WorldWideScience

Sample records for asia pacific region

  1. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  2. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L

    2007-08-01

    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  3. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulombe Caroline

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown.

  4. Radio Spectrum Management in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzioumis, T.

    2004-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region comprises countries in ITU-R Region 3 from South and East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific islands, while excluding the Americas. Organizations in the Asia- Pacific region face special challenges in coping with the very diverse cultures and languages of the different nations. Telecommunications in each country are usually administered by a single National Communications Administration. These administrations participate in a number of regional umbrella organizations which promote cooperation in the development of communications in the Asia-Pacific. Those with relevance to radio astronomy are briefly oulined in this paper.

  5. Initiatives Supporting Research Reactor in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe and effective operation and utilisation of research reactors in the Asia-Pacific will assist the region as it grows and develops into the world's powerhouse for economic development in the 21st century. This paper explores the drivers for developments in regional research reactor operation and high-level initiatives in safety for some nations. Detailed examples of safety initiatives for research reactors in some Asia-Pacific nations and challenges for the future in the region are given. (author)

  6. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The rise of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) is gradually transforming the international system from a unipolar world toward multipolarity. China’s ascent not only challenges US domination, but also intensifies the institutionalization of security in the Asia Pacific...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  7. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world. Of these, 95 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 36 reactors currently under construction in the world, 19 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 44 planned reactors in the world, 36 are in this region. At the start of the 'New Nuclear Century' the Asia-Pacific region has become the main area for growth and innovation in nuclear power. This paper describes the nuclear power developments in each country and examines the status of the construction programme and the planned projects. Countries included are China, India, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan. New projects include the HTR in China, Advance Breeder Water Reactors in Japan, KEDO in the DPRK and the Advance Pressurised Water Reactor in the Republic of Korea

  8. Strategic Balance in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyze events in the Asia-Pacific region since the end of the Cold War and then draw three conclusions about the strategic balance of "one superpower, multiple major powers" in this region. First, compared with a stable superpower, the U.S., current multiple powers-China, Japan,Russia, ASEAN, India and Australia-are more dynamic.Second, two kinds of forces maintain order-a combination of national strength and non-national strength. On one hand, there are four different models which could ensure Asia-Pacific order in the future: the U.S. model of hegemony, China's model of a harmonious Asia-Pacific region, ASEAN's model of regional cooperation, and the model of non-states actors. On the other hand, four different structures-security, production, finance and knowledge-are closely linked in this area. Third,globalization of the market economy brings dynamic and diverse development. The authors believe that China's"Harmonious Asia-Pacific" model is the best choice for the Asia-Pacific strategic pattern of "One superpower, multiple major powers."

  9. Some thoughts on nuclear cooperation in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes some thoughts of the author on the importance of the role of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region in giving significant contributions to the development of the individual countries and to the region as a whole. The paper focuses on the role of nuclear science and technology and the importance of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, in particular to meet the challenges and opportunities in the new millennium. The paper starts off with a brief discussion on some important aspects of the Asia-Pacific region in view of its strategic location and its vast potential in terms of human and natural resources. Some of the major needs, challenges and opportunities in association with a future vision are briefly presented in terms of areas of activities that can be supported by the application of nuclear science and technology. The paper then discusses some ideas on how to further strengthen the nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by some concluding remarks and suggestions. (author)

  10. 2005 Training Course on SHP for Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    “2005 Training Course on Small Hydropower for Asia-Pacific Countries” is specifically for developing countries under the list of aid to foreign countries by the Chines egovernment. Entrusted by the Ministry of Commerce, Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power (HRC) will undertake the mission.

  11. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  12. Nuclear developments in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries in the Asia and Pacific region are engaged in many aspects of nuclear science and technology, often as part of national development plan. A number of them are members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology which was developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide a basis for nuclear technical assistance and cooperation in the Asia and Pacific region. The report describes nuclear developments, from power and research reactors to reprocessing facilities, in these countries. The information was gathered from a range of sources, including relevant journals, publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the OECD/ Nuclear Energy Agen, and annual reports of national nuclear institutes. 4 tabs

  13. Relevance of CBR for the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Yuenwah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the focus of CBR action is at the community level, it is pertinent to note some of the Asia-Pacific region’s overall development trends. In an interconnected world, these trends have significant implications for the practice of CBR and its advancement in the region.This paper discusses how CBR could give impetus to a community-supported self-help movement for change. The paper presents seven prisms for akaleidoscopic view to highlight some parameters that are unique to the Asia-Pacific scenario for CBR. The relevance of CBR for this region is discussed in relation to two groups of issues: the first refers to chronic issues of poverty, hunger and inequalities; and the second, to dramatic emerging challenges, from urbanisation to the current economic scenario.

  14. Cancer prevention in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cancer incidences as well as the most prevalent cancer types vary greatly across Asian countries since people have differing health behaviors as well as lifestyle factors related to cancer risk. Countries have varying systems of government organization, laws, resources, facilities, and management strategies for addressing the cancer burden. Examples such as Korea and Japan with existing national cancer control programs need to focus on early screening and detection and quality of screening methods. If screening and detection increase to cover more than 50% of the target population, survival rate increases and thus the number of cancer patients detected increases resulting in higher medical cost. Thus, expansion of cancer screening, in addition to smoking prevention, immunization increase, and diet control awareness, are needed for cancer prevention strategies. Countries such as Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Turkey need to begin organized efforts to reduce cancer deaths through state-wide cancer screening programs. Strategies focused on increasing survival among cancer patients are also needed. In addition, government organizations and law regulations need to be in place as the first step towards cancer prevention. For the countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iraq which do not have any cancer-related organizations in place, the first step that is needed is to raise public awareness about cancer; a public awareness campaign is the number one priority and should begin immediately. The easiest and most feasible step at this point is dissemination of cancer education materials during school health education and physical health screening. This must be started immediately because we need to avoid the development of existing cancers where patients will need to seek specialized cancer treatment facilities that are non-existent in these regions. In addition, hospitals need to take a step further and start undergoing registration of cancer prevalence and

  15. Pediatric Clinical Trials: Current Scenario in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldanha LM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Marie Saldanha,1 Saumya Nayak,1 Adeline Sng,1 Mei-Ling Long,1 Elisabeth Schrader,2 Amanur Rahman,3 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Karen Wai,1 Ken Lee41Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 2Quintiles Pediatric Center of Excellence, Durham, NC, USA; 3Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, SingaporeObjective: This site survey was conducted to understand the current pediatric clinical trial landscape across countries in the Asia Pacific region, specifically in terms of interest, experience, capabilities, requirements of the ethics committee, patient availability, and overall challenges involved in conducting pediatric trials.Methods and materials: Between May and June 2012, an English language survey form was sent to sites (identified through Quintiles’ internal database with pediatric capability and referrals from doctors during a preliminary outreach. In July 2012, the responses from the completed survey forms were entered into SurveyMethods, a web-based central repository. Data analysis was performed in August–September 2012 using SurveyMethods.Results: Seventy-seven sites were contacted for this survey across the Asia Pacific region. Sixty-four percent (49 sites completed 63 surveys and confirmed interest to participate in clinical trials in the pediatric population. Seventy-one percent of the sites had prior experience. Eighty percent confirmed needing an assent from pediatric patients; 81%–95% confirmed acceptance of placebo-controlled and pharmacokinetic studies by ethics committees; and 37% cited challenges in conducting studies in this population.Conclusion: This survey indicates that there is a high level of interest among sites in the Asia Pacific region in conducting pediatric trials across various therapeutic indications. No major insurmountable challenges were identified in conducting

  16. Nuclear developments in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries in this part of the world are engaged in many aspects of nuclear science and technology, often as part of a national development plan. A number of them are members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology which was developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide a basis for nuclear technical assistance and cooperation in the Asia and Pacific region. In contrast to North America and most of western Europe, where growth in installed nuclear generating capacity has ceased, a number of regional countries are planning, ordering and building new power reactors to meet their increasing demands for electricity. Major fuel cycle facilities, such as commercial enrichment and reprocessing plants in Japan, are also being developed. This report describes nuclear developments from power and research reactors to reprocessing facilities in countries of the Asia and Pacific region listed in alphabetical order. Power Reactor and Research Reactors programs in the region as well as lists of regional centres with irradiation facilities are presented in the appendixes The information was gathered from a range of sources, including relevant journals, publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency(NEA), and annual reports of national nuclear institutes. 1 tab., ill

  17. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Youlden, Danny R; Cramb, Susanna M; Dunn, Jeff; Gardiner, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine and compare available data on incidence, mortality and survival for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Incidence data were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008, other online data sources and individual cancer registries. Country-specific mortality statistics by individual year were sourced from the World Health Organization Statistical Information System Mortality Database. All incidence and mortality rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and joinpoint models were used to assess trends. Data on survival were obtained from country-specific published reports where available. Approximately 14% (122,000) of all prostate cancers diagnosed worldwide in 2008 were within the Asia-Pacific region (10 per 100,000 population), with three out of every four of these prostate cancer cases diagnosed in either Japan (32%), China (28%) or Australia (15%). There were also about 42,000 deaths due to prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region (3 per 100,000). For the nine countries with incidence trend data available, eight showed recent significant increases in prostate cancer incidence. In contrast, recent decreases in prostate cancer mortality have been reported for Australia, Japan and New Zealand, but mortality has increased in several other countries. The lack of population-based data across most of the countries in this region limits the ability of researchers to understand and report on the patterns and distribution of this important cancer. Governments and health planners typically require quantitative evidence as a motivation for change. Unless there is a widespread commitment to improve the collection and reporting of data on prostate cancer it is likely that the burden of prostate cancer will continue to increase. Enhancing knowledge transfer between countries where there are differentials in capacity, policy and experience may provide the necessary impetus and opportunity to overcome at least some of

  18. Solar dryers in the Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, K.S. [Malaya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-01-01

    The traditional method of solar drying in the Asia-Pacific region is by open-air drying where the product to be dried is exposed directly to the sun. The disadvantages of this traditional form of drying are many. Dirt, dust and wind-blown debris, insect infestation, human and animal interference, will result in contamination of the product. Speed of drying and quality of dried product will be reduced due to over/under drying, intermittent sunshine, interruption and wetting by rain. Mechanical solar drying using natural convection or forced circulation would minimise these disadvantages. The author of this paper visited a number of countries and studied the numerous designs available for solar drying in the region. Three types of solar dryers considered by the author as having the best potential for development in the Asia-Pacific Region are discussed. These are the natural convection cabinet-type solar dryer, the forced convection indirect solar dryer, and the greenhouse-type solar dryer. (Author)

  19. Asia-Pacific Regional Economic Integration: Coopetition vs. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuJane Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of economic globalization, promoting regional trade agreements or regional cooperation has become a plausible strategy to attract foreign direct investment and to promote national competitiveness at a global level. Nonetheless, facing the differential national economic interests and the needs of protection of domestic industries, as well as the diverse levels of economic liberalization domestically, the involvement of FTA negotiation in every country is universally in the situation of struggling between securing economic sovereignty and national economic development. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are in the same situation. This article analyzes how countries balance between securing economic sovereignty and promoting national economic development when they are involved in TPP and RCEP negotiations. By confirming the appropriate linkage between each participating countries’ decision for balancing between domestic economic sovereignty and further integrating into regional economic cooperation institutions the validity of the proposition for this research project can be verified.

  20. REDUCING RISKS AND COSTS WHEN WORKING WITH INCOTERMS IN PURCHASING WITHIN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Rappestad, Nichole; Fredriksson, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore how risks and costs can be reduced when working with incoterms in purchasing within the Asia-Pacific region. To fulfil this purpose, the following two research questions have been developed: 1. How does the case company currently work with incoterms when purchasing within the Asia-Pacific region? 2. How can risks and costs be reduced when working with incoterms when purchasing within the Asia-Pacific region? Method - Theories relevant for the ...

  1. Research reactor collaboration in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of research reactors over the world has been decreasing since its peak in the middle of the 1970s, and it is predicted to decrease more rapidly than before in the future. International collaboration on research reactors is an effective way for their continued safe service to human welfare in various technical areas. The number of new research reactors under construction or planned for in the Asia-Pacific region is the greatest in the world. Among the regional collaboration activities on research reactors, safety has been the most important subject followed by neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production and neutron beam applications. It is understood that more regional collaboration on basic technologies important for the safety, management and utilization of the research reactors is demanding. The new project proposal of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia on 'Research Reactor Technology for Effective Utilization' is understood to meet the demands. Meanwhile, there is a consensus on the need for research reactor resource sharing in the region. As a result of the review on the international collaboration activities in the region, the author suggests a linkage between the above new project and IAEA/RCA project considering a possible sharing of research reactor resources in the region. (author)

  2. Sustainability and Security: Timber Certification in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Ivanova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on AsiaPacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.

  3. Sustainability in Business Education in the Asia Pacific Region: A Snapshot of the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Malik; Neal, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into business school education and learning in the Asia Pacific region. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was developed, and administered to business schools in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to measuring the number of…

  4. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  5. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  6. Getting China Right: The Chinese World Order and Asia-Pacific Regional Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jing

    2008-01-01

    Is a rising China good for the stability and integration of the Asia-Pacific region? The dominant point of view in the Western worm is a resounding no. However, that realist point of view, based on the very different experiences of Europe, is not appropriate in the Asia-Pacific context. Area studies are a useful tool to achieve a better understanding of the Asia-Pacific situation. This paper attempts to prove that a rising China will be good for the stability and integration of the Asia-Pacific region through the lens of historical, economic and security analyses. First, history shows that once China is strong and stable, order of the Asia-Pacific region is preserved. Second, with China's economic cooperation with neighboring countries, especially after its entry into the Worm Trade Organization (WTO), China's economic integration with the Asia-Pacific region has been enhanced. Third, regional security has been assured by a peaceful and strong China. Finally, the paper comes to the conclusion that a stable and strong China is beneficial for the overall stability and integration of the Asia-Pacific region.

  7. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of the Asia Pacific Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Asia Pacific Region. This compilation is part of an interim...

  8. Perspectives and problems of the tourist industry development in Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovskaya, M. O.; Соколовская, М. О.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of potential and challenges of tourism industry development in the countries of Asia-Pacific region. It suggests a range of measures to be taken to promote the industry in the area. In particular, it develops the idea concerning improving countries’ accessibility, working out the infrastructure at heritage / tourist sites, improving living standards and eliminating crime. Thus, to insure accessibility to all the countries and areas of Asia-Pacific region...

  9. Development of Nanoindustry and Its Infrastructure in Asia-Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova Anastasiya Andreevna

    2015-01-01

    The article is focused on the analytical review of the main nanoindustry development and infrastructure tendencies in the Asia-Pacific region and on defining Russia’s place in nanoindustry in this region. The author of this article suggests conceptual frames and Russian nanotechnological development key elements, taking into account modern international relations between Russia and Western Europe and the USA. The main forms of cooperation between Russia and the Asia-Pacific countries by means...

  10. Energy options and regional cooperation on nuclear energy in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the extensive forms of Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power to develop and provide economical and reliable energy supply for sound economical growths of developing countries in this region, which has seen rapid growth of energy consumption more than anywhere else in recent years. Nuclear power has received keen attention from DCs because it can provide a self-reliable energy supply and promote development of high technology in the associated engineering and manufacturing industries locally. However, due to the particular characteristics in nuclear power technology, a close cooperation is required between the seller(industrialized) and buyer(developing) countries. The Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power is a step toward providing mutual benefits to the countries involved in this region, and this paper explores potential ways in formulating basic and systematic approaches and areas of full scope cooperation. (author)

  11. Training of tissue bank operators in Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To raise quality standards of Tissue Bank in Asia Pacific Region and to meet training needs of tissue bank operators. Singapore (NUH Tissue Bank) was officially appointed by IAEA on 18 September 1996 in Vienna to be the IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre for RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement). Member of States including Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. The Singapore Ministry of Environment gave a grant of $225,500 for setting up of this centre with National Science and Technology Board as funding agency, $100,000 being allocated for production of IAEA Developed Curriculum into Multi-Media. (authors being National Project Co-ordinators, Directors of Tissue Banks in the region). The Modules included Guide to Curriculum, Historical Background (0), Rules and Regulation (1), Organisation (2), Quality Assurance (3), Procurement (4), Processing (5), Distribution and Utilisation (6) and Future Developments (7). The Distance Learning Package included case studies from the region in text, in slides and videotapes. A new purpose-built NUH Tissue Bank with separate Wet and Dry Processing laboratories equipped with hands-on facilities was completed in July 1997. This was inaugurated as; IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre for RCA; IAEA/NUS Interregional Training Centre; and NUS Diploma Course on Tissue Banking also launched by Deputy vice-chancellor, NUS, in conjunction with the IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on 3 November 1997. One year NUS Open Distance Learning Diploma Course started with two weeks Intensive Course with Core Lectures on Modules (0-7) in the Curriculum and Practical Hands-on Demonstrations. One theory and two practical assessments were conducted. Nineteen participants registered for the Diploma Course. Production of IAEA Multi-Media Curriculum was completed and the Curriculum was distributed to member States during a 2-week-RCA 'Train the Trainers' Workshop on 27 April

  12. Development of Nanoindustry and Its Infrastructure in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova Anastasiya Andreevna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the analytical review of the main nanoindustry development and infrastructure tendencies in the Asia-Pacific region and on defining Russia’s place in nanoindustry in this region. The author of this article suggests conceptual frames and Russian nanotechnological development key elements, taking into account modern international relations between Russia and Western Europe and the USA. The main forms of cooperation between Russia and the Asia-Pacific countries by means of collateral investment projects, by the Asia-Pacific countries participation in export infrastructural projects and by implementing and developing other kinds of joint projects are determined in this article. Based on the analysis of the main national nanotechnology industry development programs in the region, the overall level of this field development is assessed, and the characteristics of Russia’s cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region in the field of nanotechnology are identified. As a result of the study it was determined that nanotechnology as one of the priority areas of cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region is absolutely new for Russia. The main activities of Russia at this stage defined the role of Russia in the framework of this cooperation, Russia as a recipient of experience developing and implementing nanotechnology. Russia’s participation in the development and implementation of a comprehensive development strategy for the nanotechnology industry and its infrastructure within the Asia-Pacific region will contribute to the innovative modernization of the Russian economy, the development of a national framework and infrastructure of the nanotechnology industry, ensuring equal status of Russia as part of the region, and the Asia-Pacific region in the global nanotechnology space.

  13. Mexico's challenges in the Asia-Pacific region: prospects in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María Ramírez Meda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to make a count of the actions taken by Mexico for its correct insertion in the Asia Pacific region and subsequently, to assess whether these strategies have been enhanced and promoted a real membership in the region. In the first part a theoretical and conceptual count of the term "region" and "regionalism" it's done. Second section deals with the question; can Asia Pacific be considered a region by addressing economic, political, social and cultural elements? Subsequently, in a third section the question; "in which region it's Mexico located?" its answered and in this way, finally we analyze if Asia Pacific is or not a mega (macro region unlikely to Mexico, where the latter could benefit if some recommendations that are seen at the end of the present work are applied.

  14. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  15. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  16. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  17. Quest for Middle East oil: the US versus the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two very powerful geopolitical factors will decisively determine whether the quest for Middle East oil (mainly Gulf oil) could enhance the global oil security or could lead to oil supply disruptions and also instability and conflict in the Asia-Pacific region. The two factors are the United States' growing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region's thirst for oil and the increasingly likely Chinese dependence on oil from the region. The Asia-Pacific countries are increasingly growing concerned about their ability to supply enough oil to fuel future economic growth. The region's phenomenal economic growth up to July 1997 and its economic recovery since then, and its steadily rising energy needs lend urgency to the question of how the region would meet its considerable energy challenges. This paper will endeavour to analyze the impact of this growing dependence on Middle East oil, on global oil supplies, the price of oil and global oil security. It will argue that such dependence on a volatile region like the Middle East and the perception of scarcer energy resources in the Asia-Pacific region, have the potential to lead to conflict in both regions unless these issues are dealt with in geoeconomic rather than geostrategic terms. The paper will strongly express the view that potential conflicts can be resolved not by force but through markets and investment and also through the diversification of energy sources and the promotion of alternative energy development and use across the region

  18. Rethinking the Mission of Internationalization of Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2012-01-01

    This article adopts the critical theory approach to reflect and analyse the impacts of globalization on the internationalization process of higher education in the Asia-Pacific region. It argues that globalization forces many of the higher education institutions in the region to follow global practices and ideologies of the Anglo-American paradigm…

  19. An arms race is coming to the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After nearly half a century of the Cold War, the USA and Russia have finally come to carrying out their arms control agreements, drastically cutting their nuclear and conventional weapons as well as military personnel. One would imagine that the world would gradually cease to manufacture and sell weapons. The reality has seen quite the opposite. The Asia-Pacific region needs to establish urgently a forum for dialogue in security and cooperation negotiations in order to resolve peacefully outstanding territorial and political disputes. Certain arms control measures should be initiated by the Asia-Pacific nations, otherwise they will face the 21st century with the prospect of many military confrontations

  20. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Matsumoto; J. Veldhuis; J. de Wit; G. Burghouwt

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The NetSc

  1. Local perspectives on global tourism in the Asia-Pacific region [introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahles, H.; Meijl, A.H.M. van

    1999-01-01

    The articles brought together in this special issue of the IIAS Newsletter are centered on the question of how people at the grassroots level in the Asia-Pacific region have responded to international tourism. In view of the widespread negative view of the potential impact of tourism on local cultur

  2. Ocular Pathology: Role of Emerging Viruses in the Asia-Pacific Region-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    The role of viral infections in ocular pathology varies greatly, involving all the components of the eye. Some viruses like herpes simplex, herpes zoster, adenovirus, enterovirus 70, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus are well-known for their role in ocular pathology. In recent years, emerging and resurging viral infections represent an important public health problem. The Asia-Pacific region has witnessed a number of pandemic and epidemic outbreaks caused by these viruses during the last 2 decades. The number of ocular complications being reported in patients of these viral infections has also increased significantly during this period. Ophthalmologists and physicians should be aware of ocular manifestations of newly emerging or resurging viral diseases. We conducted a review of the literature published during the last 20 years with the objectives of finding out outbreaks of emerging and reemerging viruses in the Asia-Pacific region and finding out any ocular involvement in these viral infections. An iterative search of the MEDLINE and the Google databases was made using the search terms emerging virus, ocular manifestations, ocular complications, Chikungunya, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, Kyasanur forest disease, Rift valley fever, Hantavirus, Henipavirus, Influenza virus, Enterovirus 71, and Asia-Pacific region, separately and with reported ocular involvement in combination. This review article discusses the epidemiology and the systemic and ocular manifestations of all emerging viral infections with reported ocular involvement in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:26107917

  3. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  4. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  5. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region: Networking and shared education

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities...

  6. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  7. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  8. Child maltreatment: Prevalence, incidence and consequences in the East Asia and Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This report presents findings from the systematic review which examined peer-reviewed and grey literature research studies from the East Asia and Pacific Region on the prevalence and incidence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, exploitation, witnessing family violence and peer-to-peer violence as well as the consequences of child maltreatment in the region. The systematic review was commissioned to underpin further research and UNICEF's work with governments in t...

  9. TPP: Is the best path to regional integration of Asia Pacific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carlos Martínez Jurado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia-Pacific has distinguished itself for its high levels of interdependence and its fast economic growth, however, it lacks of a strong regional institutional framework. Despite the existence of APEC as a forum which includes the region’s diversity of economic development levels and cultural differences, its voluntary approach which relays on open regionalism has not allowed member economies to advance towards its ambitious goals of trade and investment liberalization. Therefore, several of its members have decided to embrace binding schemes, at a bilateral and multilateral basis, among them the TPP, which due to its comprehensive approach, for many represents the better route to achieve regional integration. However, there are questions raised regarding the convenience for Asia-Pacific to transit from a flexible model towards a reciprocal one, and the possible costs involved in such process.

  10. Application of radiation processing in asia and the pacific region: Focus on malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman HJ.

    1995-09-01

    Applications of radiation processing in Malaysia and other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region is increasing as the countries move toward industrialisation. At present, there are more than 85 gamma facilities and 334 electron accelerators in Asia and the Pacific region which are mainly in Japan, Rep. of Korea and China. The main applications which are in the interest of the region are radiation sterilisation of medical products; radiation crosslinking of wire and cable, heat shrinkable film and tube, and foam; radiation curing of surface coatings, printing inks and adhesive; radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex; radiation processing of agro-industrial waste; radiation treatment of sewage sludge and municipal waste; food irradiation; tissue grafts and radiation synthesis of bioactive materials.

  11. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-Pacific region, 1955-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Banu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02 of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004. The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  12. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhat Kumar Rai; Mayanglambam Muni Singh

    2016-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Developm...

  13. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  14. Dynamic Spatiotemporal Trends of Dengue Transmission in the Asia-Pacific Region, 1955–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Shahera Banu; Wenbiao Hu; Yuming Guo; Suchithra Naish; Shilu Tong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas....

  15. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Griffin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capital and operating cost estimates for converting microalgae to oil or biodiesel are compared. These cost comparisons are based on Australian locations, which are expected to fall at the lower end of the cost spectrum in the Asia-Pacific Region and other parts of the world.  It is assumed that microalgae are grown in a concentrated saltwater medium in raceway ponds, then are harvested, dewatered and the oil is extracted and converted to biodiesel by transesterification. The size of the desired pond system affects the number of potential locations due to constraints in resource availability. Cost estimates vary significantly due to differences in the assumed oil productivity, the harvesting equipment and the method of converting residual biomass to electric power. A comparison is made with recent cost estimates from other parts of the world, in which the expected costs of microalgae oil production from a number of publicly available sources lay between 0.34–31.0 USD/L.  The resulting cost estimates of between 1.37—2.66 USD/L are at the lower end of this scale, thereby confirming that Australia has the potential to be a low-cost producer of algal oil and biodiesel in the Asia-Pacific Region.  It was significant that, despite similar assumptions for the microalgae-to-oil process, cost estimates for the final biodiesel or oil price differed by a factor of 2.  This highlights the high degree of uncertainty in such economic predictions. Keywords: Asia-Pacific region; biodiesel; economics; microalgaeThis article is cited as :Griffin, G., Batten, D., Beer, T., & Campbell, P. (2013. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal Of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED, 2(3, 105-113. doi:10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113Permalinkhttp://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113

  16. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Zablotska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion: Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions: Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes.

  17. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  18. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed.

  19. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  20. Development of Crop Yield Estimation Method by Applying Seasonal Climate Prediction in Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y.; Lee, E.

    2015-12-01

    Under the influence of recent climate change, abnormal weather condition such as floods and droughts has issued frequently all over the world. The occurrence of abnormal weather in major crop production areas leads to soaring world grain prices because it influence the reduction of crop yield. Development of crop yield estimation method is important means to accommodate the global food crisis caused by abnormal weather. However, due to problems with the reliability of the seasonal climate prediction, application research on agricultural productivity has not been much progress yet. In this study, it is an object to develop long-term crop yield estimation method in major crop production countries worldwide using multi seasonal climate prediction data collected by APEC Climate Center. There are 6-month lead seasonal predictions produced by six state-of-the-art global coupled ocean-atmosphere models(MSC_CANCM3, MSC_CANCM4, NASA, NCEP, PNU, POAMA). First of all, we produce a customized climate data through temporal and spatial downscaling methods for use as a climatic input data to the global scale crop model. Next, we evaluate the uncertainty of climate prediction by applying multi seasonal climate prediction in the crop model. Because rice is the most important staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region, we assess the reliability of the rice yields using seasonal climate prediction for main rice production countries. RMSE(Root Mean Squire Error) and TCC(Temporal Correlation Coefficient) analysis is performed in Asia-Pacific countries, major 14 rice production countries, to evaluate the reliability of the rice yield according to the climate prediction models. We compare the rice yield data obtained from FAOSTAT and estimated using the seasonal climate prediction data in Asia-Pacific countries. In addition, we show that the reliability of seasonal climate prediction according to the climate models in Asia-Pacific countries where rice cultivation is being carried out.

  1. Ethnic comparisons of obesity in the Asia-Pacific region : protocol for a collaborative overview of cross-sectional studies - Obesity in Asia Collaboration (OAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huxley, R

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been rapidly increasing within countries of the Asia-Pacific region, with adverse consequences for health. The Obesity in Asia Collaboration (OAC) was initiated to provide reliable evidence concerning the relationships between anthropometrical markers of

  2. Roles of cancer registries in enhancing oncology drug access in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Swee-Sung; Lim, Hwee-Yong; Lopes, Gilberto; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Hu, Min; Ibrahim, Hishamshah Mohd; Jha, Anand; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Lee, Pak Wai; Macdonell, Diana; Sirachainan, Ekaphop; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cancer registries help to establish and maintain cancer incidence reporting systems, serve as a resource for investigation of cancer and its causes, and provide information for planning and evaluation of preventive and control programs. However, their wider role in directly enhancing oncology drug access has not been fully explored. We examined the value of cancer registries in oncology drug access in the Asia-Pacific region on three levels: (1) specific registry variable types; (2) macroscopic strategies on the national level; and (3) a regional cancer registry network. Using literature search and proceedings from an expert forum, this paper covers recent cancer registry developments in eight economies in the Asia-Pacific region - Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand - and the ways they can contribute to oncology drug access. Specific registry variables relating to demographics, tumor characteristics, initial treatment plans, prognostic markers, risk factors, and mortality help to anticipate drug needs, identify high-priority research area and design access programs. On a national level, linking registry data with clinical, drug safety, financial, or drug utilization databases allows analyses of associations between utilization and outcomes. Concurrent efforts should also be channeled into developing and implementing data integrity and stewardship policies, and providing clear avenues to make data available. Less mature registry systems can employ modeling techniques and ad-hoc surveys while increasing coverage. Beyond local settings, a cancer registry network for the Asia-Pacific region would offer cross-learning and research opportunities that can exert leverage through the experiences and capabilities of a highly diverse region. PMID:23725106

  3. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  4. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection—focus on the Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Q.M. Trinh; Nguyen, H.L.; V.N. Nguyen; T.V.A. Nguyen; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading opportunistic disease and cause of death in patients with HIV infection. In 2013 there were 1.1 million new TB/HIV co-infected cases globally, accounting for 12% of incident TB cases and 360 000 deaths. The Asia-Pacific region, which contributes more than a half of all TB cases worldwide, traditionally reports low TB/HIV co-infection rates. However, routine testing of TB patients for HIV infection is not universally implemented and the estimated prevalence of ...

  5. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. J.; D F Batten; De Beer, T.; Campbell, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Capital and operating cost estimates for converting microalgae to oil or biodiesel are compared. These cost comparisons are based on Australian locations, which are expected to fall at the lower end of the cost spectrum in the Asia-Pacific Region and other parts of the world.  It is assumed that microalgae are grown in a concentrated saltwater medium in raceway ponds, then are harvested, dewatered and the oil is extracted and converted to biodiesel by transesterification. The size of the desi...

  6. Dynamic Spatiotemporal Trends of Dengue Transmission in the Asia-Pacific Region, 1955–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, Shahera; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Naish, Suchithra; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease’s cluster areas. ...

  7. Critical issues in implementing low vision care in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-thirds of the world′s population with low vision resides in the Asia-Pacific region. Provision of comprehensive low vision services is important to improve vision-related quality of life (QoL for people with this condition. This review outlines the critical issues and challenges facing the provision of low vision services in the Asia-Pacific region. The review offers possible strategies to tackle these issues and challenges facing service providers and policy makers in lieu of Vision 2020 strategies in this area. Pertinent findings from the global survey of low vision services and extensive ground work conducted in the region are used; in addition, a discussion on the availability of services, human resources and training, and funding and the future sustainability of low vision care will be covered. In summary, current issues and challenges facing the region are the lack of specific evidence-based data, access, appropriate equipment and facilities, human resources, funding, and sustainability. These issues are inextricably interlinked and thus cannot be addressed in isolation. The solutions proposed cover all areas of the VISION 2020 strategy that include service delivery, human resources, infrastructure and equipment, advocacy and partnership; and include provision of comprehensive care via vertical and horizontal integration; strengthening primary level care in the community; providing formal and informal training to enable task shifting and capacity building; and promoting strong government and private sector partnership to achieve long-term service financial sustainability.

  8. Critical issues in implementing low vision care in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Marella, Manjula; Ormsby, Gail; Keeffe, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Two-thirds of the world's population with low vision resides in the Asia-Pacific region. Provision of comprehensive low vision services is important to improve vision-related quality of life (QoL) for people with this condition. This review outlines the critical issues and challenges facing the provision of low vision services in the Asia-Pacific region. The review offers possible strategies to tackle these issues and challenges facing service providers and policy makers in lieu of Vision 2020 strategies in this area. Pertinent findings from the global survey of low vision services and extensive ground work conducted in the region are used; in addition, a discussion on the availability of services, human resources and training, and funding and the future sustainability of low vision care will be covered. In summary, current issues and challenges facing the region are the lack of specific evidence-based data, access, appropriate equipment and facilities, human resources, funding, and sustainability. These issues are inextricably interlinked and thus cannot be addressed in isolation. The solutions proposed cover all areas of the VISION 2020 strategy that include service delivery, human resources, infrastructure and equipment, advocacy and partnership; and include provision of comprehensive care via vertical and horizontal integration; strengthening primary level care in the community; providing formal and informal training to enable task shifting and capacity building; and promoting strong government and private sector partnership to achieve long-term service financial sustainability.

