Mongolia and/or Northeast China is a major source for Sapporo aerosols as well as terrestrial biogenic emissions (≥ 24% including microbial activities and biomass burning mostly from distant source region(s (e.g. Siberia. We also found that the contributions of soil dust to the aerosols maximized in early spring whereas those of vegetational emissions maximized in spring/summer. Contributions of microbial activities to aerosols peaked in autumn whereas forest fires/biomass burning peaked in autumn/winter. On the contrary, fossil fuel combustion/industrial activities and oceanic emissions to Sapporo aerosols are suggested to be rather minor. This study also suggests that fungal spores contribute to some trace metals (i.e. Ni, Cu, As while pollen contributes to Zn in aerosols.

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa, Latin America , and West Europe. Supplements to...Foreign Aid, Corporate Acceptance of Land Reform Law [WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS 18-24 Nov] ... 9 10 THAILAND Commerce Ministry Official Views...Land Reform Law 42000042 Manila WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS in English 18-24 Nov 88 p 15 [Article under the rubric "ON THE BEAT" by Jake Espino] [Text

  18. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    over 2,000 m) is not applicable to Central Asia, partly because the general hypsometric level of this region is high and unstable, as a consequence of...organic fossils in them, gastropods have been discovered. On the main territory of the Tarim massif, which evidently represented a weakly elevated...places seams of gypsum and rock salt, and, in a part to the west of the town of Aksu, also a bed of gray limestone with small fresh- water gastropods

  19. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 1: Emissions, dispersions and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It gives an overview of the major aims of Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the basic modelling and meteorological tools, the status of the emission data, the trends in transboundary transport and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen since 1980, and the latest transboundary flows of sulphur and nitrogen, in both the 150 km and the 50 km grid. Complete source receptor matrices are now available in the 50 km grid derived from the multi-layer eulerian model. The new 50 km data constitutes a basis for further assessments of acidifying air pollution in the 50 km grid by subsidiary bodies under the Convention of Long Range Transport of Air Pollution. 63 refs., 42 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  1. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  2. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  3. Public concerns about transboundary haze: a comparison of Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns about environmental problems create narrative structures that influence policy by allocating roles of blame, responsibility, and appropriate behavior. This paper presents an analysis of public concerns about transboundary haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia for crises experienced in 1997, 2005 and 2013. The source of the information is content analysis of 2231 articles from representative newspapers in each country. The study shows that newsp...

  4. East Asia Rolls On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The economic recovery in East Asia remains unchanged on its upward trajectory despite the earthquake and devastating tsunami in Japan on March 11.Growth in East Asia slowed after a sharp rebound from the global financial crisis but is improving nonetheless.The World Bank’s East Asia and Pacific Economic Update issued on March 21 projects real GDP growth in East Asia will be smaller than that of 2010 in the following two years.Besides future East Asian economic trends,the report also discusses the impact of the Japanese catastrophe.Edited excerpts follow:

  5. An agent-based modeling approach for determining corn stover removal rate and transboundary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J W A; Smith, C T

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  6. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Determining Corn Stover Removal Rate and Transboundary Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J. W. A.; Smith, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  7. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  8. Allocating responsibility for environmental risks: A comparative analysis of examples from water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Neelke

    2017-03-01

    The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations. Currently, little insight exists on how to foster collective action such that individuals and organizations take the responsibility to address transboundary environmental risks. On the basis of 4 cases of transboundary water governance, it will be shown how certain allocation principles are more likely to encourage cooperative action. The main lesson from these case studies is that the allocation of responsibilities should be seen as a risk distribution problem, including considerations of effectiveness, efficiency, and fairness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:371-375. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region.

  10. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  11. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  12. Asia's Economic Voices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ After several months of unease,economies across Asia are breathing a sigh of relief as recovery hopes become realities.But even with noticeable improvements being made,Asian nations still face the challenge of moving away from a dependence on exports and maintaining growth momentum.These issues were hot topics at this year's Boao Forum for Asia,with Asia's green recovery as its theme.More than2,000 economists and businesspeople from home and abroad attended the forum held in Boao of south China's Hainan Province from April9 to 11.

  13. Transboundary transport of anthropogenic sulfur in PM2.5 at a coastal site in the Sea of Japan as studied by sulfur isotopic ratio measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inomata, Yayoi, E-mail: inomata@acap.asia [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Niigata Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 314-1, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Take, Naoko; Sato, Keiichi [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Nishikawa, Masataka [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Tokyo University of Science, 12-1, Ichigaya Funakawara, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0826 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Sulfur isotopic ratios (δ{sup 34}S) in size separated aerosol particles (PM2.5 and coarse particles) were measured at Niigata-Maki facing the Sea of Japan. Non-sea salt δ{sup 34}S (δ{sup 34}S{sub nss}) in PM2.5 showed seasonal variations with relatively high values in winter (1.0–3.9‰ in spring, 2.8–4.5‰ in summer, 1.3–4.5‰ in autumn, 3.7–5.7‰ in winter). Taking into consideration air mass transport routes, δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in the air masses which originated in the Asian continent and were transported over the Sea of Japan to the monitoring sites were higher than those values for air masses which were transported over the Japanese islands after leaving the Asian continent for each season. Considering that the δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in sulfuric acid derived from domestic emissions in Japan are lower than those of δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in coal, the lower δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} for the air mass transported over the Japanese islands suggest that sulfuric acid in PM2.5 modified the δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} due to aerosol mixing with sulfuric acid in Japan. Material balance calculations suggested that the relative contribution of transboundary transport in winter was also higher than for other seasons (40–75% in spring, 51–63% in summer, 45–73% in autumn, and 53–81% in winter). In particular, the contribution to the air masses which were transported directly from the Asian continent was relatively large (75% in spring, 59% in autumn, 78% in winter) in comparison with that for the air masses which were transported over Japan. - Highlights: • δ{sup 34}Snss in PM2.5 is effective to estimate contribution of anthropogenic sulfur. • δ{sup 34}Snss have characterized with seasonal variation with high values in winter. • The contribution of transboundary transport is 39-81% at the site facing to the Sea of Japan. • δ{sup 34}Snss in PM2.5 are modified during transport with mixing of domestic sources. • Map of δ{sup 34}S distribution originated

  14. 亚洲地下水资源与环境地质系列图及GIS系统结构%Groundwater Resources and Environmental Geology Serial Maps of Asia and the GIS System Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董华; 张健康; 程彦培; 倪增石; 张发旺; 黄志兴; 田廷山; 赵继昌; 高昀; 刘坤

    2011-01-01

    -temporal characteristics and distribution regularities of groundwater resource and environmental geology in Asia with the simple graphic language , and with application of GIS information system. The serial maps constitute a database of groundwater resource and environmental geology in Asia so as to provide scientific basis for trans-boundary exploitation and utilization of natural resources, planning of water resource, protection of geological environment and disaster reduction.

  15. Overview of the perceived risk of transboundary pig diseases in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhta M. Mokoele

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pig production is one of the most important animal agricultural activities in South Africa, and plays a definite role in providing food security for certain population groups in the country. As with all animal production systems, it is subject to the risk of outbreak of transboundary diseases. In the present overview, evaluations of the perceived risk of selected transboundary animal diseases of pigs, as collated from the willing participants from the provincial veterinary services of South Africa, are presented. A scenario tree revealed that infected but undetected pigs were the greatest perceived threat. The provincial veterinary services, according to participants in the study, face certain difficulties, including the reporting of disease and the flow of disease information amongst farmers. Perceived strengths in surveillance and disease monitoring include the swiftness of sample despatch to the national testing laboratory, as well as the ease of flow of information between the provincial and national agricultural authorities. The four factors were identified that were perceived to most influence animal health-service delivery: transport, access, livestock policy and resources. African swine fever was perceived to be the most important pig disease in South Africa. Because the decentralisation of veterinary services in South Africa was identified as a potential weakness, it is recommended that national and provincial veterinary services need to work together and interdependently to achieve centrally controlled surveillance systems. Regionally-coordinated surveillance activities for certain transboundary diseases were identified as needing priority for the southern African region. It is proposed that an emergency preparedness document be made available and regularly revised according to the potential risks identified on a continuous basis for South Africa.

  16. Contributions of trans-boundary transport to summertime air quality in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiarui; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Bei, Naifang; Wang, Yichen; Feng, Tian; Huang, Rujin; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the WRF-CHEM model is used to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the air quality in Beijing during a persistent air pollution episode from 5 to 14 July 2015 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China. Generally, the predicted temporal variations and spatial distributions of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter), O3 (ozone), and NO2 are in good agreement with observations in BTH. The WRF-CHEM model also reproduces reasonably well the temporal variations of aerosol species compared to measurements in Beijing. The factor separation approach is employed to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions to the PM2.5 and O3 levels in Beijing. On average, in the afternoon during the simulation episode, the local emissions contribute 22.4 % to the O3 level in Beijing, less than 36.6 % from non-Beijing emissions. The O3 concentrations in Beijing are decreased by 5.1 % in the afternoon due to interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions. The non-Beijing emissions play a dominant role in the PM2.5 level in Beijing, with a contribution of 61.5 %, much higher than 13.7 %, from Beijing local emissions. The emission interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions enhance the PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, with a contribution of 5.9 %. Therefore, the air quality in Beijing is generally determined by the trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions during summertime, showing that the cooperation with neighboring provinces to mitigate pollutant emissions is key for Beijing to improve air quality.

  17. Unification of South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    Asia: for example, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christians. The Hindus are the descendants of the Aryans, nomadic people of Central Asia who... traditions . There are hundred thousands of people from Bangladesh who have, illegally, crossed over to India, over the years in pursuit of a better economic...festival of Urns. Such tradition is believed common even at the few Muslim ’dargahs’ at Priol Ponda and Cuncolim." "Prof Robert S. Newman, a

  18. Nuclear South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will keep China out of the South Asian nuclear picture. As Pakistan...remain unipolar for quite some time with the United States as the global superpower. There is predominance of geoeconomics as against geopolitical...to drag China into the nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will likely keep China out of the South Asian

  19. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  20. Planning and Design of Water Resources Systems Under Climate Change and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzepek, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Regional and local water supplies and demands are impacted by global and national systems: climate, economics, population and energy as well as policies: development, energy, and environmental. These drivers can result in complex interactions that require deeper understanding in order to provide actionable information for water planners and stakeholders to develop strategic plans in the face of a changing and growing world. To add more complexity to this issue is the fact that all these drivers are uncertain and the type of uncertainty is not the same. This talk will address approaches to Water Resource Planning at sub-national water regions, national levels and trans-boundary river basins under a non-stationary hydro-climatic future. Additionally the talk will address the design of specific water resource projects such as reservoirs and hydroplants that are being designed now but will operate far in the future when the hydro-climatology will be very different. Examples will be drawn from recent work in Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and North America and some insights and outstanding questions will be presented.

  1. LAND USE CHANGES IN THE TRANS-BOUNDARY AMUR RIVER BASIN IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ermoshin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All distinctions in the economic and nature protection policy of the neighboring states are well reflected and shown within trans-boundary river basins. The parts of trans-boundary geosystem of one country can experience an essential negative influence from rash decisions in the field of nature use and nature protection policy of the neighboring state. The Amur River Basin covers the territories of Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Mongolia and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and occupies more than 2 million km2. The most intensive development of the basin territory has started since the middle of the 19th century. We compiled two maps of land use in the Amur River basin in the 1930–1940s and in the early 21st century. Results showed that, negative dynamics is marked for forest lands, meadows, wetlands and mountain tundra. The basic features in the change of land use within national parts of the basin in Russia, China and Mongolia are analyzed. The comparative analysis of land use peculiarities of the countries for the last 70 years has been done.

  2. The role of transboundary air pollution over Galicia and North Portugal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C; Souto, J A; Monteiro, A; Dios, M; Rodríguez, A; Ferreira, J; Saavedra, S; Casares, J J; Miranda, A I

    2013-05-01

    In summer, high levels of ozone (O3) are frequently measured at both Galicia and Northern Portugal air quality monitoring stations, even exceeding the limit values imposed by legislation. This work aims to investigate the origin of these high O3 concentrations by the application of a chemical transport modelling system over the northwestern area of the Iberian Peninsula. The WRF-CHIMERE modelling system was applied with high resolution to simulate the selected air pollution episodes that occurred simultaneously in Galicia and North Portugal and in order to study both the contribution of local emission sources and the influence of transboundary pollution. Emission inputs have been prepared based on the development of the Portuguese and Galician emission inventories. The obtained results for O3 have been evaluated and validated against observations. Modelling results show possible contribution of the transboundary transport over the border of two neighbour regions/countries, indicating that the O3 episode starts over the urban and industrialised area of North coast of Portugal, reaching the maximum peaks over this region; at the same time, O3 levels increased over Galicia region, where lower concentrations, but still high, were observed. These results pointed out that air quality management should not be driven by political boundaries and highlight the importance of joining efforts between neighbouring countries.

  3. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  4. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  5. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  6. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  7. HEALTHY AGEING POLICY IN ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark L Wahlqvist

    2008-01-01

    @@ Populations in Asia are experiencing significant gains in life expectancy,especially in North East Asia and amongst Orientals throughout the region,with Japan,HongKong,Singapore and Macau having amongst the world's best life expectancies.

  8. Transboundary Impacts of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Disaster: Focus on Legal Dilemmas in South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Sapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic disasters affect not just the areas/regions and countries where they strike, but also have transboundary effects and repercussions on neighboring countries, which often serve as receiving areas for displaced survivors. South Florida, for example, served as a receiving area for earthquake survivors after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. To understand the transboundary sociolegal impacts on host communities, we draw theoretical insights from research on transboundary crises and interviewed key members of school districts, city and county governments, non-profit organizations, relief task forces, the Haitian-American diaspora, and local government agencies. We also looked at relevant plans/policies modified by governmental and non-governmental institutions in response to the legal issues that arose. The findings highlight the manner in which street-level workers in state and non-state organizations deal with legal complexities and ramifications, along with the role played by the Haitian-American diaspora actors and their networks. Los desastres por catástrofes no afectan solo a las áreas/regiones y países a los que golpean, sino que también tienen efectos transfronterizos y repercuten en los países vecinos, que a menudo sirven como áreas de recepción para los sobrevivientes desplazados. El sur de Florida, por ejemplo, sirvió como área de acogida para los supervivientes del terremoto de Haiti de 2010. Para entender el impacto sociojurídico a nivel transfronterizo en las comunidades de acogida, se trazan nuevas percepciones teóricas a partir de la investigación de crisis transfronterizas, y mediante entrevistas a miembros clave de distritos escolares, gobiernos de ciudades y condados, organizaciones sin ánimos de lucro, grupos de trabajo de auxilio, la diáspora haitiano-estadounidense, y agencias del gobierno local. También se estudian los planes/políticas relevantes, modificados por las instituciones gubernamentales y no

  9. Literacy in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the various facets and dimensions of literacy programs in South Asia indicates that literacy is viewed as a means of human resource development geared toward meaningful participation of all sectors in society, with individual programs varying according to the magnitude of illiteracy, national goals, linguistic setting, and regional…

  10. Looking to Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Review:You said foreign policy under the Barack Obama administration is a policy of confrontation and containment of China.So do you think the expanded U.S.presence in Asia is mainly targeting China? If so,what are the consequences in terms of diplomatic relations between the two countries?

  11. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  12. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal...

  13. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  14. Multicultural Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  15. Remote Sensing and River Discharge Forecasting for Major Rivers in South Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.; Hopson, T. M.; Hirpa, F. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; De-Groeve, T.; Shrestha, K.; Gebremichael, M.; Restrepo, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asia is a flashpoint for natural disasters particularly flooding of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra has profound societal impacts for the region and globally. The 2007 Brahmaputra floods affecting India and Bangladesh, the 2008 avulsion of the Kosi River in India, the 2010 flooding of the Indus River in Pakistan and the 2013 Uttarakhand exemplify disasters on scales almost inconceivable elsewhere. Their frequent occurrence of floods combined with large and rapidly growing populations, high levels of poverty and low resilience, exacerbate the impact of the hazards. Mitigation of these devastating hazards are compounded by limited flood forecast capability, lack of rain/gauge measuring stations and forecast use within and outside the country, and transboundary data sharing on natural hazards. Here, we demonstrate the utility of remotely-derived hydrologic and weather products in producing skillful flood forecasting information without reliance on vulnerable in situ data sources. Over the last decade a forecast system has been providing operational probabilistic forecasts of severe flooding of the Brahmaputra and Ganges Rivers in Bangldesh was developed (Hopson and Webster 2010). The system utilizes ECMWF weather forecast uncertainty information and ensemble weather forecasts, rain gauge and satellite-derived precipitation estimates, together with the limited near-real-time river stage observations from Bangladesh. This system has been expanded to Pakistan and has successfully forecast the 2010-2012 flooding (Shrestha and Webster 2013). To overcome the in situ hydrological data problem, recent efforts in parallel with the numerical modeling have utilized microwave satellite remote sensing of river widths to generate operational discharge advective-based forecasts for the Ganges and Brahmaputra. More than twenty remotely locations upstream of Bangldesh were used to produce stand-alone river flow nowcasts and forecasts at 1-15 days lead time. showing that

  16. Mitigating the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, J.F.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-01-01

    Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on esti

  17. Workshop 7 (synthesis): role and governance implications of virtual water trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, J; Furuyashiki, K

    2004-01-01

    Virtual water trade (VWT) is a powerful concept which stimulates fresh thinking about water scarcity and management. It is a potential solution for water-short countries to achieve food security. VWT may also have the potential to play a key role in international negotiations over management of transboundary water resources.

  18. International Direct Investment and Transboundary Pollution: An Empirical Analysis of Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Deng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using complex networks and spatial econometric methods, we empirically test the extent to which a country’s influence and its position in an international investment network affect environmental quality as well as the country’s role in transboundary pollution transfer. The estimated results show that the ties connecting nodes together in an international investment network have significant impacts on global environmental pollution. Additionally, node linkages between developing countries have stronger negative effects on environmental quality than node linkages between developed countries. Moreover, greater node importance and node centrality accelerate the speed and scale of the growth of polluting industries, which allows developed countries to more easily transfer their pollution-intensive industries to developing countries that possess higher node dependency. We also find that the factor endowment effect coexists with the pollution haven effect, the effects of environmental regulation advantage in the international investment network are greater than the impact of factor endowment advantage.