  9. Quantitative status of resources for radiation therapy in Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Resources for radiation therapy in Asian and Pacific countries were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of the status of radiation oncological practice in the region. Methods and Materials: The data were obtained mainly through surveys on the availability of major equipment and personnel which were conducted through an International Atomic Energy Agency regional project. The study included 17 countries in South Asia, South East Asia, East Asia and Australasia. Data were related to national populations and economic and a general health care indices. Results: Large differences in equipment and personnel among countries were demonstrated. The availability of both teletherapy and brachytherapy was related to the economic status of the countries. The shortage of teletherapy machines was evident in more countries than that of brachytherapy. Many departments were found to treat patients without simulators or treatment planning systems. The number of radiation oncologists standardized by cancer incidence of a country did not correlate well with economic status. Conclusions: There were significant deficiencies in the availability of all components of radiation therapy in the analyzed countries. The deficiencies were linked predominantly to the economic status of the country. Cognisance should be taken of the specific shortfalls in each country to ensure that expansion or any assistance offered appropriately match its needs and can be fully utilized. The information on the resources currently available for radiation oncological practice in the region presented in this paper provides a valuable basis for planning of development aid programs on radiation therapy

  10. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally.

  11. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  12. Feasibility of large-scale water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Peña-Arancibia, J. L.; Sardella, C. S. E.

    2012-04-01

    The Asian-Pacific region (including China, India and Pakistan) is home to 51% of the global population. It accounts for 53% of agricultural and 32% of domestic water use world wide. Due to the influence of Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean circulation patterns, the region experiences strong inter-annual variations in water availability and occurrence of drought, flood and severe weather. Some of the countries in the region have national water monitoring or forecasting systems, but they are typically of fairly narrow scope. We investigated the feasibility and utility of an integrated regional water monitoring and forecasting system for water resources, floods and drought. In particular, we assessed the quality of information that can be achieved by relying on internationally available data sources, including numerical weather prediction (NWP) and satellite observations of precipitation, soil moisture and vegetation. Combining these data sources with a large scale hydrological model, we produced monitoring and forecast information for selected retrospective case studies. The information was compared to that from national systems, both in terms of information content and system characteristics (e.g. scope, data sources, and information latency). While national systems typically have better access to national observation systems, they do not always make effective use of the available data, science and technology. The relatively slow changing nature of important Pacific and Indian Ocean circulation patterns adds meaningful seasonal forecast skill for some regions. Satellite and NWP precipitation estimates can add considerable value to the national gauge networks: as forecasts, as near-real time observations and as historic reference data. Satellite observations of soil moisture and vegetation are valuable for drought monitoring and underutilised. Overall, we identify several important opportunities for better water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity.

  14. 亚太地区疟疾的流行病学%Epidemiology of Malaria in the Asia Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl Rieckmann

    2002-01-01

    @@ Malaria continues to afflict many people residing in the Asia Pacific Region. Both falciparum and vivax malaria are prevalent in many countries of the region.Malaria transmission is usually confined to rural areas,although it may also occur in some urban areas,particularly in India, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

  15. United Nations regional disarmament workshop for Asia and the Pacific. Disarmament fellowship, training and advisory services programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the Workshop have been to promote a better understanding and awareness of the current disarmament negotiations and issues, particularly those of common concern to the region, and to facilitate conflict resolution, strengthen disarmament efforts and enhance regional security. 19 papers were presented. The Workshop (a) considered the concepts of peace and security in the Asia-Pacific context; (b) assessed the global efforts to achieve a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons and to strengthen the non-proliferation regimes of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction; (c) reviewed regional disarmament efforts in general and examined in detail efforts and proposals from the South Asian, South-East Asian and Pacific perspectives; and (d) discussed, through various case studies, conflict resolution in the Asia-Pacific region. The discussions which followed the presentations could be grouped under the following headings: Perception of the role to be played by the major Powers in Asia and the Pacific; approach to peace and security; NPT; PTBT; the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) and the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South-East Asia (SEANWFZ)

  16. PL 01-2 BLOOD PRESSURE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORTALITY IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Il

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global leading cause of death nowadays. Fortunately, the majority of risk factors which cause CVD are preventable. The INTERSTROKE study recently reported that about 90% of the population-attributable risk of stroke is associated with ten modifiable risk factors. Especially high blood pressure levels are well established to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Recently CVD mortality has been decreasing in high-income countries but increasing in some middle-income countries and low-income countries. Since 2000, CVD morality decreased by 16% among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries, but increased by 4% in Asian countries. Even within the Asia-Pacific region, individual countries show different patterns of CVD mortality trends. Recent data show that CVD mortality is decreasing in South Korea, Singapore, New Zealand and Australia but the rate is increasing in Philippine, Pakistan, Myanmar and China. South Korea showed a dramatic reduction in CVD mortality reduction. Between 2000 and 2012, CVD mortality has been decreased by 37%, and population mean level of systolic blood pressure has been decreased by around 10 mmHg in the adult Koreans. This blood pressure reduction was mainly due to improved awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension. However, in countries where CVD mortality is increasing, hypertension control rate were reported to be still low about 10 to 20%, and the population blood pressure level is not decreasing.Prevention, identification, and management of hypertension might be a main factor, which explains the regional difference of CVD mortality in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, more efforts to prevent hypertension and to lower blood pressure and are essential to reduce CVD mortality, especially in countries with poor control rate of hypertension. PMID:27642874

  17. Loading up Asia-Pacific style

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, A.; Johnson, R. [PT Connell Wagner, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-10-01

    Coal shiploading ports dot the coastlines of many parts of the Asia Pacific region, being the nodes where inland transportation and sea transportation meet. The article is based on a paper entitled 'Overview of Asia's shiploading ports and transhipment operation for coal' presented at Coaltrans Asia in June 2003. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  18. Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Special Roundtable to Develop a Regional Action Plan for Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2011-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Second Annual Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation, the Special Roundtable to Develop a Regional Plan of Action for Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation was held on 24 June 2011 at the Asian Development Bank. This publication provides (i) overviews of the key development strategies on clean energy policy and regulatory priorities for Asia and the Pacific discussed during the roundtable, and (ii) discussions and commitmen...

  19. Institutional Parameters of a Region-Wide Economic Agreement in Asia: Examination of Trans-Pacific Partnership and ASEAN+α Free Trade Agreement Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    The future creation of a region-wide economic agreement in Asia has become the hot issue among trade policymakers in the region. The APEC 2010 Summit Statement clearly states that the members should pursue a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP), building on various ongoing regional cooperation formworks including ASEAN+3 or +6 and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). This paper considers the path or sequencing towards a future region-wide economic agreement in Asia, both theoretically ...

  20. First Asia-Pacific Regional School of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 program

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Ambastha, Ashok; Heliophysical Processes

    2010-01-01

    An outgrowth of the first Asia-Pacific Regional School on the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), this volume contains a collection of review articles describing the universal physical processes in the heliospace influenced by solar electromagnetic and mass emissions. The Sun affects the heliosphere in the short term (space weather) and in the long term (space climate) through numerous physical processes that exhibit similarities in various spatial domains of the heliosphere. The articles take into account various aspects of the Sun-heliosphere connection under a systems approach. This volume will serve as a ready reference work for research in the emerging field of heliophysics, which describes the physical processes taking place in the physical space controlled by the Sun out to the local interstellar medium.

  1. Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Tsuko; Strom, Richard G; ICOA-6 Conference

    2011-01-01

    This book provides readers with the results of recent research from some of the world's leading historians of astronomy on aspects of Arabic, Australian, Chinese, Japanese, and North and South American astronomy and astrophysics. It contains peer-reviewed papers gathered from the International Conferences on Oriental Astronomy 6 (ICO-6) with the chosen theme of "Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region." Of particular note are the sections on Arabic astronomy, Asian applied astronomy and the history of Australian radio astronomy, and the chapter on Peruvian astronomy. This title is a valuable complement for those with research interests in applied historical astronomy; archaeoastronomy; calendars, manuscripts, and star charts; historical instruments and observatories, and the history of radio astronomy.

  2. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Development of the technology and used in accumulation and absorption of the heavy metals and other nutrients under phytoremediation from the aquatic bodies, biofuel and biogas production through fermentation and decomposition, fertilizer production through composting / vermicomposting, production of feeds for animal and many more utilities which are beneficial is discussed in this review. The review paper also deals with this multifaceted utility approach of this plant and their application in management.

  3. Financing of power/energy investments in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid economic growth among the developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank in the Asia Pacific Region is generating a need for massive investment in the energy sector to keep pace with energy demand. Changes in tactics and strategy, which will need to be adopted by the DMC governments in order to mobilize funds of this order for the energy sector, are considered. These include: a change in policy away from using government owned energy supply entities as vehicles of welfare transfer towards viewing energy as a commercial service/commodity to be provided to consumers for a fee; a willingness to restructure the electricity supply industry to enable greater private sector participation to take place; a determination to take effective measures to improve efficiency on the supply as well as the demand side to moderate the energy intensity of growth in the medium term. (UK)

  4. Remote sensing helps to assess natural hazards and environmental changes in Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claud; Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Conference on Remote Sensing, Natural Hazards, and Environmental Change; Singapore, 28-29 July 2011 Natural hazards and anthropogenic environmental changes, both significant in the Asia-Pacific region, were the two themes of a conference organized by the National University of Singapore's Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) and the Université Blaise Pascal's Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans. The application of satellite imagery at a wide range of resolutions, from 500 meters to 50 centimeters, was a unifying approach in many of the studies presented. The recent arrival of a new generation of satellites with extremely high resolution (50 centimeters) has improved scientists' ability to carry out detailed studies of natural hazards and environmental change.

  5. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  6. A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Keatinge, John Donough H; Butler, Colin D; Friel, Sharon; McKay, John; Easdown, Warwick; Kuo, Ken N; Huang, Ching-jang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yang, Ray-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Jaron, Dov; Krawinkel, Michael; Barlow, Snow; Walsh, Greg; Chiang, Tung-liang; Huang, Po-Chao; Li, Duo

    2009-01-01

    The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific Region who work in the food and health systems met in August, 2009 in Taiwan and instigated a Food in Health Security (FIHS) Network which might join with other like-minded networks in and beyond the region. Sustainable health has many dimensions, among which food and nutrition is often neglected; there is a wide spectrum of nutritionally-related disorders. Malnutrition remains the global concern for agricultural research and development scientists and linkage with the health sector is key to progress. The disconnect between agricultural and health sectors negatively impacts consumer nutrition and health. Ethical and equity affect food and health systems. Food and health security is attainable only when the underlying social inequities are addressed; it is an ethical issue as reflected in the UN Universal declaration of Human Rights which includes the right to food for health and well-being. Food and health security are part of the larger security agenda and merit corresponding attention. Policy recommendations with immediacy are greater investment in combined food and health research; an Asia Pacific security agenda which emphasizes planetary, human, health and food security as relevant to traditional defence security; and community and household security measures which include maternal literacy, communication technology and entrepreneurial opportunity. PMID:19965367

  7. Why Offer the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme? A Comparison between Schools in Asia-Pacific and Other Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung; Tang, Hayes; Chak Pong Tsui, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) has become a powerful educational brand by developing a reputation for combining progressive approaches with academic rigour. This can be identified by the growing number of schools adopting IB programmes globally and especially in the IB Asia-Pacific region. As part of this trend, the IB Middle Years Programme…

  8. Practices and Challenges in Educational Program Evaluation in the Asia-Pacific Region: Results of a Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Fang; Altschuld, James W.; Hung, Hsin-Ling

    2008-01-01

    While educational program evaluation has become more important in recent years because of increasing governmental demands for accountability, little is known about the development of and issues in regard to this topic in the Asia-Pacific region. The findings from a Delphi study conducted in a number of relevant countries are provided in this…

  9. The supply and demand outlook for energy in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that years of strong economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region have resulted in unprecedented increases in energy demand in the region, particularly for oil and gas. The supply of oil and gas to the region will become more problematic as the decade progresses. Already 50% dependent on imported oil, this figure will rise to nearly 65% by 2000. Because high rates of domestic oil demand growth among traditional petroleum exporters -Indonesia, China and Malaysia - will absorb exportable surpluses, the region will find itself dependent on the Middle East for at least 90% of its imported oil needs by 2000. Currently linked to oil, LNG prices cannot justify the investments needed to bring new greenfield projects on line. With demand expected to exceed 67 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000 and 100 Mt in 2010, over 50 Mt of new capacity will be needed; satisfying this demand will necessitate a new pricing structure for LNG, raising the price substantially above the relative price of crude oil. 1 ref., 5 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Radiative forcing due to dust aerosol over east Asia-north Pacific region during spring,2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; SHI Guangyu; Aoki Teruo; WANG Biao; ZHAO Tianliang

    2004-01-01

    An optical model accounting for the East Asian dust is proposed as a result of theory calculation and composition analysis of the aerosol samples collected in China desert during the international project, "Studies on the Origin and Transport of Aeolian Dust and its Effects on Climate (ADEC)". Study indicates that dust aerosols emitting from China deserts have smaller imaginary parts of refractive indices, therefore absorb less and scatter more solar radiation than the most dust optical models published so far. Furthermore, the forward fraction of scattering is less and the backscattering is stronger than those of the other models. The seasonal averaged radiative forcing in spring, 2001 over east Asia-north Pacific region is simulated employing the new dust optical model. The net forcing at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is estimated as -0.943 W·m-2 for regional and seasonal mean, with shortwave and longwave contributions of -1.700 and 0.759 W·m-2, respectively. The surface net forcing is calculated to be -5.445 W·m-2, and made up of shortwave component of -6.250 W·m-2 and longwave component of +0.759 W·m-2. The distributions of TOA and surface net forcing over this region are also analyzed in this study.

  11. Sustainable energy development: a challenge for Asia and the Pacific region in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main challenge to energy policy makers in the 21st century is how to develop and manage adequate, affordable and reliable energy services on a sustainable manner to fuel social and economic development. About 60 per cent of the world's two billion population, who do not have access to modern energy services, live in Asia and the Pacific region. The demand for energy is expected to continue growing at a high rate well into the century, often at a greater rate than economic growth. Latest assessment of conventional energy resources shows that their availability is not going to be an immediate threat to the security of supply but the question is can the region afford to allow current patterns of production and consumption of energy to continue in a rapidly deteriorating health of the environment? Changing these unsustainable patterns is the main challenge for the developed and developing countries alike. The paper dwells upon what are the major issues facing the region in promoting sustainable energy development and what are some of the policy options and possible strategies that the countries could consider to attain the objective of sustainable energy development. In this respect, the paper also dwells upon the need for strategic planning and management of energy resources

  12. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia. PMID:26868904

  13. Transparency and nonproliferation in the Asia-Pacific region. Enhancing transparency, strengthening the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driven by the prospect of rapid economic growth and the perceived need for energy security, the Asia-Pacific region is destined to increase its nuclear energy use in the coming decades. This projected increase, however, will bring with it nuclear proliferation concerns, fueling fears about the security of nuclear material and creating suspicions about its use. The increasing use of nuclear energy inevitably necessitates supplementary efforts, designed to ensure nuclear security and a legitimate use of nuclear energy, other than the obligation to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Nuclear transparency measures could be useful tools for building confidence that the increasing nuclear energy use does not contribute to nuclear proliferation. These measures could also foster a cooperative tradition that can address rising concerns over nuclear trafficking and terrorism, which require regional coordination to combat. However, moderate progress in implementing transparency measures suggests a lack of political appreciation of this concept. Thus, this paper describes various forms of potential transparency measures to expand the possibilities of the transparency concept and explore areas in which this concept might be applicable. This paper also clarifies some challenges involving transparency projects, and suggests possible ways to address these challenges. (author)

  14. Relationship of regional PM2.5 variations in east Asia and climate variability in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, J.; Yeh, S. W.; Kim, M.; Park, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the Short Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) such as Sulfate aerosols, Black carbon, Seasalt play a role to influence the weather and climate variability by changing radiative forcings. Therefore, it is useful to examine the relationship between atmospheric variability and SLCPs. Particularly, the concentration of Particle Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) is significant in east Asia, which is mostly due to a rapid industrialization. It is known that both the atmospheric circulation and cloud variability is closely associated with the variations of PM2.5 in east Asia are associated with major atmospheric variables for 1986-2010 using the GEOS-Chem model and the observational datasets. The composite analysis reveals that the high and low concentration year of PM2.5 in east Asia is differently associated with the spatial pattern of atmospheric anomalies over the North Pacific. In addition, the changes in the PM2.5 concentration in east Asia may lead the changes in the amount of high and low cloud in the downstream region of the North Pacific. This indicates that the PM2.5 variations in east Asia may significantly influence the weather and climate variability in the North Pacific by modulating the cloud amount and atmospheric circulation, which is largely consistent with some previous studies.

  15. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers.

  16. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia.Methods: The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were u...

  17. Intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring services in the Asia/Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Radiation Laboratory in 1991 conducted an International Intercomparison of Personal Radiation Monitoring Services in the Asia/Pacific region. Twenty nine organisations from sixteen countries took part in the study, with the People's Republic of China having the greatest number of participants. Both thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) and conventional film badge dosemeters were submitted for evaluation. The intercomparison involved participants submitting 25 dosemeters including transit controls to the Australian Radiation Laboratory for exposure. Seven radiation beams of varying beam quality were used. Both film dosemeters and TLDs were irradiated with 137Cs gamma rays, X-rays, X-rays and 2.0 MeV maximum energy beta rays from a 90Sr/90Y source. Seventeen dosemeters were exposed to the photon beams at normal incidence, four at a time, on a slab phantom made from a 5.5 cm thick perspex block backed by 20 cm of paper. Two dosemeters were exposed to beta rays at normal incidence. The delivered dose equivalents were in the range 0.2 to 2 mSv. Participants were requested to assess their dosemeters in terms of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) new operational quantities for personal monitoring, namely the individual dose equivalent, superficial H2(0.07) and individual dose equivalent, penetrating Hp(10). Copies of the intercomparison questionnaire and summary of some of the participants replies are included in the Appendixes. 25 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Report of the researcher exchange promotion project on the environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region; Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Proposals have been made for the establishment of a network (ETERNET-APR) linking those involved in the research and development of environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region in order to limit the environmental impact of industrial activity. By pursuing active exchanges of information and personnel, researchers in environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region have been making serious efforts to establish such a network. This fiscal year, the Internet Web site of the ETERNET-APR has been created using the data collected to date. This database includes information on some 350 researchers and 200 research projects from seven countries. The first international symposium was successfully held at Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand (ERIC), hosting 200 environmental researchers from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Tripartite sister laboratories ties among the National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) and three Korean laboratories were forged. The sister laboratory project between ICETT and ERIC is also proving effective. These successes prove that intraregional joint research, the objective of ETERNET-APR, has begun to take shape in this year

  19. Changing housing policy landscapes in Asia Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Ronald; R.L.H. Chiu

    2010-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region, and in particular East Asia, underwent rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Central to this transformation was intensive public and private investment in the housing sector. Although housing was largely commodified, public

  20. Climate Changes in the 21st Century over the Asia-Pacific Region Simulated by the NCAR CSM and PCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Climate System Model (CSM) and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), two coupled global climate models without flux adjustments recently developed at NCAR, were used to simulate the 20th century climate using historical greenhouse gas and sulfate aerosol forcing. These simulations were extended through the 21st century under two newly developed scenarios, a business-as-usual case (BAU, CO2≈710 ppmv in 2100) and a CO2 stabilization case (STA550, CO2≈540 ppmv in 2100). The simulated changes in temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture over the Asia-Pacific region (10°-60°N, 55°-155°E) are analyzed, with a focus on the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall and climate changes over the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Under the BAU scenario, both the models produce surface warming of about 3-5℃ in winter and 2-3℃ in summer over most Asia. Under the STA550 scenario, the warming is reduced by 0.5-1.0℃ in winter and by 0.5℃ in summer. The warming is fairly uniform at the low latitudes and does not induce significant changes in the zonal mean Hadley circulation over the Asia-Pacific do main. While the regional precipitation changes from single CSM integrations are noisy, the PCM ensemble mean precipitation shows 10%-30% increases north of ~ 30°N and ~ 10% decreases south of ~ 30°N over the Asia-Pacific region in winter and 10%-20% increases in summer precipitation over most of the region. Soil moisture changes are small over most Asia. The CSM single simulation suggests a 30% increase in river runoff into the Three Gorges Dam, but the PCM ensemble simulations show small changes in the runoff.

  1. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Wah-Yun Low; Yew-Kong Lee; Alexander Lourdes Samy

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access...

  2. Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alla; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Tyurina, Elena; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region) Food security is a complex issue of both international and national levels. The food embargo on imported products has defined the preservation and regeneration of soils as a priority task in ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. Soils are a finite, non-renewable resource and their preservation is extremely important for the national food security. Food production is the major function of soils; production of high-quality foods, rich in nutrients, is possible only in healthy soils. Therefore, a healthy and fertile soil is the most important factor in ensuring the food security and improved subsistence. By 2050, in order to meet the demand for food, the global agricultural production has to increase by 60%, and almost by 100% in the developing countries. In many countries and subregions of the Asia-Pacific Region, the population growth rates outrun the rates of food production. The possibilities of incorporating new lands into agricultural activities and providing their irrigation are also limited. In the context of expanding cooperation with the Asia-Pacific neighbors, Russia can make its contribution into improving the food security of the region. Russia has vast territories that could be used for crops farming; a substantial part of these lands have not been farmed yet. Hence, in the Russian Far East, production of grain crops can be increased by incorporating the unused territories into agricultural activities. Therefore, the Russian Far East is a unique site for creating a crops farming territory. And the preservation and regeneration of soils will provide for the production growth and ensure the food security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.

  3. Partnerships in Education: Home, School and Community Links in the Asia-Pacific Region, Report of a Regional Seminar June 17-28, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This report comes from a regional seminar on Improving the Links between School, Home and Community in the Asia-Pacific Region in June 1996. Twenty-four participants from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Republic of Korea, and Thailand took part in the meeting. Country reports comprised the first two days of…

  4. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  5. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah-Yun Low

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG. People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs. The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration.

  6. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Wah-Yun; Lee, Yew-Kong; Samy, Alexander Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration. PMID:26159943

  7. The Impact of China’s Slowdown on the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tomoo; KAYA, Demet; Ohshige, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    An export-oriented development strategy fostered the Asia Pacific region’s economic success, making it the fastest growing region in the world. In recent years, despite waning demand from the crisis-hit Western economies, the accelerating demand from China boosted intraregional trade in Asia. Although China’s Asian trading partners benefit from increasing exports to China, this stronger link...

  8. How To Establish Effective Book Marketing and Distribution Systems in Asia/Pacific. Report of the Regional Training Course on Book Production in Asia/Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, September 21-October 9, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The participants in this 1994 regional training course examined the issue of book distribution and marketing. They focused on book marketing together with the development of distribution in order to prepare practical action plans for improvement. Twenty-three experts from 20 countries in Asia/Pacific and Africa analyzed problems, exchanged…

  9. Status and trends of the services market for processing and recycling of municipal solid waste in the Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Napalkova Anastasiya A.; Nasadyuk Alena E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors studied the state and trends of the international market processing of municipal solid waste in the Asia - Pacific region, using the methods of content analysis and field studies. The paper shows the structure of the market, discusses the technology of solid domestic waste, used in AsiaPacific countries with different income levels, as well as in developed and developing countries. The research results can be interesting for operators of the industry as well as government agencies...

  10. UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education Annual Report, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This biennial report highlights the major programs and activities organized, supported, and implemented by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Asian and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, based in Bangkok, Thailand, in the fields of education, science, social and human sciences, culture, and…

  11. SOUTH-SOUTH REGIONALISM AND TRADE COOPERATION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    This study of regional South-South (S-S) trade and cooperation in East, South and South-East Asian countries (ESSEA) aims to provide an economic rationale for S-S trade; shed some light on the extent and pattern of S-S trade in the ESSEA region; examine the dynamic forces behind the expansion of such trade, and its shortcomings and vulnerabilities; propose policies for enhancing and strengthening regional cooperation; and identify areas for further research. The main conclusi...

  12. Comparisons of metabolic syndrome definitions in four populations of the Asia-Pacific region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C.M.; Huxley, R.R.; Woodward, M.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by four MetS definitions in four Asia-Pacific populations, and to compare the prevalence of individual metabolic components. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional studies from Australia, Japan, Korea, and Samoa were used...... to assess the World Health Organization (WHO), European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (modATPIII), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) MetS definitions. Age-adjusted MetS prevalences were compared within...... and between countries and kappa statistics were used to determine the agreement between IDF and the other three definitions. RESULTS: Japanese people had the lowest prevalence of MetS regardless of definition, and Samoans generally the highest prevalence. Age-adjusted prevalences for the four definitions...

  13. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates. PMID:24215381

  15. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates.

  16. Ethnocentric HRM policies in the Asia Pacific region: An explanation of Host Country resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Harry, Wes; Nakajima, Chizu

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of ethnocentric policies, using as an example diversity policies, created by Multinational Companies (MNCs), Non Government Organisations (NGOs) and international agencies then imposed on a host country and its population. Examples of practices in the Asian Pacific region illustrate how the experience of colonialisation, war and migration have major impact on perceptions of the Host Country governments and nationals The paper discusses possible reasons for Host...

  17. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  18. Clinical and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia amongst adults in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity amongst adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Literature published between 1990 and May 2010 on the clinical and economic burden of CAP amongst adults in this region was reviewed. CAP is a significant health burden with significant economic impact in this region. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and advanced age were risk factors for CAP. Aetiological agents included Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Staphylococcus aureus and atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella spp.), with important differences in the prevalence of these pathogens within the region. Antibiotic resistance was significant but was not linked to excess mortality. Aetiological pathogens remained susceptible to newer antimicrobial agents. Rational antibiotic use is essential for preventing resistance, and increased surveillance is required to identify future trends in incidence and aetiology and to drive treatment and prevention strategies.

  19. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  20. Asia-pacific LNG outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are powerful drivers at work in the Asia-Pacific region for clean and affordable energy. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is providing a vital solution to this need. With demand in the region expected to grow from 70 million tonnes per annum to 110 million tonnes per annum by 2010, there are significant opportunities for the Australian natural gas industry and the country. The North West Shelf Venture, Australia's only LNG producer, currently provides some 7.5 million tonnes of LNG to Japanese customers. On 2 April 2001 a 50% expansion in LNG production was announced. The A$2.4 billion expansion project will be ready for start up in mid 2004 and will supply additional LNG to the Japanese customers. This increased demand and supply comes on the back of significant restructuring of the Japanese energy market. In addition to Japan, supply opportunities for LNG from Australia are emerging in China, Korea and Taiwan and the expectation is that there will be an increased reliance on LNG as an energy source. The challenge for Australian companies will be to ensure that opportunities are maximised for current and future LNG producers. David Maxwell, General Manager Commercial of Woodside Energy Limited, Operator of the North West Shelf Venture, will explore the current state of the LNG market, the forces at work in this industry and the outlook for LNG in the region. Copyright (2002) Institution of Chemical Engineers in Australia

  1. RCA and its regional office for cooperative activities in the applications of nuclear techniques in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an intergovernmental agreement among 17 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in South Asia, South East Asia, Far East and the Pacific, established for promoting regional cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Established in 1972, the RCA is a unique development within the technical cooperation framework coordinated by IAEA is support of the regional cooperation in the applications of nuclear technology to the benefit of its Member States. It has a well established network of scientists trained in the use of nuclear technologies in the agricultural, medical, industrial, and environmental sectors, with a good potentiality to use its regional technical and scientific resources to contribute to the solution of some of the significant problems in the region. The achievements recorded in the several decades of RCA history cover a wide spectrum of areas and these achievements have been published a Success Stories. Having recognized a need to enhance ownership of the region, the RCA Member States had wished to establish its Regional Office (RCARO). The Regional Office which is hosted by the Government of Republic of Korea was established in 2002. Located in Daejeon, the RCARO has been active in its endeavors toward increasing visibility of the RCA and establishing cooperative partnership between RCA and other international organizations. The RCARO has also played a key role in successfully implementing an RCA Project on Post-Tsunami Environment Impact Assessment in partnership with UNDP (Republic of Korea) with the participation of 14 RCA Member States. A number of projects for capacity building in the region are also being implemented by RCARO, mostly by providing training opportunities for young professionals in the region. The RCA community welcomes any contacts from potential end-users or

  2. The consequences of maltreatment on children's lives: a systematic review of data from the East Asia and Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Deborah; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the consequences of child maltreatment in East Asia and the Pacific region based on the results of a systematic review of 16 English and non-English databases for journal articles and "gray" literature published between January 2001 and November 2010. This review shows that children in the region experiencing maltreatment are at increased risk of experiencing mental health consequences, physical health sequelae, high-risk sexual behaviors, and increased exposure to future violence including intimate partner violence (IPV) as an adult. Children who suffer from child sexual abuse have a median twofold increased risk of experiencing mental health disorders than those who have never experienced child maltreatment.  Similar findings were found for those who experience physical abuse.  Children who have been maltreated in the region are also at an increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts than those that have experienced child sexual or physical abuse being at a median fourfold increased risk. Children who have experienced physical abuse or those who have witnessed parental domestic abuse as a child are at median twofold increased risk of experiencing IPV as an adult, while children who have been sexually abused have a median threefold increase in risk of IPV later in life. There are still gaps in our understanding of the consequences of child maltreatment, but we do know that the consequences are profound and far-reaching. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for governments, civil society organizations, development agencies, and academia to advocate for, invest in, and collaborate across sectors for the strengthening of child protection systems in the East Asia and Pacific Region, with a focus on evidence-based child maltreatment prevention policies and programs. PMID:22899705

  3. Model-Informed Risk Assessment and Decision Making for an Emerging Infectious Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Hickson, Roslyn I.; McVernon, Jodie; McCaw, James M.; Hort, Krishna; Black, Jim; Madden, John R.; Tran, Nhi H.; McBryde, Emma S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective response to emerging infectious disease (EID) threats relies on health care systems that can detect and contain localised outbreaks before they reach a national or international scale. The Asia-Pacific region contains low and middle income countries in which the risk of EID outbreaks is elevated and whose health care systems may require international support to effectively detect and respond to such events. The absence of comprehensive data on populations, health care systems and disease characteristics in this region makes risk assessment and decisions about the provision of such support challenging. Methodology/principal findings We describe a mathematical modelling framework that can inform this process by integrating available data sources, systematically explore the effects of uncertainty, and provide estimates of outbreak risk under a range of intervention scenarios. We illustrate the use of this framework in the context of a potential importation of Ebola Virus Disease into the Asia-Pacific region. Results suggest that, across a wide range of plausible scenarios, preemptive interventions supporting the timely detection of early cases provide substantially greater reductions in the probability of large outbreaks than interventions that support health care system capacity after an outbreak has commenced. Conclusions/significance Our study demonstrates how, in the presence of substantial uncertainty about health care system infrastructure and other relevant aspects of disease control, mathematical models can be used to assess the constraints that limited resources place upon the ability of local health care systems to detect and respond to EID outbreaks in a timely and effective fashion. Our framework can help evaluate the relative impact of these constraints to identify resourcing priorities for health care system support, in order to inform principled and quantifiable decision making. PMID:27661978

  4. THE CHINA’S ENERGY SECURITY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Sergeevich Krasantsov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to determine the level of the Chinese energy security that was built up for last several decades. In order to reach the set aim the author figured the current condition of the energy sector within the leading states of the Asia-Pacific Region and compared it with a similar condition ofChina. The condition’s characteristics included the following: Chinese energy balance, oil production, import and consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, electricity amount produced by using the renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind energy, sun energy and nuclear energy. In addition the authorities’ plans for the expansion of the mentioned renewable and nuclear energy production were as well discovered. The probable threats of the energy security and possible obstacles for the extensive means of sustaining the country’s energy security were also brought up.Statistical, comparative and analytical methods were applied in the process of the current research. As a result the PRC was found to be at a threshold to energetic crisis. In order to avoid the scenario two innovative methods were proposed as the means of avoiding the possible future crisis and sustaining energy security.The research results can be applied in determining the domestic and foreign policy of China as well as the foreign policies of the PRC’s energetic partners both within the Asia-Pacific Region and beyond its borders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-39

  5. Renal Dysfunction during Tenofovir Use in a Regional Cohort of HIV-Infected Individuals in the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuma, Junko; Jiamsakul, Awachana; Makane, Abhimanyu; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ng, Oon Tek; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Lee, Man Po; Ditangco, Rossana; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Choi, Jun Yong; Wong, Wing Wai; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Yunihastuti, Evy; Sim, Benedict LH; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Kantipong, Pacharee; Zhang, Fujie; Mustafa, Mahiran; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Pujari, Sanjay; Sohn, Annette H.

    2016-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings, routine monitoring of renal function during antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been recommended. However, concerns for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related nephrotoxicity persist with increased use. Methods We investigated serum creatinine (S-Cr) monitoring rates before and during ART and the incidence and prevalence of renal dysfunction after starting TDF by using data from a regional cohort of HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific. Time to renal dysfunction was defined as time from TDF initiation to the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to 30% reduction from baseline using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or the decision to stop TDF for reported TDF-nephrotoxicity. Predictors of S-Cr monitoring rates were assessed by Poisson regression and risk factors for developing renal dysfunction were assessed by Cox regression. Results Among 2,425 patients who received TDF, S-Cr monitoring rates increased from 1.01 to 1.84 per person per year after starting TDF (incidence rate ratio 1.68, 95%CI 1.62–1.74, p 50 vs. ≤30, hazard ratio [HR] 5.39, 95%CI 2.52–11.50, p <0.001; and using PI-based regimen (HR 1.93, 95%CI 1.22–3.07, p = 0.005). Having an eGFR prior to TDF (pre-TDF eGFR) of ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 showed a protective effect (HR 0.38, 95%CI, 0.17–0.85, p = 0.018). Conclusions Renal dysfunction on commencing TDF use was not common, however, older age, lower baseline eGFR and PI-based ART were associated with higher risk of renal dysfunction during TDF use in adult HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:27560968

  6. Terrorism and Tourism in the Asia Pacific Region: Is Travel and Tourism in a New World After 9/11?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Edmonds; James Mak

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews trends in travel and tourism in selected Asia Pacific countries before and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) to consider the question of whether or not global tourism has fundamentally changed since 9/11. Tourism is an important economic sector in several Asia Pacific countries and is a "fragile" industry in that it is highly susceptible to external shocks such as wars, outbreaks of deadly contagious diseases, incidents of terrorism, and so on. The fir...

  7. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Asia-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Siva; Reddy

    1992-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is the second most important cause of permanent blindness in the Asia Pacific region. Thus it is very important to identify epidemiological and other risk factore which are associated with open angle glaucoma. The risk for glaucoma optic nerve damage increases with the age and with the level of the intraocular pressure. In this paper, I will highlight our study of several risk factors for development of the open angle glaucoma like (1) elevated intraocular pressure, (2) myopi...

  8. Exploring Training Needs of Educational Program Evaluators in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Training is critical for the growth of the evaluation profession as more qualified and competent individuals will be required to meet the increased demand for evaluation. This paper deals with the training needs of professionals and is based on a part of a study on the status and challenges of educational program evaluation in the Asia-Pacific…

  9. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures. PMID:25275329

  10. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  11. Transition and democratisation in the Asia-Pacific region: The case of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Sànchez Moreno

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses Indonesia’s political evolution from its independence from the Dutch Empire in 1949 to the present day, paying particular attention to the period of transition to, and consolidation of democracy, which commenced in May 1998 following the fall of the Suharto regime. The influence of Islamist terrorism in Indonesia and in other points in southeast Asia (represented by Jemaah Islamiyah in Indonesia and by the Abu Sayaf group in thePhilippines) is the cause and consequence o...

  12. New product introduction and supplier integration in sales and operations planning:evidence from the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Shao Hung; Eldridge, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates the implementation and performance benefits of Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) within organizations in Asia Pacific. Design/methodology/approach: A case study method was used, with two companies selected. The first company had recently commenced S&OP and applied it to facilitate New Product Introduction, while the second had integrated its supplier into an existing S&OP program. Supply chain performance data was collected and analyzed in the context of an...

  13. Decision Support for DCs Location and Distribute Range Planning:Case Study in Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WATTANAAMAT Patikorn; MATSUMARU Masanobu; YAMASHITA Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    A major concern is to locate manufacturing plants and/or distribution centers to serve the needs of consumers widely and rapidly with reasonably distributive cost and flexible delivery time.The purpose of this research is to help enhance a decision support for three distribution center locations with different ranges of area in order that the distributors are able to serve appropriately the retailers in twelve large cities or capitals of the nine countries in Asia-Pacific region.The researcher applies the theory of supply chain and logistics management systems with Excel,Visual Basic and Genetic Algorithms programs to find the research results. The research results revealed that the interfaces of Excel, Visual Basic, and Genetic Algorithms programs helped decision support in distribution range selection for 3 distribution center locations. Each of which had different ranges of area for distribution with a rapidly, flexibly distributed time. However, variables resulting in a decision-making should be adjusted under certain circumstances for more reliable, specific needs.

  14. Transition and democratisation in the Asia-Pacific region: The case of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Sànchez Moreno

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Indonesia’s political evolution from its independence from the Dutch Empire in 1949 to the present day, paying particular attention to the period of transition to, and consolidation of democracy, which commenced in May 1998 following the fall of the Suharto regime. The influence of Islamist terrorism in Indonesia and in other points in southeast Asia (represented by Jemaah Islamiyah in Indonesia and by the Abu Sayaf group in thePhilippines is the cause and consequence of the way in which Indonesia the country with the most Muslims in the world is dealing with democratisation. The success of this process will depend upon the possibility of neutralising, on one hand, the attempts of certain doctrinal Muslim groups to place Islam above all the other religions in the country, and on the other, the efforts being made to turn Indonesia into a recruiting camp for new jihadists.

  15. The impacts of summer monsoons on the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Fei, Dongdong; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone (O3) in the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific Ocean were investigated using model simulations (2001-2007) from the Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The simulated O3 and diagnostic precipitation are in good agreement with the observations. Model results suggest that the Asia-Pacific monsoon significantly influences the seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone. The differences of anthropogenic emissions and zonal winds in meridional directions cause a pollutants' transition zone at approximately 20°-30°N. The onset of summer monsoons with a northward migration of the rain belt leads the transition zone to drift north, eventually causing a summer minimum of ozone to the north of 30°N. In years with an early onset of summer monsoons, strong inflows of clean oceanic air lead to low ozone at polluted oceanic sites near the continent, while strong outflows from the continent exist, resulting in high levels of O3 over remote portions of the Asia-Pacific Ocean. The reverse is true in years when the summer monsoon onset is late.

  16. Asia-Pacific Security: Policy Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, our newspapers have been filled with the ‘war on terror’; our governments have mobilised their resources for ‘homeland security’; and people everywhere are braced for more terrorist attacks. Yet while the new threat is genuine, we must not lose sight of the continuing security concerns in the Asia-Pacific. Tensions persist on the Korean peninsula, in the Taiwan Straits and the South China Sea, and in Kashmir. The region is well supplied with weapons of mass destr...

  17. Nuclear Deterrence in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth Evans

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region includes six of the world’s nine nuclear-armed states, and in all of them relevant policymakers, still caught in a Cold War mindset, continue to believe in nuclear deterrence as a force for peace and stability, perceiving nuclear disarmament to be not only unachievable, but undesirable. But — whether the context is major powers seeking to neutralise threats from each other (United States, Russia, China and India), non-nuclear allies seeking nuclear protection from ...

  18. Regional Co-operation for Literacy in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaoka, Taichi

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO's copublication program producing follow-up reading materials for expanding literacy. Includes lists of materials produces, information of the development of materials, and personnel training. Describes how the regional literacy programs workshops, and activities ar managed. Suggests that regional…

  19. The Scholarly Output of Universities and Academics in the Asia-Pacific Region Who Publish in Major Finance Journals: 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Jarnecic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the scholarly output of all universities and their finance academics in theAsia-Pacific region. We evaluate the scholarly output of 1,341 research academic staff across 300leading Asia-Pacific universities in the period 2000 to 2007. A significant contribution of ourstudy is that it presents ranking league tables for finance journals with respect to journal quality.The necessity of well defined ranking tables help university executive management, governmentpolicy and funding bodies in better assessing research performance. The study also constructs anew measure called to Research Productivity Dependency (RPD index, which acts as a riskmanagement mechanism to aid universities better assess their reliance on key individual researchproductive academics.

  20. The 2nd IALE Asia-Pacific Region Conference Landscape Change and Human Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Lanzhou, China, Sept. 22-25th, 2001 ( First circular announcement) Jointly organized by: IALE-China; IALE-Australia Cold and Arid Regions Environmental & Engineering Research Institute, CAS Programme Committee: Richard Hobbs (Australia), Xiao Duning (China) Nobukazu Nakagoshi (Japan), Sun-Kee Hong (Korea), Parida Kuneepong (Thailand), Elena Klimina (Russia), Kalpana Bhakuni, (India), Zhan Zhiyong (Hong Kong, China), Chun-Yen Chang (Taibei, China)Objectives and Topics: A Theoretical aspects and quantitative approaches (Landscape pattern and processes, Landscape modeling, GIS and Remote sensing). B Landscape change and driving forces (Monitoring of landscape changes, Human activity and land use, Culture and landscape). C Landscape management and reconstruction (Ecological restoration of natural areas, Landscape planning in rural areas, Ecological risk and security assessment for catchments, Ecological engineering in agricultural landscapes). D Environment protection and ecological development in western China (Management of oasis landscape, desert landscape and desertification control, Biodiversity conservation, landscape Resources and tourism). E Urban landscape ecology Preliminary conference program: September 22, arrival in Lanzhou, Registration. September 23, plenary sessions; September 24, in-conference excursion (Lanzhou city) September 25, parallel sessions Working language: English Post conference excursions: September 26-29, 2001 No.1 Silk Road and Arid Region Landscape: Desert, Oasis, and Dunhuang. No.2 Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, Meadow, Salt Lake and Qinghai Lake, Cool Desert No.3 World Natural Heritege: Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan Province (Forest and Waterfall)Call for papers: Participants intending to present a paper or a poster during the conference are requested to send an abstract (no longer than 500 words) as email or TXT format attachment to the conference secretary (Landscape2001@sina.com). Or, you can send the hard copy to: Dr. CAO Yu, Institute of

  1. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  2. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  3. 2011 minerals yearbook: Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Sam, Yolanda; Kuo, Chin S.; Shi, Lin; Tse, Pui-Kwan; Wacaster, Susan; Wilburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The 31 countries and territories of the Asia and the Pacific region reported on in the Minerals Yearbook have a total area of about 30 million square kilometers, which accounts for about 20.1% of the world total. data and information for the majority of this report do not include Kiribati, Maldives, the Marshall islands, the federated states of Micronesia, Palau, tongo, or Vanuatu. the total population was about 3.9 billion, which accounted for 55.6% of the world total in 2011. china and india, which were the world’s two most populous countries, accounted for 66.7% of the region’s total population. the real gross domestic product (GdP) growth rate of 30 of the region’s countries increased in 2011 compared with that of 2010 whereas that of only one country, Japan, was reported to have decreased (by 0.8%). the GdP of 17 of the 31 countries and territories of the Asia and Pacific region increased by at least 5% in 2011, but for many countries the growth rate was lower than in 2010. the GdP of Mongolia, which was the country with the largest GdP growth in 2011, increased by 17.5% in 2011 compared with an increase of 6.4% in 2010 and a decrease of 1.3% in 2009 (tables 1, 2).

  4. Combination therapy in hypertension: an Asia-Pacific consensus viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rashid; Reyes, Eugenio B; Sritara, Piyamitr; Pancholia, Arvind; Van Phuoc, Dang; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension incurs a significant healthcare burden in Asia-Pacific countries, which have suboptimal rates of blood pressure (BP) treatment and control. A consensus meeting of hypertension experts from the Asia-Pacific region convened in Hanoi, Vietnam, in April 2013. The principal objectives were to discuss the growing problem of hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region, and to develop consensus recommendations to promote standards of care across the region. A particular focus was recommendations for combination therapy, since it is known that most patients with hypertension will require two or more antihypertensive drugs to achieve BP control, and also that combinations of drugs with complementary mechanisms of action achieve BP targets more effectively than monotherapy. The expert panel reviewed guidelines for hypertension management from the USA and Europe, as well as individual Asia-Pacific countries, and devised a treatment matrix/guide, in which they propose the preferred combination therapy regimens for patients with hypertension, both with and without compelling indications. This report summarizes key recommendations from the group, including recommended antihypertensive combinations for specific patient populations. These strategies generally entail initiating therapy with free drug combinations, starting with the lowest available dosage, followed by treatment with single-pill combinations once the BP target has been achieved. A single reference for the whole Asia-Pacific region may contribute to increased consistency of treatment and greater proportions of patients achieving BP control, and hence reducing hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

  5. Statistical Downscaling for Multi-Model Ensemble Prediction of Summer Monsoon Rainfall in the Asia-Pacific Region Using Geopotential Height Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Congwen; Chung-Kyu PARK; Woo-Sung LEE; Won-Tae YUN

    2008-01-01

    The 21-yr ensemble predictions of model precipitation and circulation in the East Asian and western North Pacific(Asia-Pacific)summer monsoon region(0°-50°N,100°-150°E)were evaluated in nine different AGCM,used in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Climate Center(APCCl multi.model ensemble seasonal prediction system.The analysis indicates that the precipitation anomaly patterns of model ensemble predictions are substantially difierent from the observed counterparts in this region.but the summer monsoon circulations are reasonably predicted.For example,all models can well produce the interannual variability of the western North Pacific monsoon index(WNPMI)defined by 850 hPa winds,but they failed to predict the relationship between WNPMI and precipitation anomalies.The interannual variability of the 500 hPa geopotential height(GPH)can be well predicted by the models in contrast to precipitation anomalies.On the basis of such model performances and the relationship between the interannual variations of 500 hPa GPH and precipitation anomalies.we developed a statistical scheme used to downscale the summer monsoon precipitation anomaly Oll the basis of EOF and singular value decomposition(SVD).In this scheme,the three leading EOF modes of 500 hPa GPH anomaly fields predicted by the models are firstly corrected by the linear regression between the principal components in each model and observation.respectively.Then. the corrected model GPH is chosen as the predictor to downscale the precipitation anomaly field,which is assembled by the forecasted expansion toeffcients of model 500 hPa GPH and the three leading SVD modes of observed precipitation anomaly corresponding to the prediction of model 500 hPa GPH during a 19-year training period.The cross-validated forecasts suggest that this dowuscaling scheme may have a potential to improve the forecast skill of the precipitation anomaly in the South China Sea,western North Pacific and the East Asia Pacific regions

  6. Long-term stability analysis and effect evaluation of energy supply and demand in asia and pacific regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.R. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The competition in the supply of energy in Northeast Asian countries including Korea is forecasted to be intensively unfolded because of the soaring energy consumption the region. It is because the consumption of coal in Asia will be curtailed due to heightened global attention to environment, the import of Middle Eastern crude oil will be largely increasing since crude oil production in China and Indonesia is experiencing a slow-down. Therefore, close international cooperation is requested for the smooth supply of crude oil and natural gas to back up the economic growth. This study checked the energy supply and demand status in the Asian region that is changing since the 1990s, and analyzed the pressure factors in the energy supply sector. It needs to develop the Far Eastern region of Russia intensively as the energy supply base together with the Middle Eastern oil- producing regions as the plan to alleviate the energy competition within the region and seek economic development concurrently. Since this region requires large- scale investment as an never-expedited area, multilateral cooperation including neighboring countries that need energy and international enterprises who are interested in the profitability of the business are urgently required. Therefore, it is necessary to form and operate Northeast Asia Energy Forum (NAEF) which is a centripetal point that will actually carry out the resources development of Northeast Asia. Korea who is at the centripetal point of Northeast Asian tension should actively participate and support in the formation of this organization within the region in order to utilize it as the cornerstone of national north and south unification. 41 refs., 7 figs., 53 tabs.

  7. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Robyn Margaret; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon;

    2015-01-01

    -Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing......NTRODUCTION Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance...... in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region...

  8. Evolution of the clinical trial landscape in Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathindranath S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shourav Yathindranath,1 Amar Kureishi,2 Simranjit Singh,3 Spencer Yeow,3 Grace Geng,4 Karen Wai,1 Audrey Ho,1 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee5 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, 2Drug Development Asia, 3Strategic Planning Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 4People’s Republic of China Site Services, Quintiles, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore Introduction: Asia Pacific has and continues to be one of the fastest-growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. This growth has a carry-over effect of driving pharmaceutical research and development investment in the region. Coupled with this, there have been multiple initiatives conducted by governments and other research focused organizations and societies in the region to help support this growth in research. In this report, we discuss the latest developments in pharmaceutical research and development in Asia Pacific and how these various initiatives have made an impact. Methods: An extensive search of the major clinical trial registries, along with the literature and Internet review of the recent developments in clinical trials, was performed comparing two time periods – 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. Results: In overall numbers, the clinical trial industry in Asia Pacific has remained stable when comparing the two time periods, with stable volumes of clinical trial numbers and site numbers. However, on closer inspection, a dynamic change in geography, nature, and therapeutic areas of the trials being conducted is observed. Japan, South Korea, People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan continue to be major clinical trial destinations. Developing countries, such as Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines, have seen rising standards of living and medical care; this is starting to impact their contribution to trials. Also, there are an increasing number of local trials in Asia Pacific with a bigger role

  9. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn M Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (ODA for HIV programmes in the region. Methods: The donor countries considered in this analysis are Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. To estimate bilateral and multilateral ODA financing for HIV programmes in the Asia-Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund for the period 2014 to 2016. Results: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region, but the United States is the bilateral donor providing the greatest amount of assistance in the region. Funding from the Global Fund has increased consistently since 2005, reaching a total of US$1.2 billion for the Asia-Pacific region from 2014 to 2016. Conclusions: Even with Global Fund allocations, countries in the Asia-Pacific region will not have enough resources to meet their epidemiological targets. Prevention funding is particularly

  10. The Asia Pacific natural gas market: Large enough for all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among natural gas producing nations, there has been some concern about how the Asia Pacific will meet future demand for energy. We argue that natural gas, both regional and global, will play a vital role. Estimates of potential gas consumption in the region are analyzed and used to develop consensus projections to 2030. These consumption profiles are compared with gas supply estimates including indigenous, pipeline and LNG for the Asia Pacific market. From this analytical framework, we find that demand will be sufficiently large to accommodate supplies from diverse sources including North America, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia, and the Asia Pacific itself. An important policy implication is that gas producing and consuming nations should benefit from promoting gas trade and not be concerned about a situation of potential lack of demand coupled with oversupply. - Highlights: • Estimates of gas consumption in the Asia Pacific (AP) in 2030 are presented. • Compared with supply estimates for AP including indigenous, pipeline, and LNG. • Find that demand in AP large enough to accommodate supply from all regions. • Nations should promote gas trade policy and not be overly concerned about oversupply

  11. Transportation Infrastructure and the Asia-Pacific Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2005-01-01

    Adequate, well maintained transportation infrastructure is a critical element of the Pacific food system in addressing challenges of rapid urbanization. Policymakers must invest either in streamlining domestic supply chains and/or in facilitating food imports through market opening measures. Economic incentives, competitive transportation and logistic services, and policy reforms, both within the borders of individual economies as well as across the Asia-Pacific region, are also necessary. Im...

  12. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators......The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...

  13. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  14. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  15. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  16. Air Passenger Transport In The APEC: Regulatory Impacts and Prospects for Asia Pacific Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Grosso, Massimo Geloso

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at assessing the prospects for a more liberal air passenger transport regime in the Asia Pacific region under the auspices of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The decades-old bilateral air services regime has been under pressure to reform for several years. Notwithstanding the critical role that international air transport plays in the ongoing integration of Asia Pacific economies, the airline industry remains one of the region’s most heavily regulated. Estimates ...

  17. Asia and the Pacific Rim in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database dealing with Asia and the Pacific Rim. Urges the inclusion of these countries in the curriculum as exchange of peoples, goods, and cultures increases. Emphasizes the growing importance of the region as a global force. Includes articles and books on culture, economies, and cultural exchange…

  18. Asia and the Pacific in 2020: Scenarios for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Colin

    2009-01-01

    By 2020 our world will have changed and with it the shape and role of education and of educational research. One cannot predict the future, but in this paper three possible scenarios are outlined reflecting alternative approaches of government to the economic, political, social and environmental challenges facing the Asia Pacific region. For each…

  19. Setting effective mandatory energy efficiency standards and labelling regulations: A review of best practices in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • S and L regulations are needed to materialize the various benefits of energy efficiency. • S and L regulations can appear in various formats as in the Asia–Pacific region. • Effective regime has to be clear, authoritative, open, and enforceable. • Clear policy, customisation, inclusiveness, transparency and flexibility are desirable. - Abstract: This paper attempts to inform policy makers and legislators on how to set energy efficiency standards and labelling (S and L) regulations. It draws lessons from the literature on S and L regulations in the Asia–Pacific region and from practical experience in drafting the S and L regulations for Brunei Darussalam. The paper proposes necessary components for effective S and L regulations, as follows: clear liabilities, authoritative administration, open principles for technical systems, and enforceable mechanisms. It also recommends some key issues in good practice toward effective S and L regulations, such as policy making in advance, customised legislation, inclusive and transparent legislative procedure, and flexibility in the legislation

  20. International workshop on transparency technology for nonproliferation cooperation in the Asia Pacific. Applications of remote monitoring and secure communications for regional confidence building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) sponsored an international workshop 20-22 February 2008 on 'Transparency Technology for Nonproliferation Cooperation in the Asia Pacific - Applications of Remote Monitoring and Secure Communications for Regional Confidence Building.' The Workshop focused on identifying appropriate roles and functions for Transparency in addressing nonproliferation concerns associated with the use of nuclear energy, particularly in the East Asia region. Participants from several East Asia countries included representatives from nuclear energy research institutions, Ministries, facility operators, and non-governmental organizations. Regional participation from countries currently developing their nuclear energy infrastructure was also encouraged. Several promising students from the University of Tokyo and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, representing the next generation of nuclear energy experts, also participated in the meeting and added significant value and fresh viewpoints. The participants agreed that transparency has many roles and definitions, and that its usefulness ranges for verification and compliance with the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) to building trust and confidence in the activities of the state and other regional nuclear energy stakeholders. In addition, they identified a need for further education among the professional community, public, operators, and regulators as a key factor in transparency effectiveness. Also, the education and cultivation of the next generation of nuclear energy experts was identified as crucial to the long-term success and acceptance of nuclear energy development. And finally, that the development, selection, and implementation of technology that is appropriate to the goals and participants of a transparency effort are unique to each situation and are key to the successful acceptance of cooperative transparency and regional confidence building. At the conclusion of the Workshop it was importantly

  1. Climate change simulated by full and mixed-layer ocean versions of CSIRO Mk3.5 and Mk3.0: The Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Ian G.

    2013-05-01

    The patterns of climate change in the Asia-Pacific region simulated by versions of the CSIRO Mk3.5 and Mk3.0 climate models are examined and compared with those from 23 CMIP3 models. Using fields standardized by global warming, it is seen that both CSIRO coupled models simulate larger surface warming in the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and smaller warming in the eastern Indian Ocean, than the CMIP3 average, and also model versions with a mixed-layer ocean. Corresponding differences in the changes in the pressure, winds, rainfall and other quantities were simulated. Introducing the coupled Mk3.5's sea surface temperature field for the present climate, which has a warm bias, as the base climate for the MLO version had only a minor effect on the MLO version's pattern of climate change. A Pacific-Indian Dipole index quantifying the amplitude of the warming pattern explains much of the variation in rainfall change simulated by the CMIP3 models over Australia and the Indonesian and Melanesian regions. It relates more strongly to Australian average rainfall than several other indices representing southern hemispheric circulation changes. The decline in Australian rainfall produced by the full ocean coupling is largest in summer, but occurs in each season, and extends across the continent. Further assessment of the importance of the dipole change pattern in new simulations is warranted. Analyses aimed at reducing the uncertainty in its potential amplitude could help narrow the range of projections for change in the Australasian region.

  2. Isotope applications in hydrology in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings of the Regional Executive Management Seminar on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management and the Regional Workshop on Isotope Hydrology for Asia and the Pacific organized by the IAEA and held in Beijing between 15-26 June 1987 includes the review papers and the technical papers presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 21 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Adaptation of Asia-Pacific forests to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyu Wang; John L Innes; Tongli Wang; Haijun Kang; Shari Mang; Brianne Riehl; Brad Seely; Shirong Liu; Futao Guo; Qinglin Li

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems throughout the Asia-Pacific region. The loss of forests due to climate-induced stress will have extensive adverse impacts on biodiversity and an array of ecosystem services that are essential for the maintenance of local economies and public health. Despite their importance, there is a lack of decision-support tools required to evaluate the potential effects of climate change on Asia-Pacific ecosystems and economies and to aid in the development of regionally appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. The project Adaptation of Asia-Pacific Forests to Climate Change, summarized herein, aims to address this lack of knowledge and tools and to provide support for regional managers to develop effective policy to increase the adaptive capacity of Asia-Pacific forest ecosystems. This objective has been achieved through the following activities:(1) development of a high-resolution climate downscaling model, ClimateAP, appli-cable to any location in the region; (2) development of climate niche models to evaluate how climate change might affect the distribution of suitable climatic conditions for regionally important tree species;(3) development and application of forest models to assess alternative manage-ment strategies in the context of management objectives and the projected impacts of climate change;(4) evaluation of models to assess forest fire risk and the relationship between forest fire and climate change;(5) development of a technique to assess ecosystem carbon storage using LiDAR; and (6) evaluation of how vegetation dynamics respond to climate change using remote sensing technol-ogy. All project outputs were developed with a focus on communication and extension to facilitate the dissemina-tion of results to regional forest resource managers to support the development of effective mitigation and adaptation policy.

  4. Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Sharing New Ideas for Asia Clean Energy Future

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...

  5. Coal investment and long term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia's coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia

  6. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    collaboration in dealing with the geohazards of the Russian Far East - Alaska region. Subduction within this segment of the Pacific Rim has produced 50% of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, numerous Pacific-crossing tsunamis, and the largest ash eruption in almost 200 years. Recognizing that Russia and the United States need to develop a whole-region perspective of disaster risk, scientists and program managers from several Russian and U.S. government agencies met at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in July to identify bilateral steps that would improve safety for communities of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska region. Significantly, the meeting included disaster preparation and response agencies EMERCOM and FEMA. Participants proposed development of a standing committee to advocate and facilitate bilateral collaboration, expanded exchange of real-time monitoring data, development of a strategy for monitoring currently unmonitored sections of plate and micro-plate boundaries, and holding of an inclusive, all-stakeholders meeting in the U.S. next year.

  7. Asia-Pacific consensus statements on Crohn's disease. Part 2: Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field. PMID:25819311

  8. 论美国“亚太再平衡战略”%American Rebalancing Strategy in the Asia -pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朋; 蒋立龙

    2014-01-01

    21世纪前十年,美国对外政策的重点是军事反恐,重心在中东。但是“反恐战争”的目标并未实现,伊斯兰世界更为极端的势力却乘机崛起。同时美国经济依旧疲软,其在世界上的“领导力”也在下降。同期的亚太尤其是东亚经济在中国发展的带动下却高速发展,使得二战后形成的亚太格局发生“失衡”。在这一背景下,美国提出了“亚太再平衡战略”,重点是“制衡”中国。这是冷战后美国做出的重大战略调整,也深刻影响着中国的周边国际政治环境和发展。美国的战略调整激化了该地区固有的矛盾,离散了区域合作,也使竞争与依赖并存的中美关系更加复杂化。本文试图通过探究美国“亚太再平衡”战略的背景及动因,分析“再平衡”战略布局及其局限,评估“再平衡”战略对中美关系的影响,探索构建中美“新型大国关系”的可行之道。%During the first decade of the 21st century ,,American strategic is focused on counterterror‐ism in the Middle East .But the war on terror has not successfully achieved the target of "take over" the Middle East .During the recent years ,the United States domestic economy continues to fall ,with rising budget deficits .While on the contrary ,the economic significantly got recovery and constantly improved with political and economic status in Asia Pacific ,especially in East Asia .Under this background ,the A‐merica put forward the strategy of "Asia- Pacific Rebalancing Strategy",which is one of the important strategic regulations after the cold war .This strategy also deeply affects the external environment of China and intensified the East China Sea ,w hich incurs South China Sea territorial disputes frequently and dis‐crete regional cooperation .Therefore it makes the China -U .S .relations much more complicated .This paper attempts to explore the background and motivation of "Asia

  9. American Rebalancing Strategy in the Asia -pacific Region%论美国“亚太再平衡战略”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朋; 蒋立龙

    2014-01-01

    During the first decade of the 21st century ,,American strategic is focused on counterterror‐ism in the Middle East .But the war on terror has not successfully achieved the target of "take over" the Middle East .During the recent years ,the United States domestic economy continues to fall ,with rising budget deficits .While on the contrary ,the economic significantly got recovery and constantly improved with political and economic status in Asia Pacific ,especially in East Asia .Under this background ,the A‐merica put forward the strategy of "Asia- Pacific Rebalancing Strategy",which is one of the important strategic regulations after the cold war .This strategy also deeply affects the external environment of China and intensified the East China Sea ,w hich incurs South China Sea territorial disputes frequently and dis‐crete regional cooperation .Therefore it makes the China -U .S .relations much more complicated .This paper attempts to explore the background and motivation of "Asia- Pacific Rebalancing Strategy"and a‐nalysis the limitation of "rebalancing strategy" by assessing the impact on the Sino -U .S .relations ,and exploring the construction of a "new type of power relations between China and America” .%21世纪前十年,美国对外政策的重点是军事反恐,重心在中东。但是“反恐战争”的目标并未实现,伊斯兰世界更为极端的势力却乘机崛起。同时美国经济依旧疲软,其在世界上的“领导力”也在下降。同期的亚太尤其是东亚经济在中国发展的带动下却高速发展,使得二战后形成的亚太格局发生“失衡”。在这一背景下,美国提出了“亚太再平衡战略”,重点是“制衡”中国。这是冷战后美国做出的重大战略调整,也深刻影响着中国的周边国际政治环境和发展。美国的战略调整激化了该地区固有的矛盾,离散了区域合作,也使竞争与依赖并存的中美关

  10. Modeling primary energy substitution in the Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model the market shares (i.e. energy mix) of gases, liquids and solids in the Asia Pacific. • The model matches the historical energy mix and projects three scenarios of the future mix to 2030. • We then model the past and future hydrogen to carbon ratio (a proxy for environmental quality). • Importance of natural gas in the region could increase significantly, depending on policy and tech progress. - Abstract: A Global Energy Market model (GEM) is used to analyze the market shares (i.e. the primary energy mix) of gases, liquids and solids in the Asia Pacific. The model is successful in matching the historical energy mix from 1850 to 2009. The model also provides a good match of the hydrogen to carbon ratio, which is a proxy for environmental quality. Given these validations, the GEM is then used to present scenarios of the Asia Pacific energy mix and hydrogen to carbon ratio until the year 2030. Three energy mix scenarios are presented – reference case; alternative case 1; alternative case 2. The reference case assumes limited divergence from current policies and technologies. It indicates that Asia Pacific energy needs will be met by approximately 46% solids, 34% liquids, and 20% gases by 2030. Alternative cases 1 and 2 represent policies and technologies that either encourage or discourage the use of gases. The good matches observed for historical data suggest the GEM can be used cautiously for evaluating outcomes and opportunities in the region. Although the model can be used for projecting far into the future, it is currently calibrated to what we consider a reasonable time horizon – until the year 2030. Given appropriate energy policies and sufficient technological advancement, the importance of natural gas in the region could increase significantly

  11. Tuberculosis in asia and the pacific: The role of socioeconomic status and health system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation.

  12. The Progress of Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific: Enabling International Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Sung Heun; Lim, Sang Won

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses on how to facilitate paperless trade for international supply chain integration in the Asia and Pacific region. The paper defines paperless trade and describes how paperless trade can improve efficiency of international supply chain, including its economic benefits. Based on the review of paperless trade initiatives and assessment of paperless trade readiness of countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the paper identifies five critical challenges in facilitating cross-b...

  13. The impact of body mass index on the associations of lipids with the risk of coronary heart disease in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Hirakawa, Y; Lam, TH; Welborn, T.; Kim, HC; Ho, S; Fang, X.; Ueshima, H; Suh, I; Giles, G; Woodward, M

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether body mass index (BMI) modifies the associations of lipids with coronary heart disease (CHD).In the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured for 333,297, 71,777 and 84,015 participants, respectively. All participants had measured BMI, categorized into underweight, normal, high-normal, overweight and obese, using standard definitions. For each BMI subgroup the effects of ...

  14. International Migration and Development in East Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Ahmad; Abella, Manolo; Beath,Andrew; Huang, Yukon; Luthria, Manjula; Nguyen, Trang

    2014-01-01

    The East Asia and Pacific region has an international emigrant population of over 21 million people, who remitted more than USD 90 billion to their home countries in 2010. The region also hosts more than 7 million migrant workers, mostly from other Asian countries. These migrant workers account for 20 percent or more of the labor force in economies such as Malaysia and Singapore and thus play a significant role in the economies of the labor-receiving countries. The aging of the population...