  19. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD).

  20. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particularly sensitive large marine ecosystem.  This manuscript focuses on the issue from the viewpoint of the UNCLOS legal framework and its related treaties. It thus illustrates some of the more polemical topics arising in modern law of the sea and environmental law, eg limitations on the freedom to lay submarine pipelines, the scope and boundaries of marine scientific research, the obligation to consider alter- natives in the course of an EIA. In broader terms, this manuscript presents an explanatory study of matters mostly related to sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the ecosystem approach.

  1. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  2. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Douven

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC. A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation. The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management, model and decision support systems, and international water law. The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be

  3. Armenia-To Trans-Boundary Fault: AN Example of International Cooperation in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, A.; Avagyan, A.; Avanesyan, M.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakishvili, Z.; Korzhenkov, A.; Philip, S.; Vergino, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of a trans-boundary active fault that cuts through the border of Armenia to Georgia in the area of the Javakheti volcanic highland have been conducted since 2007. The studies have been implemented based on the ISTC 1418 and NATO SfP 983284 Projects. The Javakheti Fault is oriented to the north-northwest and consists of individual segments displaying clear left-stepping trend. Fault mechanism is represented by right-lateral strike-slip with normal-fault component. The fault formed distinct scarps, deforming young volcanic and glacial sediments. The maximum-size displacements are recorded in the central part of the fault and range up to 150-200 m by normal fault and 700-900 m by right-lateral strike-slip fault. On both flanks, fault scarps have younger appearance, and displacement size there decreases to tens of meters. Fault length is 80 km, suggesting that maximum fault magnitude is estimated at 7.3 according to the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relation. Many minor earthquakes and a few stronger events (1088, Mw=6.4, 1899 Mw=6.4, 1912, Mw=6.4 and 1925, Mw=5.6) are associated with the fault. In 2011/2012, we conducted paleoseismological and archeoseismological studies of the fault. By two paleoseismological trenches were excavated in the central part of the fault, and on its northern and southern flanks. The trenches enabled recording at least three strong ancient earthquakes. Presently, results of radiocarbon age estimations of those events are expected. The Javakheti Fault may pose considerable seismic hazard for trans-boundary areas of Armenia and Georgia as its northern flank is located at the distance of 15 km from the Baku-Ceyhan pipeline.

  4. Asbestos in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases.

  5. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Douven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC. A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation. The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building

  6. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Industry Export Targets for 1984-1985 Outlined (KOMPAS, 15 Dec 83) 17 - a - [III - ASIA - 107] Transmigrants in South Aceh Threatened by Food Shortages...Agriculture, Hospitals 47 Thai Illegal Aliens Returned 48 MALAYSIA Rithauddeen To Seek Re-Election (NEW STRAITS TIMES, 24 Jan 84) 49 MCA Elections...Reserve units telling them of the plan to get the numbers down through " wastage and controlled recruiting." With the Budget allocation for the Army

  7. Asia at the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the global economy transforms from a developed country centric to a more developing-focused model in the post-crisis world,Asia is emerging as a new economic powerhouse.Its policy choices are important for the continent's own sake,and also for the global economy as a whole.Dominique Strauss-Kahn,Managing Director of the IMF,noted this shift in a recent speech in Shanghai.Edited excerpts follow:

  8. Asia at the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As the global economy transforms from a developed countrycentric to a more developing-focused model in the post-crisis world,Asia is emerging as a new economic powerhouse.Its policy choices are important for the continent’s own sake, and also for the global economy as a whole.Dominique Strauss-Kahn,Managing Director of the IMF,noted this shift in a recent speech in Shanghai.Edited excerpts follow

  9. Growing East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ It was a busy exchanging period of East Asia in recent days. From October 28 to 31, 2007 the fourth China-ASEAN Expo (CAEXPO) and the fourth China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit (CABIS) were held concurrently in Nanning, capital city of Guangxi Province in China. In the Expo,China witnessed a turnout of over 33,000 trade visitors and over 180 investment cooperation projects with ASEAN.

  10. Cultivated Land Information Extraction and Gradient Analysis for a North-South Transect in Northeast Asia between 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanle Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated land resources are an important basis of regional sustainability; thus, it is important to determine the distribution of the cultivated land in the Northeast Asia trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia, which has a continuous geographic and ecological environment and an uneven population distribution. Extracting information about the cultivated land and determining the spatial and temporal distribution of its features in this large trans-boundary area is a challenge. In this study, we derived information about the cultivated land of the North-South Transect in Northeast Asia by Linear Spectral Mixing Model, using time series data with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in 2000 and 2010. The validation showed more than 98% pixels with a root mean square error less than 0.05. The overall accuracy and spatial consistency coefficients were 81.63% and 0.78 in 2000 and 72.81% and 0.75 in 2010, respectively. The transect analyses indicate the presence of a greater amount of cultivated land in the south and less in the north. China owns most of the cultivated land in the transect area, followed by Mongolia and then Russia. A gradient analysis revealed a decrease of 34.16% of the cultivated land between 2000 and 2010. The amount of cultivated land decreased 22.37%, 58.93%, and 64.73% in China, Russia, and Mongolia, respectively. An analysis shows that the amount of cultivated land is primarily influenced by the various land development and protection policies in the different counties in this trans-boundary area.

  11. Mitigating the Risk of Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: The Case of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, Joep F.; Arwa Hamaideh; Arjen Y. Hoekstra; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Marlou Schyns

    2015-01-01

    Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on estimates of water footprint, water availability, and virtual water trade, we find that groundwater consumption is nearly double the groundwater availability, water pollution aggravates blue water sca...

  12. Fishing in the margins: North Sri Lankan fishers’ struggle for access in transboundary waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Scholtens

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, I highlight the condition of a fisher population in post-war northern Sri Lanka whose access to fishing grounds has been structurally compromised. Decades of civil war in Sri Lanka (1983–2009) shattered the north Sri Lankan fisheries sector by destroying equipment, restricting

  13. Economic Policy Instruments and Evaluation Methods in Dutch Water Management: An analysis of their contribution to an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and I

  14. Seasonally Varying Reference Atmospheres for East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vertical profiles of seasonally varying pressure, temperature, water vapor, and trace gases (O3, N2O, CO,CH4), representing atmospheric conditions up to a height of 100 km over the East Asia region (30°-50°N,110°-150°E) were constructed by using various observation data, model outputs of atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, and gaseous concentrations. Optical characteristics of the obtained East Asia reference atmospheres were compared with those from typical midlatitude summer and winter atmospheres. It was noted that, in the water vapor field, there are major differences between the two model atmospheres during the summer. The resultant impact during the summer of water vapor difference on incoming solar fluxes at the surface and emitted terrestrial fluxes at the top of the atmosphere are 14.3 W m-2 and 6.5 W m-2,respectively. On the other hand, the winter difference between East Asian and midlatitude atmospheres appears to be insignificant. Reference atmospheres for the spring and fall are also available. Utilizing the constructed atmospheric profiles as inputs to the radiative transfer model, it is expected that the constructed seasonally varying reference atmospheres can facilitate better descriptions of optical properties in East Asia.

  15. TRANSBOUNDARY IMPACT OF THE CHERNAVODSKA NPP ON TRITIUM POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. VIT`KO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the influence of the Chernavodska nuclear power plant on the aquatic environment of the Danube River in the transboundary context. Data of tritium discharges, dependence of volume activity of tritium in the Danube River, and its inflows from the surrounding areas to its mouth. The average annual volume activities of tritium are provided. Assessments of the impact of the Chernavodska NPP in conditions that are different from the norm have been given.

  16. TANGGUNG JAWAB NEGARA TERHADAP PENCEMARAN UDARA AKIBAT POLUSI ASAP LINTAS BATAS (TRANSBOUNDARY HAZE POLLUTION) DALAM KASUS MALAYSIA DAN SINGAPURA

    OpenAIRE

    -, AVEL HAEZER M

    2016-01-01

    2016 AVEL HAEZER MATANDE, NIM : B111 12 274, Tanggung Jawab Negara Terhadap Pencemaran Udara Akibat Polusi Asap Lintas Batas (Transboundary Haze Pollution) Dalam Kasus Malaysia dan Singapura di bawah bimbingan S.M.Noor selaku pembimbing I dan Birkah Latif selaku pembimbing II. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dua hal: pertama, untuk mengetahui 1. Bagaimanakah dampak polusi kabut asap yang terjadi di Riau terhad...

  17. The FAO/NACA Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals: lessons learned from their development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, R P; Bondad-Reantaso, M G

    2008-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward.

  18. European transboundary acidifying air pollution. Ten years calculated fields and budgets to the end of the first Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, K.; Seland, Oe.; Foss, A.; Mylona, S.; Sandnes, H.; Styve, H.; Tarrason, L.

    1995-07-01

    The Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission and Air Pollutants in Europe, EMEP, plays an integral part in data collection and scientific cooperation for implementation of the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Within EMEP, the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West (MSC-W) is an international technical centre. The purpose of the MSC-W, focusing in part on acidifying substances, is to estimate the concentrations of relevant sulphur and nitrogen pollutants across Europe on the basis of emission information and meteorological data, and to estimate the transboundary fluxes of these substances. Responding to these specific obligations, the report presents calculations of sulphur and nitrogen concentrations and depositions and of their transboundary fluxes. The calculations are performed by the receptor oriented one layer trajectory (Lagrangian) acid deposition model, which during 1995 has been used to estimate acidifying pollutant fluxes for the ten year period 1985-1994. This corresponds to the period between initial signing and conclusion of the first Sulphur Protocol, signed in Helsinki in 1985. 90 refs., 42 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  20. Glaciers of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  1. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  2. Gondwana to Asia: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula, China, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, and Timor, among other regions, preserve important clues for the tectonic evolution of present-day Asia derived from the break-up of Mesozoic supercontinent Pangea. Evidence for the formation, evolution, and destruction of Earth's first coherent supercontinent Columbia during Paleoproterozoic, followed by the Neoproterozoic Rodinia and late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Gondwana supercontinents are also recorded in many of these regions. The debates surrounding some of these aspects and the state-of-the-art knowledge from these terranes were the focal themes of discussion during the "2013 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and the 10th Gondwana to Asia International Conference" held at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Korea during September 30th to October 2nd 2013. The conference was attended by more than 200 delegates representing 11 countries. The discussion continued at the "International conference on Continental Dynamics" held in Xian, China during April 2014. This special issue of Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, assembling 24 research papers is an outcome of the deliberations under various sessions of the above conferences. In assembling this special issue, we attempt to provide evidence-driven discussions on the construction and destruction of Precambrian and Paleozoic supercontinents preserved in present-day Asian continents. We also address a variety of themes including magmatic, metamorphic and metallogenic processes, as well as issues related to natural environment. We hope that the papers assembled in this special issue offer new insights into some of the key issues surrounding the geological, geophysical and geodynamic milieu in Asia, and a better understanding of analogous processes in other parts of the world.

  3. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  4. Mortality in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  5. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  6. Conceptual models and sustainable groundwater resource indicators as transfer tools to stakeholders of the Lake Champlain transboundary aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, René; Rivard, Christine; Carrier, Marc-André; Parent, Michel; Laurencelle, Marc; Beaudry, Châtelaine; Martin, Alex; Bleser, Joshua; Lavoie, Roxane; Bourque, Édith; Ouellet, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Regional aquifer assessments produce a wealth of scientific and technical information that is essential for the sound management of groundwater resources. However, regional water stakeholders are not generally groundwater specialists and cannot be expected to readily handle specialized hydrogeological maps and data. Without efficient information transfer, groundwater resources cannot be adequately considered in water governance by watershed organizations and in land-use planning by regional municipalities. This presentation provides an overview of the efforts undertaken to transfer information as part of a four-year regional aquifer assessment in the transboundary Canada-USA Champlain Lake watershed, with an emphasis on the southern Quebec part. This project was part of both the provincial aquifer assessment program (Programme d'acquisition des connaissances sur les eaux souterraines, PACES) of the Quebec Environment Ministry and the National inventory of regional key aquifers of Natural Resources Canada. In Quebec, the study area extends over 9 000 km2 and includes three major watersheds and 106 municipalities with 792 000 inhabitants. Five distinct hydrogeological contexts were defined based on bedrock geology and hydrogeological conditions: St. Lawrence Lowlands (North and South), Appalachian Piedmont, Appalachian Uplands, and Monteregian Hills. Extensive fieldwork filled knowledge and spatial data gaps identified during the compilation of existing data. To illustrate hydrogeological contexts, two conceptual models of different areas were developed. These conceptual models reflect three aspects of aquifer conditions: geological context, groundwater dynamics and groundwater quality. The first representation of the conceptual model presents the geological context including typical surficial geology units as well as major bedrock geology units (including faults and dykes). The second representation shows schematic groundwater flow paths, relative well yields of

  7. Instruments for an equitable management of shared waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra M. Petrescu-Mag

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of Integrated Water Resources and River Basins Management are considered as key points to the question of how conflict can be avoided and international waters be managed. Over the last fifty years, countries have been engaged in more than 500 conflictive events over water. Almost 90% were disagreements over infrastructure and water quantity allocation. The Convention on the NonnavigationalUses of International Watercourses (1997 provides an important template for cooperation and equitable transboundary water-sharing.

  8. Combining Expert and Stakeholder Knowledge to Define Water Management Priorities in the Mékrou River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory approaches to water management, and specifically to transboundary river management, have been widely applied over recent decades. Regarding transboundary rivers, the active involvement of key actors in policy planning is of great importance. In this context, a participatory approach has been used to identify sectors of interest and priorities related to water and development in the Mékrou transboundary River Basin involving three countries: Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We conducted a web-based survey to quantify expert opinion on sectors of water management policy and priorities for the Mékrou River Basin. The same set of questions was then put to a sample of local stakeholders living in this river basin. Our analysis reveals some points of convergence and some discrepancies between the opinions of experts and local stakeholders. Overall, it provides a comparative analysis of how experts and local stakeholders prioritize water policy measures, which could influence decision-making.

  9. Integrated water resources management in central Asia: nutrient and heavy metal emissions and their relevance for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, J; Venohr, M; Behrendt, H; Opitz, D

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) the nutrient and heavy metal levels within the Kharaa river basin were investigated. By the application of the MONERIS model, which quantifies nutrient emissions into river basins, various point and diffuse pathways, as well as nutrient load in rivers, could be analysed. Despite seasonal variations and inputs of point sources (e.g. Wastewater Treatment Plant Darkhan) the nutrient concentrations in most of the subbasins are on a moderate level. This shows evidence for a nutrient limited ecosystem as well as dilution effects. However, in the middle and lower reaches heavy metal concentrations of arsenic and mercury, which are linked to mining activities in many cases, are a point of concern. Thus measures are necessary to protect the valuable chemical and ecological status of the Kharaa River and its tributaries. As a result of the growing economic pressure Mongolia will enhance the agricultural production by irrigation. Until 2015 about 60% of the agricultural land shall be irrigated. In addition the gold mining activities shall increase by 20% a year. Both sectors have a high demand for water quantity and quality. The model MONERIS allows the assessment of measures which are inevitable to protect the water quality under shrinking water availability.

  10. Pharmacovigilance in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipasha Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change.

  11. State of the Crown of the continent ecosystem : Flathead/Castle Transboundary Bioregion (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, E.; Peck, B.; Stewart, A.; Stewart, C.

    1999-01-01

    This state of the ecosystem report describes the ecological composition of the Flathead/Castle Transboundary bioregion, including human activity. The ecosystem (which does not follow political boundaries) extends from western Alberta, eastern British Columbia and Montana. The region encompasses 5088 square km. and occupies two watersheds of the greater Crown of the Continent Ecosystem. Ecological components of the North Fork of the Flathead and of the Castle Drainage including such ecological processes as fire and disease, vegetation, species, wildlife, the aquatic environment, and a century of human activity in the two regions are described. Forestry practices, petroleum extraction, mining, recreational activities, land development, ranching practices, and road development in the two regions are reviewed, along with ecosystem-wide trends. The advantages of ecosystem based management integrated with human based management practices was demonstrated by describing the Rocky Mountain Grizzly Bear Planning Committee`s work . The Committee consists of representatives of wildlife agencies of Montana, BC, Alberta and Canadian and US federal government agencies who share responsibility for jointly mapping grizzly habitat, grizzly mortality sinks, pooling data on mortalities to ensure that the regional grizzly bear population is managed as one population regardless of political boundaries. 221 refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Biodiversity research trends and gap analysis from a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratikshya Kandel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kangchenjunga landscape, a transboundary complex shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal, is one of the biologically richest regions in the Eastern Himalayas. Owing to the remarkable biodiversity, the three countries came together to enhance regional cooperation in conservation and development in 2012. To start a strategic conservation intervention, the status of our knowledge base on biodiversity of the landscape is the most important stepping stone. In this paper, we traced the history of biodiversity research in the Kangchenjunga landscape, and present the research trends over time and subject interests. Meanwhile, we also identified key research and knowledge gaps and future priorities. For this, we analyzed 500 peer-reviewed journal articles (until 2014 relating to biodiversity, which were retrieved from the web platform ‘Google Scholar’ and other peer-reviewed journals. The review showed that the landscape received attention from the scientific community as early as the 1840s, and grew progressively after the 1980s. Research on fauna (especially mammals and flora (especially angiosperms is most notable, but with major gaps in systematic research of their ecology, whereas invertebrates other than butterflies appear to be neglected. There is a need for systematic research with long-term monitoring that would allow us to understand changes occurring within the landscape.

  13. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  14. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  15. Background concentrations of heavy metals in benthos from transboundary rivers of the Transbaikalia region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, Aleksei Petrovich; Matafonov, Petr Viktorovich

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were measured in benthic macroalgae and invertebrates collected in the upper transboundary tributaries of the Onon River, Transbaikalia, Russia. The background concentration ranges in Cladophora fracta, Ulothrix zonata and Zygnemataceae were: 6.4-9.1 for Cu, 27.2-73.1 for Zn, 0.4-0.9 for Cd, 6.7-35.3 for As, 0.01-0.02 for Hg, and 1.9-4.3 for Pb. In Brachycentrus americanus and Lymnaea media the concentration ranges were: 9.0-25.5 for Cu, 21.4-96.0 for Zn, 0.1-0.3 for Cd, 1.7-5.6 for As, 0.004-0.02 for Hg, and 0.4-2.2 for Pb. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg were consistent with data for uncontaminated areas. Under contamination conditions the concentrations in C. fracta were: 938 for Zn, 513 for Pb, and 9.5 for Cd; in Lymnaea media were: 46.8 for Cu, 176 for Zn, 52.3 for Pb, and 3.0 for Cd. All the organisms showed a common response to contamination, and consequently can be used as biomonitors of contamination by heavy metals.