  15. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa

  16. Nuclear methods in soil-plant aspects of sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an FAO/IAEA regional seminar for Asia and the Pacific held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 5-9 April 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains 24 papers presented at the FAO/IAEA Regional Seminar for Asia and the Pacific organized by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and agriculture and held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, between 5-9 April 1993. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO's public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region. METHODS: We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD. We dichotomised each country's per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H and lower-middle/low (T-L. Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class. RESULTS: A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95% CI of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52, 0.33 (0.30-0.36 and 0.21 (0.18-0.23 for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 & HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher

  18. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field. PMID:25819140

  19. 美国重返亚太及其背后的中国因素%America’s Returning to the Asia-Pacific Region and the Underlying Chinese Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雪梅

    2014-01-01

    随着美军从伊拉克撤出和在阿富汗战场逐步收兵,美国战略重心开始向亚太转移,表现出日益强劲的攻势。无论从动机、背景还是从实际步骤和措施来看,美国重返亚太背后的中国因素十分浓重。对于中国来说,应有效应对美国实施重返亚太战略可能产生的各种不利影响;同时,牢牢把握中美关系的大局,走好中美新型大国关系之路。%With American troops' withdrawing from Iraq and retreating gradually from the battlefield of Afghanistan, America's centre of strategy gravity is being pushed and pulled increasingly towards Asia - Pacific region. Behind America's returning to the Asia-Pacific Region, there are many strong Chinese factors both from its motives or background and from processes or measures. For China, effective strategies should be put forward to all kinds of disadvantageous influence of America's returning to the Asia -Pacific region. Meanwhile, we should keep to the positive direction of China - US relations, and walk well the way of new great power relations between China and the USA.

  20. Population Education in the Nineties: A Quest for a Regional Programme Strategy in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This study is a response to the emerging needs and requirements for population management with respect to regional strategies for population education. Addresses problems of illiteracy, poverty, and other impediments to population-growth management through the further training of those involved in the education process. (MCO)

  1. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12-13 June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On June 12-13, 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control, the First Asia-Pacific Influenza Summit. The objectives of the meeting were to review the current state of official influenza control policies in Asia-Pacific countries; identify, summarize and communicate influenza control strategies that have successfully increased vaccine uptake in the region; develop policy and advocacy approaches to improve influenza vaccine uptake in high-risk groups and healthcare workers in the region; and establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices for the control of influenza. In moving forward, the challenge for the region will be establishing collaborations able to effectively communicate risk and key messages about influenza vaccination. PMID:23809609

  2. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12-13 June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On June 12-13, 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control, the First Asia-Pacific Influenza Summit. The objectives of the meeting were to review the current state of official influenza control policies in Asia-Pacific countries; identify, summarize and communicate influenza control strategies that have successfully increased vaccine uptake in the region; develop policy and advocacy approaches to improve influenza vaccine uptake in high-risk groups and healthcare workers in the region; and establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices for the control of influenza. In moving forward, the challenge for the region will be establishing collaborations able to effectively communicate risk and key messages about influenza vaccination.

  3. China and India: the struggle for regional maritime supremacy in the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Zientek, James B.

    2000-01-01

    The expanding economic and political power of China and India have led each country to extend its naval operations into the other's region of influence in order to safeguard economic/national interests. This expansion has led to suspicion and increased tension between the two countries. The thesis postulates that the continued operational expansion of China and India's naval forces into each other's claimed maritime domain is likely to trigger alliance formations and a naval arms buildup betw...

  4. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  5. Education in Asia and the Pacific: Reviews, Reports, and Notes. Number 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This volume consists of report summaries, literature reviews, and document annotations on the subject of education in Asia and the Pacific. The reviewed literature includes the following: "Reorientation and Reform of Secondary Education in the Asian and Pacific Region: A Status Report," edited by R.S. Adams; Unesco's "Primary Education on the…

  6. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  7. Report of the first Asia-Pacific Forum on antiviral treatment of influenza, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza, Bangkok, 14 June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On 14 June 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened the first Antiviral Forum jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control. The goals of the meeting were to improve pandemic planning in the region from lessons learned during the 2009 pandemic, particularly with regard to the safety and efficacy of antiviral use; gain a better understanding of the therapeutic use of antivirals in seasonal influenza; review and analyse the official influenza control policies of Asia-Pacific countries and evidence gaps to support policy development; and to establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices in the use of antivirals for the treatment of influenza. The urgent need for education highlighting the importance of influenza and the benefits of antiviral drug use in the Asia-Pacific region was identified. PMID:23756551

  8. Report of the first Asia-Pacific Forum on antiviral treatment of influenza, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza, Bangkok, 14 June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On 14 June 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened the first Antiviral Forum jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control. The goals of the meeting were to improve pandemic planning in the region from lessons learned during the 2009 pandemic, particularly with regard to the safety and efficacy of antiviral use; gain a better understanding of the therapeutic use of antivirals in seasonal influenza; review and analyse the official influenza control policies of Asia-Pacific countries and evidence gaps to support policy development; and to establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices in the use of antivirals for the treatment of influenza. The urgent need for education highlighting the importance of influenza and the benefits of antiviral drug use in the Asia-Pacific region was identified.

  9. CKD and Infectious Diseases in Asia Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vivekanand; Prasad, Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The exact number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia Pacific is uncertain. In numeric terms, the region is home to the largest population of patients with untreated chronic kidney failure. The climatic, geographic, social, cultural, economic, and environmental diversity within this region is higher than in any other part of the world. Large parts of the region face a climate-related burden of infectious diseases. Infections contribute to the development and progression of CKD and complicate the course of patients with pre-existing CKD (especially those on dialysis therapy or who are immunosuppressed), increase the cost of CKD care, and contribute to mortality and morbidity. Kidney involvement is a feature of several infectious diseases prevalent in Asia Pacific. Examples include malaria, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C virus, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan virus infections. The contribution of infection-associated acute kidney injury to the overall burden of CKD has not been evaluated systematically. Research is needed to quantify the impact of infections on kidney health by undertaking prospective studies. Nephrologists need to work with infectious disease research groups and government infection surveillance and control programs. PMID:26943982

  10. Learning to Live Together in Peace and Harmony: Values Education for Peace, Human Rights, Democracy, and Sustainable Development for the Asia-Pacific Region. A UNESCO-APNIEVE Sourcebook for Teacher Education and Tertiary Level Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This sourcebook is the outgrowth of a July, 1996 meeting held in Malacca, Malaysia, where the Asia Pacific Network for International Education and Values Education (APNIEVE) experts group articulated the Asia-Pacific longing for peace and harmony. The sourcebook is based on international education and values education, with emphasis on peace,…

  11. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  12. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth

  13. Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Clinical Recommendations for the Use of Donepezil 23 mg in Moderate-to-Severe Alzheimer's Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Marwan; Han, SeolHeui; Kim, SangYun; Na, Hae-Ri; Lee, Jae-Hong; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee; Senanarong, Vorapun; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Narilastri, Diatri; Sowani, Ajit M.; Ampil, Encarnita; Dash, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Background The ‘Asia-Pacific Expert Panel (APEX) for donepezil 23 mg’ met in November 2015 to review evidence for the recently approved high dose of donepezil and to provide recommendations to help physicians in Asia make informed clinical decisions about using donepezil 23 mg in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Summary In a global phase III study (study 326) in patients with moderate-to-severe AD, donepezil 23 mg/day demonstrated significantly greater cognitive benefits versus donepezil 10 mg/day, with a between-treatment difference in mean change in the Severe Impairment Battery score of 2.2 points (p < 0.001) in the overall population and 3.1 points (p < 0.001) in patients with advanced AD. A subanalysis of study 326 demonstrated that the benefits and risks associated with donepezil 23 mg/day versus donepezil 10 mg/day in Asian patients with moderate-to-severe AD were comparable to those in the global study population. Key Message Donepezil 23 mg is a valuable treatment for patients with AD, particularly those with advanced disease. The APEX emphasized the importance of patient selection (AD severity, tolerability of lower doses of donepezil, and absence of contraindications), a stepwise titration strategy for dose escalation, and appropriate monitoring and counseling of patients and caregivers in the management of patients with AD. PMID:27703471

  15. Clinical Recommendations for the Use of Donepezil 23 mg in Moderate-to-Severe Alzheimer's Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Sabbagh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘Asia-Pacific Expert Panel (APEX for donepezil 23 mg' met in November 2015 to review evidence for the recently approved high dose of donepezil and to provide recommendations to help physicians in Asia make informed clinical decisions about using donepezil 23 mg in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Summary: In a global phase III study (study 326 in patients with moderate-to-severe AD, donepezil 23 mg/day demonstrated significantly greater cognitive benefits versus donepezil 10 mg/day, with a between-treatment difference in mean change in the Severe Impairment Battery score of 2.2 points (p Key Message: Donepezil 23 mg is a valuable treatment for patients with AD, particularly those with advanced disease. The APEX emphasized the importance of patient selection (AD severity, tolerability of lower doses of donepezil, and absence of contraindications, a stepwise titration strategy for dose escalation, and appropriate monitoring and counseling of patients and caregivers in the management of patients with AD.

  16. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  17. Epidemiologic update of dengue in the Western Pacific Region, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Arima, Yuzo; Matsui, Tamano

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia Pacific region. Official dengue surveillance data for 2010 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on reported data, dengue has continued to show an increasing trend in the Western Pacific Region. In 2010, countries and areas reported a total of 353 907 dengue cases, of whic...

  18. Opportunities for the UK nuclear industry in the Asia-Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the background to the very dynamic nuclear market in the Asia-Pacific region. It summarizes what various countries in the region have attained and are planning. It is also useful to consider what is driving the market, what distinguishes it from other markets in the world and therefore where it will be going over the next few decades. (Author)

  19. The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Asia-Pacific Integration: Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Petri, Peter A.; Michael Plummer

    2012-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement, now in negotiation among nine Asia-Pacific countries, could yield annual global income gains of $295 billion (including $78 billion for the United States) and offers a pathway to free trade in the Asia-Pacific with potential gains of $1.9 trillion. The TPP is a crucial step on what is becoming a "Trans-Pacific track" of trade agreements, and its expected template promises to be unusually productive because it offers opportunities for the leading ...

  20. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Coombs, Geoffrey; Ling, Thomas; Balaji, V; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kim, Min-Ja; Rajasekaram, Datin Ganeswrie; Mendoza, Myrna; Tan, Thean Yen; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ni, Yuxing; Weinman, Barry; Xu, Yingchun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-04-01

    A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained ≥48 h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most β-lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial. PMID:27005459

  1. "Sub-axis" : the Changing Japanese Role in the U.S. Asia-Pacific Security Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, in order to effectively respond to the rapid rise of China, the Obama Administration has energetically implemented the "Asia-Pacific rebalancing" strategy, and actively encouraged Japan to play a bigger role in the Asia-Pacific geo-security affairs. Under promotion of the Obama Administration and the active operation by several Japanese administrations, over the years the Asia-Pacific security pattern with the United States as the "single axis" shows a more obvious change, i.e. gradually evolving to a pattern with "the United States playing core role and Japan secondary role". Firstly, through continuously strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance, and using the opportunity to promote development of its military strength, Japan constantly strengthens its "Strategic Autonomy" in the alliance. Secondly, through strengthening bilateral or trilateral security interactions with the United States and other Asia-Pacific allies, making "the U.S. and Japan +1" an important mechanism and platform for the United States and its Asia- Pacific allies to carry out security cooperation. Finally, Japan also takes the initiative to launch strategic security cooperation in various forms with the U.S. "strategic partners", such as India, Indonesia, Vietnam and others in the Asia-Pacific region. These measures not only upgrade Japan’s function and status in the alliance, but also steadily elevate the level of strategic cooperation with a series of important countries in Asia-Pacific and has further played an increasingly important connecting, supplementing and coordinating role in the Asia Pacific traditional "hub-spoke security structure", so its influence in regional security system also grows increasingly, thus, suddenly having become the "sub-axis", next to the United States, in the Asia-Pacific geosecurity pattern.

  2. Experience with WASP among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains the proceedings and the 15 papers presented during the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) Workshop on the WASP Computer Program held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 7-11 December 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Integration of Technology Education in Basic and General Education Curriculum in Asia-Pacific Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, C. K.

    Despite the expansion of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in nearly all Asia-Pacific countries during the past 10-15 years, many of the region's policymakers have called for greater and more effective integration of technical-vocational components in basic and general education curricula. The idea that technology education should…

  4. Noncardiac chest pain--an Asia-Pacific survey on the views of primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ting Kin; Lim, Paul Wah Yonn; Wong, Benjamin C Y

    2007-11-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is common and has a significant impact on health care. Primary care physicians (PCPs)' attitudes, clinical approach, preference of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, and comfort in managing patients with NCCP in the Asia-Pacific region are not known. Consequently, we performed this survey in the Asia-Pacific region. The self-completed questionnaire was sent to PCPs in the Asia-Pacific region. A 28-item questionnaire contained questions on demographic information, characteristics of practice, preferences of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, treatment plans, and opinion on Helicobacter pylori and NCCP. A total of 108 (74%) PCPs returned the questionnaire. A mean of 18% of the patients were diagnosed with NCCP by PCPs in the past 6 months. Ninety-four percent of PCPs had treated NCCP patients in the last 6 months. Only 38% of the PCPs were comfortable in diagnosing NCCP but 85.2% believed that they should manage NCCP patients. PCPs in Malaysia and Philippines were more likely to refer patients to subspecialists. Fifty-seven and four-tenths percent of PCPs believed that H. pylori infection plays a role in the development of NCCP. The study demonstrates clearly that the understanding, diagnostic strategies, and treatment strategies of NCCP in the Asia-Pacific region are suboptimal and thus highlights the importance of educational and training programs tailored for PCPs in NCCP. PMID:17436083

  5. Brokering Sonic Modernities: migrant Manila musicians in the Asia Pacific, 1881-1948

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Yamomo

    2015-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th and in the beginning of the 20th century, the Asia Pacific region was inevitably entangled with early modern globalisation. In this article the author examines the spread of town bands and popular music in this period, and the ways in which both the bands and their mus

  6. United Nations Literacy Decade in Asia and the Pacific: Progress to Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In December 2001, The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution to establish the United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD), 2003-2012. The UNLD stresses "Literacy for All: A voice for all, learning for all." The publication records UNLD activities in the Asia and Pacific region during 2003 to 2004 and introduces organizations…

  7. Emerging University Student Experiences of Learning Technologies across the Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, B. F. D.; Higa, C.; Ellis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred students across eight countries and eleven higher education institutions in the Asia Pacific Region participated in two courses on climate change and disaster management that were supported by learning technologies: a satellite-enabled video-conferencing system and a learning management system. Evaluation of the student experience…

  8. Malaysia. National Studies. Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This study examines the work of the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) since its 1987 inception. Efforts to assess educational achievement at the local, regional, and national levels in Malaysia are examined with a view to achieving universal primary education; eradicating illiteracy; and providing continuing education in support…

  9. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  10. Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, Number 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This UNESCO newsletter contains six sections concerned with various aspects of population education. Section 1 deals with workshops for monitoring and evaluating population education programs. Section 2 evaluates the programs of six Asia-Pacific countries (China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).…

  11. 2016 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Dear colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2016 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here.  The third Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics, AEPSHEP2016, to be held near Beijing, China, 12-25 October 2016, is open for applications (deadline 1st April 2016). AEPSHEP is held every second year, hosted in countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The first two schools in the series were held in Fukuoka, Japan, in 2012 and Puri, India, in 2014.  Applications to attend the school are invited particularly from students from countries in the Asia-Pacific region and from Europe, although applications from other regions will also be considered. The programme of the school will be at a level appropriate for PhD students in experimental particle physics. It is anticipated that students working on phenomenology (if not too far from experimental particle-physics) will also be accepted. The...

  12. 2014 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, on behalf of the Organising Committee

    2014-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2014 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here. The second Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics, AEPSHEP2014, to be held in Puri, India, from 4 to 17 November 2014, is now open for applications (deadline 11 April 2014). AEPSHEP is held every second year, hosted in countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The first School in the series was held in Fukuoka, Japan in 2012. Applications to attend the School are invited particularly from students from countries in the Asia-Pacific region and from Europe, although applications from other regions will also be considered. The programme of the school will be at a level appropriate for PhD students in experimental particle physics. It is anticipated that students working on phenomenology (if not too far from experimental particle-physics) will also be accepted. The School is open to junior post-docs (typically less than two years after completing their PhD), an...

  13. Regional initiatives to promote economic development in north East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, P.; Wiegmans, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic development potential of the Asian Pacific Rim, with a particular view on north East Asia. It is argued that growth triangles are likely to be a proper way of organizing regional development forces. Next, the attention is focused on the Tumen River Area Development Programme as a potentially interesting region for joint transnational development initiatives. The opportunities and threats of this area are explored by means of scenario analysis. It is conc1uded...

  14. Comparative effectiveness of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors and human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue as add-on therapies to sulphonylurea among diabetes patients in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising globally, and it induces a substantial public health burden to the healthcare systems. Its optimal control is one of the most significant challenges faced by physicians and policy-makers. Whereas some of the established oral hypoglycaemic drug classes like biguanide, sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones have been extensively used, the newer agents like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors and the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogues have recently emerged as suitable options due to their similar efficacy and favorable side effect profiles. These agents are widely recognized alternatives to the traditional oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin, especially in conditions where they are contraindicated or unacceptable to patients. Many studies which evaluated their clinical effects, either alone or as add-on agents, were conducted in Western countries. There exist few reviews on their effectiveness in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this systematic review is to address the comparative effectiveness of these new classes of medications as add-on therapies to sulphonylurea drugs among diabetic patients in the Asia-Pacific countries. We conducted a thorough literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE from the inception of these databases to August 2013, supplemented by an additional manual search using reference lists from research studies, meta-analyses and review articles as retrieved by the electronic databases. A total of nine randomized controlled trials were identified and described in this article. It was found that DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues were in general effective as add-on therapies to existing sulphonylurea therapies, achieving HbA1c reductions by a magnitude of 0.59-0.90% and 0.77-1.62%, respectively. Few adverse events including hypoglycaemic attacks were reported. Therefore, these two new drug classes represent novel therapies with great potential to be major

  15. Policy approaches to address the social and environmental determinants of health inequity in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Loring, Belinda; Aungkasuvapala, Narongsakdi; Baum, Fran; Blaiklock, Alison; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Cho, Youngtae; Dakulala, Paison; Guo, Yan; Hashimoto, Hideki; Horton, Kellie; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Matheson, Don; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Otto, Caleb; Rao, Mala; Reid, Paaparangi; Surjadi, Charles

    2012-11-01

    Asia Pacific is home to over 60% of the world's population and the fastest growing economies. Many of the leadership in the Asia Pacific region is becoming increasingly aware that improving the conditions for health would go a long way to sustaining economic prosperity in the region, as well as improving global and local health equity. There is no biological reason why males born in Cambodia can expect to live 23 years less than males born in Japan, or why females born in Tuvalu live 23 years shorter than females in New Zealand or why non-Indigenous Australian males live 12 years longer than Indigenous men. The nature and drivers of health inequities vary greatly among different social, cultural and geo-political contexts and effective solutions must take this into account. This paper utilizes the CSDH global recommendations as a basis for looking at the actions that are taking place to address the structural drivers and conditions of daily living that affect health inequities in the Asia Pacific context. While there are signs of action and hope, substantial challenges remain for health equity in Asia Pacific. The gains that have been made to date are not equally distributed and may be unsustainable as the world encounters new economic, social and environmental challenges. Tackling health inequities is a political imperative that requires leadership, political courage, social action, a sound evidence base and progressive public policy. PMID:23070757

  16. A Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction and Risk Transfer : Toward Concrete Action in South Asia and East Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2008-01-01

    This is a summary report of the South Asia Region and the East Asia Pacific regions training workshop from April 28-30, 2008 on the importance of disaster risk reduction and risk transfer including major concepts, models, and various applications of disaster risk reduction around the globe. This report represents an analysis and summary of the main presentations made during the course of t...

  17. 美国在亚太地区“雁阵安全模式”浅析%Study on US“Flying Geese Security Model”in Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊佑; 李志东

    2015-01-01

    Since Obama administration gets in office, “Flying Geese Security Model” has been taking shape under the influence of US Rebalancing to Asia-Pacific strategy. This model is different from “Hub-and-Spokes Security Model”, which came into being during the Cold War, or “Fan Security Model”, which came into being after the end of Cold War. The main features of “Flying Geese Security Model”include that US as the leading goose is directing its followers towards its targets, US-Japan alliance and US-South Korea alliance are the second echelon formation right behind the leading goose, US and its allies --Australia, Philippines and Thailand are the third echelon formation, US and other Asia-Pacific countries such as Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore and India are the fourth echelon formation. On the whole this model is like flying geese with a leading goose ahead and other geese following behind. Five aspects account for the formation of this security model, which are the changed global trends, the uniqueness of the Asia-Pacific region, the adjustment of the American Middle East policy, the US domestic situation and the rising China. The constructing “Flying Geese Security Model”will have great influence on US itself, China and the Asia-Pacific region.%奥巴马政府执政以来,在“再平衡”战略的背景下,美国在亚太地区逐渐形成了“雁阵安全模式”。这一模式不同于冷战时期的“轴毂安全模式”,也不同于冷战后的“扇形安全模式”。“雁阵安全模式”的主要特点是以美国为领头雁,指引雁阵所针对方向;紧随其后的第二梯队是美日同盟、美韩同盟;第三梯队是美国与澳大利亚、菲律宾和泰国等盟国的关系;第四梯队是美国与越南、印度尼西亚、新加坡和印度等国的关系;总体上形成“一雁领头、群雁跟随”的“雁阵”模式。这一安全模式形成的动因主要来自全球趋势的变化、亚太地

  18. The emerging epidemic of HIV infection and AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldor, J M; Sittitrai, W; John, T J; Kitamura, T

    1994-01-01

    The countries of Asia in 1988 did not seem to be at great risk of sharing in the virtually global HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV transmission was not occurring on a large scale in those countries and no dominant pattern of transmission had been established. That situation has, however, dramatically changed such that Asia and the Pacific are now fully part and parcel of the global pandemic. Indeed, Australia and New Zealand were among the first developed countries to record high rates of AIDS incidence during the early 1980s, while Thailand had documented alarming increases in HIV seroprevalence by 1988. In New Zealand and Australia, sex between men was quickly established as the dominant route of transmission, with IV drug use remaining a rare mode. IV drug use appears to have been the major transmission route in southern China, northern Malaysia, and northern Myanmar, while heterosexual transmission dominates in the majority of Asian and Pacific countries. Tuberculosis is the major opportunistic infection in the countries of Asia and a fungal pathogen of increasing importance in the region, Penicillium marneffei, had not been associated with HIV infection until the virus reached Asia. Some governments have been slow to respond, yet others including Australia and Thailand have implemented comprehensive national strategies. Many community level prevention activities are ongoing. Despite these activities and some important successes, HIV infection and its related social, economic, and political consequences continue to threaten Asia and the Pacific. PMID:7857551

  19. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, William A.; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J.; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D.; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-01-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more re...

  20. Liberalisation in a Asia Pacific--Why a Free Trade Area Would Benefit Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Oxley, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The dominant question in trade policy today is how to secure greater trade liberalisation in the Asia Pacific region. Most of the public discussion of this has been based on theoretical, rather than empirical, analyses of the economic conditions to be addressed. In addition, an important aspect of the political economy of trade liberalisation has been neglected. Thinking in Australia about how to promote trade liberalisation in the region has been deficient in as much as its contribution to h...

  1. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low level of…

  2. 美国亚太再平衡战略新阶段探析%On the New Phrase of U.S.Rebalance to the Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋军

    2016-01-01

    2015年4月6日,美国国防部长卡特首提下个阶段亚太再平衡战略。美国参联会和国防部分别于7月和8月公布的美国《国家军事战略》和《亚太海洋安全战略》,为步入新阶段的亚太再平衡战略制定了新规划,这战略由此展现出与先前阶段大为不同的新特点。总的来说,2015年年初以来,一个很重大的最新事态是,美国在战略外交和战略经济两个重要方面都取得了突破性新成果。%U.S.Defense Secretary Ashton Carter first mentioned the next phrase of U.S.Rebalance to the Asia-Pacific Region on April 6,2015.U.S.National Military Strategy,released by Joint Chiefs of Staff on July and Asia-Pacific Maritime Security Strategy by Defense Department on August have developed new planning for the rebalance and so it has shown some new features on this phrase which are quite different from those of the previous phrase. Overall U.S. Strategic Diplomacy and Strategic Economy have made break -through achievements from the beginning of this year.

  3. Asia-Pacific telecommunications liberalisation and productivity performance

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Gary G; Savage, Scott J; Ng, Jason

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the growth in total factor productivity (TFP) of 12 Asia-Pacific telecommunications carriers for the period 1987 through 1990. Carriers are chosen to represent the stages of telecommunications liberalisation identified by the International Telecommunication Union (1995a). A model relating TFP growth to output growth, changes in output mix, technology change and market competition and private ownership is estimated on a unique data set obtained from telecommunications...

  4. Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Climate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, making more geographic places inhospitable to human habitation and secure livelihoods. This report presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific. It draws upon a wealth of research to provide policy makers with informed analysis of an emerging phenomenon requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community. The report also suggests that clima...

  5. Trade and Business Cycle Correlations in Asia-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Kumakura, Masanaga; 熊倉, 正修

    2005-01-01

    Recent empirical studies challenge the traditional theory of optimum currency areas by arguing that a monetary union enhances trade and business cycle co-movements among its member countries sufficiently as to obviate the need for national monetary policy. This paper examines the empirical relationship between trade and business cycle correlations among thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, paying particular attention to the structural characteristics of their economies and other issues not explor...

  6. Successful Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition'2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Upon the expectation of practitioners in the die casting industry, the Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition'2005, sponsored by Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES) and China Productivity Promotion Center of Machinery Industry, organized by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES) and Productivity Promotion Center of Foundry Industry of China, was successfully held in INTEX Shanghai, China on August 13-17,2005.

  7. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  8. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  9. Asia-Pacific area shows big gains in processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Asia-Pacific region's buoyant refining and petrochemical industries that are reacting to lessons from the Persian gulf war. First-and least palatable-is the knowledge there is no alternative to oil from the Middle East to fuel headlong economic growth. Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait, resulting in the loss of crude oil from both countries and the flow of products from Kuwait's sophisticated refining complexes, hammered home another valuable lesson. In a crisis, the petroleum industry-oil exporting countries in particular-will in the short term find it easier to make substitute crude supplies available than to conjure up products from alternative processing capacity. The Japanese, as might be expected, are implementing new policies to take account of this lesson. Japan's tightly controlled refining sector has been told it can expand capacity for the first time in 18 years. And, with the blessing of the Japanese government, a group of companies led by Nippon Oil has agreed to a joint venture with Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that will lead to new refining capacity in Japan and a new export refinery in Saudi Arabia that is likely to be dedicated to the Japanese market

  10. Obesity and liver cancer mortality in Asia: the Asia Pacific Cohort Study Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, G David; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Chang, Charissa Y.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jamrozik, Konrad; WHITLOCK, Gary; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Fang, Xianghua; Lam, Tai H; Woodward, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While obesity is associated with liver cancer in studies from western societies, the paucity of data from Asia limits insights into its aetiological role in this population. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and liver cancer using data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. In 309,203 Asian study members, four years of follow-up gave rise to 11,135 deaths from all causes, 420 of which were ascribed to liver cancer. BMI, whether categorised according to cu...

  11. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef Survey and Management…

  12. 3rd Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    AEPSHEP (Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics) is a series of Schools held in the Asia-Pacific region every two years, in even-numbered years. It caters to students at a similar level to the annual CERN-JINR European School of High-Energy physics, and the CERN Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics (held every two years, in odd-numbered years). AEPSHEP is built upon the experience from these Schools as well as from the successful France-Asia Particle-Physics School. The purpose of the School is to provide young physicists with an opportunity to learn about recent advances in elementary-particle physics from world-leading researchers. It also aims to encourage communications among Asian, European and Pacific-region young researchers. The School provides High-Energy Physics courses from an experimental and phenomenological perspective, with a focus on accelerator-based programmes in Asia and Europe, and other related fields such as astro-particle physics and cosmological aspects of particle ...

  13. Understanding of the U.S. Asia-Pacific Security Strategy:From the “Convergent Security” Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Lianhe

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Asia-Pacific policy is at a turning point. The "rebalancing" strategy,structured and implemented during Obama’s first term has produced extensive and sustained impacts, but still needs further adjustment in the evolving situation of the Asia-Pacific region.During the second term, based on re-evaluation of U.S. national security interests and U.S.relationship with countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the Obama Administration carefully modifies its "Asia-Pacific rebalancing" strategy, gives it the obvious character of "convergent security". Under the guidance of "convergent security" strategy, the United States will continue to maintain its bilateral security commitments, and play the leading role through more planning or participating in regional multilateral mechanisms and multilateral initiatives.Shifting from the traditional position of prioritizing bilateralism to equal emphasis on bilateralism and multilateralism in strategic arrangements is considered to be the most realistic option for the United States to safeguard its interests in the Asia-Pacific region under the current domestic political and economic conditions.

  14. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health...

  15. FEATURES AND COMPARISONS OF THE QUASI-BIENNIAL VARIATIONS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC MONSOON SUBSYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin; LI Chun-hui; LIN Ai-lan; GU De-jun

    2009-01-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data Climate Diagnostics Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) results,and NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (SST),have been utilized in this paper to study the quasi-biennial variations in Asia-Pacific monsoon subsystems and associated SST anomalies (SSTA) and wind anomalies. Four monsoon indices are computed fi,om NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis to represent the South Asian monsoon (SAM),South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM),Western North Pacific monsoon (WNPM) and East Asian monsoon (EAM),respectively. The quasi-biennial periods are very significant in Asia-Pacific monsoons (as discovered by power spectrum analysis),and for SAM and EAM---with moderate effects by EI Ni(n)o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)---the quasi-biennial periods are the most important factor. For SCSSM and WNPM (once again due to the effects of ENSO),the quasi-biennial periods are of secondary durations. There are obvious interdecadal variations in the quasi-biennial modes of the Asia-Pacific monsoon,so in the negative phase the biennial modes will not be significant or outstanding. The wind anomalies and SSTA associated with the biennial modes are very different in the SAM. WNPM and EAM regions. Since the WNPM and SCSSM are very similar in the biennial modes,they can be combined into one subsystem,called SCS/WNPM.

  16. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  17. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced ''Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics

  18. 论美国“亚太再平衡”战略%On America“Asia Pacific Rebalancing” Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭吉华; 严培

    2015-01-01

    美国“亚太再平衡”战略的提出,一方面是为了提振美国经济,另一方面也是为了加强在亚太的军事存在。“亚太再平衡”战略提出之后,美国采取了一系列的举动来提升它在亚太地区的影响力。政治上,美国加大了对亚太各国外交的投入;在经济上,美国通过TPP力求掌握亚太经济主导权;在军事上加大了军事人员和装备的部署。通过其整个“再平衡”过程不难看出,美国“亚太再平衡”战略只不过是霸权主义和实用主义的延续而已,它追求在亚太地区以大国制衡为着力点,在手段上软硬兼施,希望在亚太地区获得更多战略利益。%The United States proposes“Asia Pacific rebalancing” strategy, one hand is to boost American economy, the oth-er hand is also to strengthen Asia Pacific military presence.After “Asia Pacific rebalancing” strategy is proposed, the United States takes a series of actions to enhance its influence in Asia Pacific region.In the politicas, the United States increases its in-vestment in Asia Pacific foreign affairs;in the economy, the United States masters Asia Pacific economic dominance through TPP;in the military, America increases the deployment of military personnel and equipment.Through its entire“rebalancing” process, it is not difficult to see that American“Asia Pacific rebalancing” strategy is only a continuation of imperialism and pragmatism, it seeks the balance of great powers in Asia Pacific region as the focal point, acts tough and talks soft in means, hopes to get more strategic interests in Asia Pacific region.

  19. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology's Grand Rounds Around the World-An Online Educational Program Freely Accessible to All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis; Leung, Christopher; He, Mingguang; Tham, Clement; Liu, Yizhi; Pang, Calvin; Martin, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Grand rounds are excellent learning platforms for physicians and other health care professionals to keep up with important evolving areas in the management and treatment models of various diseases. However, there are hardly any freely accessible grand rounds in ophthalmology to meet the need for ophthalmic education in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology would like to meet the need by sponsoring a new initiative "Grand Rounds Around the World" so that ophthalmologists and eye care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond can benefit from the program, leading to improved patient care and the elimination of learning barriers.