  16. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  17. Daily rainfall statistics of TRMM and CMORPH: A case for trans-boundary Gandak River basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brijesh Kumar; Kanhu Charan Patra; Venkat Lakshmi

    2016-07-01

    Satellite precipitation products offer an opportunity to evaluate extreme events (flood and drought)for areas where rainfall data are not available or rain gauge stations are sparse. In this study, dailyprecipitation amount and frequency of TRMM 3B42V.7 and CMORPH products have been validatedagainst daily rain gauge precipitation for the monsoon months (June–September or JJAS) from 2005–2010 in the trans-boundary Gandak River basin. The analysis shows that the both TRMM and CMORPHcan detect rain and no-rain events, but they fail to capture the intensity of rainfall.The detection of precipitation amount is strongly dependent on the topography. In the plains areas,TRMM product is capable of capturing high-intensity rain events but in the hilly regions, it underestimatesthe amount of high-intensity rain events. On the other hand, CMORPH entirely fails to capturethe high-intensity rain events but does well with low-intensity rain events in both hilly regions as well asthe plain region. The continuous variable verification method shows better agreement of TRMM rainfallproducts with rain gauge data. TRMM fares better in the prediction of probability of occurrenceof high-intensity rainfall events, but it underestimates intensity at high altitudes. This implies thatTRMM precipitation estimates can be used for flood-related studies only after bias adjustment for thetopography.

  18. Devastating Transboundary Impacts of Sea Star Wasting Disease on Subtidal Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino-Latorre, Diego; Eisenlord, Morgan E.; Turner, Margaret; Yoshioka, Reyn; Harvell, C. Drew; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V.; Nichols, Janna D.

    2016-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease devastated intertidal sea star populations from Mexico to Alaska between 2013–15, but little detail is known about its impacts to subtidal species. We assessed the impacts of sea star wasting disease in the Salish Sea, a Canadian / United States transboundary marine ecosystem, and world-wide hotspot for temperate asteroid species diversity with a high degree of endemism. We analyzed roving diver survey data for the three most common subtidal sea star species collected by trained volunteer scuba divers between 2006–15 in 5 basins and on the outer coast of Washington, as well as scientific strip transect data for 11 common subtidal asteroid taxa collected by scientific divers in the San Juan Islands during the spring/summer of 2014 and 2015. Our findings highlight differential susceptibility and impact of sea star wasting disease among asteroid species populations and lack of differences between basins or on Washington’s outer coast. Specifically, severe depletion of sunflower sea stars (Pycnopodia helianthoides) in the Salish Sea support reports of major declines in this species from California to Alaska, raising concern for the conservation of this ecologically important subtidal predator. PMID:27783620

  19. Towards the Joint-Management of Transboundary Groundwaters: Hydrogeology and the Guarani Aquifer System; Hacia una gestion compartida de las aguas subterraneas transfronterizas: la Hidrogeologia y el Sistema Acuifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.

    2012-11-01

    In stark contrast to other international waters such as shared rivers or lakes, transboundary groundwaters are rarely co-managed. Management initiatives for shared groundwaters depend on scientific knowledge, which is often unavailable, and are influenced by a multiplicity of local issues that preclude the straightforward implementation of regulatory mechanisms. Drawing from historical documents and interviews with management experts, scientists and socio-economic stake holders, we examine the roles of science and scientific co-operation in the process that led to the creation of co-management instruments for the Guarani aquifer system. This analytical approach purposely sidesteps archetypical discussion about geopolitical differences and the incompatibility of institutional settings, arguing instead that hydrogeological knowledge is a constitutive dimension of the decision-making process, in which it operates both as a tool for the re framing of preferences as a challenge to established institutional frameworks. (Author)

  20. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma.

  1. Anthropogenic and Climatic Influence on Vegetation Fires in Peatland of Insular Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, S.; Miettinen, J.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is traditionally used as a tool in land clearing by farmers and shifting cultivators in Southeast Asia. However, the small scale clearing of land is increasingly being replaced by modern large-scale conversion of forests into plantations/agricultural land, usually also by fires. Fires get out of control in periods of extreme drought, especially during the El Nino periods, resulting in severe episodes of transboundary air pollution in the form of smoke haze. We use the MODIS active fires product (hotspots) to establish correlations between the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation fires with climatic variables, land cover change and soil type (peat or non-peat) in the western part of Insular Southeast Asia for a decade from 2001 to 2010. Fire occurrence exhibits a negative correlation with rainfall, and is more severe overall during the El-Nino periods. However, not all regions are equally affected by El-Nino. In Southern Sumatra and Southern Borneo the correlation with El-Nino is high. However, fires in some regions such as the peatland in Riau, Jambi and Sarawak do not appear to be influenced by El-Nino. These regions are also experiencing rapid conversion of forest to large scale plantations.

  2. The Transboundary Aquifer Management Challenge: Linking Landscape Patterns and Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations in the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer, USA/Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T.; Gergel, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in land use and landscape pattern can have an array of impacts on aquatic systems, including impacts which span international waters and borders. Globally, agricultural land use patterns and practices are among the factors responsible for elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater aquifers. Coordination of landscape monitoring across trans-boundary aquifers is needed to monitor and address contamination issues as landscape patterns can vary widely among different political jurisdictions. Landscape indicators, which quantify the amount and arrangement of land cover (such as proportion and abundance of land cover types), are one such way to improve our understanding of cross-border aquatic system interactions. In Western North America, the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer (ASA) spans the US-Canada border and provides drinking water for over 100,000 people. Intensive agriculture combined with high precipitation and well-drained soils make this aquifer susceptible to nitrate leaching. To understand how landscape patterns influence nitrate concentrations, we ask: Which landscape indicators correlate most strongly with elevated nitrate concentrations? A seamless cross-border land cover mosaic was created by harmonizing a variety of US and Canadian geodata. Auxiliary high spatial resolution imagery (e.g., 5m RapidEye and historical Google Earth) were used to quantify fine-scale landscape features (such as number of farm field renovations) with suspected mechanistic links to nitrate sources. We examined groundwater nitrate concentrations in shallow wells (screens Washington State Department of Ecology and Environment Canada. Surrounding each well, terrestrial zones of influence (aligned with the directional flow of groundwater) were delineated within which landscape patterns were characterized. Multiple regression was used to compare the strength of relationships between land use practices and nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results show strong positive

  3. Investigating the haze transport from 1997 biomass burning in Southeast Asia: its impact upon Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, Lawrence C. C.; Arellano, Avelino F.; McGregor, John L.

    The 1997 Indonesia forest fires was an environmental disaster of exceptional proportions. Such a disaster caused massive transboundary air pollution and indiscriminate destruction of biodiversity in the world. The immediate consequence of the fires was the production of large amounts of haze in the region, causing visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. Furthermore, fires of these magnitudes are potential contributors to global warming and climate change due to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases and other pyrogenic products.The long-range transport of fire-related haze in the region is investigated using trajectories from the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Limited Area Model (DARLAM). Emission scenarios were constructed for hotspot areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan for the months of September and October 1997 to determine the period and fire locations most critical to Singapore. This study also examines some transport issues raised from field observations. Results show that fires in the coastal areas of southeast Sumatra and southwest Kalimantan can be potential contributors to transboundary air pollution in Singapore. Singapore was directly affected by haze from these areas whereas Kuala Lumpur was heavily affected by the haze coming from Sumatra. In most cases, Singapore was more affected by fires from Kalimantan than was Kuala Lumpur. This was mainly a result of the shifting of monsoons. The transition of monsoons resulted in weaker low-level winds and shifted convergence zones near to the southeast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition to severe drought and massive fire activity in 1997, the timing of the monsoon transition has a strong influence on haze transport in the region.

  4. Natural versus anthropogenic inhalable aerosol chemistry of transboundary East Asian atmospheric outflows into western Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Gibbons, W.

    2012-01-01

    The eastward transport of aerosols exported from mainland Asia strongly influences air quality in the Japanese archipelago. The bulk of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in these intrusions comprises either natural, desert-derived minerals (mostly supermicron silicates) or anthropogenic pollut

  5. Huntington Disease in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, different haplotypes, and CCG polymorphisms. For the physicians, atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia, movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism, dystonia, or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary. Moreover, some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments. The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation, palliative care, and offer comfort of patients and their families. The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD.

  6. Huntington Disease in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Xu; Zhi-Ying Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective was to review the major differences of Huntington disease (HD) in Asian population from those in the Caucasian population.Data Sources:Data cited in this review were obtained from PubMed database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 1994 to 2014.All the papers were written in English or Chinese languages,with the terms of Asia/Asian,HD,genotype,epidemiology,phenotype,and treatment used for the literature search.Study Selection:From the PubMed database,we included the articles and reviews which contained the HD patients' data from Asian countries.From the CNKI,we excluded the papers which were not original research.Due to the language's restrictions,those data published in other languages were not included.Results:In total,50 papers were cited in this review,authors of which were from the mainland of China,Japan,India,Thailand,Taiwan (China),Korea,and western countries.Conclusions:The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats,different haplotypes,and CCG polymorphisms.For the physicians,atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia,movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism,dystonia,or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary.Moreover,some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments.The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation,palliative care,and offer comfort of patients and their families.The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD.

  7. Acid deposition in Asia: Emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lei; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Yuepeng; Larssen, Thorjørn; Tang, Jie; Mulder, Jan

    2016-12-01

    We review and synthesize the current state of knowledge regarding acid deposition and its environmental effects across Asia. The extent and magnitude of acid deposition in Asia became apparent only about one decade after this issue was well described in Europe and North America. In addition to the temperate zone, much of eastern and southern Asia is situated in the tropics and subtropics, climate zones hitherto little studied with respect to the effects of high loads of acid deposition. Surface waters across Asia are generally not sensitive to the effects of acid deposition, whereas soils in some regions are sensitive to acidification due to low mineral weathering. However, soil acidification was largely neutralized by such processes as base cation deposition, nitrate (NO3-) denitrification, and sulfate (SO42-) adsorption. Accompanying the decrease in S deposition in recent years, N deposition is of increasing concern in Asia. The acidifying effect of N deposition may be more important than S deposition in well drained tropical/subtropical soils due to high SO42- adsorption. The risk of regional soil acidification is a major threat in Eastern Asia, indicated by critical load exceedance in large areas.

  8. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  9. Transboundary Movements of Genetically Modified Organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: Key Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile J Lim Tung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The

  10. Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The EMPRES-livestock: an FAO initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Valdir Roberto; Vargas Terán, Moisés

    2004-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) decided that the Organization should be focusing on the goal of enhancing world food security and the fight against transboundary animal diseases and plant pests. A mandate was obtained from the Governing Council and Conference to establish two new Special Programmes to address these fundamental issues. The first is the Special Programme on Food Security and the second is the Emergency Prevention System against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases (EMPRES). EMPRES has two components, created after 1994 by a new policy of the Director-General of the FAO to better direct the FAO: the plant pest component focuses on the desert locust, whereas the animal diseases component focuses primarily on rinderpest but also on other epidemic diseases (e.g., contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, peste de petit ruminants). For the program as a whole, a high-level EMPRES Steering Committee was established. This is chaired by the FAO Director-General and consists of the heads of key departments (Assistant Directors-General) and Divisional Directors. For the animal diseases component (hereafter referred to as EMPRES-Livestock Programme), FAO established a management unit within its Animal Health Service (AGAH), that is, the Infectious Diseases-EMPRES Group, to be responsible for implementation, including liaison with the Joint FAO-International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Division in Vienna for some of the functions suballocated there. This paper briefly describes FAO EMPRES Livestock, its vision, its mission, and its activities to assist FAO developing member countries and regions in improving the ability of veterinary services to reduce the risks of introduction and/or dissemination of transboundary animal disease, by preventing, controlling, and eradicating those diseases, assisting countries in building their own surveillance/early warning systems, establishing contingency plans

  11. The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary pollution in various regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Yim, S H L

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental problems in China. Literature has reported that outdoor air pollution leads to adverse health problems every year in China. Recent measurement studies found the important regional nature of particulates in China. Trans-boundary air pollution within China has yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to comprehensively understand the processes of domestic trans-boundary air pollution in China and to apportion the impacts of emissions in different regions on air quality and public health. We applied a state-of-the-art air quality model to simulate air quality in China and then adapted a form of integrated concentration-response function for China to estimate the resultant amount of premature mortality due to exposures to PM2.5. Our findings show that domestic trans-boundary impacts (TBI), on average, account for 27% of the total PM2.5 in China. We estimated that outdoor air pollution caused ~870,000 (95% CI: 130,000-1500,000) premature mortalities in China in 2010, of which on average 18% are attributed to TBI. Among all the regions, North China is the largest contributor to TBI due to 41% of the health impacts of its emissions occurring in other regions. Taiwan (TW) is the smallest contributor to TBI occurring in China, contributing 2% of the national TBI, while TBI causes 22% of the premature mortalities due to outdoor air pollution in TW. Our findings pinpoint the significant impacts of TBI on public health in China, indicating the need for cross-region cooperation to mitigate the air quality impacts and the nation's resultant health problems.

  12. International environmental agreements: institutional innovation in European transboundary air pollution policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, N. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) is addressed in this study by means of a cross-disciplinary approach with the purpose of building an explanatory framework that includes the various dimensions of the process leading to the definition of an IEA. It concentrates on analysing the factors underlying the emergence of international concern, which builds up to eventually overcome the necessary threshold that enables it to be ultimately transformed into an IEA. The critical factors to explain this dynamic process are analysed from the different disciplinary fields of the social sciences, so as to take advantage of the multiplicity of analytical tools that they contribute twofold. At the theoretical level, the study combines pre-existing analytical tools in an innovative way, as a meta-analytical exercise; at the empirical level, it analyses the most recent developments of a well-known case-study: the agreements on long-range transboundary air pollution in Europe. This is done by analysing in-depth the forthcoming legislation in the field, from the UN-ECE/LATAP Convention and the European Community, which are the two most relevant sources of legislation in this field for Europe. It addresses in particular the forthcoming LRTAP Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone and the recent European Commission's proposals for two Directives on National Emission Ceilings and Ozone in Ambient Air. The policy lessons of this study are that IEAs result from complex processes that depend on the interplay of multiple actors which represent different realities and interests. In order to achieve successful IEAs, these actors have found themselves involved in creating new networks for defining international policies that acknowledge uncertainty in scientific knowledge but do not use it for postponing political decisions. 322 refs.

  13. Transboundary conservation: An ecoregional approach to protect neotropical migratory birds in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Roberto; Adkins, Leslie; Wurschy, Maria Christina; Skerl, Kevin

    1996-11-01

    Future conservation efforts will need to transcend geopolitical boundaries in efforts to protect entire landscapes and ecosystems. Neotropical migratory birds are as a group a useful conservation tool for linking diverse landscapes and people due to their dependence on multiple habitats, sensitivity to habitat changes, and universal public appeal. The conservation of neotropical migrants can therefore function as a powerful hemispheric umbrella for ecosystem protection. Efforts to protect neotropical migratory birds on their nonbreeding grounds have traditionally been focused on Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. To assess the importance of South America to neotropical migrants, an ecoregional classification system was used to determine species distributions in the Andean/Southern Cone Region (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela). The occurrence of migrants in protected areas that are part of The Nature Conservancy's Parks in Peril program was also assessed. Of the 406 neotropical migrant species, nearly one third (132) occur as regular nonbreeding residents in the region and for almost half of these species (53), South America is their main nonbreeding ground. All Parks in Peril sites were found to harbor neotropical migrants. Forty-eight species (36%) have declining longterm North American Breeding Bird Survey population trends and/or high Partners in Flight concern scores and thus are of significant conservation concern. Most importantly, 29 species (22%) of conservation concern use South America as their primary nonbreeding ground, indicating a need for focused conservation action. The nature of the ecoregional approach used in this endeavor makes future prioritization of ecoregions and conservation strategies for neotropical migrants across national boundaries possible. The ability to link diverse landscapes using a common element such as migratory birds allows for unique transboundary partnerships and opportunities for habitat

  14. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  15. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kon...

  16. Pollution control costs of a transboundary river basin: Empirical tests of the fairness and stability of cost allocation mechanisms using game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Ming; Wang, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-07-15

    With rapid economic growth, transboundary river basin pollution in China has become a very serious problem. Based on practical experience in other countries, cooperation among regions is an economic way to control the emission of pollutants. This study develops a game theoretic simulation model to analyze the cost effectiveness of reducing water pollutant emissions in four regions of the Jialu River basin while considering the stability and fairness of four cost allocation schemes. Different schemes (the nucleolus, the weak nucleolus, the Shapley value and the Separable Cost Remaining Benefit (SCRB) principle) are used to allocate regionally agreed-upon water pollutant abatement costs. The main results show that the fully cooperative coalition yielded the highest incremental gain for regions willing to cooperate if each region agreed to negotiate by transferring part of the incremental gain obtained from the cooperation to cover the losses of other regions. In addition, these allocation schemes produce different outcomes in terms of their fairness to the players and in terms of their derived stability, as measured by the Shapley-Shubik Power Index and the Propensity to Disrupt. Although the Shapley value and the SCRB principle exhibit superior fairness and stabilization to the other methods, only the SCRB principle may maintains full cooperation among regions over the long term. The results provide clear empirical evidence that regional gain allocation may affect the sustainability of cooperation. Therefore, it is implied that not only the cost-effectiveness but also the long-term sustainability should be considered while formulating and implementing environmental policies.