  20. Pharmacological and Safety Profile of Dexlansoprazole: A New Proton Pump Inhibitor - Implications for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khean Lee; Choi, Myung Gyu; Hsu, Ping I; Chun, Hoon Jai; Mahachai, Varocha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kim, Nayoung; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Wu, Justin; Chiu, Cheng Tang; Shetty, Vikram; Bocobo, Joseph C; Chan, Melchor M; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-07-30

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia. PMID:26932927

  1. Pharmacological and Safety Profile of Dexlansoprazole: A New Proton Pump Inhibitor – Implications for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asia Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khean Lee; Choi, Myung Gyu; Hsu, Ping I; Chun, Hoon Jai; Mahachai, Varocha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kim, Nayoung; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Wu, Justin; Chiu, Cheng Tang; Shetty, Vikram; Bocobo, Joseph C; Chan, Melchor M; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia. PMID:26932927

  2. 亚太地区部分国家肿瘤防控概况%A Survey of Cancer Prevention and Control in Several countries in Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莹

    2011-01-01

    文章介绍了亚太地区的柬埔寨、老挝、马来西亚、蒙古和越南等5个国家的肿瘤预防和控制工作,以及取得的成效和经验.总结了肿瘤防控取得成效关键在于要确立全国性的肿瘤预防和控制策略,结合资源选择适宜技术和防控手段和做好肿瘤登记工作.%This article described the situation, achievements and experience of cancer prevention and control in 5 countries in Asia-Pacific region, which are Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia,Mongolia and Vietnam. It is concluded that developing national strategy for cancer prevention and control, identifying and implementing resource-matched measurement and technology,and establishing cancer registries are critical for those achievements.

  3. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters.

  4. An overview of Korean patients with mucopolysaccharidosis and collaboration through the Asia Pacific MPS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Yoon; Sohn, Young Bae; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a constellation of disorders characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in tissues and organs. This accumulation results in the deterioration and degeneration of multiple organs. This paper describes the general distribution of types of MPS in patients, their clinical characteristics and genotypes, the development of animal studies and preclinical studies, enzyme replacement therapy in South Korea, and the development of idursulfase beta and clinical trials on idursulfase beta in South Korea. In addition, this paper discusses academic collaboration among specialists in MPS care in the Asia-Pacific region, which includes Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and South Korea, through an organization called the Asia-Pacific MPS Network (APMN). The Asia-Pacific MPS Registry, an electronic remote data entry system, has been developed by key doctors in the APMN. Rare diseases require international cooperation and collaboration to elucidate their mechanisms and carry out clinical trials; therefore, an organization such as the APMN is required. Furthermore, international collaboration among Asian countries and countries around the world will be of utmost importance in the future. PMID:25364648

  5. Research report for fiscal 1998 including researches into global environmental problems. Business report on the promotion of interaction of scientists over environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1998 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Global environmental problems are growing quite serious in developing countries, yet they are requested to properly deal with them without making light of sustainable development, for which international cooperation and diffusion of technologies for the development of environmental technologies are mandatory. Japan, utilizing what it learned from pollution within in the past and making the best use of its technologies and knowledge for environmental improvement in developing countries in Asia, has been hosting since fiscal 1997 a function of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region function. In fiscal 1998, a fifth international symposium was convened at Science City Center at the foot of Mt. Suzuka on November 26 and 27. The central theme was the development of environmental technologies and international cooperation for developing nations, and the event attracted 180 participants from inside Japan and abroad. A number of concrete themes came out of working groups on water quality, air quality, and energy/waste, which concerned the drafting of propositions for international collaborative researches. As for researches abroad, four typical Malaysian institutes were visited. (NEDO)

  6. Welfare Changes and Sectoral Adjustments of Asia-Pacific Countries under Alternative Sequencings of Free Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Itakura; Hiro Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we compare welfare effects and the extent of sectoral adjustments of the member countries under alternative free trade agreement (FTA) sequencings in the Asia-Pacific region using a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. If a Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement under one sequencing and an East Asian FTA (EAFTA) under another sequencing will enter into force at the same time, followed by more enlarged FTAs, then a larger number of countries are expected to rea...

  7. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular institutiona

  8. 商法语境下亚太商贸规则一体化思辨%Reflection on Integration of Commercial and Trade Rules in Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊彦

    2014-01-01

    Along with the international commercial and trade center turning from the Atlantic area to the Pacific region,the integration construction of the Asia-Pacific commercial and trade rules has been put on the agenda. In theory,local rule theory was Chinese scholars’inferior alternatives during economy transition,based on the condition of inadequate information.However,china has now come into a new period of economic globalization in which unified rule theory is the optimal choice.In the Marxist classics,we found the real body on behalf of the world spirit,namely global commercial and trade spirit.In practice,under the APEC Bogor Declaration,all countries in Asia-Pacific had launched ASEAN path (RCEP)and USA path (TPP),but these ways leading to the FTAAP had encountered some problems like “Prisoner’s Dilemma”,“Collective Action Paradox”and“Spaghetti Bowl Effect”.In method,we should construct an open and equal unified platform,the gradual and flexible unified path,and the unified model law originated from commercial and trade habits.%随着国际商贸的中心由大西洋地区转向太平洋地区,亚太商贸规则一体化建构被提上日程。从理论上思辨,规则本土观是经济转型时期中国学者在信息不充分条件下的次优选择,而规则统一观是经济全球化时期商贸社会的最优选择,在马克思经典著作中我们找到了表征世界精神的现实承载体,即全球化的商贸精神。从实践上思辨,围绕亚太经合组织的贸物目标,亚太各国相继形成了东盟路径(RCEP)与美国路径(TPP),然而上述两条进路在通往对亚太整体更为有利的亚太自由贸易协定(FTAAP)的过程中,却存在“囚徒困境”、“集体行动困境”以及“面碗困境”。从方法上思辨,应当建构起开放、平等的统一平台,渐进、灵活的统一路径,以及渊源于商贸习惯的统一示范法。

  9. Evolution of the Asia-Pacific Trade Architecture: Stocktake and Future Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Scollay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key sets of questions underlying Asia Pacific economic cooperation over the last decade has been over the nature and form of the regional trade architecture that would gradually emerge from the turmoil of the Asia-Pacific “noodle bowl” of bilateral and plurilateral FTAs, and how that architecture would accommodate the separate impulses of East Asian and trans-Pacific economic integration.Calls for East Asian economic integration took center-stage in the wake of the East Asian economic crisis of 1997/98, and were quickly reflected in the proposal for an East Asian Free Trade Area (EAFTA based on the ASEAN plus Three groups. The subsequent development of the so-called “ASEAN Plus One” FTAs both provided a feasible way forward in the absence of a politically viable basis for integration among the major Northeast Asian economies, and also entrenched the idea of East Asian economic integration as an “ASEAN-centered” process. Japan’s proposal for a Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA, based on an ASEAN plus Six groups of countries that comprised the then membership of the East Asian Summit (EAS, subsequently provided an alternative configuration for a region-wide trade bloc based on East Asia. Since then the EAFTA and CEPEA initiatives have moved forward in parallel, but no agreement has been reached to commence formal negotiations in either case. This paper has presented the state of play and future outlook for each of the three initiatives as they appeared at the time of the 2010 APEC leaders’ meeting. This has been followed by a discussion of developments in these initiatives in 2011, as well as possible implications for these initiatives of developments in other arenas

  10. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  11. The changing face of crises and aid in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Elin A; Burkle, Frederick M; Hamon, David W; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture. PMID:25268048

  12. The changing face of crises and aid in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Elin A; Burkle, Frederick M; Hamon, David W; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture.

  13. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzo Arima; Tamano Matsui

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia Pacific region. Official dengue surveillance data for 2010 provided by the ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on reported data, dengue has continued to show an increasing trend in the Western Pacific Region. In 2010, countries and areas reported a total of 353 907 dengue cases, of ...

  14. Green Growth, Resources and Resilience. Environmental Sustainability in Asia and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    While regional countries are driving the global 'green growth' agenda, policymakers are facing a new economic reality and heightened uncertainty. The challenge of eco-efficient economic growth and inclusive resource use is critical and growing in several countries. Fundamental, rather than incremental changes are needed. Governments must therefore take the lead in re-orienting both the 'visible' and the 'invisible' economic infrastructure. At the same time the implications of heightened uncertainty and risk for policymaking requires more attention. This report highlights changes in the policy landscape that have taken place since 2005, focuses on the emerging challenges of resources and resilience, presents new regional and country data produced by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia (CSIRO) and UNEP, and provides insights to key policy arenas for greening of growth. The report is the sixth in a series of reports produced every five years by ESCAP for the Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development. It is also the third in the ADB's Asian Environment Outlook series. This year, it complements a UNEP report: Resource Efficiency: Economics and Outlook for Asia and the Pacific (Canberra, CSIRO Publishing), providing new insights into regional use of key resources, and what that means for economies in the Asia-Pacific Region. The report is also intended to support stakeholders preparing for Rio+20.

  15. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events. PMID:27441290

  16. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. First ICSU Regional Meeting for Asiaand the Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongrenZhang; JoyPereira

    2005-01-01

    The First International Council for Science(ICSU) Regional Meeting for Asia and the Pacific was held from April 25-27, 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The meeting was hosted by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Malaysia and the Academy of Sciences Malaysia. Welcoming remarks were delivered by Tan Sri Datuk Dr. Ahmad Zaharudin Idrus, President,Academy of Sciences Malaysia and Prof. Thomas Rosswall, Executive Director,ICSU. His Excellency Dato' Sri Dr. Jamaludin Jarjis, Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation, Malaysia opened the meeting.About 40 participants attended the meeting,representing national science academies from the Asia Pacific and international scientific unions that are active in the region. The International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) was represented by the President,Prof. Zhang Hongren. Dr. Joy Pereira, Chair of the IUGS Commission on Geoscience for Environmental Management (IUGS-GEM)also attended the meeting as an Observer.

  18. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  19. Shift of the U.S.Strategic Focus to the Asia-Pacific Region:Historical Evolution and Development Trends%美国战略重心东移的历史演变与发展趋向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程桂龙

    2015-01-01

    美国自20世纪90年代起就开启了战略东移的步伐,2009年奥巴马政府上台后这一进程加快,特别是美国大中东战略、全球战略受挫,以及以中国为主体的亚太新兴国家的崛起,起了激化作用。战略重心东移是美国国家战略重心演变的必然结果,有其必要的理论支撑及现实考虑,但在其发展过程中仍受到国内、域内、域外等因素的阻碍,从目前的情势看,未来美国战略重心东移将重点在战略对象、战略区域、战略思想等方面发生转变,并在广度与深度上有所体现。%The United States has opened up its pace of strategic eastward shift since the 1990s.The process has been acceler-ated after the Obama administration took office in 2009,and intensified especially by the frustration of the large American Middle East strategy and Global Strategy as well as the rise of the main Asia-Pacific emerging countries like China.This transition is an inevitable result of the evolution of the strategic focus of US and has its necessary theoretical support and practical considerations, but suffers some obstructions from the country and inside-and-outside the region in the course of development.Judging from the current situation,the future of the US strategic center moving eastward will change in its object,region and thought,which will be reflected in the breadth and depth.

  20. Gas export potential of Russia's East: Will it match Asia-Pacific markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia's Far East and East Siberia are emerging as new major sources of gas supplies for East Asian energy markets. Thanks to ongoing and earmarked resource and infrastructure developments in Sakhalin, Yakutia (Sakha) and Irkutsk, by around 2020 these poorly developed but naturally endowed areas of the country's East can provide between 50 and 70 Bcm/yr (5-7 Bcfd) of natural gas, including up to 10 Mt/yr of LNG, available for exports to neighbouring Pacific countries (primarily to the PRC, Japan, South Korea as well as to Taiwan and the U.S. West Coast). This can noticeably reshape today's matrix of the Asia-Pacific energy flows and even destabilize the regional gas market. (author)

  1. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tamano Matsui; Hwi Kwang Han; Zoe Rebecca Edelstein; Yuzo Arima

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia and the Pacific. Official dengue surveillance data for 2011 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on officially reported surveillance data, dengue continued to show sustained activity in the Western Pacific Region. In 2011, Member States reported a total of 244 855 cases o...

  2. IAEA/RCA regional TC project for East Asia and the Pacific: Restoration of soil fertility and sustenance of agricultural productivity (RAS/5/039). Part II. Soil erosion/sedimentation and associated pesticide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing attention is being paid to accelerated soil erosion and associated land degradation because of their impact on sustainable development and environmental protection. Soil erosion and associated sedimentation cause not only on site degradation of a non-renewable natural resource but also offsite problems such as downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication and reservoir siltation. There is, therefore, an urgent need for obtaining reliable quantitative data on the extent and actual rates of soil erosion worldwide to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the magnitude of the problems, actual rates of erosion and sedimentation and to define suitable major land use types and underpin the selection of effective soil conservation measures. The use of fallout radionuclides, in particular the 137Cs technique affords an effective and valuable means for studying erosion and deposition within the landscape. The key advantage of this approach is that it can provide retrospective information on medium-term erosion/deposition rates and spatial patterns of soil redistribution, without the need for long-term monitoring programmes. The overall objective of this project is to develop improved soil, water, nutrient, and crop management practices while counteracting predominant soil degradation processes to increase and sustain crop productivity in the East Asia and Pacific region. To achieve this two complimentary approaches are utilized. We refer here specifically to Part II, whose specific objective is to measure soil erosion/ sedimentation rates and associated pesticide contamination. For this purpose, the 137Cs and related techniques will be utilized to measure erosion/sedimentation rates and to define soil distribution patterns in the landscape. Also radiotracer and conventional techniques will be applied to determine pesticide contamination levels in soil, water and plant. This part of the project will

  3. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo.9 No.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This article includes `JAPAC International Symposium: Coal Flow 1997,` `Study to consolidate infrastructure to import overseas coal,` and `China`s coal-fired thermal power development plans and Japan`s subjects.` The theme of Coal Flow 1997 was `The supply and demand of coal up to 2020 - Its outlook and related issues.` The main subject for discussion was `a review of the long-term outlook for coal supply and demand from now into the year 2020 in coal producing and consuming members of the Asia-Pacific community, of which economic growth rate is expected to continue.` For the study to consolidate infrastructure to import overseas coal, subjects for stable Australian coal supply under environmental constraints are outlined. Coal resources and reserves in Australia, Australia`s coal supply capabilities, and export markets for Australian coal and its supply capabilities to Japan are discussed. For China`s coal-fired thermal power development plans and Japan`s subjects, subjects of coal-fired thermal power, coal-fired thermal power development plans and foreign-funded projects, and Japan`s cooperation and subjects are outlined. 26 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L–H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas. (paper)

  5. The Geo-economic Situation in the Asia-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Mengzi

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "the Asia-Pacific" is more than a simple descriptive geographical term, denoting anything from the specific area of EastAsia plus Southeast Asia to just the concept of a vast area in the East.

  6. COMPARATIVE LEGAL STUDIES: ROMANO-GERMANIC LEGAL SYSTEMS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry A. Verkhoturov; Andrey A. Verkhoturov

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the differences in the national legal doctrines of the Asia-Pacific countries included in the Romano-Germanic legal family of legal systems. The article shows that various Pacific Rim countries of the same legal family have substantial differences between national legal systems. The article also identifies main trends of comparative legal studies development in these countries.

  7. The Asia-Pacific rebalance: impact on U.S. naval strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Schelcher, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the development of the Asia-Pacific rebalance and its possible effects on United States naval strategy over the next several decades. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the Asian rebalance in order to improve future strategic choices governing the employment of the United States Navy in Asia. It argues that the Asia-Pacific rebalance and its effects continue to emphasize the importance of the U.S. Navy due to the increasing importance of U.S. economic, polit...

  8. Political Economy of the Asia-Pacific Free Trade Area: A Dilemma for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific Free Trade Area (FTAAP) has become a topic of focus since the proposal was first raised in 2004. The present paper considers China's policy towards the FTAAP from a political economy perspective by probing the gains, impediments and concerns for China, and makes judgments based on several possible scenarios. The author argues that from an economic perspective, China would benefit from joining the FTAAP both in a static and a dynamic manner because both its main trade partners and trade barriers in export markets are concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region. However, whether the Chinese Government is likely to support the initiative is largely dependent on certain crucial political and diplomatic elements, including the APEC approach, US-Chinese relations, quality of treaty, sensitive sectors, competitive proposal of alternative and membership of Chinese Taipei. Therefore, if the Chinese Government cannot ratify the ideology and terms of the initiative, or issues that are central to China's interests are not addressed, the FTAAP will only remain a proposal possessing economic possibility in the long run, without political feasibility in the near term.

  9. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Yang; He, Gengsheng; Li, Liangli; Zeng, Lingxia; Hadi, Hamam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Hoe, Ng See; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2016-03-01

    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice. PMID:24997194

  10. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vol.9. No.1. Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Third APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Coal Flow Seminar was held featuring regional investment strategies for coal, power infrastructure, and technology transfer in Terrigal, Australia in 26-28, November, 1996. This publication introduces the summary and the papers presented for the keynote speeches and the panels of this seminar. For the keynote speeches, `Investment requirements for steaming coal supplies in APEC member economies,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC regional coal chain,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment in clean coal power plants,` and `Role of multilateral development banks in financing clean coal technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission` were presented. In addition, summary and papers describing individual situations of APEC member economies are introduced. 59 refs., 42 figs., 37 tabs.

  11. Harmonization of regulations on food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has the potential to overcome certain problems with food safety, to control insect pests and to increase the shelf-life of fresh produce. In view of this it is desirable for countries in the Asia and Pacific regions to introduce appropriate regulations in preparation for an increase in demand for irradiated food products. The introduction of such regulatory controls should be done consistently, leading to uniform regulations that reflect internationally accepted control measures. This document is based on a seminar held in Malaysia from 20 to 24 January 1992. Twenty-two invited presentations and seven contributed papers describe the current status of food irradiation in the region and the world, with particular emphasis on regulatory control requirements, the acceptance of irradiation by consumers and its adoption by industry. Refs, figs, tabs, graphs and charts

  12. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992

  13. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992

  14. Possible influence of western North Pacific monsoon on TC activity in mid-latitudes of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the correlation between tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and the Western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI), which have both been influential in East Asia's mid-latitude regions during the summer season over the past 37 years (1977-2013). A high positive correlation existed between these two variables, which was not reduced even if El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years were excluded. To determine the cause of this positive correlation, the highest (positive WNPMI phase) and lowest WNPMIs (negative WNPMI phase) during a nine-year period were selected to analyze the mean difference between them, excluding ENSO years. In the positive WNPMI phase, TCs were mainly generated in the eastern seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the East China Sea and moving northward toward Korea and Japan. In the negative phase, TCs were mainly generated in the western seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the South China Sea and moving westward toward China's southern regions. Therefore, TC intensity in the positive phase was stronger due to the acquisition of sufficient energy from the sea while moving a long distance up to East Asia's mid-latitude. Additionally, TCs occurred more in the positive phase. Regarding the difference of the two phases between the 850 and 500-hPa streamlines, anomalous cyclones were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, whereas anomalous anticyclones were strengthened in East Asia's mid-latitude regions. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed in East Asia's mid-latitude regions, which played a role in the anomalous steering flows that moved TCs into these regions. Furthermore, due to the anomalous cyclones that developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, more TCs could be generated in the positive phase. Both the lower and upper tropospheric layers had warm anomalies

  15. Japanese Mapping of Asia-Pacific Areas, 1873-1945: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kobayashi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese mapping in the Asia-Pacific region up to 1945 calls for scrutiny, because its development was a multifaceted process with military, administrative, political, and cultural dimensions. This article traces the changes in Japanese mapping of overseas areas to the end of World War II and assesses the significance of the resulting maps, called gaihōzu, as sources for East Asian history. As implements of military operation and colonial administration, the gaihōzu were produced during a protracted period by various means under changing circumstances. Expanding military activity also promoted differentiation among the gaihōzu by increasing the use of maps originally produced in foreign countries. In conclusion, the need for detailed cataloging, in combination with chronologically arranged index mapping, is emphasized for the systematic use of the gaihōzu.

  16. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  17. The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hallmark, Brian; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F; Cox, Murray P

    2013-03-01

    Indonesia, an island nation linking mainland Asia with the Pacific world, hosts a wide range of linguistic, ethnic and genetic diversity. Despite the complexity of this cultural environment, genetic studies in Indonesia remain surprisingly sparse. Here, we report mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and associated Y-chromosome diversity for the largest cohort of Indonesians examined to date-2740 individuals from 70 communities spanning 12 islands across the breadth of the Indonesian archipelago. We reconstruct 50 000 years of population movements, from mitochondrial lineages reflecting the very earliest settlers in island southeast Asia, to Neolithic population dispersals. Historic contacts from Chinese, Indians, Arabs and Europeans comprise a noticeable fraction of Y-chromosome variation, but are not reflected in the maternally inherited mtDNA. While this historic immigration favored men, patterns of genetic diversity show that women moved more widely in earlier times. However, measures of population differentiation signal that Indonesian communities are trending away from the matri- or ambilocality of early Austronesian societies toward the more common practice of patrilocal residence today. Such sex-specific dispersal patterns remain even after correcting for the different mutation rates of mtDNA and the Y chromosome. This detailed palimpsest of Indonesian genetic diversity is a direct outcome of the region's complex history of immigration, transitory migrants and populations that have endured in situ since the region's first settlement.

  18. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  19. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F.; Delinom, R.; Shoji, J.; Fujii, M.; Baba, K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and economic development are causing increased pressure on water, energy and food resources, presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts among these resources. Therefore, the water-energy-food nexus is one of the most important and fundamental global environmental issues facing the world. For the purposes of this research project, we define human-environmental security as the joint optimization between human and environmental security as well as the water-energy-food nexus. To optimize the governance and management within these inter-connected needs, it is desirable to increase human-environmental security by improving social managements for the water-energy-food nexus. In this research project, we intend to establish a method to manage and optimize the human-environmental security of the water-energy-food nexus by using integrated models, indices, and maps as well as social and natural investigations with stakeholder analyses. We base our approach on the viewpoint that it is important for a sustainable society to increase human-environmental security with decreasing risk and increasing resilience by optimizing the connections within the critical water-energy and water-food clusters. We will take a regional perspective to address these global environmental problems. The geological and geomorphological conditions in our proposed study area are heavily influenced by the so-called 'Ring of Fire,' around the Pacific Ocean. Within these areas including Japan and Southeast Asia, the hydro-meteorological conditions are dominated by the Asia monsoon. The populations that live under these natural conditions face elevated risk and potential disaster as negative impacts, while also benefitting from positive ecological goods and services. There are therefore tradeoffs and conflicts within the water-energy-food nexus, as well as among various stakeholders in the region. The objective of this project is to maximize human

  20. 1- HARPs of the Pacific Islands Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information on acoustic recordings of cetaceans collected from areas within the Pacific Islands Region since 2006. In collaboration with...

  1. Asia Pacific super grid. Solar electricity generation, storage and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, Andrew [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems; Luther, Joachim [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Nadolny, Anna [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the large scale transmission of solar electricity to Southeast Asia from Australia. Despite the expense and losses incurred in long distance transmission of Australian solar electricity, it appears to be competitive with locally produced solar electricity because of high insolation levels in Australia. Supplementation of locally produced electricity (both from renewable and conventional sources) with power from Australia, together with substantial integrated energy storage, would allow a high solar electricity fraction to be achieved in Southeast Asia. (orig.)

  2. Two Essays on Regional Economic Integration in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Josef T.

    2004-01-01

    Regional economic integration in East Asia has gained momentum in the aftermath of the 1997 financial crisis and the escalation of international terrorism. In the first essay, the integration process in Europe and East Asia is compared briefly. This is followed by a discussion on the expansion process by the European Union and how East Asia can learn from this. In particular, the concern is how to integrate the CMLV countries in a meaningful way. Proposals deal with the impact of freer moveme...

  3. 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Saik; Krob, Daniel; Lui, Pao; Tan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the second edition of the Asia-Pacific conference on « Complex Systems Design & Management Asia» (CSD&M Asia 2016) that took place in Singapore from February 24 to February 26, 2016 (Website: http://www.2016.csdm-asia.net/). These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Complex Systems, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on Smart Nations: Designing and Sustaining. The CSD&M Asia 2016 conference is organized under the guidance of the Singapore division of the Center of Excellence on Systems Architecture, Management, Economy and Strategy (CESAMES) – Legal address: C.E.S.A.M.E.S. Singapore – 16 Raffles Quay – #38-03 Hong Leong Building – Singapore 048581 (website : http://www.cesames.net/en – email: contact@cesames.net).

  4. New development of USA’s Rebalance to Asia and its impacts to regional Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Yi

    2014-01-01

    <正>Since July 2010,U.S.Secretary of the Department of State Hillary Rodham Clinton declared Return to Asia when she was attending the annual ARF,the Obama administration has taken comprehensive measures including military,political,economic and cultural instruments to influence countries in the West Pacific region.Obviously,USA has witnessed quite a few achievements which are very concerned by

  5. 3D strength map of the Asia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetskiy, Y. L.; Baranov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern and Central Asia is a tectonically complex region which characterized by the great collision between the Asian and Indian plates. Its tectonic evolution is strongly related to the active subduction process along the Pacific border. Stress investigation in the continental crust is a very important problem not only for science but also for the practical purposes. There are four main factors which produce tectonic stresses: gravity anomalies of the crust, density inhomogeneities, deformation from area with intraplate collision, residual elastic deformations and underthrust stresses conditions from convective mantle. We present the stress model of the crust and lithosphere for the Central and Southern Asia on the basis of the finite element modeling. For the crust we take the elasto-plastic rheology with Drucker-Prager criterion. In the lithosphere the elasto-plastic model with von Mises criterion is assumed. We investigated stresses which are produced by the crustal density inhomogeneities and surface relief. The calculations are done using the U-WAY finite element code developed at the Institute of Applied Mechanics Russian Academy of Sciences. (similar to the Nastran program) Density inhomogeneities are based on the AsCRUST-08 crustal model (Baranov, 2008), which has resolution of 1 x 1 degree. AsCRUST-08 was built using the data of deep seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies from published papers. The complex 3D crustal model consists of three layers: upper, middle, and lower crust. Besides depth of the boundaries, we provided average P-wave velocities in the upper, middle and lower parts of the crystalline crust and sediments. The seismic P-velocity data was also recalculated to the densities and the elastic moduli of the crustal layers using the rheological properties and geological constraints. Strength parameters of rocks strongly depend on temperature, tectonic and fluid pressure. Fluid pressure can reduce resistance forces

  6. Access to Affordable and Low-Income Housing in East Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, the housing sector plays a key role in local and national economies, and expanding access to housing can encourage more equitably shared economic growth. This report surveys current policy interventions designed to encourage affordable housing in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). The purpose of this report is to provide a general overview of the recent trends in urbanizati...

  7. Material Choices: Refashioning Bast and Leaf Fibers in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Review of Material Choices: Refashioning Bast and Leaf Fibers in Asia and the Pacific. Roy W. Hamilton and B. Lynne Milgram, eds. 2008. Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles. Pp. 187, bibliography, index, copious color illustrations. $30.00 (paper). ISBN-13 9780974872988.

  8. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  9. Design and Usability of Digital Libraries: Case Studies in the Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theng, Yin-Leng, Ed.; Foo, Schubert, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book showcases some of the best digital library practices from organizations in the Asia Pacific. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design, use and usability of digital libraries. Not only are digital libraries examined, but related technologies, the management of knowledge in digital libraries, and the associated usability and…

  10. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  11. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  12. Failure of gastroenterologists to apply intestinal ultrasound in inflammatory bowel disease in the Asia-Pacific: a need for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Anil Kumar; Friedman, Antony B; Maconi, Giovanni; Maaser, Christian; Kucharzik, Torsten; Watanabe, Mamoru; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal ultrasound (IUS) is a cheap, noninvasive, risk-free procedure that is significantly underutilized in the diagnosis and management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Asia-Pacific region. More cost-effective methods of monitoring disease activity are required in light of the increasing global burden of IBD (especially in Asia), the advent of personalized medicine, and the rising cost of healthcare. IUS is a prime example of a technique that meets these needs. Its common clinical applications include assessing the activity and complications of IBD. In continental Europe, countries such as Germany and Italy use this imaging tool as the standard of care and have integrated it into management protocols. There are formal training programs in these countries to train gastroenterologists in IUS, and it is used in an outpatient setting during patient consultations. Barriers to its use in the Asia-Pacific region include lack of experience and research data, and there are few established centers with active training programs. These concerns can be addressed by investing more in IUS service provision and by increasing allocation of resources toward local research and training. Increased uptake of IUS will ultimately benefit patients with IBD.

  13. Shear wave anisotropy in D" region beneath the western Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhi-yang; LIU Bin; WANG Xiao-xiang; ZHA Xian-jie; ZHANG Hu; YANG Feng-qin

    2007-01-01

    Using seismic shear phases from 47 Tonga-Fiji and its adjacent region events recorded by the CENC and IRIS, and from 26 northeast Asia and north Pacific events recorded by IRIS, we studied the shear wave anisotropy in D" region beneath the western Pacific utilizing the ScS-S differential travel time method and obtained the splitting time values between the radial and transverse components of each ScS wave corresponding to each core-mantle boundary (CMB) reflection point. We found that most shear waves involved horizontally polarized shear wave components traveling faster than vertically polarized shear wave components through the D" region. The splitting time values of ScS wave range from (0.91 s to 3.21 s with an average value of 1.1 s. The strength of anisotropy varies from (0.45% to 1.56% with an average value of 0.52%. The observations and analyses show that in the D" region beneath the western Pacific the lateral flow is expected to be dominant and the vertical transverse isotropy may be the main anisotropic structure. This structure feature may be explained by the shape preferred orientation of the CMB chemical reaction products or partial melt and the lattice preferred orientation of the lower mantle materials caused by the lateral flow at lowermost mantle.

  14. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  15. Global Online Learning among Asia-Pacific Economies: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuhaft, Jack D.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of online learning in a multicultural environment focuses on experiences with the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Topics include technology problems; differences in learning styles; Web site use; cultural differences, and their influence on learning environments; and language considerations. (LRW)

  16. Oil Security Issues in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Isaak, David

    2014-01-01

    By 2010, demand for oil in developing Asia substantially exceeded that of North America and Europe combined, but demand for natural gas has been expanding rapidly and countries with large coal resources have used them instead of oil wherever possible. The goal of oil security is to make domestic economies and the international market adaptable to changes in availability and price. Increasing oil production and decreasing demand; producing more alternatives; and increasing stocks, fungibility,...

  17. Disaster Risk Management in Asia and the Pacific: Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank Institute (Tokyo)

    2013-01-01

    This issues paper aims to help ADB DMC governments integrate Disaster Risk Management into their national developmental strategies and examine how emerging economies of Asia can cooperate to improve their disaster risk management practices, in view of increasing risks of compound disasters, climate change, and expanding production networks. It is intended to contribute to ADB’s ongoing efforts to mainstream disaster risk management into its lending strategies, strengthen the governance for di...

  18. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination. PMID:23849030

  19. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination.

  20. Gravity Derived Moho Depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    East and Southeast Asia and Western Pacific have extreme topography and both the youngest and oldest oceanic basins in the world, and are ideal places to understand oceanic basin evolution and continent-ocean interactions. Crustal structure is critical to understand the regional geodynamic processes. We present our recent inversion of Moho depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific from satellite gravity data. Because the marginal basins have experienced different cooling histories, we perform thermal correction after the simple Bouguer correction based on the plate cooling model. The model parameters are tested by varying the input plate thickness and mantle temperature with 5 km and 50°C steps, respectively. The evaluation criteria of thermal correction is that the regions with similar water depths have similar Moho depths. We find the best-fit plate thickness and mantle temperature are 95 km and 1300°C, respectively. The Moho undulations are then estimated from residual Bouguer gravity based on the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Because the study area convers distinct geological settings, we implement two gravity inversion strategies. In the first strategy, we use a constant density contrast of 0.38 g/cm3 across the Moho and a reference depth of 25 km for the entire study area. Using just one density contrast results in an obvious shallow Moho in continental region. In the second strategy, the study area is divided into four blocks, each covering either the continents or oceans mainly. Moho depths range approximately between 5 and 65 km. The average Moho depths of continental and continental shelf domains are about 35 and 23 km, respectively. Moho depths beneath the marginal basins are averaged at about 16 km. This large mean Moho depth is attributed to numerous seamounts, volcanic chains and ridges, where the Moho depths can be up to ~35 km. We find that the density contrast across the Moho varies between 0.33 and 0.40 g/cm3, approximately 0.40 g/cm3 in

  1. The Emergence of a Regional Financial Architecture in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Elson

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of monetary and financial cooperation in Asia since the regional financial crisis of 1997–98, with a view to determining whether the emerging Regional Financial Architecture in Asia is compatible with the global financial architecture and what are the prospects for possible economic and monetary union. Monetary and financial cooperation has focused on four architectural pillars (economic policy surveillance, crisis prevention, liquidity support, and bond ma...

  2. The Japan –US Military Alliance and the Asia-Pacific Challenges: Prospects for Deep Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Marquina Barrio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In the last fifteen years a fundamental shift in the strategic balance in AsiaPacific has taking place. The article aims at discussing the difficulties the Japan-US military Alliance has adaptating to this new regional strategic environment. It also explains the new strategy that President Obama´s Administration is trying to implement, initially called “Pivot to Asia” and later “Rebalance”. The article tries to show the challenges that this new strategy implies for both Japan and the Unite...