  17. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  18. Cyptotrama (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cyptotrama was divided into several sections, of which sect. Xerulina was often treated as a separate genus by some mycologists. In this study, collections of Cyptotrama from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia were studied. For comparison, materials from North America and New Zealand were analysed. Our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses indicated that Cyptotrama is monophyletic and Xerulina should be treated as a section within the genus Cyptotrama. Different scenarios of morphological character evolution in Cyptotrama are discovered. A total of seven species of Cyptotrama can be recognized from Asia, three of which, Cyptotrama angustispora, C. glabra, and C. shennongjia, are new to science. Meanwhile, three taxa previously placed in Xerulina or Marasmius were proved to be members of Cyptotrama, and the new combinations, namely Cyptotrama trogioides, C. megaspora, and C. myochroa, are accordingly proposed. A key for the diagnosis of worldwide Cyptotrama species is provided.

  19. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  20. ITMA Asia + CITME 2008 Unveil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first edition of ITMA Asia + CITME, combining two previously independently produced Asian textile machinery exhibitions, will open its doors to the global textile industry July 27~31 at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre(SNIEC),

  1. Economic Development in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dapice

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the original ASEAN nations in Southeast Asia came out of the Asian Crisis facing slower growth (4%–6% a year and modest structural change compared to previous decades. [...

  2. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  3. DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY INDICES PERTAINING TO DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF TRANS-BOUNDARY TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Kopko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the system efficiency requires a special approach in terms of its level, content and interrelations with an external environment. In this regard logistic  systems are rather complicated that consist of a number of service sub-systems and designed at various levels.  Such system complexity requires a development of an efficient mechanism for its design and operation of objects of the trans-boundary transport logistics. The efficiency of the trans-boundary transport and logistic systems (TTLS can be described by a number of cost and physical indicators reflecting both market and traditional approaches. The TTLS have their own peculiar features concerning determination of efficiency that are related with the state regulation set of processes occurring  at border crossings. In order to assess the current operational process it is necessary to apply an index system which pays a special attention to a transport capability due to the TTLS specificity. While planning a custom automotive processing at a border checkpoint there is no need to aspire for an immediate passage of all vehicles by all means. The basic requirement is to maintain a transport capability in the operational zone. Thus an irregularity of incoming vehicles at border crossing points is smoothed out by regulating priorities pertaining to requirements of custom processing while using an urgency function of cargo transportation thereby ensuring an optimal operation of a customs post.

  4. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  5. 近期亚洲中部高山地区湖泊变化的时空分析%Spatio-temporal Analysis of Recent Changes of Lake Area and Lake Water Level at High Mountains in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李均力; 方晖; 包安明; 杨辽

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resources in arid regions of Central Asia. They provide sparsely distributed but valuable fresh water resources for the fragile environments and human activities, which act as the essential components of the hydrological cycle and local ecosystems. Lakes in alpine regions are sensitive to natural changes, which can serve as an important indicator of global climate change and regional environment variations. Lake changes are mainly manifested by their level or area changes, which can provide evidence of spatial and temporal characteristics of regional water resource changes. Mapping these lakes and detecting their changes are therefore of great significance to understand the relevance of lake variations to climate changes, and they are also crucial to evaluating impacts of economic development on ecological balances. However, lake studies in these remote mountainous areas seem to be limited due to low accessibility and lack of observation data. Satellite remote sensing provides an efficient tool to analyze the status and variations in these lakes. In this paper, Landsat/CBERS were used to map lake area changes, and Jason, ICEsat/GLAS were employed to extract lake level information, forming a time series of level and area changes of 16 lakes over the past ten years. The spatial and temporal characteristics of lake level changes were also analyzed with information on glaciers and dams, so as to unravel the responses of level and area changes of different types of lakes to climate change and human activities. It is shown that remote sensing has a good performance of mapping lake level and area changes, and lake levels in October have good performance of describing the temporal processes of lake level changes. Glaciers are vital to alpine closed lakes, and the characteristics of level changes are classified into two modes based on glacier distribution: lakes in the northern Tibetan Plateau (the Kunlun Mountains, Karakorum

  6. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I K

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  7. Commercial Power of Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Sincai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, based on a detailed analysis of the main statistical foreign trade indicators of the emerging economies of the Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, outlines a series of characteristics of the foreign trade flows of the analysed economies from the ’50 up to the present. The accent is set on the period 1995-2006, which emphasizes two moments of crisis of the Asian trade: 1997-1998 and 2001. At the level of the analysed economies, it can be remarked a tendency of continuous growth of the share of the intra-regional trade flows in the total trade flows, mainly due to their participation in regional trade agreements, to the strenghtening of the regional production networks, to the role of China as engine of economic growth in the whole region and even at global level. On product category, the manufactures have the greatest share in the merchandise exports of the Asian emerging economies (especially office and telecom equipment, integrated circuits, automotive products, textiles and clothing, etc.. While China surpassed the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in the world trade in 2001 and that of Japan in 2004, the scenario presented in this paper indicates the surpass in 2007 of the share of Germany (second place in the world trade in 2005, the surpass of the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in 2009, and the surpass of the share of the group of the 8 Asian tigers and that of the USA as well in 2012. In the following decades, China might become the strongest world economy at the global level, but only if the sustainable development and the eradication of the social inequities will become de facto priorities of the Chinese officials. The actual negative externalities (costs of the Chinese economic growth, transferred on the environment and the society, will be object to another analyse.

  8. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Shifting Inundation and Fire Regimes: Disentangling Environmental Variability from Land Management Decisions in a Southern African Transboundary Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa G. Pricope

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing temperatures and wildfire incidence and decreasing precipitation and river runoff in southern Africa are predicted to have a variety of impacts on the ecology, structure, and function of semi-arid savannas, which provide innumerable livelihood resources for millions of people. This paper builds on previous research that documents change in inundation and fire regimes in the Chobe River Basin (CRB in Namibia and Botswana and proposes to demonstrate a methodology that can be applied to disentangle the effect of environmental variability from land management decisions on changing and ecologically sensitive savanna ecosystems in transboundary contexts. We characterized the temporal dynamics (1985–2010 of vegetation productivity for the CRB using proxies of vegetation productivity and examine the relative importance of shifts in flooding and fire patterns to vegetation dynamics and effects of the association of phases of the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO on vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that vegetation in these semi-arid environments is highly responsive to climatic fluctuations and the long-term trend is one of increased but heterogeneous vegetation cover. The increased cover and heterogeneity during the growing season is especially noted in communally-managed areas of Botswana where long-term fire suppression has been instituted, in contrast to communal areas in Namibia where heterogeneity in vegetation cover is mostly increasing primarily outside of the growing season and may correspond to mosaic early dry season burns. Observed patterns of increased vegetation productivity and heterogeneity may relate to more frequent and intense burning and higher spatial variability in surface water availability from both precipitation and regional inundation patterns, with implications for global environmental change and adaptation in subsistence-based communities.

  10. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    spatial distribution of various climate-related hazards in 1,398 subnational areas of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. An analysis of country-level population exposure showed that approximately 750 million people are affected from combined climate-hazards. Of the affected population 72% are in India, followed by 12% each from Bangladesh and Pakistan. Due in part to the economic importance of agriculture, it was found to be most vulnerable and exposed to climate extremes. An analysis of individual hazards indicates that floods and droughts) are the dominant hazards impacting agricultural areas followed by extreme rainfall, extreme temperature and sea-level rise. Based on this vulnerability assessment, all the regions of Bangladesh and the Indian States in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Orissa; Ampara, Puttalam, Trincomalee, Mannar and Batticaloa in Sri Lanka; Sind and Baluchistan in Pakistan; Central and East Nepal; and the transboundary river basins of Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra are among the most vulnerable regions in South Asia.

  11. Potential and Challenges of Low-Cost and High-Tech Crowd-sensing Approaches in Hydrometeorology for Better Water Resources Management - Insights and Learnings from the Global iMoMo Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In developing and transition countries and despite significant global investments in hydrometeorology, data on water remain scarce/fragmented. One key reason is that traditional sensing in hydrology, hydro- and agro-meteorology does not scale because of high investment costs and difficult maintenance of traditional technology, esp. in remote and/or poor regions. Even where there are data, these are often difficult to access and interpret for local stakeholders due outdated data transmission and the lack of access to modern tools for data management/analysis/synthesis and exchange. In recent years, there have been substantial technology developments in environmental sensing and mobile communication technology that enable the application and deployment of affordable and scalable high-tech solutions for better water monitoring at different scales (local to transboundary levels). The WMO is acknowledging and promoting the potential for application of these technologies. One key aspect is to anchor these technologies in local communities that perform crowd-sensing tasks on a regular basis. The merits as well as challenges (including introduction of human factor, less accuracy as compared to traditional sensing, intermittency of data, …) of such approaches will be discussed in the context of the WMO-led Global iMoMo Initiative and its numerous activities on the ground in Eastern and Southern Africa as well as in Central Asia.

  12. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulombe Caroline

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown.

  13. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  14. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  15. Big Prospects in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After bottoming out last year, the emerging economies of East Asia are recouping their losses and setting out onto the fast growth track.But short-term growth does not necessarily indicate a prosperous future-the region still needs to rebalance its economies and precipitate a massive shift to green technologies and energy efficiency. The World Bank discussed this issue in the latest EastAsia & Pacific Economic Update,a biannual assessment of economies in the region.Edited excerpts follow:

  16. Managing the water-energy-food nexus: Gains and losses from new water development in Amu Darya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Shokhrukh-Mirzo; Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli; Amer, Saud; Ward, Frank A.

    2016-08-01

    According to the UN, the population of Central Asia will increase from its current approximately 65 million people to a well over 90 million by the end of this century. Taking this increasing population into consideration, it is impossible to project development strategies without considering three key factors in meeting the demands of a growing population: water, food and energy. Societies will have to choose, for instance, between using land and fertilizer for food production or for bio-based or renewable energy production, and between using fresh water for energy production or for irrigating crops. Thus water, food and energy are inextricably linked and must be considered together as a system. Recently, tensions among the Central Asian countries over the use of water for energy and energy production have increased with the building of Rogun Dam on the Vakhsh River, a tributary of the Amu Darya River. The dam will provide upstream Tajikistan with hydropower, while downstream countries fear it could negatively impact their irrigated agriculture. Despite recent peer reviewed literature on water resources management in Amu Darya Basin, none to date have addressed the interconnection and mutual impacts within water-energy-food systems in face of constructing the Rogun Dam. We examine two potential operation modes of the dam: Energy Mode (ensuring Tajikistan's hydropower needs) and Irrigation Mode (ensuring water for agriculture downstream). Results show that the Energy Mode could ensure more than double Tajikistan's energy capacity, but would reduce water availability during the growing season, resulting in an average 37% decline in agricultural benefits in downstream countries. The Irrigation Mode could bring a surplus in agricultural benefits to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan in addition an increasing energy benefits in Tajikistan by two fold. However, energy production in the Irrigation Mode would be non-optimally distributed over the seasons resulting in the most of

  17. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Partnership negotiations to conclude a high-standard, 21st century Asia-Pacific free trade agreement. The 2001... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... (CS) is organizing a trade mission to Southeast Asia, to take place in conjunction with the...

  18. Existing opportunities to adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB) Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S.) and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental nee...

  19. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Salim, Mohammad A.; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E.; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Defries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013 - a non-drought year - Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated ``very unhealthy''). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 +/- 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 +/- 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  20. Water Resources Security and Its Countermeasure Suggestions in Building Silk Road Economic Belt%丝绸之路经济带建设中的水资源安全问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利丹; 周海炜; 夏自强; 黄峰; 鄢波

    2015-01-01

    The strategy of Silk Road Economic Belt brings about both opportunities of social-economic development and regional cooperation for countries along this belt, and many potential constraints and challenges. Water resources safety is one of strategic and prospective issues in promoting the economic belt construction, which should be paid high attention to. In this study, some key regions involved in the economic belt, including Northwest China, Central Asia and West Asia, were selected as the cases. And in-depth analyses of water resources security problems, including water distribution, water demand and environmental conditions, and transboundary water disputes and cooperation practices of these tranboundary basins had been conducted. To solve these water problems in the construction process of economic belt, and on the basis of experiences and lessons learned from transboundary river management in Central Asia and West Asia regions, countermeasure suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of strategic layout for Chinese government and policy-making sectors. The territorial scope linked to the Silk Road Economic Belt extends far beyond the scope of a specific tranboundary river basin, and so countries along the belt are facing with more complex and multiple constraints of water security problem. China should develop a strategic framework of water resources to coordinate development with neighboring countries in Central Asia, which should be followed with a propose to build water cooperation corridor in the economic belt along the Silk Road, in order to improve transboundary water cooperation mechanism to strengthen regional cooperation in water resources. Besides, the support system of the water resources security should be improved by focusing on strengthening critical technology research and information monitoring of regional co-development of water resources and protection.%“丝绸之路经济带”的战略构想既为沿线国家带来了经济社

  1. Review of ITHA ASIA+CITHE 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In General 27 July 2008,Shanghai-The first combined textile machinery show,ITMA ASIA+CITME 2008 opens today at Shanghai New International Expo Centre.With the joint strength of the two established brands ITMA ASIA and CITME,the combined show is by far Asia's most important textile machinery show in terms of exhibiting space and technology.

  2. Loading up Asia-Pacific style

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, A.; Johnson, R. [PT Connell Wagner, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-10-01

    Coal shiploading ports dot the coastlines of many parts of the Asia Pacific region, being the nodes where inland transportation and sea transportation meet. The article is based on a paper entitled 'Overview of Asia's shiploading ports and transhipment operation for coal' presented at Coaltrans Asia in June 2003. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  3. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    primary laborers of whom 1,321 are women, 170 secondary laborers, and 1,948.70 hectares of wet rice cultivation aril! Vientiane Province Co-op...hectares or 32 percent of the cultivation area throughout the province. 9884 CSO: 4206/175 15 JPRS-SEA-85-150 1 October 1985 LAOS HYDROPOWER... tangerine , and other industrial crops. It has also helped build water pumping stations and various irrigation and drainage pro- jects. Those

  4. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  5. Management Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoong, Yip Yat, Ed.

    Management needs in Southeast Asia are the focal points of a workshop held in Penang, March 1972, by the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development. Following the opening statement concerning these needs, the discussions at the workshop and a background paper, "Developing Management Competence," are presented. (MJM)

  6. A Lake Dream in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ When William Wordsworth,representative of Lake Poets wrote his Ode to Night ingale nearby the Lake District of England at the turn of the nine-teenth century,he never imagined a century later,a similar romantic lake dream has been created in China,Asia.

  7. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  8. Lenzing Group: Expanding in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 10th,the Lenzing Group started operation of its new viscose fiber plant at Nanjing(China).The new viscose fiber plant is the second production site for this fiber of theLenzing Group in Asia and its sixth production site globally.

  9. Single-tube multiplexed molecular detection of endemic porcine viruses in combination with background screening for transboundary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Detection of several pathogens with multiplexed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays in a one-step setup allows the simultaneous detection of two endemic porcine and four different selected transboundary viruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR systems for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), two of the most economically important pathogens of swine worldwide, were combined with a screening system for diseases notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health, namely, classical and African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and Aujeszky's disease. Background screening was implemented using the identical fluorophore for all four different RT-qPCR assays. The novel multiplex RT-qPCR system was validated with a large panel of different body fluids and tissues from pigs and other animal species. Both reference samples and clinical specimens were used for a complete evaluation. It could be demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific parallel detection of the different viruses was possible. The assays for the notifiable diseases were even not affected by the simultaneous amplification of very high loads of PRRSV- and PCV2-specific sequences. The novel broad-spectrum multiplex assay allows in a unique form the routine investigation for endemic porcine pathogens with exclusion diagnostics of the most important transboundary diseases in samples from pigs with unspecific clinical signs, such as fever or hemorrhages. The new system could significantly improve early detection of the most important notifiable diseases of swine and could lead to a new approach in syndromic surveillance.

  10. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengor, A.M.C. (Instanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey))

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  11. Airmass Trajectories and Long Range Transport of Pollutants: Review of Wet Deposition Scenario in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kulshrestha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of airmass trajectories and their role in air pollution transport. It describes the concept, history, and basic calculation of air trajectories citing various trajectory models used worldwide. It highlights various areas of trajectory applications and errors associated with trajectory calculations. South Asian region receives airmasses from Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Indian Ocean, and so forth, depending upon the season. These airmasses are responsible for export and import of pollutants depositing in nearby states. Trajectory analysis revealed that soil is contributed by the dust storms coming from Oman through Gulf and Iran, while most of black carbon (BC sources are located in India. A detailed review of trajectories associated with wet deposition events indicated that airmasses coming from Europe and Middle East carry high concentration of acidic pollutants which are deposited in Himalayan ranges. Similarly, trajectory analysis revealed that acidic pollutants from continental anthropogenic sources are transported to an ecosensitive site in Western Ghats in India and the outward fluxes of anthropogenic activities of Indo-Gangetic region are transported towards Bay of Bengal. Hence, transboundary and long range transport of pollutants are very important issues in South Asia which need immediate attention of scientists and policy makers.

  12. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaag, van der P.; Juizo, D.; Vilanculos, A.; Bolding, J.A.; Post Uiterweer, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use

  13. Tibet's Ali: Asia's Atacama?

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Li, Hong; Zhang, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    The Ngari (Ali) prefecture of Tibet, one of the highest areas in the world, has recently emerged as a promising site for future astronomical observation. Here we use 31 years of reanalysis data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) to examine the astroclimatology of Ngari, using the recently-erected Ali Observatory at Shiquanhe (5~047~m above mean sea level) as the representative site. We find the percentage of photometric night, median atmospheric seeing and median precipitable water vapor (PWV) of the Shiquanhe site to be $57\\%$, $0.8"$ and 2.5~mm, comparable some of the world's best astronomical observatories. Additional calculation supports the Shiquanhe region as one of the better sites for astronomical observations over the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the studies taken at comparable environment at Atacama, extraordinary observing condition may be possible at the few vehicle-accessible 6~000~m heights in the Shiquanhe region. Such possibility should be thoroughly investigated in future.

  14. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  15. Southeast Asia: A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    SOUTHEAST ASIA GEOGRAPHY of Chiangmai, rises to 2,580 meters. The extensive Rivers and Drainage Systems. The Mekong River b Chao Phraya lowlands, with...become the Chao Phraya River , which of the borders of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. drains into the Gulf of Thailand. Most of the Extensions of the Annam...It again forms the Chao Phraya lowlands from the Korat Plateau, the border with Thailand beginning about 120 kmn a broad, flat area with elevations

  16. More Trade with Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To establish a long-term platform where China and other Northeast Asian countries could enjoy mutual benefits, interchange and communica-tion, NAITE faithfully plays its role. This Sep-tember 2 to 6, Changchun International Confer-ence & Exhibition Center welcomes again the NAITE, China Jilin-Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Expo, and it was the fourth session in Changchun, Jilin Province in the northeast of China. The impact is accumulating.