  3. Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Rachel Jewkes, MBBS MD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention—a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; United Nations Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

  4. Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emma Fulu, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention—a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; UN Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

  5. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  6. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Asia and the Pacific. Workshop on training nuclear laboratory technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop was held to exchange information on existing facilities and programmes in Asia and the Pacific for training nuclear laboratory technicians, to identify future training needs and to assess the need for IAEA's involvement in this field. As the participants outlined the requirements for nuclear laboratory technician training and the facilities available in their respective countries, it became evident that, in addition to the training of radioisotope laboratory technicians, they also wished to review the need for technician training for the operation of nuclear power plants and industrial application of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the workshop were extended accordingly. The opening address by Chang Suk Lee, the Korean Vice Minister of Science and Technology, noted the valuable contribution to quality control and other industrial uses that nuclear techniques have made in his country. He also reviewed the application of nuclear techniques in Korean agriculture and medicine. The participants explored various forms of co-operation that could be established between countries of the region. Exchange programmes, not only for students but also for expert teachers, and the exchange or loan of equipment were suggested. It was felt that some generalized training courses could be organized on a regional basis, and two countries advocated the setting up of a regional training centre. One suggestion was to arrange regional training courses in special fields that would move from one country to another. The need was felt for periodic regional meetings on training methods, course content and other questions relating to training of laboratory technicians. The IAEA was requested to act as a clearinghouse for information on available training facilities in the region and to advise on the curricula for technician training courses. The Agency was also asked to organize short courses for the training of instructors of technicians in the various fields of atomic

  7. Pacific Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The United States pushes for greater economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region Barack Obama has been an active free trade promoter in recent months. The U.S. president signed free trade agreements with South Korea,

  8. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  9. A continuation of the Asia-Pacific Risk Index for natural disasters: extending the record for an updated analysis from 1900-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Daniell, Trevor; Daniell, Katherine; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, an Asia-Pacific risk index was created for the CECAR5 (Civil Engineering Conference for the Asia-Pacific Region) by Daniell et al. (2010a) for floods and earthquakes, using empirical and analytical risk data for direct as well as socio-economic community vulnerability. The socio-economic situation of countries can aggravate the physical risk of natural disaster impacts, as demonstrated by the impacts of earthquakes in Christchurch and Tohoku 2011; add to this a number of deadly typhoon (Haiyan 2013), cyclone (Yasi 2011), flood (Thailand 2011), bushfire and weather effects, and significant changes to the index in 2010 have been seen. At least 10,000 historical events have been recorded since 1900 across the Asia-Pacific region (western Pacific). The database for global socio-economic indicators was produced to allow comparison of countries in terms of their socio-economic situation for use in risk studies. In addition, a global damaging natural disasters database (CATDAT) has been created over the last 14 years to better understand the historical impact of natural disasters on the Asia-Pacific region as well as globally. Simplified hazard models have been used in conjunction with historical damage data added to human exposure. Post-flood and post-typhoon loss models have been produced this methodology. The relative country level rural and urban building inventories and historical building trends are used to define levels of vulnerability, exposure and hazard. From this, physical and community risk indices are derived for the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It was found that the vulnerabilities in communities of developing countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines can further intensify the impact from direct damages by many times, showing the increased need for earthquake and flood risk reduction policy. Trends based on HDI and other indicators within the fields of economy, poverty, demographics, governance and environment are also presented

  10. Do Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Trade Openness Explain the Disparity in ICT Diffusion between Asia-Pacific and the Islamic Middle Eastern Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Shirazi; Roya Gholami; Dolores Añón Higón

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of FDI and trade openness on ICT diffusion in the Asia-Pacific and Middle East regions from 1996-2005. The results indicate that while dissimilarities exist between the economies included in this study in terms of their level of socio-economic and political development, education and the growth of GDP have had a positive impact on ICT diffusion in both regions. However, while FDI has generally had a positive and significant impact on ICT diffusion in Asia-Pa...

  11. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  12. Making Money Work: Financing a Sustainable Future in Asia and the Pacific - Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2015-01-01

    The new sustainable development agenda is expected to touch every country, person, and activity. Therefore shouldn’t every dollar count toward achieving it? Asia and the Pacific, home to more than half of humanity, has the money to improve the lives of all its people, and protect the planet in fair and durable ways. However, funds are in many hands, invested elsewhere, or used for various purposes. It is time to move beyond this fragmentation and align finance behind sustainable development, ...

  13. Forum on Building Resilience to Fragility in Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This publication captures the presentations and discussions of high-ranking government officials and senior representatives from development partners and civil society organizations during the Forum on Building Resilience to Fragility in Asia and the Pacific, held on 6– 7 June 2013 in Manila. The forum aimed to foster stronger partnerships, support new thinking and innovative engagement, and enhance development efforts to better assist countries with fragile and conflict-affected situations.

  14. Report on Successful 2011 Asia-Pacific Diecasting Industry Exhibition & Development Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the expectation and great support of practitioners at home and abroad in the die casting industry,the 2011 Asia Pacific Diecasting Industry Exhibition,organized by the Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES) and the Productivity Promotion Centre of Foundry Industry of China,was successfully held at Guangdong Modern International Exhibition Centre,Dongguan City,Guangdong Province,China,on September 21-23,2011.

  15. The 1999 Asia-Pacific Conference on Intelligent-Agent Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiming

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent-agent technology is one of the most exciting, active areas of research and development in computer science and information technology today. The First Asia-Pacific Conference on Intelligent- Agent Technology (IAT'99) attracted researchers and practitioners from diverse fields such as computer science, information systems, business, telecommunications, manufacturing, human factors, psychology, education, and robotics to examine the design principles and performance characteristics ...

  16. The influence of board diversity on financial performance : an empirical study of Asia-Pacific companies

    OpenAIRE

    Herdhayinta, Heyvon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates board diversity and its influence on financial performance. The main purpose of the study is to examine whether nationality and gender diversity influence financial performance as measured by Tobin’s Q. The study examines the biggest 50 Asia-Pacific companies according to Forbes Magazine. Data analysis is performed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Two-Stage Least Square (2SLS) regressions analysis. The results show that gender diversity of board member has a posit...

  17. Prawn biomonitors of nutrient and trace metal pollution along Asia-Pacific coastlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Brian; Carter, James F; Tinggi, Ujang; Arman, Ali; Kamal, Masud; Metian, Marc; Waduge, Vajira Ariyaratna; Yaccup, Rahman Bin

    2016-12-01

    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites.

  18. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  19. Making the 2007-2010 Action Plan work for women in family medicine in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Wonca Working Party for Women and Family Medicine (WWPWFM was organized in 2001 with the following objectives: to identify the key issues for women doctors; to review Wonca policies and procedures for equity and transparency; to provide opportunities to network at meetings and through the group's listserve and website; and to promote women doctors' participation in Wonca initiatives. In October 2008, at the Asia Pacific Regional conference, the Wonca Working Party on Women in Family Medicine (WWPWFM held a preconference day and conference workshops, building on the success and commitment to initiatives which enhance women's participation in Wonca developed in Ontario, Canada (2006 and at the Singapore World Congress (2007. At this meeting fifty women workshopped issues for women in Family Medicine in the Asia Pacific. Using the Action Plan formulated in Singapore (2007 the participants identified key regional issues and worked towards a solution. Key issues identified were professional issues, training in family medicine and women's health. Solutions were to extend the understanding of women's contributions to family medicine, improved career pathways for women in family medicine and improving women's participation in practices, family medicine organizations and academic meetings.

  20. New Zealand pathway towards Asia-Pacific and global e-VLBI research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Gulyaev, Sergei; Weston, Stuart; Thomasson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, Auckland University of Technology has established the first radio astronomical observatory in New Zealand, which, because of its remote geographic location, has quickly become a member of a number of international VLBI networks, in particular the IVS and the LBA. Not only has this added significantly to the observational power in the Pacific and Oceania, but by utilising new fibre connections within New Zealand, and across the Pacific and the Tasman Sea, the New Zealand radio telescopes have now been linked to many in Australia, Asia and the Pacific. Recent astronomical results are presented and plans for widening New Zealand participation in Australasian, Asia-Pacific and global VLBI research and development are outlined. Real-time e-VLBI is a vital part of New Zealand's capability development towards the SKA. The rapid and challenging establishment of New Zealand radio astronomy can serve as a model for the engagement in mega-Science and e-Science by resource-limited institutions and ...

  1. Springtime trans-pacific atmospheric transport from east Asia: a transit-time-pdf approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M.; McKendry, I.; Jaffe, D.

    2003-04-01

    The atmosphere is known to episodically transport aerosols, dust, and gaseous pollutants from industrialized south-east Asia, the Gobi desert, and Siberian wild fires to western North America. We give a novel characterization of the ever-present background transport from these regions and of the probability of transport ``events", that is, long-range transport of high concentrations with minimal dispersion. Our primary transport diagnostic is the transit-time probability density function (pdf), {\\cal G}, which is a tracer-independent measure of the flow that allows us to isolate the role of transport from other factors such as source variability and chemistry. The pdf approach, unlike typical back-trajectory analyses, captures transport due to all possible paths and accounts for both resolved advection and subgrid processes. We use a numerical model of the global atmosphere (MATCH), driven by NCEP reananlysis data, to establish the springtime statistics of daily averages of {\\cal G}. A suitably defined average of {\\cal G} quantifies the mass fraction of background air of a given transit time, or age, from the source regions. An analysis of the variability of {\\cal G} at fixed transit time allows us to identify transport events and to estimate their probability of occurrence. This is illustrated for transport events to the ``Pacific-North-West" (PNW) region of North America, defined as (43.8o-53.3o{N}) × (115.3o-124.7o{W}). Correlations between {\\cal G} averaged over the PNW and the winds at any point in the atmosphere identify large-scale anomaly structures of the flow that correspond to favorable transport to the PNW.

  2. Proposed Rules of Origin in Emerging Asia-Pacific Preferential Trade Agreements: Will PTAs Promote Trade and Development?

    OpenAIRE

    William E. James

    2006-01-01

    World trade is increasingly being dominated by preferential trade agreements that have taken precedence over multilateral trade negotiations. Within Asia and the Pacific an explosion of bilateral deals is taking place that seems likely to produce a tangle of hub-spoke trade blocs centered on major Asian or Pacific countries.

  3. AB019. Osteogenesis imperfecta 2015: new genes, new treatments—an Asia pacific perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, David

    2015-01-01

    . Similarly my colleagues have observed a number of families with OI type 5 in the Philippines. This heterogeneity is becoming relevant to management as there is evidence of resistance to bisphosphonate therapy in patients with homozygous mutations in SERPINF1 also known as OI type VI. Non-COL1 related OI is the most prevalent form of OI in some parts of Africa so that it would not be unusual if non-COLI related OI was more prevalent in some communities in the Asia Pacific region. Targeted exome Multiple Parallel sequencing panels are being developed and may be needed in the future to resolve the question of exact diagnosis to facilitate patient care.

  4. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific. Report of Regional Meeting (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 12-15, 1994). Exemplar Curriculum Project Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Adrian, Ed.

    This conference report provides summaries of presentations of country case studies from a project to investigate factors that impinged upon the status of technical and vocational education (TVE) in Asian and Pacific countries. The report includes the case study project terms of reference, a list of delegates, and agenda. Summaries follow of the…

  5. Borders in the South: Migration News in South Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnnabi Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of unprecedented movement of people, many migrants end up in the industrialized countries but originate from all over the world. A fuller picture of migration journalism thus warrants examining news from both the ‘source’ and ‘receiving’ countries of migration. However, most of the studies undertaken in this particular area deal with the issues from the perspectives of North America and Europe (i.e., ‘receiving’ countries, an approach which is inconsistent with the broad goal of comparative studies. The current study examines migration news from both the source and receiving countries. Given that South Asia and the Pacific are two regions that tend to be overlooked in the comparative studies literature, we studied the coverage of migration issues in six prominent English-language newspapers from six countries of these regions (Australia, Bangladesh, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and Sri Lanka over a four-month period in 2014. Our study utilized an exploratory frame analysis to determine whether, in line with several earlier studies, issues of migration are depicted as a crisis to be managed in the receiving countries. Moreover, we examined the emphasis attached to the subject matter by the source countries’ media. The findings suggest that the media frames in receiving countries are more diverse than expected. While newspapers in some countries follow the previously found crisis frame, others highlight the economic benefits of migration. Similarly, in the source countries, the frames are varied. Most newspapers portray migration as a problem to be solved, but some do focus on protecting the interests of the migrants.

  6. Migrant Labor Remittances in the South Asia Region

    OpenAIRE

    Maimbo, Samuel Munzele; McKechnie, Alastair; Ghani, Ejaz Syed; Del Mar Pernia, Joseph; Bell, Simon C.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka have all experienced a sharp increase in remittances during the past decade, and are the countries among the top 20 receivers of remittances. The report provides a strategic overview of key issues relating to the remittances industry in the South Asia region, and, builds on recent Bank research on the subject, that prominently features this region. This study basically focuses on the region's distinguishing characteristics: large migrant population of...

  7. Pacific Bridges: The New Immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, James T., Ed.; Carino, Benjamin V., Ed.

    The following papers are collected in this anthology of research on East-West international migration: (1) "International Migration and Pacific Basin Development" (James T. Fawcett and Benjamin V. Carino); (2) "The Global Picture of Contemporary Immigration Patterns" (Mary M. Kritz); (3) "One Field, Many Views: Competing Theories of International…

  8. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. CENTRAL ASIA AS A REGIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Klimenko, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    According to the Failed States Index developed by the Foreign Policy magazine, for the last five years three of the CA states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, have been among the 60 weakest states in the world. Turkmenistan “left” this group only in 2011. Kazakhstan is the only CA state, which has been considered to be a relatively sustainable state. Despite this alarming statistics, the region gave the impression of relative stability. There have not been any major conflicts in CA si...

  10. Research priorities in epilepsy for the Asia-Oceanian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Patrick; Cabral-Lim, Leonor; D'Souza, Wendyl; Jain, Satish; Lee, Byung-In; Liao, Weiping; Lim, Shih-Hui; Otsuki, Taisuke; Tan, Chong-Tin; Wantanabe, Masako

    2015-05-01

    The Asia-Oceanian region is the most populous region in the world. Although there has been substantial economic development and improvement in health services in recent years, epilepsy remains generally an underrecognized and understudied condition. To help promote research in the region, the Commission on Asian and Oceanian Affairs (CAOA) of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) appointed the Research Task Force (RTF) to facilitate the development of research priorities for the region. Research that focuses on issues that are unique or of particular importance in the Asia-Oceanian region is encouraged, and that captures the impact of the dynamic socioeconomic changes taking place in the region is emphasized. Based on these considerations, we propose research "dimensions" as priorities within the Asia-Oceanian region. These are studies (1) that would lead to fuller appreciation of the health burden of epilepsy, particularly the treatment gap; (2) that would lead to better understanding of the causes of epilepsy; (3) that would alleviate the psychosocial consequences of epilepsy; (4) that would develop better therapies and improved therapeutic outcomes; and (5) that would improve the research infrastructure.

  11. Relationships among aerosol constituents from Asia and the North Pacific during PEM-West A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, R.; Duce, R. A.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Talbot, R.; Cullen, J. D.; Tomza, U.; Lewis, N. F.; Ray, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    Aerosol particle samples collected from Asia and the North Pacific were analyzed to investigate the relationships among atmospheric sea salt, mineral aerosol, biogenic emissions (methanesulfonate (MSA)), and several anthropogenic substances (sulfate, nitrate, and various trace elements). These studies specifically focused on the sources for aerosol SO4= and on the long-range transport of continental materials to the North Pacific. Ground-based aerosol sampling was conducted at four coastal-continental sites: Hong Kong, Taiwan, Okinawa, and Cheju; and at three remote Pacific islands, Shemya, Midway, and Oahu. Non-sea-salt (nss) SO4= and MSA were uncorrelated at the East Asian sites presumably because pollution sources overwhelm the biogenic emissions of nss SO4=. At the coastal-continental sites, marine biogenic emissions accounted for only 10 to Midway r = 0.70; Oahu r = 0.59), and higher percentages of biogenic nss SO4= occurred, 55 and 70% at Oahu and Midway, respectively. The concentrations of nss SO4= and NO3- were correlated at Cheju, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Okinawa, Midway, and Oahu, indicating some similarities in their sources and the processes governing their transport; however, differences in the nss SO4=/NO3- ratios among sites suggest regional differences in the pollution component of the aerosol. At Shemya the concentrations of MSA during the summer (100 ng m-3 or more) are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than those in winter. The dimethylsulfide-derived fraction of the nss SO4= is highest in the summer when the monthly median nss SO4=/MSA ratios range from 2.7 to 4.5, i.e., comparable to the ratios observed over Antarctica and other high-latitude locations. However, the monthly median nss SO4=/MSA ratios increase, reaching 50 to 200 in the winter as productivity nearly ceases, and the biogenic fraction of nss SO4= at Shemya decreases dramatically; this suggests a strong seasonal pollution component to the sulfate aerosol. The meteorological conditions

  12. 美国亚太再平衡战略进展受限%American Rebalancing Strategy in Asia Pacific Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰

    2014-01-01

    Obama’s “Asia Pacific rebalancing” strategy aims to establish the dominant position of USA in the Asia Pacific region, which has a strong color of hegemonism. The fundamental purpose of American Asia Pacific strategy is not to achieve area harmonious, but mainly to meet the demand America interests; the means of implementation is not fusion region emerging powers, integrate resources, but rather focuses on the exclusive or even contain non allied countries, so its development space is severely limited. Now, Obama Asia Pacific strategy to face a severe test, the situation in the region more elusive.%奥巴马的“亚太再平衡”战略旨在树立美国在亚太地区的主导地位,其中带有浓重的霸权主义色彩。由于美国亚太战略的根本目的不是要实现地区和谐共进,而是主要满足美国利益需求;实施手段也并非是融合区域内新兴力量,全面整合资源,而是侧重排他甚至是遏制非同盟国家,所以其发展空间必然严重受限。现在,奥巴马亚太战略面临严峻考验,地区局势更加难以捉摸。

  13. Promoting mental health in Asia-Pacific: Systematic review focusing on Thailand and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller-Saxone, Kristen; Davis, Elise; Herrman, Helen

    2015-12-01

    Mental health is essential for functioning, general health, and quality of life in low and middle-income countries (LAMICs), as for high-income countries. This study aimed first to search in the English language peer-reviewed literature for reviews of mental health promotion interventions in the Asia-Pacific region. A global rapid review by Barry and colleagues indicated a paucity of publications on this topic in the peer-reviewed literature. The second aim of the study followed from this observation. Two systematic reviews of English language literature were conducted as case studies in two countries with known interest in mental health promotion, Thailand and China. The reviews covered publications in peer-reviewed journals and the "grey" literature. In Thailand, the review demonstrated: strong evidence for an empowerment program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers; a reduction in HIV-related stigma in a community-based program; and a coping program for adolescents. The second review concerned suicide prevention interventions in China. It found one relevant study, a WHO multi-site study of suicide prevention. We found surprisingly little evidence in either country of interventions focused on health equity or modifying the social determinants of mental health. We agree with Barry and colleagues that there is an urgent need to invest in the policy, practice, and research capacity for mental health promotion in LAMICs so that mental health promotion can be incorporated into the wider health promotion and global health development agenda. This includes the Global Action for Health Equity Network. Evidence-based interventions in parenting, schools, workplaces, and among older people can be initiated or adapted and evaluated in LAMIC settings.

  14. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig (Pacific Disaster Center, Kihei, HI)

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  15. Sustainable concrete in Asia: Approaches and barriers considering regional context

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Michael; Kato, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Asia is home to a diversity of socio-economic and environmental conditions which directly affect concrete-related manufacturing and construction. The implementation of sustainable concrete in Asian countries is thus highly dependent on their regional conditions, but the regional context of sustainable concrete needs to be understood in order to connect generalized strategies with actual implementation. This paper summarizes the results and key findings from previous qualitative investigations...

  16. Bilateral FTAs in South Asia: Recasting the Regionalism Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Dushni Weerakoon

    2009-01-01

    The slow pace of progress of the South Asian regional trade integration process under SAARC has prompted many countries to seek bilateral agreements. Sri Lanka is a casein point with bilateral agreements with both India and Pakistan. While the former is acknowledged to have yielded positive results, the latter hasremained of limited interest. Given that India remains the single most important trading partner for almost all other South Asian countries, regionalism in South Asia essentially ent...

  17. Information and Communications Technology in Asia Pacific Countries: implications for small and medium enterprises in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Beal

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Information communications and technology (ICT is transforming the environment in which SMEs operate and changing the paradigms of value creation, customer satisfaction and business effectiveness. This paper attempts to explore global and Asia Pacific ICT usage and the major factors influencing SMEs. It focuses particularly on Malaysia where the development of ICT usage amongst SMEs is one of the main policy items in the agenda of the Malaysian government. It describes a survey of SMEs in north and eastern peninsula Malaysia 1999-2000.

  18. Excerpt from Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsu Shigematsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foregrounding indigenous and feminist scholarship, this collection analyzes militarization as an extension of colonialism from the late twentieth to the twenty-first century in Asia and the Pacific. The contributors theorize the effects of militarization across former and current territories of Japan and the United States, demonstrating that the relationship between militarization and colonial subordination shapes bodies of memory, knowledge, and resistance.

  19. APTWG: The 4th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 4th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held at Kyushu University, Japan, during 10–13 June 2014. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: turbulence suppression and transport barrier formation, effect of magnetic topology on MHD activity and transport, non-diffusive contribution of momentum and particle transport, non-local transport and turbulence spreading and coupling, energetic particles and instability. The Young Researchers' Forum which was held in this meeting is also described in this report. (conference reports)

  20. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-01-01

    In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as t...

  1. Asia/Pacific Rim renewable energy market assessments by the State of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of Hawaii has begun to encourage its economic growth and diversification by increasing the export of U.S. energy, environment, ocean, and information technologies. Hawaii's Strategic Technology Market Assessment and Development (STMAD) program promotes the transfer of U.S. technology into Asia and the Pacific Rim, locations having phenomenal growth potential and vast technological infrastructure demands. The STMAD program is managed by the State's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT). Under the auspices of STMAD, the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii is assessing biomass energy resources of Asian and Pacific Rim countries to identify and investigate sustainable energy markets. This paper reviews the STMAD program and reports findings of renewable energy assessment performed by HNEI and DBEDT. (author)

  2. Asia-Pacific Hematology Consortium Report on approach to multiple myeloma. Survey results from the 6th International Hematologic Malignancies Conference: Bridging the Gap 2015, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Hou, Jian; Liu, Kai-Yan; Parmar, Simrit; De La Fuente, Adolfo; Andersson, Börje; Yan, ChenHua; Zhou, Daobin; Tan, Daryl; Ritchie, David; Wu, Deipei; Shpall, Elizabeth; Laport, Ginna G; Li, JianYong; Hu, Jiong; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Wang, Michael; Malhotra, Pankaj; Jiang, Qian; Qin, Yazhen; Wong, Raymond; Champlin, Richard; Issaragrisil, Surapol; Iyer, Swaminathan; Mathews, Vikram; Wang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Zhijian; Shao, Zonghong; Rosengarten, Rafael; Steuernagle, Jon; Xiao, Jun Huang; Orlowski, Robert; Chim, Chor Sang

    2016-07-01

    The Asia-Pacific Hematology Consortium (APHCON), in partnership with MDRingTM, a mobile global physician education network, has initiated a detailed longitudinal study of physician knowledge and practice preferences in the Asia-Pacific sphere. The first dataset comes from a series of surveys answered by delegates at the APHCON Bridging The Gap (BTG) conference in Beijing in January, 2015. In this report we present our findings regarding diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). We aim to create a conduit for physicians in this region to share their experiences with the rest of the world, to identify areas of consensus and best practices, and to highlight opportunities for improvement in communication, education and patient care. PMID:26887657

  3. Observed regional distribution of sulfur dioxide in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased use of coal for energy in Asia has led to increased SO2 emissions. SO2 concentrations have been measured for one year at forty-five locations throughout Asia using passive samplers. Duplicate samples were exposed at each site for one month intervals. The sites were selected to provide background information on the distribution of SO2 over wide geographical regions, with emphasis on the regional characteristics around areas estimated to be sensitive to sulfur deposition. The annual mean values ranged from less than 0.3 μg/m3 at Tana Rata, located at 1545 m on the Malaysia Peninsula, Lawa Mandau (Borneo), Malaysia, and Dhankuta, Nepal, to values greater than 20 μg/m3 at Luchongguan (Guiyang) China, Babar Mahal, Nepal, and Hanoi, Vietnam. In general high concentrations were measured throughout China, with the highest concentrations in the heavy industrial areas in Guiyang. The concentrations in east Asia around the Korea peninsula were ∼ 5 μg/m3. The concentrations in the southeast Asia tropics were low, with no station in Malaysia and Indonesia having average concentrations exceeding 1.7 μg/m3. The observed SO2 concentrations were found to display a distinct seasonal cycle which is strongly influenced by the seasonality of winds and precipitation patterns. 3 refs., 3 figs

  4. Asia Pacific menu patterns in relation to lipid abnormalities: An Indonesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walujo Soerjodibroto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries in the Asia-Pacific region differ widely with respect to their nutritional intake and nutritional status. The highest daily energy and proportion of fat intakes of the population is shown by the New Zealanders (total energy 3475 Kcals; fat proportion 37.2% or 1293 Kcals, while the lowest is the Siamese (total energy 2288 Kcals; fat proportion 13.1% or 300 Kcals. The Indonesian on the other hand, is at the third from the bottom (total energy 2631 Kcals; proportion of fat is 14.5% or 381.9 Kcals. Animal fat contributes to 29.7% (1033 Kcals of the total daily energy intake of the New Zealanders (total 3475 Kcals, and the mortality rate coronary heart disease (CHD is also the highest (228 per 100,000 populations for men and 173 for women. In contrast, the proportion of animal fat in Indonesian menu is only 1.47% (38.7 Kcals of the total daily energy intake, while the CHD mortality rate is still below 50 per 100,000 for both men and women. Compared to the same values fifteen years before, animal fat intake of the New Zealanders has a decrease of 90%, Australian 88%, Philippines 99%, however the Indonesian on the other hand, has an increase of 157%. In New Zealand and Australia, the proportion of mortality attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD for men accounts for over 40% of total mortality. Japan however, the proportion mortality rate for CVD is only less than 30% of total mortality. In this level, Japan places itself among less industrialized group such as Malaysia and the Philippines. In the case of cerebrovascular (stroke mortality however, Japan belongs to the highest category group. It seems that apart of high fat intake, stress and possibly also other factors play a major role in the development of stroke. The mean Indonesian total energy intake is 2631 Kcals, consisting of 8.7% protein (228.9 Kcals, 52.2 g, 76.8% carbohydrate (2020 Kcals, 505 g, and 14.5% fat (381.9 Kcals, 42.4 g. Animal fat intake is only 4.3 g/day (38.7 Kcals

  5. Crustal deformation of Asia-Pacific area de-termined by the GPS data of APRGP97~ APRGP99

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the pseudo-nonfiducial method of regional net, we have treated the GPS data of APRGP97, APRGP98 and APRGP99 by means of GIPSY software. The precision of coordinates obtained by us for most sites is 1~2 mm for north-south component and 2~5 mm for west-east component and 5~10 mm for vertical component, respectively. We have also obtained preliminarily moving velocities of 84 sites of Asia-Pacific area in ITRF97 frame. Based on the plate motion model derived from ITRF97, we have obtained the deformation velocity of the 84 sites relative to the plate in that they reside and preliminarily analyzed the motions of these sites relative to Eurasian plate.

  6. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  7. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  8. Dipole Mode of the Sea Level Pressure Anomalies in Asia-Pacific Region and the Relation to Winter Climate Anomaly in China%亚洲—太平洋地区冬季海平面气压异常偶极模与我国冬季气候异常的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵巧莲; 李崇银

    2012-01-01

    China after studied spatial structure of the sea level pressure anomaly dipole oscillations (dipole modes) over the Asia- Pacific region (20°N - 70°N, 40°E - 120°W) in winter (December to February). The results show that: During the past half century, the winter sea level pressure anomalies (SLPA) over the Asia - Pacific region mainly character with a negative anomalies of meridional-type dipole mode (ME) and a positive anomalies of zonal-type dipole mode (ZO), while the later one occurrs in a higher frequency. Corresponding to ME-mode, there are similarities between geopotential height anomalies and the correlation coefficient distribution of height field and the MEI; on the other side, it takes a consistency feature with a high correlation center over the Aleutian region corresponding to ZO-mode, which manifest that the variation of Aleutian Low plays an important role for them. The ME-mode is close related to precipitation anomalies and temperature anomalies in the eastern of China in winter. However, because of the relatively weak influence of the ZO-mode on the atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia, the ZO-mode only affected the rainfall anomalies in Northeast China. This result challenges the traditional concerning about the zonal pressure difference (mainly represent ZO-mode) in winter and means we should pay more attention to the ME-mode. After analyzing of the atmospheric circulation, the authors found that when the MEI is positive anomaly, which means that the pressure field shows a positive anomaly over the northern half of Siberia - Mongolia high and a negative anomaly over subtropical Northwestern Pacific region, this is helpful to enhance and deepen of the East Asia trough, then the East Asian winter monsoon will be stronger, too. However, at this time, the Eastern China region is mainly controlled by sinking air and the warm humid air can not continuously be transported to there, which results in the lack of rainfall over there, especially

  9. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  10. Did Focusing on Asia Pacific Emerging Markets Provide Much Benefit to Portfolio Diversification during the Late 2000s Recession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Hermanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the international co-movement among Asia Pacific emerging markets stock price indices during the late 2000s recession by using the monthly observations start from 1st October 2001 until 1st April 2011. The co-integration analysis and parsimonious Vector Error Correction Model employed in this research reveal a long-term relationship and inter-dependencies among seven Asia Pacific emerging market stock price indices. This research finds that the unique co-integration exists on the equations. Specifically, two indices from China and Taiwan having meteor shower potential while the rest indices from Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia are known to have heat waves effects or country specific factors on the equation. Finally, all the results are linked to the international diversification strategies. Keywords: Co-movement, co-integration, emerging market, heat waves, meteor shower, Asia Pacific, inter-dependencies, Vector Error Correction Model, international diversification

  11. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, M.; S.K. Bhattacharya; Narain, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child,...

  12. Adoption of Innovative Education Strategies to the Needs of the Time: A Case Study of Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU)

    OpenAIRE

    Pishva, Davar

    2013-01-01

    In our modern era of Internet, mobile and digital information technology, adoption of innovative education strategies to the needs of the time is quite important particularly at private educational institutions which cater to economically affluent students who are becoming picky and often more interested in their distractions than in their studies. Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU) which was established in the year 2000 with an aim of becoming a hub for shaping the future of Asia-Paci...

  13. Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Myanmar. However, when we apply LM unit root with structural break, we find overwhelming evidence that there is no unit root in per capita energy consumption for these 15 East Asia & Pacific countries.

  14. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

  15. A comparative analysis between the relation of income distribution and economic regional integration in East Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Jeaneth Ospina Enciso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between inequality and de facto regional economic integration during the last two decades in Latin America and East Asia Pacific regions, focusing on intra-regional exports. Globalization has been considered as a driving of inequality, although export-led growth models are associated with high economic growth rates. Export-led growth models have been more dynamic in East Asia than in Latin America, through the development of supply chain networks of intermediate and final goods. Research questions explore the relation between inequality and patterns of de facto intra-regional trade. Empirical analysis uses a fixed effects panel data with Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent (HAC covariance matrix. Results showed that increments in regional intra-trade are associated with reductions of inequality, more in East Asia Pacific than in Latin America. The contribution of this paper is the introduction of intra-regional trade as a new factor that is negatively associated with inequality.

  16. Adoption of Innovative Education Strategies to the Needs of the Time: A Case Study of Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PISHVA Davar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our modern era of Internet, mobile and digital information technology, adoption of innovative education strategies to the needs of the time is quite important particularly at private educational institutions which cater to economically affluent students who are becoming picky and often more interested in their distractions than in their studies. Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU which was established in the year 2000 with an aim of becoming a hub for shaping the future of Asia-Pacific region by creating world class leaders in science, management, and economics through a bilingual curriculum, international under-standing, promotion of freedom, peace, humanity, and sensitiveness to the needs of the time, has integrated multimodal approach towards enhancing the quality of teaching and learning, and provides a total student support and care system. As a millennium university, it is equipped with state-of-the-art classrooms and tries to enhance its educational endeavors through proper use and efficient adaptation of educational technologies into its teaching pedagogies. However, due to being a private university and charging handsome tuitions fees, it has been attracting some of the most affluent students onto the campus, many of whom are often more interested in their distractions than in their studies. The decline in youth population and the economic slowdown in Japan have also adversely affected the quality of incoming students. This paper attempts to explain how APU tries to assure quality of their graduates despite the abovementioned problems through blended learning, peer knowledge sharing, adaptation of Blackboard (Bb, the most commonly implemented Web-based learning management system, portfolio, active learning, student support, academic advising, and by providing of a natural learning environment.

  17. Preparation of Literacy Materials for Women in Rural Areas: Final Report of a Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (7th, Kathmandu, Nepal, October 17-26, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The main objective of the seventh regional workshop was to provide training experience to participants from Unesco member states in the development of instructional neo-literate materials and the expansion of participation in literacy activities to the needs of the rural people, particularly women. The final report begins with an account of the…

  18. Preparation of Neo-Literate Materials for Rural Development. Final Report of a Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (6th, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, September 21-30, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The proceedings of the sixth regional workshop consist of a description of the project and the workshop; a description of the field survey, preparation, and field testing of materials by the group; five papers presented at the workshop; and notes on planned follow-up activities in the participating countries. The workshop culminated a project on…

  19. Simulations of LGM climate of East Asia by regional climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑益群; 于革; 王苏民; 薛滨; 刘华强; 曾新民

    2003-01-01

    Climate conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were remarkably different from the present ones. Adopting a regional climate model (RCM) which has included a detailed land surface scheme, LGM climate of East Asia has been simulated. The effects of vegetation changes on LGM climate have been diagnosed by adding forces of LGM paleovegetation reconstructed from the geological records. The results of the simulations by RCM indicate that large decreases in whole year temperature of East Asia continent caused strongly enhanced winter monsoon and weakened summer monsoon. The strengthening and westward-stretching of the Subtropical High of West-Pacific are the key reasons of decreases of LGM summer precipitation in eastern China. Precipitation and effective precipitation were increased in the Tibetan Plateau and Middle-Asia, while the humid condition in the Tibetan Plateau was mainly caused by increase of precipitation. Accumulated snow of LGM was also increased in the Tibetan Plateau, which was helpful to developing glacier and permafrost. This experiment has simulated that the frozen soil areas extend southward to 30°N. In LGM climate simulation, climate effects caused by external forces were amplified by added paleovegetation, therefore, decreases of temperature, changes of precipitation and snowfall, and other climatic parameters were further strengthened, making the simulation results more approach to geological evidences.

  20. Russia/Asia-Pacific: rising gas and oil production in the Russian Far East will recast Asia-Pacific energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next few years will see the emergence of the Russian Far East (RFE) as a major new source of hydrocarbons. Expansion of the production of crude oil and refined products will substantially improve the region's degree of energy self-sufficiency. The development of the large gas reserves is likely to have the greatest impact however. Three scenario's for this development are examined. Even under the most pessimistic the region's gas balance will show an exportable surplus by 2000. The energy future of the RFE, especially export plans for gas, depends on foreign investment, though. A radical improvement in the investment climate is needed to promote international co-operation. Political factors and strains within the Russian Federation and dwindling supplies of the crude oil and refined products from Siberia which the RFE still needs, tend to favour the development of economic links between the RFE and its Pacific Rim neighbours. The RFE would then be involved in Pacific energy flows, exporting gas and importing crude oil and refined products to make up its domestic shortfall rather than being dependent on Moscow controlled supplies. Should the RFE take this independent course and open its doors to foreign investors, solutions to the region's energy security problems would be made easier. There would almost certainly, though, be rivalry between the USA, Japan and Korea for influence with the RFE. (3 tables) (UK)

  1. The Role of Non-Proliferation in Nuclear Energy Expansion: An Asia Pacific Cooperative Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing interest in nuclear energy deployment for countering global climate changes, providing energy security/independence, and raising standards of living would result in the increasing needs of nuclear fuel cycle services. For the front-end, these include uranium mining and refining, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication, and for the back-end, spent fuel storage, reprocessing and final disposal of spent fuel/HLW in geologic repositories. In global nuclear energy expansion, many newcomer countries, especially those in Asia Pacific would prefer an assurance of fresh fuel supply, free of any political disruptions to fuel their nuclear reactors. The fresh fuel would be guaranteed by market mechanism based on the contracts made with the fuel service providers. The ability that such fuel-supply assurance can be provided could minimize or eliminate the incentives for the newcomer countries to acquire their own enrichment capabilities. At the same time, the ability to provide assurance that the spent fuel could be managed properly is equally important. Such assurance may include spent fuel take-back/take-away, interim storage, reprocessing, and spent fuel/HLW repository disposal. Furthermore, the peaceful utilization of plutonium separated from reprocessing is essential for a sustainable nuclear future. Such utilization must comply with the most stringent safety, safeguards and security (3S) requirements. To study the non-proliferation implications of the fuel-service assurances including reliable fresh fuel supply, spent fuel management, and peaceful plutonium utilization, the Nonproliferation Study Committee at Tokyo University proposes a cooperative framework in Asia Pacific where member parties could cooperate within the framework to meet their specific fuel-cycle service needs, and where the fuel-cycle services could be provided without discrimination, and meet the international safety, safeguards, and security requirements. The study group focuses also

  2. Natural gas in Asia: Trade, markets and regional institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas trade in Asia has been dominated by long-established market structures, under which liquefied natural gas (LNG) has remained indexed based on the price of crude oil. High transaction costs in the region in recent years imply that the regional market is sub-optimally organized. Since 2010, the continued prevalence of oil-indexation has had the most adverse effect on Japan, the world’s largest LNG importer. In response, Japan implemented several strategies to challenge traditional LNG pricing mechanisms in the region and ultimately reduce transaction costs. Japan’s efforts include an increase in the share of spot and short-term purchases, sourcing new supplies from the United States under alternative pricing arrangements and driving regional buyer cooperation. This paper evaluates the potential effect of Japan’s LNG strategy on regional pricing in the broader institutional context, arguing that LNG pricing in the region will only partially shift away from oil-indexation by the end of the decade. While recent cooperation among regional LNG importers indicates that there may be scope for change in the regional institutional setting, the degree of cooperation is insufficient to have a profound effect on regional pricing. - Highlights: • Sub-optimal natural gas market outcomes in Asia since 2010. • Asian buyers have challenged oil-indexation in the region. • Concrete evidence of Japan-led buyer cooperation since 2013. • Pricing will only partially shift from oil-indexation by 2020. • Security of supply remains a top policy priority

  3. 75 FR 11118 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU49 Fisheries of the Pacific Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Region, the petrale sole stock has been determined to be in an overfished condition. The Pacific...

  4. Communication received from the Resident Representative of Australia to the Agency concerning the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a letter dated 16 September 2009 from the Resident Representative of Australia to the Agency attaching the text of the Statement of Principles of the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN). The letter and, as requested therein, the Statement of Principles are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  5. Tectonostratigraphic Terranes of the Circum-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Voo, Rob

    Have you always wondered where the Tujunga, Baldy, and Cortez terranes might be located today, let alone during the Cretaceous or early Tertiary? This book may provide the answer, because in a little less than 600 pages for $32, which includes a marvelously produced color map of the entire Circum-Pacific region, one can read almost everything one wants to know about Earth's “ring of fire” and its displaced or suspect terranes. The printing, proofreading, illustrations, and references are all of the highest caliber, and the book is handsomely produced indeed. In page-by-page reading, I found maybe five typographical errors, but I will spare you the details.The contents of the book are divided into five parts, comprising principles or applications of terrane analysis and four unequally long parts on the four quadrants of the Pacific coasts. The northeast quadrant includes Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, the U.S. coastal and Rocky Mountain belts, and Mexico; the northwest includes Kamchatka, northeast Asia, China, Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippines; the southwest section has articles on Australia, Malaya, Indonesia, New Zealand, and Antarctica; and the southeast comprises the Andes from Colombia to southern Chile. The book offers introductory text for beginning students of terrane analysis, as well as plenty of useful details and data for the expert who needs a handy reference volume. Subject matter or emphasis ranges from hydrocarbon generation in marginal basins, biogeography, paleomagnetism, geochronology, and structural and metamorphic aspects to stratigraphy and shows how the entire discipline of geological sciences is contributing to terrane analysis. There is literally something here for everyone in solid Earth science.

  6. Evaluation of climatological tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific in the CORDEX-East Asia multi-RCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chun-Sil; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Hong, Song-You; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Ho, Chang-Hoi

    2016-08-01

    The ability of five regional climate models (RCMs), within the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) for East Asia, to simulate tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific is evaluated. All RCMs are performed at ~50 km resolution over the CORDEX-East Asia domain, and are driven by the ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) for the period 1989-2008. ERA-Interim sea surface temperature is prescribed as the lower boundary. Performances of the individual RCMs and multi-RCM ensemble mean are investigated in detail for 20-year climatology, intensity, and interannual variability of TC activity compared to observational datasets. Although most of the individual RCMs show significant biases and underestimate TC intensity due to horizontal resolutions still too low to resolve the most intense observed TCs, they reasonably capture the observed climatological spatial distribution and interannual variability of TC activity. The multi-RCM ensemble mean based on the model performance generally outperforms most of the individual models with smaller biases and higher correlation on the spatial and temporal variation of TC activity. This ensemble mean reduces the uncertainty in the simulated TC activity by a single RCM. These analyses suggest that the multi-RCM ensemble within CORDEX-East Asia can be applied to provide more reliable and credible estimation of future TC activity over the western North Pacific due to climate change.

  7. The universities of Asia Pacific and Mexico in the international competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martín Santos Virgen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, higher education is considered the greatest force for development of knowledge-based societies (UNESCO, 2009. In this context, the environment for globalization of higher education extends student and faculty exchanges, cross-border investment and competition between universities worldwide. The mobility of students traveling to another country to study a university degree continues to grow, in 2008, over 3.3 million university students were enrolled outside their country of origin, a 10.7% increase over the previous year (OECD, 2010. These international pressures have forced higher education institutions to reexamine their expectations and commitments for development of human resources of international quality (Salmi, 2009. For Mexico, a major problem in this concern, is the lack of a model of international quality for its universities, as evidenced by its lag problem in driving development and contribution to building its knowledge-based society, in comparison with improvement of leading universities in Asia Pacific.

  8. Second Asia-Pacific Conference on the Computer Aided System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chaczko, Zenon; Jacak, Witold; Łuba, Tadeusz; Computational Intelligence and Efficiency in Engineering Systems

    2015-01-01

    This carefully edited and reviewed volume addresses the increasingly popular demand for seeking more clarity in the data that we are immersed in. It offers excellent examples of the intelligent ubiquitous computation, as well as recent advances in systems engineering and informatics. The content represents state-of-the-art foundations for researchers in the domain of modern computation, computer science, system engineering and networking, with many examples that are set in industrial application context. The book includes the carefully selected best contributions to APCASE 2014, the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on  Computer Aided System Engineering, held February 10-12, 2014 in South Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. The book consists of four main parts that cover data-oriented engineering science research in a wide range of applications: computational models and knowledge discovery; communications networks and cloud computing; computer-based systems; and data-oriented and software-intensive systems.

  9. Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE 2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the I2009 Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE 2009) was held on December 19~ 20, 2009, Shenzhen, China.   Volume 1 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of Computer and Software Engineering to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 140 high-quality papers are included in the volume. Each paper has been peer-reviewed by at least 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof. Yanwen Wu.   On behalf of this volume, we would like to express our sincere appreciation to all of authors and referees for their efforts reviewing the papers. Hoping you can find lots of profound research ideas and results on the related fields of Computer and Software Engineering.

  10. Excerpts from Dr. P. Kotaiah's paper: Policies on Institutional Credit to Generate Employment and Marketing Skills among the Rural Youth in Asia and the Pacific region -- the Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaiah, P

    1998-03-01

    This article summarizes a seminar presented at a CIRDAP regional workshop in February 1998, on gender equity, poverty, rights, and participation. This seminar discussed India's experience with banks and financial policies. The recent East Asian crisis has shown that poverty eradication and sustainable development are not possible without an effective and transparent state that can play a catalytic, facilitating role and can increase and complement the activities of private businesses and individuals. The economy grows faster with a well diversified, efficient financial sector for promoting investment. Well developed, market oriented financial systems contribute to greater economic growth than weak and stringently regulated ones. Formal banks play a key role in meeting the growing needs of the economy and pursuing a social agenda. India, in 1991, reformed its banks which became more competitive and responsive to emerging challenges of a fast growing economy. India has an anti-poverty agenda that for the last 50 years promoted economic growth, offered wage assurance and self employment schemes, and provided a safety net for the poor. These schemes have met with varying success. For example, some operational constraints to credit in rural non-farm schemes were: the bank's perception that rural businesses were high risk and less profitable; poor infrastructure; and a slow process of credit delivery changes and skill upgrades for visible results. The author touches on other issues, such as the changing labor market, collateral substitutes, self-help concepts, venture capital, and integration of rural development programs within banking systems. PMID:12348717

  11. Excerpts from Dr. P. Kotaiah's paper: Policies on Institutional Credit to Generate Employment and Marketing Skills among the Rural Youth in Asia and the Pacific region -- the Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaiah, P

    1998-03-01

    This article summarizes a seminar presented at a CIRDAP regional workshop in February 1998, on gender equity, poverty, rights, and participation. This seminar discussed India's experience with banks and financial policies. The recent East Asian crisis has shown that poverty eradication and sustainable development are not possible without an effective and transparent state that can play a catalytic, facilitating role and can increase and complement the activities of private businesses and individuals. The economy grows faster with a well diversified, efficient financial sector for promoting investment. Well developed, market oriented financial systems contribute to greater economic growth than weak and stringently regulated ones. Formal banks play a key role in meeting the growing needs of the economy and pursuing a social agenda. India, in 1991, reformed its banks which became more competitive and responsive to emerging challenges of a fast growing economy. India has an anti-poverty agenda that for the last 50 years promoted economic growth, offered wage assurance and self employment schemes, and provided a safety net for the poor. These schemes have met with varying success. For example, some operational constraints to credit in rural non-farm schemes were: the bank's perception that rural businesses were high risk and less profitable; poor infrastructure; and a slow process of credit delivery changes and skill upgrades for visible results. The author touches on other issues, such as the changing labor market, collateral substitutes, self-help concepts, venture capital, and integration of rural development programs within banking systems.

  12. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in the Philippines. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Government of the Philippines, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission between 3 and 9 May 1991, to the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). This mission included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to the Philippines and its on-going programmes. A meeting was held with the Chairman and several members of the National Committee on Food Irradiation, at which the expert briefed the group on regulatory and implementation developments in other countries of the region, and the globe, and advised on near-term steps to be taken in the Philippines. A related visit and tour of the Food Development Center of Food Terminal Inc., which is pursuing an FAO/IAEA food irradiation research project was also made. Regarding radiation disinfestation of agricultural commodities for quarantine control purposes, visits and discussions were held at the facilities of Philippine - Far East Agro Products Inc., a major exporter, plus to the offices of the Government, Plant Quarantine Service, and the Post Harvest Technology Research Center at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos. In connection with fishery product applications, the expert toured the processing plant of Mindanao Food Corporation and met with its key executives. The firm has a growing export business in frozen raw and processed seafoods, and has been cooperating in an FAO/IAEA supported study of the irradiation of same to improve hygiene and post-defrosting market life. In connection with the promulgation of a first Philippine irradiated foods law and/or regulation, the expert had a meeting with key staff of the Government Bureau of Food and Drugs, again in the company of PNRI staff counterparts. The experts also provided a seminar to PNRI staff and invited guests before leaving for Indonesia, followed by Vietnam for similar UNDP-supported FAO/IAEA missions. (author)

  13. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Paciifc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny R.Youlden; Susanna M.Cramb; Cheng Har Yip; Peter D.Baade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Paciifc region. Methods: Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results: Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and hTailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion: It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  14. Accelerating harm reduction interventions to confront the HIV epidemic in the Western Pacific and Asia: the role of WHO (WPRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Hu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemic of HIV/AIDS linked to injecting drug usage is one of the most explosive in recent years. After a historical epicentre in Europe, South and North America, at present it is clearly the main cause of dissemination of the epidemic in Eastern Europe and some key Asian countries. Recently, 10 African countries reported the spread of HIV through people who inject drugs (PWID, breaking one of the final geographical barriers to the globalization of the epidemic of HIV among and from PWID. Several countries of the Asia and Pacific Region have HIV epidemics that are driven by injecting drug usage. Harm reduction interventions have been implemented in many countries and potential barriers to implementation are being overcome. Harm reduction is no longer a marginal approach in the Region; instead, it is the core tool for responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among PWID. The development of a comprehensive response in the Region has been remarkable, including scaling up of needle and syringe programmes (NSPs, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT, and care, support and treatment for PWID. This development is being followed up by strong ongoing changes in policies and legislations. The main issue now is to enhance interventions to a level that can impact the epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO is one of the leading UN agencies promoting harm reduction. Since the establishment of the Global Programme on AIDS, WHO has been working towards an effective response to the HIV epidemic among PWID. WHO's work is organized into a number of components: establishing an evidence base; advocacy; development of normative standards, tools and guidelines; providing technical support to countries; ensuring access to essential medicines, diagnostics and commodities; and mobilizing resources. In this paper, we trace the course of development of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from PWID in the Western Pacific and Asia Region (WPRO as well as WHO's role

  15. World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update 2010, Volume 2 : Robust Recovery, Rising Risks

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Output has recovered to above pre-crisis levels throughout developing East Asia and, in some countries, is expanding at near pre-crisis rates. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is likely to rise 8.9 percent in the region in 2010, up from 7.3 percent in 2009 and in line with the average growth rate during 2000-08. Economic expansion is projected to slow to about 7.8 percent in 2011, as spare ...

  16. Surgery for Intermediate and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Consensus Report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Nagano, Hiroaki; Lee, Young-Joo; Chau, Gar-Yang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Chih-Chi; Choi, Young Rok; Poon, Ronnie Tung-Ping; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging and treatment strategy does not recommended surgery for treating BCLC stage B and C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, numerous Asia-Pacific institutes still perform surgery for this patient group. This consensus report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting aimed to share opinions and experiences pertaining to liver resection for intermediate and advanced HCCs and to provide evidence to issue recommendations for surgery in this patient group. Summary Thirteen experts from five Asia-Pacific regions were invited to the meeting; 10 of them (Japan: 2, Taiwan: 3, South Korea: 2, Hong Kong: 1, and China: 2) voted for the final consensus. The discussion focused on evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve and surgery for large tumors, multiple tumors, HCCs with vascular invasion, and HCCs with distant metastasis. The feasibility of future prospective randomized trials comparing surgery with transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate HCC and with sorafenib for advanced HCC was also discussed. The Child-Pugh score (9/10 experts) and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (8/10) were the most widely accepted methods for evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve. All (10/10) experts agreed that portal hypertension, tumor size >5 cm, portal venous invasion, hepatic venous invasion, and extrahepatic metastasis are not absolute contraindications for the surgical resection of HCC. Furthermore, 9 of the 10 experts agreed that tumor resection may be performed for patients with >3 tumors. The limitations of surgery are associated with a poor liver functional reserve, incomplete tumor resection, and a high probability of recurrence. Key Messages Surgery provides significant survival benefits for Asian-Pacific patients with intermediate and advanced HCCs, particularly when the liver functional reserve is favorable. However, prospective randomized controlled trials

  17. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  18. 76 FR 70420 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA801 Fisheries of the Pacific Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., (Sebastes alutus), which is managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council, is in an overfished...

  19. Relative Influence of Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of PAHs in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Scott; Schrlau, Jill; Butler, Jack; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Harding, Anna; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambient high volume PM2.5 air samples were collected at two sites in the Pacific Northwest: (1.) Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in the Oregon Cascade Range (2763 m above sea level (asl)) and 2.) Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) (954 m asl). At MBO, the 1,8-dinitropyrene concentration was significantly positively correlated with the time a sampled air mass spent over Asia, suggesting that this NPAH may be a good marker for trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. At CTUIR, NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions from a 585 MW coal fired power plant, in Boardman OR, were found to be significantly positively correlated with PAH, OPAH, NPAH, OC, and PM2.5 concentrations. By comparing the Boardman Plant operational time frames when the plant was operating to when it was shut down, the plant was found to contribute a large percentage of the measured PAH (67%), NPAH (91%), OPAH (54%), PM2.5 (39%), and OC (38%) concentrations at CTUIR and the CRG prior to Spring 2011 and likely masked trans-Pacific atmospheric transport events to the CRG. Upgrades installed to the Boardman Plant in the spring of 2011 dramatically reduced the plant's contribution to PAH and OPAH concentrations (by ∼72% and ∼40%, respectively) at CTUIR and the CRG, but not NPAH, PM2.5 or OC concentrations. PMID:26151337

  20. Promoting regional energy co-operation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is a key ingredient of the socio-economic development of any region. South Asia is not only one of the fastest growing regions in the world; it is also one of the poorest, which thus puts energy at the very heart of the development process in the region. This paper looks at the challenges faced by the South Asia sub-region for economic co-operation (SASEC) comprised of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and also at the role of greater regional energy co-operation therein. The region is characterized by pressures of growing economies and increasing population. While the per capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world, energy intensity continues to be very high. A large portion of the population lacks access to modern sources of energy and depends on traditional sources that are not only inefficient but also have severe health and environmental problems associated with them. Increasing oil import dependency and huge investment needs for energy market development pose a further challenge. The region has a good resource potential and tremendous scope for energy co-operation, which can play a key role in addressing many of these energy security concerns and in putting it on the path of sustainable development. It is ironic that the record in the area has been so limited and that too in the most basic form of co-operation, i.e. bilateral arrangements between countries. This paper puts forth a multi-pronged strategy for sub-regional energy co-operation encompassing softer options aimed at confidence building to more substantial and larger scale co-operation efforts. Delays in decision making to ensure stronger and mutually beneficial co-operation efforts are associated with high costs not only to the energy sector but also for the entire development agenda. With the precarious energy situation in the region and unprecedented increases in international oil prices seen in recent times, it is high time for policy makers, financing institutions, NGOs

  1. Effects of an increase of regional PM2.5 concentration in East Asia on the climate variability in the North Paicific for 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    lee, jong-won; yeh, sang-wook

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that atmospheric variables can be influenced to change by aerosol concentration. In spite of a wealth of studies, however, it is still remain unclear how the regional anthropogenic aerosol in East Asia affects the climate variability in the North Pacific. In this study, we examined the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing in East Asia (GEOS-Chem) on the climate variability in the North Pacific based on a global chemical transport model and three idealized experiments using an atmosphere model. GEOS-Chem is forced by the assimilated meteorology from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for 1985-2010. Regarding three experiments, the first set used the historical SST for 1985-2010 with the time-varying emissions in East Asia. The second set used the historical SST without the emissions and the third set included the climatological SST with the time-varying emissions in East Asia. By comparing GEOS-Chem run with atmosphere model runs, we analyze the role of regional aerosol forcing in East Asia on the climate variability in the North Pacific.

  2. Mass communication in Asia and the Pacific. Recent trends and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, J A

    1989-01-01

    1 of the current trends in Asian mass communication discernbile in 1964-65 was mass media evolution as a big business. 25 years ago the makings of big business journalism already were evident. At this time, Asia is deeply involved in corporate journalism, and in recent years newspaper groups have become affiliated with multinational corporations such as Dow Jones and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Combines of government, local business, and regional conglomerates have purchased chunks of broadcast stations and newspapers in at least Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and India. Although government control of mass media is not new to Asia, the manner of control differs from 25 years ago. Overt repressive actions still persist but not as frequently or blatantly as a generation ago. Less noisy forms of control are preferred in many countries, which resort to suspensions, arrests, or direct censorship when subtle means are ineffective. An irony of Asian mass communication is that authorities do not always shut out more pernicious outside channels and messages, while rather effectively curbing the foreign media's role in and impact upon their societies. The speed with which much of the new technology has been introduced and expanded in Asia has brought undesired consequences, e.g., much dialogue previously focused on development journalism, ethics, or freedom of expression has shifted to information hardware. PMID:12315828

  3. Mass communication in Asia and the Pacific. Recent trends and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, J A

    1989-01-01

    1 of the current trends in Asian mass communication discernbile in 1964-65 was mass media evolution as a big business. 25 years ago the makings of big business journalism already were evident. At this time, Asia is deeply involved in corporate journalism, and in recent years newspaper groups have become affiliated with multinational corporations such as Dow Jones and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Combines of government, local business, and regional conglomerates have purchased chunks of broadcast stations and newspapers in at least Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and India. Although government control of mass media is not new to Asia, the manner of control differs from 25 years ago. Overt repressive actions still persist but not as frequently or blatantly as a generation ago. Less noisy forms of control are preferred in many countries, which resort to suspensions, arrests, or direct censorship when subtle means are ineffective. An irony of Asian mass communication is that authorities do not always shut out more pernicious outside channels and messages, while rather effectively curbing the foreign media's role in and impact upon their societies. The speed with which much of the new technology has been introduced and expanded in Asia has brought undesired consequences, e.g., much dialogue previously focused on development journalism, ethics, or freedom of expression has shifted to information hardware.

  4. The Asia-Pacific petroleum market: Critical issues for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late 1980s saw an astonishing turnaround in the Asian oil market. After years of stagnation, three main factors - economic dynamism, lower oil prices and reduced government regulation of the market - resulted in a consumption surge that surprised even those analysts who had predicted such a recovery. The chronically capacity-surplus refining industry saw a leap in profitability, and new construction began. Rapid demand growth spread from the middle distillates to such formerly depressed products as gasoline and fuel oil, and naphtha markets began to expand again as the petrochemical industry resumed rapid growth. At the same time that demand has been rising and demand patterns have been shifting, other changes have begun. A new environmental awareness has taken root in Asia, and new environmental standards are being set almost daily, not only in the richer countries of East Asia, but also in many of the region's developing nations. Unfortunately, traditional sources of low-sulphur oil for power generation may be limited in the coming decade. Despite many new discoveries within the region, Asian crude availability is shrinking, both in terms of availability on the international market and in terms of percentage contribution to regional oil demand. After years of decreasing reliance, the region will face rapid increases in imports from the Persian Gulf in the 1990s. (author). 16 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Three Year Work Plan (2007--10) of the IUHPE Northern Part of the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Toshitaka

    2008-09-01

    The article presents the work plan of the Vice President for the Northern Part of the Western Pacific Region of the IUHPE. The highlights of the plan include, firstly, the organization of the First Asia-Pacific Conference on Health Promotion and Health Education, which will take place in July 2009. Secondly, the plan proposes the establishment of a liaison office and an Internet journal to facilitate collaboration among individuals, groups and organizations working in health promotion and education in this culturally and linguistically diverse region.

  6. Oceanography of the subarctic Pacific region, 1960-71

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the oceanography of the subarctic Pacific region 1969-1971. The background of the project is summarized. Next, a review of physical oceanography...

  7. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  8. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  9. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  10. Strategic update: Japan and the US pivot to the Asia pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Dian, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of the US pivot to Asia on the US-Japan alliance and on Japanese foreign and security policies. On the one hand, the US pivot is reassuring for Tokyo, since it seeks to ‘rebalance’ Chinese military ascendency and to strengthen extended deterrence in the region. On the other hand, it contributes to the acceleration of the ‘normalisation’ of Japanese security policies, speeding the process of overcoming the institutional self-binding prescriptions that under...

  11. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI reveal that airlines of Western countries exhibit a more remarkable CSR performance than Asia-Pacific airlines, suggesting that the CSR programs of Asia-Pacific airlines need improvement. By constructing an evaluation hierarchy and applying the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study found that the key strategic factors in the airline industry’s implementation of CSR include corporate governance, risk and crisis management, brand management, and product responsibility (safety.

  12. Epidemiological update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Arima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has caused a substantial public health burden in the Western Pacific Region. To assess this burden and regional trends, data were collated and summarized from indicator-based surveillance systems on dengue cases and deaths from countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region. In 2012, dengue notifications continued to increase with 356 838 dengue cases reported in the Region (relative to 244 855 cases reported in 2011 of which 1248 died. In the Asia subregion, the notification rate was highest in Cambodia, the Philippines and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (316.2, 198.9 and 162.4 per 100 000 population, respectively, and in the Pacific island countries and areas, the notification rate was highest in Niue, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (8556.0, 337.0 and 265.1 per 100 000 population, respectively. All four serotypes were circulating in the Region in 2012 with considerable variabilitiy in distribution. Regional surveillance provides important information to enhance situational awareness, conduct risk assessments and improve preparedness activities.

  13. Human Capital Index Rankings 2013 for Asia and Pacific Countries and Evaluation of Human Capital Indicators for Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Human Capital Index Rankings for 20 Asia and Pacific Countries. The Human Capital Index (HCI) developed by the (World Economic Forum) assesses 122 countries, representing over 90% of the world’s population. The Human Capital Index (HCI) measures the countries on their ability to develop and deploy healthy, educated and able workers through 4 pillars: education, health & wellness, workforce & employment and enabling environment. The Index consists of 51 indicators in total,...

  14. Demand and supply prospects, petroleum trade prospects in the Pacific-Asia area at the 2005 horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asia-Pacific area is going to face a precarious situation in term of petroleum demand and supply. The growth of petroleum consumption in this area will continue to be important and offer will stay insufficient to satisfy the global demand and it will be called on the Middle-East offer. This dependence could get never reached tops in a few years, China, Indonesia and Malaysia coming to join others petroleum importing countries. (N.C.)

  15. First Asia-Pacific Symposium on Visual Sciences November 2-5,1994 Guangzhou,PR China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    With the largest population in the world,the Asia-Pacific area is in a great need for the fundamentalresearch of visual sciences,the protection of vision and the prevention and treatment of visual diseases.The Symposium will open a new era of the academic exchanges in the field of visual sciences in thisarea.It also will enhance the academic exchanges of visual sciences worldwide.

  16. The institutionalization of comparative education in Asia and the Pacific: Roles and contributions of comparative education societies and the WCCES

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, TM; Manzon, M

    2014-01-01

    The institutional framework of the field of comparative education has developed significantly in recent decades. One manifestation of development has been the establishment and activities of professional societies. This paper focuses on 12 societies that operate in Asia and the Pacific. Some of these societies have long histories while others are recent creations. The paper considers the geographic and conceptual remits of these societies, and their activities including organisation of confer...

  17. ADB Brief No. 22: Poverty Dimensions of the Social Protection Index: Results for Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ADB's study on Social Protection Index in Asia and the Pacific from the poverty dimension perspective. The Social Protection Index is a compact, simple indicator designed to help governments assess social protection programs. The paper analyzes the impact on the poor and the nonpoor of three major categories of social protection programs: social insurance, social assistance, and the labor market. The analysis of the poverty impact of social protection progra...

  18. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is still a substantial vector-borne viral disease threat and burden of public health importance worldwide. This situation is complicated by dengue virus unprecedented resurgence and persistence of varied serotypes in endemic-prone areas, and man-made and natural activities consequences that promote vector emergence, transmission dynamics and spread across the Asia-Pacific region. There is an urgent need to strengthen operational and contextual surveillance-response research in improving early detection of active reservoir detection, novel drug in case management and quality evidence-based response including the deployment of dengue mass vaccination. Moreover, sustained mapping and watching of dengue risk factors or determinants, performance and outcome indicators of control or elimination programs effectiveness in defining minimum effective data towards community knowledge-based decision-making policy and effective response packages is imperative. Moreover, implementation of a robust, integrated dengue early warning surveillance, monitoring and response systems metrics is required for evidence-based, timely and cost-effective contextual mitigation strategies, and innovative interventions. PMID:27233238

  19. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-05-27

    Dengue is still a substantial vector-borne viral disease threat and burden of public health importance worldwide. This situation is complicated by dengue virus unprecedented resurgence and persistence of varied serotypes in endemic-prone areas, and man-made and natural activities consequences that promote vector emergence, transmission dynamics and spread across the Asia-Pacific region. There is an urgent need to strengthen operational and contextual surveillance-response research in improving early detection of active reservoir detection, novel drug in case management and quality evidence-based response including the deployment of dengue mass vaccination. Moreover, sustained mapping and watching of dengue risk factors or determinants, performance and outcome indicators of control or elimination programs effectiveness in defining minimum effective data towards community knowledge-based decision-making policy and effective response packages is imperative. Moreover, implementation of a robust, integrated dengue early warning surveillance, monitoring and response systems metrics is required for evidence-based, timely and cost-effective contextual mitigation strategies, and innovative interventions.

  20. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view. PMID:27595972

  1. An Ocean Reanalysis System for the Joining Area of Asia and Indian-Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chang-Xiang; ZHU Jiang; XIE Ji-Ping

    2010-01-01

    An ocean reanalysis system for the joining area of Asia and Indian-Pacific Ocean(AIPO)has been developed and is currently delivering reanalysis data sets for study on the air-sea interaction over AIPO and its climate variation over China in the inter-annual time scale.This system consists of a nested ocean model forced by atmospheric reanalysis,an ensemble-based multivariate ocean data assimilation system and various ocean observations.The following report describes the main components of the data assimilation system in detail.The system adopts an ensemble optimal interpolation scheme that uses a seasonal update from a free running model to estimate the background error covariance matrix.In view of the systematic biases in some observation systems,some treatments were performed on the observations before the assimilation.A coarse resolution reanalysis dataset from the system is preliminarily evaluated to demonstrate the performance of the system for the period 1992 to 2006 by comparing this dataset with other observations or reanalysis data.