  17. Asia Confronts Its Inflation Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Lyons

    2011-01-01

    @@ Asia is finally waking up to its inflation challenge.Recent weeks have seen a further round of monetary tighten-ing, with a succession of central banks raising interest rates, or taking other measures to put a cap on rising prices.India, in particular, has taken tougher action than before, with a large rate hike, whilst others such as China have again pushed up reserve requirements.

  18. After Indonesia’s Ratification: The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution and Its Effectiveness As a Regional Environmental Governance Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Heilmann

    2015-01-01

    On 20 January 2015 Indonesia deposited its instrument of ratification for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution with the ASEAN Secretariat, becoming the last ASEAN member state to join the treaty. Haze pollution poses a serious health threat to the people of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia, and for decades haze pollution has been a highly contentious issue among ASEAN member states. This article argues that Indonesia's ratification will not be an immediate game changer. The me...

  19. Asia Oceania Geosciences Society's First Annual Meeting. A report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A.K.; Krishna, K.S.

    Working Groups (IWGs) 6. Hydrology and Water Resources (HW) The main emphasis of AOGS has been to evolve a common platform for active scientific interaction among the geoscientists of the Asia-Oceania region. About 1000 delegates participated..., 2004. The main focus of this meeting was on the following disciplines, covered in 87 scientific sessions. 1. Solid Earth (SE) . 2. Ocean and Atmosphere (OA) 3. Space Physics and Planetary Sciences (SP) 4. Natural Hazards (NH) 5. Interdisciplinary...

  20. Advances in carbon flux observation and research in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guirui; ZHANG Leiming; SUN Xiaomin; FU Yuling; LI Zhengquan

    2005-01-01

    As an important component of FLUXNET, Asia is increasingly becoming the hotspot in global carbon research for its vast territory, complex climate type and vegetation diversity. The present three regional flux observation networks in Asia (i.e. AsiaFlux, KoFlux and ChinaFLUX)have 54 flux observation sites altogether, covering tropic rainforest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest, shrubland, grassland, alpine meadow and cropland ecosystems with a latitudinal distribution from 2°N to 63°N. Long-term and continuous fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere are mainly measured with eddy covariance technique to (1) quantify and compare the carbon, water and energy budgets across diverse ecosystems; (2) quantify the environmental and biotic controlling mechanism on ecosystem carbon, water and energy fluxes; (3) validate the soil-vegetation-atmosphere model; and (4) serve the integrated study of terrestrial ecosystem carbon and water cycle. Over the last decades, great advancements have been made in the theory and technology of flux measurement, ecosystem flux patterns, simulation and scale conversion by Asian flux community. The establishment of ChinaFLUX has greatly filled the gap of flux observation and research in Eurasia. To further promote the flux measurement and research,accelerate data sharing and improve the data quality, it is necessary to present a methodological system of flux estimation and evaluation over complex terrain and to develop the integrated research that combines the flux measurement, stable isotope measurement, remote sensing observation and GIS technique. It also requires the establishment of the Joint Committee of Asian Flux Network in the Asia-Pacific region in order to promote the cooperation and communication of ideas and data by supporting project scientists, workshops and visiting scientists.

  1. The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources represented by oil, gas, coal and water resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contempora...

  2. Singapore’s willingness to pay for mitigation of transboundary forest-fire haze from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Wijedasa, Lahiru S.; Chisholm, Ryan A.

    2017-02-01

    Haze pollution over the past four decades in Southeast Asia is mainly a result of forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. The economic impacts of haze include adverse health effects and disruption to transport and tourism. Previous studies have used a variety of approaches to assess the economic impacts of haze and the forest fires more generally. But no study has used contingent valuation to assess non-market impacts of haze on individuals. Here we apply contingent valuation to estimate impacts of haze on Singapore, one of most severely affected countries. We used a double-bounded dichotomous-choice survey design and the Kaplan-Meier-Turnbull method to infer the distribution of Singaporeans’ willingness to pay (WTP) for haze mitigation. Our estimate of mean individual WTP was 0.97% of annual income (n = 390). To calculate total national WTP, we stratified by income, the demographic variable most strongly related to individual WTP. The total WTP estimate was 643.5 million per year (95% CI [527.7 million, 765.0 million]). This estimate is comparable in magnitude to previously estimated impacts of Indonesia’s fires and also to the estimated costs of peatland protection and restoration. We recommend that our results be incorporated into future cost–benefit analyses of the fires and mitigation strategies.

  3. 广州16届亚运会马术比赛场给排水及消防系统设计%Design of the water supply and drainage system and fire system of the 16th Asia Games equestrian venue in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵力军; 陈健聪; 丰汉军; 甘起东

    2012-01-01

    The equestrian venue of the 16th Asia Games in Guangzhou was the largest equestrian venue in China at present. The project of water supply and drainage design had the following four features: zero sewerage discharge system; flood discharge energy dissipation system; solar-heat pump system for hot water system; non-epidemic area water supply and drainage system for different special buildings including stable, horse hospital, and athlete service facilities. The water supply and drainage system in this project applied different advanced technologies on the stadium design skillfully, which met the requirements of Asia equestrian game.%广州16届亚运会马术比赛场是目前国内已建成规模最大的马术比赛场馆.该项目的给排水设计有以下四个特点:采用污水零排放系统;采用高落差排洪消能系统;采用太阳能热泵联用的热水系统;考虑各类特殊建筑如马厩、马医院、运动员服务设施等无疫区给排水设计.该项目的给排水设计将各项先进技术巧妙地应用在比赛场中,满足了本届亚运会马术比赛的要求.

  4. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  5. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  6. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  7. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers.

  8. Discharge forecasting using MODIS and radar altimetry: potential application for transboundary flood risk management in Niger-Benue River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Amarnath, Giriraj; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of most widespread natural disasters in the world. Its impact is particularly severe and destructive in Asia and Africa, because the living conditions of some settlements are inadequate to cope with this type of natural hazard. In this context, the estimation of discharge is extremely important to address water management and flood risk assessment. However, the inadequate monitoring network hampers any control and prediction activity that could improve these disastrous situations. In the last few years, remote sensing sensors have demonstrated their effectiveness in retrieving river discharge, especially in supporting discharge nowcasting and forecasting activities. Recently, the potential of radar altimetry was apparent when used for estimating water levels in an ungauged river site with good accuracy. It has also become a very useful tool for estimation and prediction of river discharge. However, the low temporal resolution of radar altimeter observations (10 or 35 days, depending on the satellite mission) may be not suitable for day-by-day hydrological forecasting. Differently, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), considering its proven potential for quantifying the variations in discharge of the rivers at daily time resolution may be more suited to this end. For these reasons, MODIS and radar altimetry data were used in this study to predicting and forecasting the river discharge along the Niger-Benue River, where severe flooding with extensive damage to property and loss of lives occurred. Therefore, an effective method to forecast flooding can support efforts towards creating an early warning system. In order to estimate river discharge, four MODIS products (daily, 8-day, and from AQUA and TERRA satellites) connected at three sites (two gauged and one ungauged) were used. The capability of remote sensing sensors to forecast discharge a few days in advance at a downstream section using MODIS and ENVISAT radar altimetry data

  9. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  11. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  12. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories of...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  13. EKOLOGICAL-FAUNAL ANALYSES OF THE TREMATODES OF WATER-MARSH BIRDS OF THE TRANSBOUNDARY JANDAN LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Mahmudova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-08 in the Jandar Lake, which is situated on the territories of Azerbaijan and Georgia, the author studied waterfowls of 23 species and found 35 species of trematodes. Trematode fauna was richer in birds with a wider range of food and bigger sizes, obligate ichthyophagous birds were infected with trematode more than birds, which rarely eating fish. Among the found trematodes 4 species are dangerous to birds, 3 species – to fish, and 3 species to human.

  14. Transboundary nuclear risks and legal entitlement to be protected under international law. Grenzueberschreitendes nukleares Risiko und voelkerrechtlicher Schutzanspruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handl, G.

    1992-01-01

    The study in hand examines the conditions supporting and governing the legal entitlement of a state affected by the potential hazards of a nuclear installation in a neighbouring state to be protected against such hazards, and to enforce such entitlement on a bilateral level, based on international law, in order to guarantee the integrity of the state's territory and its population. There are three basic items to be investigated: (1) the objective definition of the transboundary nuclear risk, which in the bilateral relationship between the risk-exposed state and the installation state creates a right to claim protection on the part of the exposed state; (2) the concrete definition of this bilateral entitlement to be protected from the nuclear risks, i.e. after an 'internationalization' of the decision-making processes underlying the erection and operation of nuclear installations and the subsequent waste management; (3) the international leagal obligations to be fulfilled to compensate for nuclear damage as a result of incidents or accidents in a nuclear installation. (orig./HP).

  15. River flow regime and snow cover of the Pamir Alay (Central Asia) in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevallier, P.; Pouyaud, B.; Mojaisky, M.; Bolgov, M.; Olsson, O.; Bauer, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers, main tributaries of the Amu Darya River in the mountainous region of the Pamir Alay, play an important role in the water resources of the Aral Sea basin (Central Asia). In this region, the glaciers and snow cover significantly influence the water cycle and flow regime,

  16. The Border Environmental Health Initiative: Investigation of the Transboundary Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L. M.; Callegary, J. B.; van Riper, C.; Gray, F.; Paretti, N.; Villarreal, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the borderland region of the desert southwest, human health and the ecosystems upon which humans rely largely depend on the quality, quantity, and distribution of water resources. In the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the Arizona and Sonora, Mexico border region, surface water is scarce and unreliable, and, during much of the year, is composed of effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant. This makes groundwater the preferred and, consequently, primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. USGS scientists are using an integrative approach, incorporating the expertise of the Geography, Water, Biology, and Geology disciplines to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential for impacts to riparian ecosystems and ultimately, human health. This includes tracking organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing ground- and surface-water models will be used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport. Water quality, sediment, aquatic macro invertebrates, aquatic plants (macrophytes), algae, riparian grasses, fish, and birds will be sampled at five locations along the Santa Cruz River. Field sampling data will be obtained at sites that coincide with historical sampling programs. Site locations include (i.) the Santa Cruz River headwaters (which should be unaffected by downstream contaminant sources), (ii.) a tributary routed through an abandoned mining district, (iii.) a binational tributary that flows though highly urbanized areas, (iv.) effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant, and (v.) the downstream confluence of the first four sources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model will be used in combination with field data to identify key sources of contaminants, contributing areas, and transport modes to track their movement to surface waters. These data will be used together to test relationships between

  17. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  18. Impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhou, Wen; Wenig, Mark; Yang, Liangui

    2017-01-01

    Model simulations and hydrological reanalysis data for 2007 are applied to investigate the impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia. Results are analyzed from Hong Kong and Shanghai, which are two representative coastal cities of East Asia. Long-range desert dust transport impacts mainly spring and summer clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia. In spring, clouds and precipitation come mainly from large-scale condensation and are impacted mainly by dust from the Gobi, Sahara, and Thar deserts. These desert dusts can participate in the precipitation within and below the clouds. At lower latitudes, the dust particles act mainly as water nuclei. At higher latitudes, they act as both water nuclei and ice nuclei. The effect of Gobi, Sahara, and Thar dust on large-scale clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at higher latitudes. In summer, clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia come mainly from convection and are impacted mainly by dust from the Taklamakan, Arabian, and Karakum-Kavir deserts. Most Taklamakan dust particles can participate in precipitation within convective clouds as ice nuclei, while Arabian and Karakum-Kavir dust particles participate only as water nuclei in precipitation below the clouds. The effect of Taklamakan dust on convective clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at lower latitudes. Of all the desert dusts, that from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts has the relatively largest impact. Gobi dust impacts climate change in coastal East Asia by affecting spring water clouds at higher latitudes.

  19. Protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, S

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza A (H5N1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. These pandemic viral diseases originated in South East Asia. Many human and animal lives were lost. Economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. The question arises of why did the pandemics originate from South East Asian areas. Human influenza A consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the SARS virus and the avian influenza (H5N1) that are all variants of RNA of avian coronavirus. Variants are formed during infection of a coronavirus through not only birds but also mammals, including human beings. There are hot spots where viral infection rates are accelerated among birds, mammals and human beings. Suspicious areas are in South East Asia, where living conditions of birds, mammals and human beings are so close that there are always risks of viral infection. When we see the living conditions of farmers in southern China, northern Vietnam, Laos and northern Myanmar, they commonly raise ducks/chickens with pigs sharing ponds into which they discharge household wastewater, including human excreta, and pig excreta that are significant carriers of viruses. Bird faeces are also key carriers of the viruses. In the ponds, they raise ducks and conduct fish culture. Other important players are migrating birds from North Asia, which are principal vectors of avian influenza viruses. There is an urgent necessity of improving human and ecological health in South East Asia to control viral infection among birds, mammals and human beings. We can hinder the vicious cycle of virus infection through water contamination in ponds by providing good human, pig and chicken sanitation. It is easy to provide good sanitation practices for human, pigs and chickens, introducing collection and treatment of excreta. Our modern water technology can find good solutions for the problem.

  20. CoalTrans Asia 98. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A total of 21 papers were presented at the conference on topics including: coal and power after the Asian crisis; Indonesia - an extended review; feeding Asia`s coal needs - a review of developments among Asia`s coal suppliers; buyers under constraint; and Asia`s coking coal demand and coke availability. 20 of the papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM and Worldwide Web database.

  1. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-04-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia.

  2. China South Asia Friendship Organizations’ Forum Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The establishment of a non-governmental cooperative mechanism between China and the nations of South Asia was one of the most important fruits of the first ever"China South Asia Friendship Organizations’ Forum"held in Beijing October 28-30,2009.This is part of new strategic thinking for developing deeper relations between the various

  3. Project on Asia's sustainable development starts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research project of the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA) on the sustainable development in Asia has been latmched. The fast meeting of its expert panel was held on 25 February in Beijing, bringing together more than 20 experts from 10 Asian countries, including Russia, ROK, Turkey, Israel, India, Mongolia, Iran,Azerbaijan, and the Philippines.

  4. Dynamics of Corporate Social Responsibility in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Rebecca Chunghee; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Asia through two related themes: research knowledge and ethical norms. ‘CSR in Asia’ research is shown to be growing, particularly in East Asia. Compared with Western CSR literature, it is shown to be dominated by empirical...

  5. Karaoke and Interpersonal Communication in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ringo

    An exploratory study investigated the interpersonal meaning of karaoke to its participants in East Asia. Current research suggests that the popularity of karaoke in East Asia is associated with the cultural value of harmony and the indirect mode of communication in this region. Subjects, 51 East Asian undergraduate-level students who had…

  6. China-Central Asia Power Cooperation Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo

    2010-01-01

    After analyzing the basic information,distribution of energy resources and condition of power industry in Central Asia, the high feasibility for China to cooperate closely with Central Asia in transnational power interconnection, power investment and technology exchanges, etc. is studied. Furthermore, the forms, mechanisms, existing problems and suggestions for the improvement of current policies related to the power cooperation are proposed.

  7. Changing housing policy landscapes in Asia Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Ronald; R.L.H. Chiu

    2010-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region, and in particular East Asia, underwent rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Central to this transformation was intensive public and private investment in the housing sector. Although housing was largely commodified, public

  8. Global Warming and Trans-Boundary Movement of Waterborne Microbial Pathogens - Book Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtle increases in temperature can have profound impacts on the prevalence of various waterborne microbial pathogens. Such impacts may be seen in three major areas, 1) fecally contaminated drinking water, 2) fresh produce that has been irrigated or processed with contaminated wa...

  9. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season "deficit" area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  10. 试析越界环境损害民事责任价值定位%Value Orientation of Civil Liability for Transboundary Environmental Harm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉

    2011-01-01

    Value orientation is the core issue of the theory of civil liability for transboundary environmental harm,as it is the basis of the imputation principle,the subject and the realization path of civil liability.According to the articles in the draft principles on the allocation of loss,value orientation should contain compensation value and protection value.Before detailed discussions on value orientation,this article gives a brief introduction to traditional state liability and the dilemma of state compensation liability for transboundary environmental harm.Based on the discussions,the author elaborates the developmental situation and advantages of the civil liability for transboundary environmental harm.%价值定位是越界环境损害民事责任的理论核心问题,无论是民事责任归责原则、民事责任主体还是民事责任的实现路径都以此为基础。从损失分配草案条文出发,其应具备补偿价值和保护价值。在具体论述之前,对传统国家责任及国家赔偿责任在越界环境损害中的困境作了简要介绍,并指出原因,在此基础上,阐述了民事责任在越界环境损害中的发展状况及优势。

  11. East and Southeast Asia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1984-06-01

    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment.

  12. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others.

  13. A unified hydrogeological conceptual model of the Milk River transboundary aquifer, traversing Alberta (Canada) and Montana (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René; Hendry, M. Jim; Folnagy, Attila J. B.

    2016-11-01

    A conceptual model of the transboundary Milk River Aquifer (MRA), extending across the Canada-USA border, was developed based on literature, focused fieldwork and a three-dimensional geological model. The MRA corresponds to the Virgelle Member of the Milk River Formation (Eagle Formation in Montana, USA) and it is an important groundwater resource over a large area (25,000 km2). The Virgelle outcrops near the international border and along the Sweet Grass Arch in Montana. The down-gradient limit of the MRA is the unconformity separating the Virgelle from the gas-bearing sandy shale of the Alderson Member. The MRA is confined above by the Pakowki/Claggett Formations aquitards and below by the Colorado Group aquitard. The MRA contains higher transmissivity areas resulting in preferential flowpaths, confirmed by natural geochemical tracers. Tritium and 14C delineate restricted recharge areas along the outcrops on both sides of the international border. Drastic decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients indicate that the Milk River intercepts a large proportion of groundwater flowing to the north from the recharge area. Downgradient of the Milk River, groundwater movement is slow, as shown by 36Cl residence times exceeding 1 Ma. These slow velocities imply that groundwater discharge downgradient of the Milk River is via vertical leakage through the Colorado Group and upward along buried valleys, which act as drains and correspond to artesian areas. When confined, the MRA contains a fossil groundwater resource, not significantly renewed by modern recharge. Groundwater exploitation thus far exceeds recharge, a situation requiring properly managed MRA groundwater depletion.

  14. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

  15. The role of the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, M; Coats, M; Brake, D; Fine, J

    2013-01-01

    The development of countermeasures to support an effective response to Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD) poses a challenge on a global scale and necessitates the coordinated involvement of scientists from government, industry and academia, as well as regulatory entities. The Agricultural Defense Branch under the Chemical and Biological Defense Division (CBD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) supports this important mission within the United States. This article provides an overview of the Agricultural Defense Branch's vaccine and diagnostic TAD project.

  16. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  17. 澜沧江-湄公河合作机制与跨境安全治理%The Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Framework and Transboundary Security Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢光盛; 张励

    2016-01-01

    跨境安全问题是影响中国与缅甸、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、越南5个下湄公河国家政治经济合作的关键因素,同时也是关系澜沧江—湄公河次区域合作水平能否冲破瓶颈的重要条件。现有的大湄公河次区域经济合作、东盟—湄公河流域开发合作机制、湄公河委员会等多边机制对于跨境安全问题捉襟见肘、应对不力。2015年11月中国提出的澜沧江—湄公河合作机制正式建立,其合作内容涵盖政治安全、经济和可持续发展、社会人文3个重点领域。因此,该机制的建立为解决次区域内跨界安全问题、深化区域合作提供了新的机遇,也为中国展现其国际秩序建设能力提供了新的平台和渠道。本文先就澜沧江—湄公河合作机制下跨境安全治理的相关概念、研究现状进行分析,接着探讨澜沧江—湄公河次区域内的跨境安全问题、根源与影响,最后指出通过夯实中国与下湄公河国家的互信基础,构建跨境安全治理的合作平台,发挥中国在跨境安全治理中的建设性作用,发挥次国家政府的能动作用,处理好与域外国家和其他合作机制的竞合关系,开展跨境安全治理的早期收获等路径来发挥澜沧江—湄公河机制的跨境安全治理作用,有效应对澜沧江—湄公河次区域的跨境安全问题。%The transboundary security issues are the key to the political and economic cooperation between China and the Lower Mekong Countries, namely, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. They are also fundamental for breaking bottleneck in the level of cooperation in the Lanccang-Mekong subregion. These existing the Great Mekong Subre-gion Economic Cooperation, ASEAN Mekong Basin Development Cooperation and the Mekong River Commission cannot be powerful enough when dealing with the transboundary security issues. The Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Framework came up with by

  18. U.S. Policy Towards Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui

    2008-01-01

    Greater East Asia is expected to be the next theatre for world politics.1 East Asian cooperation is rapidly developing through the channels of ASEAN Plus Three (APT) and East Asia Summit (EAS), both driven by ASEAN. Southeast Asia is a region of diverse states and cultures that brings together all the major powers of the Asian-Pacific in a myriad of strategic interests. It is thus an open arena with the potential for a variety of strategic game-playing, options, and uncertain outcomes.2 In recent years, China's developing relationship with Southeast Asia has undergone a significant shift as the U.S. 'distraction elsewhere and neglect of the region have created opportunities for an increased Chinese diplomatic and economic role in Southeast Asia.3 U.S. analysts are concerned about what may lie behind this shift in China-ASEAN relations, how it may affect American interests in the region and how best to react to the changes. Some have expressed concerns that to avoid becoming distanced from the region the U.S. should pay more attention to Southeast Asia, rather than just watching from a distance. This paper attempts to analyze the possible changes of U.S. policy towards Southeast Asia in the current context of East Asian Cooperation and its implications for China.

  19. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-02-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system.

  20. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  1. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators......The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Jun-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical detection technique based on atomic emission spectroscopy to measure the elemental composition. LIBS has been extensively studied and developed due to the non-contact, fast response, high sensitivity, real-time and multi-elemental detection features. The development and applications of LIBS technique in Asia are summarized and discussed in this review paper. The researchers in Asia work on different aspects of the LIBS study in fundamentals, data processing and modeling, applications and instrumentations. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further development of LIBS technique in Asia are also evaluated to promote LIBS research and its applications.

  3. The Emerging Research on Indigenous Management in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Zhou, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to a Special Issue of the Asia Pacific Journal Management with the focus on the theme of indigenous management research in Asia.......Introduction to a Special Issue of the Asia Pacific Journal Management with the focus on the theme of indigenous management research in Asia....

  4. Connected Vessels: West Asia and East Asia in China’s Geopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Yitzhak Shichor

    2016-01-01

    Las regiones de Asia Oriental y Asia Occidental (Oriente Medio) son normalmente tratadas en la literatura académica como dos asuntos separados y distintos dentro de la política exterior china. Los estudios acerca de la política de China en Asia Oriental apenas si mencionan Oriente Medio, mientras que los estudios de Oriente Medio apenas mencionan Asia Occidental. Pero de hecho ambas regiones no sólo están interconectadas en la visión geopolítica de Chin...

  5. Transport: Shipping emissions in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James

    2016-11-01

    Large growth in East Asia's sea-borne trade has increased premature deaths and atmospheric warming in the region. New legislation could reduce these impacts in areas around China, but joint efforts are needed for region-wide benefits.

  6. IRAN THE BEATING HEART OF ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  7. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring......, and the state-civil society relationship? The paper is divided into four parts. The first explores the historical and especially the contemporary changes in China's geo-economic bilateral relationship with Southeast Asia through its bilateral trade, the role of FDI, the role of the ethnic Chinese Diaspora...... interests in the region - both geo-economic and geo-political; however the bulk of this section is devoted to a comparison of the differences and similarities of US and Chinese approaches in Southeast Asia. Finally some concluding remarks are offered....

  8. Turkey’s New Activism in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Bulent; Dagci, Kenan; Caman, M. Efe

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to analyse Turkey’s foreign policy towards Asia, which is part of Turkey’s emerging universal foreign policy vision. The notion of geographic imagination is provided to theorize Turkey’s emerging policy attitudes and behaviors. Turkey’s involvement in Asia will focus on the development of economic relations, security cooperation, supporting Asian political schemes for a multilateral world order and playing a facilitator role in Asia’s encounter with the West. This new foreig...

  9. A nuclear third way in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkovich, G. (W. Alton Jones Foundation, Charlottesville, VA (United States))

    The threat posed by nuclear weapons has shifted dramatically in the aftermath of the Cold War. The long-standing prospect of Armageddon has all but disappeared, while the change of local nuclear conflict among undeclared nuclear weapons has grown. The danger is especially acute in South Asia, which, in strategic terms, embraces the subcontinent and parts of China, Central Asia, and the Middle East. The situation with regards to India and Pakistan is discussed at length.

  10. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  11. Institutional balancing in the Asia-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    AKŞEMSETTİNOĞLU, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    This study is about how the secondary (smaller) powers of the Asia-Pacific region balance the major powers – the US and China – through multilateral (regional) institutions in the international system. This paper explains the increasing importance of the Asia-Pacific region, where the major powers encounter and challenge each other, and examines the smaller powers of the region, which pursue balancing policies against the major powers through multilateral (regional) institutions. Therefore, t...

  12. Collaborative work between the West and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-12-01

    The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  13. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in Western Japan: An Observed Limitation of the f44 Oxidation Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Tekemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol mass spectra (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of low volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for d13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the photochemical age estimated by the NOx to NOy ratio revealed that the f44 values distri...

  14. Transboundary aquifers: the response of international law and legal voids in Central America; Acuiferos transfronterizos: respuestas desde el derecho internacional y vacios en Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, N.

    2012-11-01

    Central America is one of the regions of the world that will suffer the impact of climate change much more than others. The adoption of clear rules on the use of transboundary aquifers and on the need to preserve these groundwater reservoirs from serious pollution by the various states in the region is absolutely essential. Despite the lack of any bilateral or regional frameworks to rule on this issue, many general regulations have been adopted within the international framework of the United Nations that are applicable to shared surface and groundwater resources as well as to transboundary aquifers. The case of the Las Crucitas project in Costa Rica, halted by domestic tribunals thanks to the decisive action of its civilian society, reflects a clear lack of technical information concerning aquifers in Costa Rica, and probably in many other states in the region, despite the very valuable efforts being undertaken by the OAS and UNESCO under the aegis of the ISARM project for the Latin American region.

  15. Trafficking: a perspective from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    2000-01-01

    The main theme of this article is market development and trafficking as a business. It touches upon most of the aspects of the phenomenon, which have been encountered elsewhere, and translates them into the relatively unfamiliar context of many of the Asian and South-East Asian economies. Equally, the literature cited is also probably unfamiliar. Themes touched upon include democratization, inter-state relations, human rights, and scale and perspectives, together with the problems of definitions, theory, and the reliability of data. The directions and characteristics of trafficking flows together with routes and border control are also considered. Coordinated official responses to criminality and criminal organizations, as well as to trafficked individuals, are beginning to emerge. There is a note of caution sounded that contextual and cultural perspectives, particularly on sex workers, must be viewed somewhat differently to those in Western societies. The article concludes that as long as countries in Asia maintain their policies of restrictive immigration, trafficking can be expected to continue and almost certainly increase. This is because accelerating development creates demand for labor at various skill levels and because even in times of recession migrants and brokers will seek to side-step attempts to expel immigrants and restrict access to labor markets. The elimination of trafficking is unlikely to be realistically achieved through legislation and declarations of intent but by improvements in the socioeconomic status of the population.

  16. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  17. Forget `crisis` - Asia is in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, R.B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-04-01

    Most countries in Asia are experiencing an economic and political transition that is affecting their mining sectors in a number of ways. The biggest impact is an indirect one. Asia is a major consumer of metals. The economic downturn in Asia has put tremendous downward pressure on metal prices. Soft metal prices have made it very difficult for junior companies to raise equity capital to fund exploration budgets, and have forced producing companies to slash exploration budgets. The level of exploration in Asia has dropped by a sizeable margin. The slowdown in Asian economies threatens to affect the mining sector in other ways as well. In Indonesia and the Philippines, there is social discontent and political opportunism. In Indonesia, political restructuring is opening the door for regional governments to become more involved in the mining projects that they host. Overall, thought, its business as usual. Production levels continue at historical highs, with no real prospects for reductions. The trend to try to attract foreign investment through the implementation of modern regulatory frameworks persists, although sometimes at an exasperatingly slow pace. there is every reason to believe that Asia`s mining sector will survive the Asian transition to become strong than ever. The situation in Indonesia, the Philippines, China, Mongolia, Thailand, and Vietnam is described. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Insecticide resistance status in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci genetic groups Asia-I, Asia-II-1 and Asia-II-7 on the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, N. C.; Chaubey, Rahul; Kumar, Dinesh; Rebijith, K. B.; Rajagopal, Raman; Subrahmanyam, B.; Subramanian, S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study is a summary of the current level of the insecticide resistance to selected organophosphates, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids in seven Indian field populations of Bemisia tabaci genetic groups Asia-I, Asia-II-1, and Asia-II-7. Susceptibility of these populations was varied with Asia-II-7 being the most susceptible, while Asia-I and Asia-II-1 populations were showing significant resistance to these insecticides. The variability of the LC50 values was 7x for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, 5x for monocrotophos and 3x for cypermethrin among the Asia-I, while, they were 7x for cypermethrin, 6x for deltamethrin and 5x for imidacloprid within the Asia-II-1 populations. When compared with the most susceptible, PUSA population (Asia-II-7), a substantial increase in resistant ratios was observed in both the populations of Asia-I and Asia-II-1. Comparative analysis during 2010–13 revealed a decline in susceptibility in Asia-I and Asia-II-1 populations of B. tabaci to the tested organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides. Evidence of potential control failure was detected using probit analysis estimates for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, monocrotophos and imidacloprid. Our results update resistance status of B. tabaci in India. The implications of insecticide resistance management of B. tabaci on Indian subcontinent are discussed. PMID:28098188

  19. Development and demonstration of a Lagrangian dispersion modeling system for real-time prediction of smoke haze pollution from biomass burning in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Denise; Burgin, Laura; Gan, Christopher; Hort, Matthew; Jones, Andrew; Shaw, Felicia; Witham, Claire; Zhang, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    Transboundary smoke haze caused by biomass burning frequently causes extreme air pollution episodes in maritime and continental Southeast Asia. With millions of people being affected by this type of pollution every year, the task to introduce smoke haze related air quality forecasts is urgent. We investigate three severe haze episodes: June 2013 in Maritime SE Asia, induced by fires in central Sumatra, and March/April 2013 and 2014 on mainland SE Asia. Based on comparisons with surface measurements of PM10 we demonstrate that the combination of the Lagrangian dispersion model NAME with emissions derived from satellite-based active-fire detection provides reliable forecasts for the region. Contrasting two fire emission inventories shows that using algorithms to account for fire pixel obscuration by cloud or haze better captures the temporal variations and observed persistence of local pollution levels. Including up-to-date representations of fuel types in the area and using better conversion and emission factors is found to more accurately represent local concentration magnitudes, particularly for peat fires. With both emission inventories the overall spatial and temporal evolution of the haze events is captured qualitatively, with some error attributed to the resolution of the meteorological data driving the dispersion process. In order to arrive at a quantitative agreement with local PM10 levels, the simulation results need to be scaled. Considering the requirements of operational forecasts, we introduce a real-time bias correction technique to the modeling system to address systematic and random modeling errors, which successfully improves the results in terms of reduced normalized mean biases and fractional gross errors.

  20. An approach for estimating the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident over long distance transboundary scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrakos, D., E-mail: dimitris.mitrakos@eeae.gr; Potiriadis, C.; Housiadas, C.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Actions may be warranted after a major nuclear accident even at long distances. • Distance may not be the decisive parameter for longer term radiological impact. • Remote impact may vary orders of magnitude depending on the meteorological conditions. • The potential impact can be assessed using computationally inexpensive calculations. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident important initiatives were taken in European level to enhance the nuclear safety level of the existing and planned nuclear reactors, such as the so-called nuclear “stress-tests” and the amendment of the Nuclear Safety Directive. A recent work of HERCA and WENRA focused on the need for a more consistent and harmonized response in a transboundary context in case of a hypothetical major nuclear accident in Europe. Such an accident, although very improbable, cannot be totally excluded and so, should be considered in emergency preparedness arrangements among the various European countries. In case of a hypothetical severe Fukushima-like accident in Europe, the role of the neighboring countries may be important, since the authorities should be able to provide information and advice to the government and the public, but also can contribute to the overall assessment of the situation be their own means. In this work we assess the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident for distances longer than 300 km that are not typically covered by the internationally accepted emergency planning zones. The approach is simple and computationally inexpensive, since it is based on the calculation of only a few release scenarios at dates selected within a whole year on the basis of bounding the deposition levels at long distances in relation to the occurrence of precipitation. From the calculated results it is evident that distance is not the only decisive parameter in estimating the potential radiological significance of a severe nuclear accident. The hypothetical

  1. Structur e and Functioning of Micr obial Community of Mineral Springs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsaraev B.B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial mats of dif ferent types of springs in Central Asia (Zabaikalye and Mongolia are described. The species diversity of mat-formed phototrophic bacteria was determined. The rates of microbial destruction processes (sulfate reduction and methane formation were measured. An important role of bacteria and algae in the formation of mineral water composition was shown.

  2. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    deployed some two dozen troops to Iraq who served under Polish command and carried out water- purification , demining, and medical activities. They...one-fifth of opium and heroin produced in Afghanistan are transited through Central Asia to markets in Russia and Central Europe. Most of these

  3. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  4. Tibet's Role in Inner Asia. Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Turrell V.

    Second in a series of guides to help college and high school teachers incorporate information about Inner Asia into their courses, this pamphlet discusses the role of Tibet in Inner Asia. Aspects of Tibetan political and religious history are highlighted, and comments are made about the formative relationships Tibet had with her neighbors. Chapter…

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  6. A projection of future changes in summer precipitation and monsoon in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The future potential changes in precipitation and monsoon circulation in the summer in East Asia are projected using the latest generation of coupled climate models under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario (a medium emission scenario).The multi-model ensemble means show that during the period of 2010-2099,the summer precipitation in East Asia will increase and experience a prominent change around the 2040s,with a small increase (~1%) before the end of the 2040s and a large increase (~9%) afterward.This kind of two-stage evolution characteristic of precipitation change can be seen most clearly in North China,and then in South China and in the mid and lower Yangtze River Valley.In 2010-2099,the projected precipitation pattern will be dominated by a pattern of "wet East China" that explains 33.6% of EOF total variance.The corresponded time coefficient will markedly increase after the 2040s,indicating a great contribution from this mode to the enhanced precipitation across all East China.Other precipitation patterns that prevail in the current climate only contribute a small proportion to the total variance,with no prominent liner trend in the future.By the late 21st century,the monsoon circulation will be stronger in East Asia.At low level,this is due to the intensification of southwesterly airflow north of the anticyclone over the western Pacific and the SCS,and at high level,it is caused by the increased northeasterly airflow east of the anticyclone over South Asia.The enhanced monsoon circulation will also experience a two-stage evolution in 2010-2099,with a prominent increase (by ~0.6 m s-1) after the 2040s.The atmospheric water vapor content over East Asia will greatly increase (by ~9%) at the end of 21st century.The water vapor transported northward into East China will be intensified and display a prominent increase around the 2040s similar to other examined variables.These indicate

  7. Bacterial Communities of Three Saline Meromictic Lakes in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatar, Bayanmunkh; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Rogozin, Denis Yu; Wu, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Ching-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Oyuntsetseg, Bolormaa; Degermendzhy, Andrey G; Tang, Sen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meromictic lakes located in landlocked steppes of central Asia (~2500 km inland) have unique geophysiochemical characteristics compared to other meromictic lakes. To characterize their bacteria and elucidate relationships between those bacteria and surrounding environments, water samples were collected from three saline meromictic lakes (Lakes Shira, Shunet and Oigon) in the border between Siberia and the West Mongolia, near the center of Asia. Based on in-depth tag pyrosequencing, bacterial communities were highly variable and dissimilar among lakes and between oxic and anoxic layers within individual lakes. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla, whereas three genera of purple sulfur bacteria (a novel genus, Thiocapsa and Halochromatium) were predominant bacterial components in the anoxic layer of Lake Shira (~20.6% of relative abundance), Lake Shunet (~27.1%) and Lake Oigon (~9.25%), respectively. However, few known green sulfur bacteria were detected. Notably, 3.94% of all sequencing reads were classified into 19 candidate divisions, which was especially high (23.12%) in the anoxic layer of Lake Shunet. Furthermore, several hydro-parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, H2S and salinity) were associated (P< 0.05) with variations in dominant bacterial groups. In conclusion, based on highly variable bacterial composition in water layers or lakes, we inferred that the meromictic ecosystem was characterized by high diversity and heterogenous niches.

  8. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  9. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  10. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  11. Climate Warming Threatens Semi-arid Forests in Inner Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, X.; Liu, H.; Qi, Z.; Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    A line of evidences reveal an increasing tree growth decline and tree mortality mainly attributable to climate warming and the warming-mediated changes in drought and other processes (such as fire and insect dynamics) in many parts of world tropical, temperate and boreal forests. However, the growth responses to climate change of the widely distributed semi-arid forests are unclear. Here, we synthetically investigate the tree growth patterns during past decades and its interannual response to climate variations in Inner Asia combining the ground truth field survey and samplings, remote sensing observations and climate data. We identified a pervasive tree growth decline since mid-1990s in semi-arid forests in Inner Asia. The widely observed tree growth decline is dominantly attributable to warming-induced water stress during pre- and early growing season. Tree growth of semi-arid forests in Inner Asia is particularly susceptible to spring warming and has been suffering a prolonged growth limitation in recent decades due to spring warming-mediated water conditions. Additionally, we identified a much slower growth rate in younger trees and a lack of tree regeneration in these semi-arid forests. The widely observed forest growth reduction and lack of tree regeneration over semi-arid forests in Inner Asia could predictably exert great effects on forest structure, regionally/globally biophysical and biochemical processes and the feedbacks between biosphere and atmosphere. Notably, further increases in forest stress and tree mortality could be reasonably expected, especially in context of the increase frequency and severity of high temperature and heat waves and changes in forest disturbances, potentially driving the eventual regional loss of current semi-arid forests. Given the potential risks of climate induced forest dieback, increased management attention to adaptation options for enhancing forest resistance and resilience to projected climate stress can be expected

  12. Climate warming threatens semi-arid forests in Inner Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, X.

    2015-12-01

    A line of evidences reveal an increasing tree growth decline and tree mortality mainly attributable to climate warming and the warming-mediated changes in drought and other processes in many parts of world tropical, temperate and boreal forests. However, the growth responses to climate change of the widely distributed semi-arid forests are unclear. Here, we synthetically investigate the tree growth patterns during past decades and its interannual response to climate variations in Inner Asia combining the ground truth field survey and samplings, remote sensing observations and climate data. We identified a pervasive tree growth decline since mid-1990s in semi-arid forests in Inner Asia. The widely observed tree growth decline is dominantly attributable to warming-induced water stress during pre- and early growing season. Tree growth of semi-arid forests in Inner Asia is particularly susceptible to spring warming and has been suffering a prolonged growth limitation in recent decades due to spring warming-mediated water conditions. Additionally, we identified a much slower growth rate in younger trees and a lack of tree regeneration in these semi-arid forests. The widely observed forest growth reduction and lack of tree regeneration over semi-arid forests in Inner Asia could predictably exert great effects on forest structure, regionally/globally biophysical and biochemical processes and the feedbacks between biosphere and atmosphere. Notably, further increases in forest stress and tree mortality could be reasonably expected, especially in context of the increase frequency and severity of high temperature and heat waves and changes in forest disturbances, potentially driving the eventual regional loss of current semi-arid forests. Given the potential risks of climate induced forest dieback, increased management attention to adaptation options for enhancing forest resistance and resilience to projected climate stress can be expected. However, the functionally realistic

  13. A Value Chain Analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R A; Gunn, R; Berry, H L; Wagey, G A; Hardesty, B D; Wilcox, C

    2013-07-15

    Lost or discarded fishing nets are a significant component of marine debris which has trans-boundary impacts in large marine ecosystems. Such 'ghost nets' cause the by-catch of marine fauna and require retrieval from coastlines where they wash up. Identifying the causes of discarded nets and feasible intervention points requires analysis of a complex value chain and the stakeholders within it, yet no studies have attempted this. In this paper we combine Value Chain Analysis, commonly applied to understand value-adding for a commodity, with elements of Life Cycle Assessment and social network analysis to examine the drivers, stakeholders, economic, environmental and social costs and benefits in the life of a trawl net. We use the Arafura Sea as a case study, which is shared by Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, and is the focus of a Trans-boundary Diagnostic Assessment (TDA) within the Arafura-Timor Seas Ecosystem Action program (ATSEA). We follow a trawl net through four sub-systems: manufacture of webbing in South Korea, fishing and loss by an Indonesian vessel, retrieval as ghost net on the northern Australian coastline by Indigenous rangers, and disposal or re-cycling as 'GhostNet Art' by Indigenous artists. Primary stakeholders along the value chain incur economic and social benefits, and economic and environmental costs. There is an anomaly in the chain between Indonesian fishermen and Indigenous rangers, artists and communities due to the lack of market linkages between these primary stakeholders. The first 'nexus of influence' where reductions in net losses and environmental costs can be achieved is through interactions between GhostNets Australia, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Australian Government, which can influence Indonesian fishery management institutions and fishing crews. The second nexus is via the international art market which by publicising GhostNet Art can raise awareness amongst fish consumers about the impacts of ghost nets

  14. Europe’s Wild Heart – still beating? Experiences from a new transboundary wilderness area in the middle of the Old Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Křenová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The face of Europe has been shaped by human civilization for centuries and wilderness did not only vanish from the continent’s surface but also from humans’ minds and experiences. However, there are still a few places left, which have remained more or less unmodified and have at least the potential for rewilding. Among them are the Šumava National Park and the neighbouring Bavarian Forest NP, which together create a unique forest zone in the middle of Europe susceptible to host and demonstrate natural forest dynamics and ecosystem processes. This is also a large and very important Natura 2000 area. Transboundary cooperation between both National parks has improved since 1990, when the former Iron Curtain Corridor was opened, and culminated by the project Europe’s Wild Heart. The main goal of the project Europe’s Wild Heart, which started in 2008, was to develop a transboundary wilderness area in the core zones of the two national parks – BFNP and ŠNP. The project area was 13,060 ha and a “life story” of this project is described in this paper. A common “vision 2020” was signed where both parks committed among other things “to achieve a joint core area of about 15,000 ha with harmonized management principles, information services and monitoring networks to officially become the first and largest transboundary wilderness area in Central Europe”. Unfortunately, the bark beetle outbreak which followed the Kyrill hurricane in 2008 and 2009 escalated the discussion about appropriate forest management in the ŠNP. Opponents of the national park principles, non-intervention and wilderness concept became more and more vocal. The situation escalated after the election in 2010 when the Green Party was replaced by conservatives (ODS – Civic Democratic Party at the Czech Ministry of Environment. Clear cuttings were started in some former non-intervention parts of the ŠNP and hunting was again allowed in the core zone. Since then

  15. Can computer models stimulate learning about sustainable land use? Experience with LUPAS in the humid (sub-)tropics of Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paassen, van A.; Roetter, R.P.; Keulen, van H.; Hoanh, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    In many rice-cultivating regions of east and south-east Asia, competition for land and water resources is strong and increasing. This calls for exploration of future technology and policy options in support of sustainable land (and water) use. Sustainable land use is a complex issue, that involves u

  16. 'Why is there no NATO in Asia?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Why did the US prefer multilateral alliances in Europe, but bilateral alliances in Asia after World War II? Rationalists and constructivists debate the impact of power, institutions, and identities in explaining this highly contested question. We introduce a new argument embedded in prospect theory...... from political psychology — a prospect–threat alliance model — to account for the variation in US alliance strategy toward Europe and Asia after World War II. Through setting the threat level as a reference point for leaders’ prospects of gains or losses, we suggest: (1) high threats frame decision...... in a domain of gains, and bilateral alliances win out because states are risk-averse in terms of maintaining their freedom of action in seeking security through alliances with fewer allies. US alliance policy toward Asia after World War II is a within-case analysis that tests the validity of the prospect...

  17. Capitalist Development in Contemporary Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2013-01-01

    The study attempts to contribute to an understanding of the political economy of contemporary Southeast Asia in analytical, conceptual, empirical, and theoretical terms. It offers a critical explanation of the historical specificities of capitalist development in the region through a comparative...... and manifest ways. Analytically, the study devises a framework using a critical political economy approach to analyze the specificities of the hegemonic process, interests, and form of capitalist development in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Malaysia – a framework which may also be utilized to examine...

  18. CRISIS FOCUS Big Prospects in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ After bottoming out last year,the emerging economies of East Asia are recouping their losses and setting out onto the fast growth track.But short-term growth does not necessarily indicate a prosperous future-the region still needs to rebalance its economies and precipitate a massive shift to green technologies and energy efficiency.The World Bank discussed this issue in the latest East Asia & Pacific Economic Update,a biannual assessment of economies in the region.Edited excerpts follow:

  19. Phylogeographic Reconstructions of a Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Reveals Transboundary Animal Movements from Eastern Continental Africa to the Union of the Comoros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, M; Pascalis, H; Abdouroihamane, S; Roger, M; Abdourahime, F; Cardinale, E; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2016-04-01

    Major explosive outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), an arthropod borne zoonotic disease, occur in humans and animals with significant mortality and economic impact across continental Africa and the Indian Ocean region (Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago). Recently, sporadic human cases have been reported in Mayotte and Grande Comore, two islands belonging to the Comoros archipelago. To identify the hypothetical source of virus introduction in an inter-epidemic or a post-epidemic period, a longitudinal survey of livestock was set up in Comorian ruminant populations, known to be susceptible hosts. The phylogeographic genomic analysis has shown that RVF virus (RVFV) detected in a zebu collected in Anjouan in August 2011 seems to be related to the last known epidemic of RVF which occurred in East Africa and Madagascar (2007-2009). This result highlights the fact that RVFV is maintained within local livestock populations and transboundary animal movements from eastern continental Africa to Indian Ocean islands likely result in RVFV crossover.

  20. After Indonesia’s Ratification: The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution and Its Effectiveness As a Regional Environmental Governance Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Heilmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On 20 January 2015 Indonesia deposited its instrument of ratification for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution with the ASEAN Secretariat, becoming the last ASEAN member state to join the treaty. Haze pollution poses a serious health threat to the people of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia, and for decades haze pollution has been a highly contentious issue among ASEAN member states. This article argues that Indonesia’s ratification will not be an immediate game changer. The mechanisms of the agreement are too weak to contribute much to a reduction of haze pollution in the region. The agreement is designed according to the ASEAN way: a non-binding approach that is based on the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention. This makes it unlikely that the agreement itself will bring about change, even now that all ASEAN member states have ratified it.

  1. 地方政府跨界环境污染治理博弈分析%Game analysis on transboundary pollution control of local government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃胜

    2016-01-01

    Transboundary environmental pollution will aggravate distortions and unfair distribution of the environmental re-sources . Thus,to begin with,construct the game model of transboundary environmental pollution involving multi-regions,which are based on its diffusion range. And the conflict between the optimization of individual goals and collectives’ indicates: the optimal investment of Nash equilibrium is smaller than that is in Pareto,and the two presents the departure,what’s serious,the more areas get involved in,the deviate degree becomes deeper,which leads to the "prisoner’s dilemma" and "tragedy of the commons" situation.%跨界环境污染会加剧环境资源配置的扭曲和分配的不公平。基于环境污染扩散范围,构建多地区参与的跨界环境污染治理博弈模型,博弈模型中个体目标最优和集体目标最优的冲突表明:纳什均衡最优的跨界环境污染治理投入小于帕累托最优的跨界环境污染治理投入,二者呈现相背离状态,并且背离程度随着参与跨界环境污染治理地区的增加而增加,导致“囚徒困境”和“公地悲剧”局面。

  2. Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    many companies. "For example, we started producing water purification plants which we used to import. The Ministry of Hous- ing tested this equipment...1988? Can anybody imagine that he is a leading drug trafficker, especially in heroin ? He also has ties to drug smugglers on the northern coastline

  3. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  4. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    is provided as a guideline for future research, pointing out particularly critical issues such as: resolving discrepancies between top down and bottom up emissions estimates; assessing the processing and aging of the pollutant outflow; developing a better understanding of the observed elevated pollutant layers and their relationship to local sea breeze and large scale monsoon circulations; and determining the impacts of the pollutant outflow on the Asian monsoon meteorology and the regional hydrological cycle, in particular the mountain cryospheric reservoirs and the fresh water supply, which in turn directly impact the lives of over a billion inhabitants of southern Asia.

  5. The Aerosol-Monsoon Climate System of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kyu-Myong, Kim

    2012-01-01

    absorbing aerosols (dust and black carbon) may interact with monsoon dynamics to produce feedback effects on the atmospheric water cycle, leading to in accelerated melting of snowpacks over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, and subsequent changes in evolution of the pre-monsoon and peak monsoon rainfall, moisture and wind distributions in South Asia and East Asia.

  6. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    effects. An outlook is provided as a guideline for future research, pointing out particularly critical issues such as: resolving discrepancies between top down and bottom up emissions estimates; assessing the processing and aging of the pollutant outflow; developing a better understanding of the observed elevated pollutant layers and their relationship to local sea breeze and large scale monsoon circulations; and determining the impacts of the pollutant outflow on the Asian monsoon meteorology and the regional hydrological cycle, in particular the mountain cryospheric reservoirs and the fresh water supply, which in turn directly impact the lives of over a billion inhabitants of southern Asia.

  7. Understanding the Hydrology of Cholera in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Cholera is an acute waterborne illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease remains a major public health issue in several regions of the developing world, mainly in coastal areas around the tropics. Cholera incidences have been historically linked to climate variables and more recently with El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The occurrence of cholera shows bi-annual seasonal peaks and strong inter-annual variability in the Ganges basin region of South Asia. However, the role of hydrologic variables in the seasonal patterns of cholera epidemics is less understood. Preliminary results suggest that a unique combination of increasing water temperature and higher salinity in the coastal zone during the low flow season provide the situation amenable to the first outbreak of cholera in the spring season. Other major factors contributing to the subsequent spread of the disease are sea surface height, monsoon precipitation, and coastal phytoplankton concentration. We will further examine the lag periods between the dominant environmental variables and cholera incidences to understand the seasonal dynamics of cholera in South Asia.

  8. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  9. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in th

  10. Freeing up Transport In Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A"golden triangle"of logistics is taking shape in Northeast Asia,particularly in the Tumenjiang Area A 50-km expressway will soon link two ports in North Korea.The inves- tor,Hunchun Donglin Economy and Trade Co.Ltd.,comes from the

  11. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  12. Shifting Patterns of Student Mobility in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, Asia--traditionally one of the largest exporters of mobile students--has experienced major changes in student mobility within higher education. As the worldwide competition for international students has escalated, many Asian countries have adopted a wide range of mechanisms and strategies in facilitating student mobility.…

  13. Suicide in Asia: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Yousuf, Saman; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-01-01

    Asian countries account for approximately 60% of the world's suicides, but there is a great mismatch in the region between the scale of the problem and the resources available to tackle it. Despite certain commonalities, the continent itself is culturally, economically, and socially diverse. This paper reviews current epidemiologic patterns of suicide, including suicide trends, sociodemographic factors, urban/rural living, suicide methods, sociocultural religious influences, and risk and protective factors in Asia, as well as their implications. The observed epidemiologic distributions of suicides reflect complex interplays among the traditional value/culture system, rapid economic transitions under market globalization, availability/desirability of suicide methods, and sociocultural permission/prohibitions regarding suicides. In general, compared with Western countries, Asian countries still have a higher average suicide rate, lower male-to-female suicide gender ratio, and higher elderly-to-general-population suicide ratios. The role of mental illness in suicide is not as important as that in Western countries. In contrast, aggravated by access to lethal means in Asia (e.g., pesticide poisoning and jumping), acute life stress (e.g., family conflicts, job and financial security issues) plays a more important role than it does in Western countries. Some promising suicide prevention programs in Asia are illustrated. Considering the specific socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the region, community-based suicide intervention programs integrating multiple layers of intervention targets may be the most feasible and cost-effective strategy in Asia, with its populous areas and limited resources.

  14. Future of the Energy in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YukioMasuda

    2003-01-01

    I have been in oil and gas business, orthe evergy business in Japan for almost40 years at Mitsubishi Corporation. I hope myfew words will be a useful contribution totoday's agenda"Energy Security in Asia"and"Energy and Environment".

  15. Marketing Development Information in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethananda, Hemamalee

    1993-01-01

    Discusses adapting traditional marketing strategies for the nonprofit sector, including libraries and information centers, and describes experiences of the Development Information Network for South Asia in Sri Lanka. Topics addressed include librarians' value systems, including free access to information; the need for information marketing;…

  16. MALAYSIA Hidden Paradise of Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Remaining as one of the most pleasant and hassle-free countries in Southeast Asia, Malaysia attracts a huge number of tourists from around the world every year due to its splendid tropical beach resorts,golden sandy beaches, magnificent rainforests pluralist culture and brilliant shopping bargains.

  17. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  18. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Quits CWC"] [Text] New Delhi, May 8: The veteran Congress(I) leader, Mr Uma Shankar Dikshit, has quit the Congress Working Committee [CWC...expressed by the developing member countries regarding reduction of the quantum of aid to Asia following the developments in Eastern Europe. Prof

  19. Catastrophic payments for health care in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); R.P. Rannan-Eliya (Ravi); A. Somanathan (Aparnaa); S.R. Adhikari (Shiva Raj); C.C. Garg (Charu); D. Harbianto (Deni); A.N. Herrin (Alejandro); M.N. Huq (Mohammed); S. Ibragimova (Shamsia); A. Karan (Anup); T-J. Lee (Tae-Jin); G.M. Leung (Gabriel); J-F.R. Lu (Jui-fen Rachel); C.W. Ng (Ng); B.R. Pande (Badri Raj); R. Racelis (Rachel); S. Tao (Tao); K. Tin (Keith); K. Tisayaticom (Kanjana); L. Trisnantoro (Laksono); C. Vasavid (Vasavid); Y. Zhao (Yuxin)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOut-of-pocket (OOP) payments are the principal means of financing health care throughout much of Asia. We estimate the magnitude and distribution of OOP payments for health care in fourteen countries and territories accounting for 81% of the Asian population. We focus on payments that ar

  20. Training Practices of Multinational Companies in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Connie; Hyland, Paul; Soosay, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore a range of training practices adopted by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in Asia. It investigated the level of training expenditure, the nature of training programs offered and the concerns about training in MNCs. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained through a survey of 529 MNCs…

  1. Career development for women scientists in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Nancy Y

    2011-06-23

    Previously, challenges faced by women scientists have made it difficult for them to realize their dreams. The remarkable growth of Asian bioscience over the past decade, however, has created opportunities for young women in their home countries. The time is ripe for women in Asia to pursue their scientific aspirations.

  2. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been…

  3. Lenzing Group:Expanding in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On April 10th,the Lenzing Group started operation of its new viscose fiber plant at Nanjing (China).The new viscose fiber plant is the second production site for this fiber of the Lenzing Group in Asia and its sixth production site globally.

  4. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  5. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  6. Nuclear Security in Asia: A Global Affair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M.

    2000-09-01

    My goal with this paper is to stimulate some thinking as to how scientists, concerned with nonproliferation and arms control, can address their efforts to improve the security environment in Asia, an environment that impacts the security of the entire world. The processes that led to the nuclearization of Asia are complex, with each country's nuclear weapons program tightly coupled to internal and regional politics and to national rivalries. Therefore, the first step toward nuclear stability, and ideally proliferation reversal, in Asia is to understand the motivations for and evolution of these programs. The author begins by addressing the evolution of the nuclear weapons programs of India, China, and Pakistan. Next he discusses why India (and then Pakistan) may have felt compelled to clear the ambiguity of their programs with their 1998 nuclear tests. He also explores why the P5 states (U.S., U.K., France, Russia, China) were unable to persuade India and Pakistan to stop or reverse their nuclear weapons programs. I then look at other countries' actions and reactions that may amplify or dampen the response of India, Pakistan, and China to what they perceive as a deterioration of their security environment. Finally he looks at regional activities that may reverse the deteriorating global security that has resulted from a nuclearized South Asia. This situation is something of a paradox because, at the same time the South Asia security environment is deteriorating, Russia and the U.S., the former Cold War adversaries, are finally taking steps to reduce the massive nuclear arsenals that threatened global security for so many years.

  7. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kundu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001–2008 trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2 acid followed by malonic (C3 and succinic (C4 acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9–47.4 % year−1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  8. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  9. The forcing of southwestern Asia teleconnections by low-frequency sea surface temperature variability during boreal winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Mathew Barlow,

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern Asia, defined here as the domain bounded by 20°–40°N and 40°–70°E, which includes the nations of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, is a water-stressed and semiarid region that receives roughly 75% of its annual rainfall during November–April. The November–April climate of southwestern Asia is strongly influenced by tropical Indo-Pacific variability on intraseasonal and interannual time scales, much of which can be attributed to sea surface temperature (SST) variations. The influences of lower-frequency SST variability on southwestern Asia climate during November–April Pacific decadal SST (PDSST) variability and the long-term trend in SST (LTSST) is examined. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Drought Working Group forced global atmospheric climate models with PDSST and LTSST patterns, identified using empirical orthogonal functions, to show the steady atmospheric response to these modes of decadal to multidecadal SST variability. During November–April, LTSST forces an anticyclone over southwestern Asia, which results in reduced precipitation and increases in surface temperature. The precipitation and tropospheric circulation influences of LTSST are corroborated by independent observed precipitation and circulation datasets during 1901–2004. The decadal variations of southwestern Asia precipitation may be forced by PDSST variability, with two of the three models indicating that the cold phase of PDSST forces an anticyclone and precipitation reductions. However, there are intermodel circulation variations to PDSST that influence subregional precipitation patterns over the Middle East, southwestern Asia, and subtropical Asia. Changes in wintertime temperature and precipitation over southwestern Asia forced by LTSST and PDSST imply important changes to the land surface hydrology during the spring and summer.

  10. Simulation of Smoke-Haze Dispersion from Wildfires in South East Asia with a Lagrangian Particle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, D.; Burgin, L.; Gan, C.; Hort, M.; Jones, A. R.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning, often related to agricultural deforestation, not only affects local pollution levels but periodically deteriorates air quality in many South East Asian megacities due to the transboundary transport of smoke-haze. In June 2013, Singapore experienced the worst wildfire related air-pollution event on record following from the escalation of peatland fires in Sumatra. An extended dry period together with anomalous westerly winds resulted in severe and unhealthy pollution levels in Singapore that lasted for more than two weeks. Reacting to this event, the Met Office and the Meteorological Service Singapore have explored how to adequately simulate haze-pollution dispersion, with the aim to provide a reliable operational forecast for Singapore. Simulations with the Lagrangian particle model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment), running on numerical weather prediction data from the Met Office and Meteorological Service Singapore and emission data derived from satellite observations of the fire radiative power, are validated against PM10 observations in South East Asia. Comparisons of simulated concentrations with hourly averages of PM10 measurements in Singapore show that the model captures well the severe smoke-haze event in June 2013 and a minor episode in March 2014. Different quantitative satellite-derived emissions have been tested, with one source demonstrating a consistent factor of two under-prediction for Singapore. Confidence in the skill of the model system has been substantiated by further comparisons with data from monitoring sites in Malaysia, Brunei and Thailand. Following the validation study, operational smoke-haze pollution forecasts with NAME were launched in Singapore, in time for the 2014 fire season. Real-time bias correction and verification of this forecast will be discussed.

  11. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013%利用GRACE 数据监测中亚地区陆地水储量动态变化的研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩; 塔西甫拉提·特依拜; 丁建丽; 张飞; 买买提·沙吾提

    2014-01-01

    利用2003年1月至2013年1月10 yr 间的GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment)重力场恢复与气候实验重力卫星数据,辅以 TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission)/CMAP (Climate Prediction Center’s Merged Analysis of Precipitation)降水量数、NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)数据、DEM (Digital Elevation Model)数据等多种数据源及诸多GIS (Geographic Information System)手段,分析了121个月内研究区陆地水储量的动态变化情况。研究结果表明:⑴自东向西研究区陆地水储量变化程度由微弱逐步变化为非常剧烈;⑵巴尔喀什湖域外流区、鄂毕河流域以及部分叶尼塞河中下游地区的陆地水储量持续增长趋势显著;⑶锡尔河流域、阿姆河流域的交界处、幼发拉底-底格里斯河流域和里海西南海岸交界范围内,陆地水储量呈现了急剧降低的趋势;⑷降水量、蒸散发、地表植被的覆盖变化、地形因素等自然因素均对陆地水储量产生影响作用;⑸陆地水储量最大值出现的时间滞后于降水量最大值出现的时间。%We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center’s Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of

  12. Simulating land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jefferson; Vogler, John B; Sen, Omer L; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Ziegler, Alan D

    2012-05-01

    We used the conversion of land use and its effects (CLUE-s) model to simulate scenarios of land-cover change in Montane mainland southeast Asia (MMSEA), a region in the midst of transformation due to rapid intensification of agriculture and expansion of regional trade markets. Simulated changes affected approximately 10 % of the MMSEA landscape between 2001 and 2025 and 16 % between 2001 and 2050. Roughly 9 % of the current vegetation, which consists of native species of trees, shrubs, and grasses, is projected to be replaced by tree plantations, tea, and other evergreen shrubs during the 50 years period. Importantly, 4 % of this transition is expected to be due to the expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), a tree plantation crop that may have important implications for local-to-regional scale hydrology because of its potentially high water consumption in the dry season.

  13. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  14. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Sripa, Banchob; Attwood, Stephen; Newton, Paul N

    2011-11-24

    Parasitic zoonoses are common and widely distributed in the Southeast Asian region. However, the interactions between parasites, hosts and vectors are influenced by environmental, socio-cultural and livestock production changes that impact on the distribution, prevalence and severity of disease. In this review we provide an update on new knowledge in the context of ongoing changes for the food-borne pig associated zoonoses Taenia solium and Trichinella spp., the food-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the water-borne trematodes Schistosoma spp., the vector-borne zoonotic protozoa Plasmodium knowlesi and Leishmania spp. and the soil-borne zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. These various changes need to be considered when assessing or developing regional control programs or devising new research initiatives in a changing SE Asia.

  15. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-lslamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly.

  16. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  17. COOPERATION VS. COMPETITION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica MIHALACHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the cooperation-competition ratio in the Central Asia region aiming at maintaining a force balance between Russia and China – as main state actors of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, and avoiding the dominance of a state over the other member states of the Organization. Our paper attempts to identify the theoretical arguments that might render a better insight in this organization as a framework meant to mutually balance influence between Russia and China, with the purpose of reciprocally monitoring and limiting their power in a region considered the core of SCO – from a geographical point of view and from the point of view of the two powers’ interest. On the other hand, we should take into account that promoting multipolarity in the global politics is a common interest of China and Russia; both countries started to exclude, to various extents, the Western powers’ interests in Central Asia.

  18. Petroleum systems, resources of Southeast Asia, Australasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, J. [Atlantic Richfield Indonesia Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-12-15

    The Southeast Asia-Australasia region has over 100 productive petroleum systems ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pliocene. Plate tectonics have played a fundamental role in controlling the distribution and character of the region`s petroleum systems. There is a clear division between those systems on the Eurasian plate and those on the Indo-Australian plate. The distribution of significant oil and gas resources is highly concentrated in just a few chrono-stratigraphic units. Early Tertiary Paleogene source rocks account for over 50% of the region`s in-place petroleum resources. This article summarizes the region`s systems and resources, and compares and contrasts some of their essential elements in Southeast Asia and Australasia. With average production of 3.2 million b/d of oil and 18 bscfd of gas, the region accounts for almost 6% of world oil and gas production.

  19. Southeast Asia faces full energy agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, G.V. (Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand))

    Most governments in Southeast Asia are turning their state-owned electric systems into something more closely resembling private utilities in order to improve their economic performance, says G.V. Dang of the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand. [open quotes]The bottom line has replaced geographic expansion as the guiding principle behind electricity policy throughout much of Southeast asia,[close quotes] Dang says. Utilities are adopting standard corporate operating strategies; electricity prices are being allowed to rise to more accurately reflect costs; competition from privately owned power suppliers is increasing; and utilities are being forced to seek expansion capital on their own, rather than getting it all from the government. In a region where long-term energy policy traditionally has been shaped largely by immediate political objectives, the reforms now taking hold will better equip the region to meet the energy challenges of the 1990s, Dang says.

  20. 'Why is there no NATO in Asia?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    from political psychology — a prospect–threat alliance model — to account for the variation in US alliance strategy toward Europe and Asia after World War II. Through setting the threat level as a reference point for leaders’ prospects of gains or losses, we suggest: (1) high threats frame decision......-makers in a domain of losses, and multilateral alliances become a favorable alliance choice because states are more likely to take the risk of constraining their freedom of action in return for more help from multiple allies as well as for avoiding further strategic losses; (2) low threats position leaders...... in a domain of gains, and bilateral alliances win out because states are risk-averse in terms of maintaining their freedom of action in seeking security through alliances with fewer allies. US alliance policy toward Asia after World War II is a within-case analysis that tests the validity of the prospect...

  1. Cloud removing method for daily snow mapping over Central Asia and Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Qiu, Yubao; Guo, Huadong; Chen, Lijuan

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia and Xinjiang, China are conjunct areas, located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, where the snowfall is an important water resource supplement form. The induced seasonal snow cover is vita factors to the regional energy and water balance, remote sensing plays a key role in the snow mapping filed, while the daily remote sensing products are normally contaminated by the occurrence of cloud, that obviously obstacles the utility of snow cover parameters. In this paper, based on the daily snow product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS A1), a cloud removing method was developed by considering the regional snow distribution characteristics with latitude and altitude dependence respectively. In the end, the daily cloud free products was compared with the same period of eight days MODIS standard product, revealing that the cloud free snow products are reasonable, while could provide higher temporal resolution, and more details over Center Asia and Xinjiang Province.

  2. Work Together to Build a Safer Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han; Fangming

    2014-01-01

    <正>Asia,which means"the place where the sun rises",is a name given by westerners.It is known as a region characterized by long history,big population,cultural diversity,and complex political and economic systems.Under the impact of the Western world,the modem times witnesses Asian countries experience the suffering of foreign invasion and colonialism,and win their national impendence after long

  3. Evolving economic architecture in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how East Asia's economic architecture has been evolving over the last ten years and how it will shape itself in the future. With the progress of market-driven economic integration, East Asian economies have developed various cooperative initiatives for trade and finance, including free trade agreements (FTAs), the Chiang Mai Initiative, the Economic Review and Policy Dialogue, and the Asian Bond Markets Initiative. The paper suggests policy directions for greater regional ...

  4. Stroke in Asia: a global disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S

    2014-10-01

    Although stroke is a world-wide problem, the burden of stroke is particularly serious in Asia; its mortality is higher than in Europe or North America. The situation in Asia is dichotomized. Stroke mortality and case fatality has been declining in northern-eastern countries such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and urbanized areas of China. This is attributed to both the risk factor control and stroke care improvement. However, declining stroke incidence is rarely observed, which is in part due to rapidly aging population. As a result, there is an increase in the number of stroke survivors who require long-term, costly care. The extremely low birth rate and relatively insecure social health system markedly increases the caregiver burden. The problem in southern Asian countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia is more fundamental. With the improving control of infectious diseases, life expectancy is prolonged. However, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking become prevalent, and are poorly controlled. Stroke neurologists, organized stroke centers, and diagnostic tools are insufficient, which has resulted in high stroke fatality and mortality. Throughout Asia, the most urgent priority should be the primary stroke prevention through promoting a healthy lifestyle, e.g. low salt intake, regular physical exercise, stopping smoking, government sectors should take a stronger initiative to accomplish this. The rapidly aging populations and stroke burden will shrink the economy and destabilize the society, not only in Asia but also globally unless appropriate efforts are promptly initiated, this may result in a global disaster.

  5. International Trade Openness and Inflation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Kurihara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether international trade openness is related with inflation or not in Asian countries. The relationship in the world has been discussed including economic growth for a long time from both theoretical and empirical ones, however, there has not been any consensus about this problem. It is necessary to analyze this relationship to achieve sound economic growth. Panel data in Asia and OECD countries are used to examine the relationship between international trade openness...

  6. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  7. Asia's Peaceful Rise: A Multiple Interactive Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liru

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the author sees it, "Asia's peaceful rise" seems to be a more appropriate expression to highlight the 21st century than the current buzzwords of "Asian century" or "the century of Asian resurgence" justifiably associated with the surging growth of regional economies and tighter ties among them since the end of the Cold War. It is of crucial significance to identify this as a process replete with complexities-an identification necessary for gauging its impact on the international community.

  8. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    dollars worth of illegal or unregistered cash, most of it associated with narcotics trafficking and unreported remittances from migrant labor , is...Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia month on some construction sites.32 Remittances from legal migrant labor are part of the Central Asian...farms and construction sites,36 since they rarely have any le- gal standing. Also, income from migrant labor is usually barely suffi- cient to cover

  9. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  10. Bronze Civilization Shines Asia Art Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 11th Asia Arts Festival (AAF) was held from August 18 through 26, 2009 in Ordos, a city in the northern China's Inner Mongolia autonomous region. This event was jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China and the People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and organized by the Ordos Municipal People's Government, Culture Department of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and China Arts and Entertainment Group.

  11. Mapping 'Gender Evaluation' in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Govinda, R

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews literature on gender, development and evaluation to map the emerging theoretical terrain of measuring change in gender relations in South Asia. It traces the separate but related trajectories of thinking on gender and development, of ‘evaluation culture’, and of conducting social science research to explore the points where these conflict and converge. It also presents an overview of the most commonly used frameworks employed in gender evaluations, and critically examines...

  12. Alcoholism in Southeast Asia. Prevalence and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, M P

    1982-01-01

    A pilot, field investigation of the prevalence and treatment of alcoholism in Southeast Asia (Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, and Thailand) and conducted. The methodology combined an informant study, interviewing leading alcohol and drug abuse authorities; utilising existing data; and clinical and naturalistic observation. The effects of modernisation, multiracial culture, and the unilateral focus on opiates are discussed; recommendations on treatment, education, and research are presented.

  13. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  14. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Stand [THE ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY OF INDIA 15 Jan] 52 Sweden Asked To Reopen Bofors Probe /PATRIOT26 Jan] 54 Insurgency Problem in Manipur Examined...Swiss court orders. Insurgency Problem in Manipur Examined 91AS06I7A Calcutta THE STATESMAN in English 29-31 Jan 91 [Reports by Gautam Chaudhuri] [29...March 1991 SOUTH ASIA 55 Manipur , which has common borders with Burma and easily accessible routes, to Bangladesh. The distrust between India and

  15. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Asia-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Siva; Reddy

    1992-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is the second most important cause of permanent blindness in the Asia Pacific region. Thus it is very important to identify epidemiological and other risk factore which are associated with open angle glaucoma. The risk for glaucoma optic nerve damage increases with the age and with the level of the intraocular pressure. In this paper, I will highlight our study of several risk factors for development of the open angle glaucoma like (1) elevated intraocular pressure, (2) myopi...

  16. The Problems of Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Faisol Keling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The September 11th attack had opened the eyes of countries inthe international system regarding the threats from terrorists which is seen as capable of threatening the security of country. Many countries started talking about the development of international terrorists which are able to threaten a particular country at anytime. The success of international terrorists attacked against the most power country like United Stated has influenced the emergence of various terrorist activities all over the world including in the Southeast Asia. This region has got theworld’s attention when terrorism movements were developing like the‘Jemaah Islamiah Front’ (Indonesia, Abu Sayyaf Group and MoroIslamic Liberation Front (Philippines, Pattani Liberation Front(Thailand and Malaysian Militant Group (Malaysia which poten