  2. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  3. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  4. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ASIA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 14 June 1977 to 23 June 1977 (NODC Accession 8100274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ASIA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from June 14, 1977 to June 23, 1977. Data were...

  5. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Arima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia Pacific region. Official dengue surveillance data for 2010 provided by the ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on reported data, dengue has continued to show an increasing trend in the Western Pacific Region. In 2010, countries and areas reported a total of 353 907 dengue cases, of which 1073 died, for a case fatality ratio of 0.30%. More than 1000 cases were reported each from Australia (North Queensland, Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam. All of these countries, except for Australia where the dengue virus is not endemic, reported an increase in the number of reported cases in 2010 compared to 2009. The elevated number of cases reported in 2010 in some countries, such as the Philippines, is likely due to several factors, such as enhanced reporting and continued epidemic activity. However, increases in reported number of cases in other areas, such as Singapore and Malaysia, appear to indicate sustained epidemic activity in those countries. The continued epidemic dengue activity in the Region highlights the need for timely and routine regional sharing of information.

  6. Contemporary Trans-regional Cooperation between Europe and Asia in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beginda Pakpahan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with contemporary trans-regional cooperation between Europe and Asia in a changing world. It examines the emerging economic relationship between the EU and Asia and possible challenges and implications facing both regions. It argues that Europe - Asia economic and commercial ties are likely in the future to result in unbalanced economic development between both these regions; in short, future agreements are likely to disproportionately favour Europe. Therefore, the economic and commercial ties between these two regions should aim to develop the least advanced countries in Asia. The article argues that ASEM can be empowered as a common flexible framework for bilateral and inter-regional trade initiatives between both regions; it can be empowered to manage and monitor these trade initiatives and their social implications for vulnerable ASEM countries. The main objective of this article is to contribute a clearer understanding of the current EU - Asia relationship in the context of ASEM.

  7. 亚印太交汇区低纬上空不同层次大气臭氧的时空变化分析%Characteristics of temporal - spatial vertical distribution of atmospheric ozone over the low - latitude region of the joining area of Asia and Indian - Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼; 郭世昌; 刘煜; 吕达仁; 段雪梅; 苏锦兰; 李慧晶

    2011-01-01

    利用ECMWF 195709~200208共45 a的多层臭氧质量混合比月平均资料,详细分析了亚印太交汇区(AIPO)低纬地带上空平流层、对流层各层次上臭氧浓度的分布特征.结果表明:①区域上空对流层、平流层及臭氧总量大尺度特征均显著,纬度带分布特征明显;②对流层和平流层臭氧各个季节变化趋势相反,平流层臭氧和臭氧总量各个季节变化趋势一致;同一层次夏季臭氧浓度变化趋势与其他3个季节变化趋势相反;③区域上空20~3 hPa是臭氧浓度的高值区,50~30 hPa臭氧平均变化幅度最大;④对流层臭氧距平变化在整个高度上较为一致,正、负距平随季节绕赤道做南、北半球摆动,且存在季节性突变;⑤赤道上空有明显从平流层上层随季节逐渐往较低层传播的臭氧正负距平现象.%Based on the multi - layered ozone mass mixing ratio monthly mean data derived from ECMWF during the periods of 195709—200208 , the distribution characteristics of stratosphere and troposphere atmospheric ozone concentration at all levels over the low - latitude region of the joining area of Asia and Indian - Pacific Ocean ( AIPO) , have been analyzed in detail. The results showed that: ①The tropospheric, stratospheric and total ozone over the region all reflect significant large - scale features with obvious latitude - belt distribution characteristic ; ② The variation trends of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone in all seasons are reverse, while stratospheric and total ozone are consistent. The ozone trend in summer is contrary to other three seasons at the same level; ③The vertical variation range of the high ozone concentration and the averaged ozone maximum are respectively exist in the 3-20 hPa and 50-30 hPa over the equator region;④ At the different levels, the anomaly change of tropospheric ozone is consistent. And the positive and negative anomalies demonstrate a southern -northern hemisphere

  8. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  9. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamano Matsui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in Asia and the Pacific. Official dengue surveillance data for 2011 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on officially reported surveillance data, dengue continued to show sustained activity in the Western Pacific Region. In 2011, Member States reported a total of 244 855 cases of which 839 died. More than 1000 cases were reported each from Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Singapore and Viet Nam. Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands reported more cases relative to 2010. There continues to be great variability among the dengue-endemic countries and areas in the Region in the number of cases and serotype distribution. The continued high notification rate and complex dengue epidemiology in the Region highlight the need for information-sharing on a routine and timely basis.

  10. Anomalies of free mantle surface for Asia region as an indicator of subcrustal density inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachin, V. N.; Baranov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    Free mantle surface (FMS) is one of the important characteristics of the isostatic state of the Earth. FMS shows the degree of uplifting of the crust about the normal level, which corresponds to the homogeneous upper mantle. The FMS anomaly study can provide important information about the different geodynamic processes that responsible for the density heterogeneities in the upper mantle and the changing isostatic state of the lithosphere. Investigations of the FMS (Artemjev et. al, 1986) revealed main dependencies for the depth of the FMS under the continents and oceans. For the continental lithosphere it was found that the FMS depth depends on the thickness of the crust. Subsequently, the same dependence was revealed for the oceanic lithosphere using CRUST 2.0 model for all Earth (Senachin, 2008). In this study we present the updated FMS anomaly map for the Central and Southern Asia calculated using the crustal model AsCRUST-08 (Baranov, 2008), which has the resolution of 1x1 degree. We used the Moho map and density for upper, middle, and lower layers of crystalline crust for calculating the FSM anomalies. The Southern and Central Asia is tectonically complex region characterized by the great collision between the Asian and Indian plates, anomalously thick uplifted crust, and the large extensional zones near the southern and eastern margins of Asia. The evolution of the entire region is also strongly related to the active subduction along the Pacific border. The crustal model AsCRUST-08 provides substantially more detailed FMS data for the Asia region. We can see anomalous uplifting of the FMS up to 3 km in the extensional zones (Red Sea) and in the deep seafloor areas. Arabian Peninsula has the FMS depth about 6 km, which can be attributed to rather high density of the upper mantle. For Tibet region we reveal quite complex dependence between the FMS depth and the thickness of the crust. The central part with crustal thickness more then 45 km has elevated FMS

  11. Orbital obliquity cycles recorded in Kuroshio Current region, eastern Asia, around Plio-Pleistocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, Hokuto; Kondo, Yasuo; Irizuki, Toshiaki; Iwai, Masao; Ikehara, Minoru

    2016-05-01

    Global climate underwent a period of significant cooling at the Plio-Pleistocene Transition (∼2.6 Ma). The influence of this change on the Kuroshio Current region in the Pacific Ocean, off eastern Asia, is not well known. In this study, we clarify temporal changes in the paleoenvironment under the influence of the Kuroshio Current during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene using high-resolution faunal proxy records of fossil Ostracoda (Crustacea). The study unit is the Ananai Formation in the southeastern region of Shikoku, southwest Japan. The modern analog technique (MAT) is employed for the quantitative estimation of paleo-bottom water temperatures (PBWTs) and paleo-water depth (PWD) during the deposition of the formation. Ostracode MAT results show PBWT fluctuations during warmest and coldest months, with values of 16°C-20 °C and 12°C-16 °C, respectively, and a PWD of 70-140 m, reflecting sea-level oscillations. Moreover, the PBWT in the coldest month is 3 °C-4 °C lower than present-day water temperatures at the same shallow water depths. Temporal changes in these paleoenvironmental variables based on MAT are in good agreement with global oxygen isotope records. Orbital obliquity cycles with 41-kyr periodicity are recorded for the first time in an onshore section in the Kuroshio Current region at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary interval.

  12. Orbital obliquity cycles recorded in Kuroshio Current region, eastern Asia, around Plio-Pleistocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, Hokuto; Kondo, Yasuo; Irizuki, Toshiaki; Iwai, Masao; Ikehara, Minoru

    2016-05-01

    Global climate underwent a period of significant cooling at the Plio-Pleistocene Transition (˜2.6 Ma). The influence of this change on the Kuroshio Current region in the Pacific Ocean, off eastern Asia, is not well known. In this study, we clarify temporal changes in the paleoenvironment under the influence of the Kuroshio Current during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene using high-resolution faunal proxy records of fossil Ostracoda (Crustacea). The study unit is the Ananai Formation in the southeastern region of Shikoku, southwest Japan. The modern analog technique (MAT) is employed for the quantitative estimation of paleo-bottom water temperatures (PBWTs) and paleo-water depth (PWD) during the deposition of the formation. Ostracode MAT results show PBWT fluctuations during warmest and coldest months, with values of 16°C-20 °C and 12°C-16 °C, respectively, and a PWD of 70-140 m, reflecting sea-level oscillations. Moreover, the PBWT in the coldest month is 3 °C-4 °C lower than present-day water temperatures at the same shallow water depths. Temporal changes in these paleoenvironmental variables based on MAT are in good agreement with global oxygen isotope records. Orbital obliquity cycles with 41-kyr periodicity are recorded for the first time in an onshore section in the Kuroshio Current region at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary interval.

  13. Export of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen and sulfur compounds from the East Asia region in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Takegawa, N.; Masui, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ko, M. W.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Flocke, F.; Weber, R. J.; Thornton, D. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Vay, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Streets, D. G.; Eisele, F. L.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Talbot, R. W.

    2003-10-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate reactive nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as other chemical species, were made using the P-3B and DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment, conducted between February and April 2001. These measurements provide a good opportunity to study the extent to which anthropogenic NOx and SO2 emitted over the East Asian countries remain as NOy and SOx (=SO2 + nssSO42-) in the form of gas or fine particles when an air mass is transported into the western Pacific region. In this paper a method to estimate transport efficiencies, ɛ(NOy) and ɛ(SOx), in an air mass that has experienced multiple injection, mixing, and loss processes is described. In this analysis, CO and CO2 are used as passive tracers of transport, and the emission inventories of CO, CO2, NOx, and SO2 over the East Asia region are used. Results from the P-3B presented in this study indicate that 20-40% and 15% of NOx emitted over the northeastern part of China remained as NOy over the western Pacific in the boundary layer (BL) and free troposphere (FT), respectively. In the FT, PAN is found to have been the dominant form of NOy, while only 0.5% of emitted NOx remained as NOx. The transport efficiency of SOx is estimated to have been 25-45% and 15-20% in the BL and FT, respectively. Median values of the nssSO42-/SOx ratio are 0.4-0.6 both in the BL and FT, however large variability is found in the FT. These results are generally consistent with those derived using DC-8 data. The results obtained in this study indicate that more than half of NOy and SOx were lost over the continent and that the vertical transport from the BL to FT further reduced their amounts by a factor of 2, likely due to wet removal. Budgets of NOy and SOx were also studied for air masses, which we sampled during TRACE-P and the flux out from the continent in these cases is estimated to be 20% of the emissions. Flux

  14. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  15. China's great game in Central Asia implications to U.S. policy in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    y the United States is spearheading a war on terrorism, focusing on countries close to Central Asia such as Afghanistan and Iraq. If the United States plans on staying in the region, it must take into account the forces shaping Chinese foreign policy in Central Asia. Possibilities exist for cooperation, but if the situation is misinterpreted or handled incorrectly, there is also a possibility for conflict. This thesis examines Chinese interests in Central Asia, comparing and contrasting them ...

  16. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  17. COMPARISONS OF THE WEST PACIFIC SUBTROPICAL HIGH AND THE SOUTH ASIA HIGH BETWEEN NCEP/NCAR AND ECMWF REANALYSIS DATASETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen; ZHI Xie-fei

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons of the west Pacific subtropical high with the South Asia High are made using the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF 500 hPa and 100 hPa monthly boreal geopotential height fields for the period 1961 - 2000. Discrepancies are found for the time prior to 1980. The west Pacific subtropical high in the NCEP/NCAR data is less intense than in ECMWF data before 1980. The range and strength of the west Pacific subtropical high variation described by the NCEP/NCAR data are larger than those depicted by ECMWF data. The same situation appears in the 100-hPa geopotential field. These discoveries suggest that the interdecadal variation of the two systems as shown by the NCEP/NCAR data may not be true. Besides, the South Asia High center in the NCEP/NCAR data is obviously stronger than in the ECMWF data during the periods 1969, 1979 - 1991 and 1992 - 1995. Furthermore, the range is larger from 1992 to 1995.

  18. The Asia-Pacific effects of a megatsunami along the Tonga Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    A megatsunami (M>9.0) along the Tonga Trench has far-reaching consequences for 4 major continents of the world, and exposure ranging from the cities of Sydney and Brisbane, the coastlines of Japan, Canada, USA, and along South America not to mention the Pacific Islands. Using the TSUDAT software of Geoscience Australia, relevant scenarios are selected for the location. Fault mechanics and the possible regime are also then examined to create the scenario. In this study, the effects of a megatsunami scenario are investigated including the run-up heights in coastal regions on these four continents in addition to other hazard effects. Global level DEM and bathymetry data is used to provide a first estimate of the exposed population, built infrastructure (capital stock) and GDP in the tsunami inundation area. The uncertainties of such a study are taken into account by adjusting the scenario via source mechanism, magnitude range and directivity effects. This is combined with basic vulnerability functions from historical tsunamis in order to give an exposed and estimated loss and cost of reconstruction across the Pacific rim. Notes as to the warning times, country preparation and evacuation plans for tsunamis are also made given long lead times in some cases.

  19. The Free TradeArea of theAsia-Pacific to Set Up the Building of Service Trade Rules%亚太自由贸易区设立中服务贸易规则之构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涵

    2016-01-01

    服务贸易作为建设亚太自由贸易区的重点内容之一,由于目前亚太经合组织成员国在服务贸易开放程度等对外服务贸易领域存有特殊性差异,加之当下亚太地区服务贸易活动的日益繁杂,都使得在建立亚太自由贸易区的过程中仅服务贸易方面便面临着诸多法律问题。基于此,为促成亚太自贸区的建设并优化其服务贸易环境便可从加快亚太自由贸易区服务贸易专约的构建、完善WTO服务贸易总协定、促进亚太自由贸易区成员国国内服务贸易立法进度这三个方面予以考虑。中国作为亚太经济合作组织的重要成员之一,同时也是服务贸易大国,由此研究中国对于亚太自由贸易区服务贸易规则的构建立场,不仅关乎于亚太地区服务贸易的开展,亦是与中国在服务贸易活动中的切身利益相关。%The trade in services as one of the important content of construction of free trade area of the Asia-pacific, the current APEC members in the field of service trade openness and so on foreign trade in services has particularity, combined with the increasingly complex of the service trade in the Asia-pacific region, has made only in the process of establishing free trade area of the Asia-pacific service trade is faced with many legal problems. Based on this, to contribute to the construction of the Asia-pacific free trade area and optimize the environment of the trade in services from trade in services designed to speed up the Asia-pacific free trade area can be about to build and perfect the WTO general agreement on trade in services, and promote free trade area of the Asia-pacific countries domestic service trade legislation progress of these three aspects to be considered. As an important member of the Asia-pacific economic cooperation organization in our country is also a service trade big country, the research for the Asia-pacific free trade area in our country the

  20. Trans-Pacific transport and evolution of aerosols and trace gases from Asia during the INTEX-B field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adhikary

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM developed at the University of Iowa is applied to the analysis of observations obtained during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B, conducted over the Pacific Ocean during the 2006 North American spring season. This paper reports on the model performance of meteorological parameters, trace gases, aerosols and photolysis rate (J-values predictions with the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR C-130 airborne measurements along with observations from three surface sites Mt. Bachelor, Trinidad Head and Kathmandu, Nepal. In general the model shows appreciable skill in predicting many of the important aspects of the observed distributions. The major meteorological parameters driving long range transport are accurately predicted by the WRF simulations used in this study. Furthermore, the STEM model predicts aerosols and trace gases concentrations within a standard deviation of most of the observed mean values. The results also point towards areas where model improvements are needed; e.g., the STEM model underestimates CO (15% for the DC8 and 6% for the C-130, whereas it overpredicts PAN (by a factor of two for both aircraft. The errors in the model calculations are attributed to uncertainty in emissions estimates and uncertainty in the top and lateral boundary conditions. Results from a series of sensitivity simulations examining the impact of the growth of emissions in Asia from 2000 to 2006, the importance of biomass burning, the effect of using boundary conditions from different global models, and the role of heterogeneous chemistry on the predictions are also presented. The impacts of heterogeneous reactions at specific times during dust transport episodes can be significant, and in the presence of dust both sulfate and nitrate aerosol production is increased and gas phase nitric acid levels are reduced appreciably (~50%. The aging of the air masses during the long range

  1. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... windowpane and Northwestern Atlantic Coast witch flounder are subject to overfishing and are in an overfished... overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an overfished condition. In addition, in the Pacific...

  2. Review of the Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition'2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xian-zeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Asian-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition'2005 was held in INTEX Shanghai, China on August 13-17, 2005, and the China Die Casting Industry Development Supreme Forum'2005 was held in Shanghai Mart on August 15. This Exhibition was in a large scale and had abundant contents, far beyond all the past die casting exhibitions. The exhibition areas approached 6 000 m2. The exhibitors came from twelve countries and regions such as Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, Spain, USA, Canada, Japan,Singapore, China, Chinese Hong Kong and Chinese Taiwan. There were more than 100 exhibition booths. Die casting machines, die castings, dies, die lubricants and spraying equipment, robots,holding & dosing furnaces, cleaning equipment, and other peripheral equipment were exhibited. In addition, alloys, simulation softwares for dies and die casting processes, detection instruments,and infiltration equipment were also exhibited. Up to 5 000 persons visited the Exhibition.

  3. ASEAN og Kambodsja-konflikten : en regional sikkerhetspolitisk analyse av Sørøst Asia

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    ASEAN OG KAMBODSJA-KONFLIKTEN - EN REGIONAL/ SIKKERHETSPOLITISK ANALYSE AV SØRØST ASIA Temaet i denne oppgaven er regional sikkerhetspolitikk i Sørøst Asia, med ASEANs rolle i Kambodsja-konflikten som mitt hovedanliggende. Utgangspunktet for dette prosjektet var min nysgjerrighet på hva ASEAN som regional organisasjon sto for og bedrev. ASEAN ble stiftet av Indonesia, Filippinene, Malaysia, Thailand og Singapore i 1967 (Brunei kom med i 1984) som en økonomisk samarbeidsorganisasjon. Ett...

  4. 76 FR 28422 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... Fishery Management Council (Western Pacific Council), is subject to overfishing. NMFS notifies the appropriate fishery management council (Council) whenever it determines that; overfishing is occurring,...

  5. Delicate Balance of Power in the Asia-Pacific: The Obama Administration’s Strategic Rebalance and the Transformation of US-China Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUISHENG; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    The rise of China has transformed the global power balance and made the US-China relationship increasingly strategic and complicated.While some Americans are anxious about what China’s great power aspiration means for US interests,many Chinese are concerned about the US intention to keep China down.In this context,many in Beijing believe that the Obama administration’s strategic rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific is bent on hindering China’s rise as a great power.To what extent is the strategic rebalance about China?Is it part of the US strategy to contain China’s rise?Can the US and China function in relative power equality and build a balance of power to maintain peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific?Seeking answers to these important questions,this article argues that the strategic rebalance is a continuation of the long-standing struggle of the US to define its interests in the region.China remains a centerpiece in the rebalance not only because building a cooperative relationship with China is the key for its success,but also because the rebalance has to address the rapidly shifting balance of power in the region where China has emerged as an ever-more influential power.It is in US interests to work with its partners as well as China to construct a regional order based on the balance of power,and rules and institutions capable of allowing China to grow and be secured but not use its new might arbitrarily.

  6. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Courtland L. Smith; Xanthippe Augerot

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC) in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle—capital, connectedness, and resilience—we i...

  7. World Cities and Migration Flows in Asia Pacific: Development and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo está dirigido a la incorporación de nuevas teorías y conocimientos innovadores, con la finalidad de avanzar en la planeación del desarrollo. También se basa en la lectura y análisis de artículos que desarrollan nuevos campos del conocimiento con el propósito de ordenarlos e integrarlos en una base analítica sólida y coherente, que permita incorporar el análisis espacial-regional al estudio contemporáneo del desarrollo social. Igualmente, busca señalar el papel estratégico que han ido adquiriendo las ciudades mundiales, los flujos migratorios, la ciencia y la tecnología en el proceso de desarrollo e integración de los países, en particular de la región Asia Pacífico.

  8. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Gyanendra Gongal; Wright, Alice E.

    2011-01-01

    There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste) of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease ...

  9. Racial and Gender Issues with Physics in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Than; Singh, Awnesh; Prasad, Uma

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the state of physics teaching and learning in the Pacific Island nations. How have things changed in teaching physics? We believe that some of the goals and many of the challenges faced today have changed very little over the years. This paper is purely based upon the authors' experiences in teaching physics at the first-year level at the University of the South Pacific (USP). USP is a typical medium-sized teaching and research university as compared to universities internationally. In the Pacific, it is the biggest university and is effectively serving the 12 Pacific Island nations. Consequently, the findings described here should represent the overall situation for the Pacific region. Perhaps some of our results will resonate with readers in other locations as well. Worldwide, university students often find studying physics to be very challenging, and only a small fraction of them choose physics as a major for their degree or as a career. Students at USP are not an exception, and here we describe the severity of the problem.

  10. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: → Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. → There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. → No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. → Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  11. On the regional distributions of background carbon monoxide concentrations observed in East Asia during 1991-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Tans, P. P.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations observed at Mt. Waliguan in China (WLG), Ulaan Uul in Mongolia (UUM), Tae-ahn Peninsula in Korea (TAP) and Ryori in Japan (RYO) were analysed between 1991 and 2008. The average annual concentration of CO, a toxic air pollutant, was the highest at TAP (235±44 ppb), followed by RYO (169±35 ppb), UUM (154±27 ppb) and WLG (138±24 ppb). These data obtained in East Asia were also compared with CO data from Mauna Loa, Hawaii. CO tends to be highest in spring and lowest in summer in East Asia, with the exception of WLG. TAP had the highest CO concentrations in all seasons compared with WLG, UUM and RYO, and displays a wide short-term variability in concentration. This is caused by large-scale air pollution owing to its downwind location, close to continental East Asia. CO concentrations observed at TAP were analysed as follows: according to the origin of the isentropic backward trajectory and its transport passage; as continental background airflows (CBG); regionally polluted continental airflows (RPC); oceanic background airflows (OBG); and partly perturbed oceanic airflows (PPO). The high concentrations of CO at TAP are because of the airflow originating from the East Asian continent, rather than the North Pacific. RPCs, which pass through eastern China, appear to have high CO concentrations in spring, autumn and winter. It is noteworthy that the overall trend at TAP does not show an increase despite the fact that energy use in China approximately doubled from 1991 to 2008. OBGs, however, are affected by North Pacific air masses with low CO concentrations in summer.

  12. Key feasibility considerations when conducting vaccine clinical trials in Asia–Pacific countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lansang, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Kenneth Tan,2 Saumya Nayak,1 Ken J Lee,1 Karen Wai1 1Feasibility and Site Identification – Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2National University of Singapore, Singapore Introduction: Conducting clinical trial feasibility is an important first step in initiating a clinical trial. A robust feasibility process ensures that a realistic capability assessment is made before conducting a trial. A retrospective analysis of vaccine clinical trials was p...

  13. Key feasibility considerations when conducting vaccine clinical trials in Asia–Pacific countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lansang EZ; Tan K; Nayak S; Lee KJ; Wai K

    2013-01-01

    Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Kenneth Tan,2 Saumya Nayak,1 Ken J Lee,1 Karen Wai1 1Feasibility and Site Identification – Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2National University of Singapore, Singapore Introduction: Conducting clinical trial feasibility is an important first step in initiating a clinical trial. A robust feasibility process ensures that a realistic capability assessment is made before conducting a trial. A retrospective analysis of vaccine clinical trials was pe...

  14. Asia -Pacific Strategy of Obama Administration and Its Impact on Sino -US Relations%刍议奥巴马政府的亚太战略及对中美关系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友骏

    2012-01-01

    After the global financial crisis, the position of Asia - Pacific region in the global political and eco- nomic structure upgrades rapidly. The Obama administration pays great attention on adjusting the Asia - Pacific strategy in America' s global strategy since it took power. After careful and detailed operation in the past three years, the Asia - Pacific strategy of Obama administration has been shaped fundamentally, which deeply influences the international pattern, the Asia - Pacific regional situation and the balance of big powers' relations. More impor- tantly, this strategy triggers a series of new contradictions in Asia -Pacific region and handicaps China' s diplomat- ic relations inside this region. However, the friendly - cooperated and overall win - win relationship between China and US is not destroyed. To maintain the peace and stability in the Asia - Pacific region is still common responsibil- ity of the two great powers which are the main forces in the Asia - Pacific region. The urgent task for the develop- ment of Sino - US relations is to confirm certain new strategic foundation for their further cooperation with "great wisdom".%全球性金融危机之后,亚太地区在全球政治经济格局的地位急速跃升。美国奥巴马政府一上台,就极为重视调整亚太战略在美国全球战略中的核心地位。经过近三年的缜密部署和细致经营,奥巴马政府的亚太战略已基本构建成型,对国际格局的进一步调整、亚太地区的局势新发展、大国关系的平衡等均产生深刻影响。更为重要的是,奥巴马政府亚太战略的调整引发一系列亚太地区新矛盾的产生,并对我发展亚太地区的周边外交关系形成掣肘。但是,中美之间友好合作、互利共赢的总体局面并未打破,维护亚太地区的和平与稳定仍是中、美两个大国作为亚太地区主要力量的共同责任,现阶段的紧迫任务就是要用"大智慧"为中美关

  15. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  16. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  17. Intercomparison of personal monitoring services in the Asian/Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Radiation Laboratory in 1991 conducted an International Intercomparison of Personal Radiation Monitoring Services in the Asia/Pacific region. Twenty-nine (29) organizations from sixteen (16) countries took part in the study. Both thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) and conventional film badge dosemeters were submitted for evaluation. The intercomparison involved participants submitting 25 dosemeters including transit controls to the Australian Radiation Laboratory for exposure. Seven radiation beams of varying beam quality were used. Both film dosemeters and TLDs were irradiated with 137Cs gamma rays, X-rays and 2.0 MeV maximum energy beta rays from a 90Sr/90Y source. The delivered dose equivalents were in the range 0.2 to 9 mSv. The majority of participants underestimated both the superficial and penetrating dose equivalents. The scatter in results was greatest for the X-ray beam qualities. 25 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Cenozoic climate and paleogeographic changes in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Ogasawara, K.; Wolfe, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This special issue represents the proceedings of the symposium, held as part of the 29th International Geological Congress, 1992. Other relevant papers on Cainozoic climate change in Japan are also included. Data is assembled from the Pacific Ocean itself, its marginal seas, in particular the Sea of Japan, and the surrounding coastal states. The palaeoenvironment of the region is reconstructed from the analysis of micropalaeontological, isotopic and stratigraphic data from deep-sea and terrestrial cores. -S.J.Stone

  19. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  20. Aerosol composition, oxidation properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, C.; Du, W.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Zhou, L. B.; Ji, D. S.; Wang, P. C.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ) PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9) μg m-3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA: sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) showed significant reductions of 62-69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %). The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) indicated that highly oxidized secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary organic aerosol (POA) from cooking, traffic, and biomass-burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10), which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13) measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation

  1. Chemical apportionment of aerosol optical properties during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Du, Wei; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China, using the highly time-resolved measurements by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction monitor. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 186.5 (±184.5) M m-1 and 23.3 (±21.9) M m-1 during APEC, which were decreased by 63% and 56%, respectively, compared to those before APEC primarily due to strict emission controls. The aerosol composition and size distributions showed substantial changes during APEC; as a response, the mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM1 was decreased from 4.7 m2 g-1 to 3.5 m2 g-1. Comparatively, the average single-scattering albedo (SSA) remained relatively unchanged, illustrating the synchronous reductions of bext and bap during APEC. MSE and SSA were found to increase as function of the oxidation degree of organic aerosol (OA), indicating a change of aerosol optical properties during the aging processes. The empirical relationships between chemical composition and particle extinction were established using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed the largest contribution of ammonium nitrate to particle extinction, accounting for 35.1% and 29.3% before and during APEC, respectively. This result highlights the important role of ammonium nitrate in the formation of severe haze pollution during this study period. We also observed very different optical properties of primary and secondary aerosol. Owing to emission controls in Beijing and surrounding regions and also partly the influences of meteorological changes, the average bext of secondary aerosol during APEC was decreased by 71% from 372.3 M m-1 to 108.5 M m-1, whereas that of primary aerosol mainly from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning emissions showed a smaller reduction from 136.7 M m-1 to 71.3 M m-1. As a result

  2. Aerosol composition, oxidative properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Q. Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidative properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9 μg m−3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA = sulfate + nitrate + ammonium showed significant reductions of 62–69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %. The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosols (OA indicated that highly oxidized secondary OA (SOA showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary OA (POA from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10, which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13 measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation degrees

  3. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  4. Food Security and Poverty in Asia and the Pacific: Challenges and Policy Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring a secure supply of food is essential, given the world’s (and especially Asia’s) growing population, high and volatile food prices, increasingly scarce resources, and changing environment. This paper discusses the drivers behind food insecurity in Asia and points to ways to mitigate it. The world’s population has now reached 7 billion, and is projected to increase by more than 2 billion between now and 2050. Asia will account for majority of the increase. And Asia’s growing affluence ...

  5. Towards an uncertain future? The strengthening of Japan's autonomy in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguenoli Miyamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Japan has been increasing tensions with China regarding the Pinnacle Senkaku/Diaoyu islands. Due to the Chinese military development, Japan has been working on its political and military strengthening in Asia. This essay presents two possible scenarios for Japan.

  6. Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer

  7. Focusing on Technology and Services, Competing in China Die Casting Market Report on visits with five companies participating in the Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition 2005, organized by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES), was held in INTEX Shanghai, China on August 14-17, 2005. On August 16th, the journalists of CHINA FOUNDRY journal visited five exhibitors on the spot of exhibition.

  8. Summary of FAO/IAEA Seminar on Food Irradiation for Developing Countries in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of papers submitted to the FAO/IAEA Seminar on Food Irradiation for Developing Countries in Asia and the Pacific, held in Tokyo, 9-13 November 1981. Five reviewed papers on the status of national and international programs on food irradiation, and four communications on irradiation of dried fishery products were presented. The moisture content of fishery products typically ranged from 6 to 40% and the salt content from 0 to 11%. Six papers were presented on the preservation of root crops. Four papers dealt with hygienic conditions of spices and meat products. Five papers were presented on insect disinfestation of fruits and four papers were presented in the session on the commercial use of food irradiation. The round table discussion is summed up and adopted recommendations listed

  9. Nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism. 8 November 2004, Sydney, Australia, Asia-Pacific Nuclear Safeguards and Security Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the focus of the world is on nuclear proliferation and the potential threat of nuclear terrorism in Asia and the Pacific, and this address is presenting the perspectives on the challenges IAEA faces, and how the IAEA is working to strengthen nuclear security and the nuclear non-proliferation regime. But one would emphasize at the outset that, while much of our work must begin locally and regionally, we must not forget to think globally, because ultimately the existence of a nuclear threat anywhere is a threat everywhere, and as a global community, we will win or lose this battle together. This presentation, discusses cooperation, assistance, regional and international networks, and the importance of learning from each other. In effect, the focal subject is 'security culture', a mindset that, while providing the impetus for local and regional action, thinks globally and is fully capable of extending across borders. Sixty years ago, on a day in August, the dawn of the Nuclear Age in Asia left nearly a quarter of a million people dead, with two devices considered crude by modern standards. For six decades, we have managed to avoid a repeat of that event, but remain haunted by the prospect. It is my firm belief that we cannot move out from under the shadow of Hiroshima and Nagasaki until we are ready to make that move collectively, and build a system of security that transcends borders, that focuses on the equal value of every human life, and in which nuclear weapons have no place. May it not ultimately be said of our civilization that we created the inventions that led to our own demise

  10. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  11. INTRODUCING A NEW INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM: MONSOON ASIA INTEGRATED REGIONAL STUDY (MAIRS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congbin Fu; Ailikun; Renjian Zhang; Xiaodong Yan

    2006-01-01

    The Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) is a new Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP)program aimed at the integrated study of environmental changes over monsoon Asian region. This paper briefly introduces MAIRS, its background and concept, scientific themes and objectives, data requirements and its information system, intensive observation experiment, and its linkage with ongoing international projects.

  12. Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX East Asia domain: A comparison of regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model to stand-alone RCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun; Peng, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    The FROALS (flexible regional ocean-atmosphere-land system) model, a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model, has been applied to the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) East Asia domain. Driven by historical simulations from a global climate system model, dynamical downscaling for the period from 1980 to 2005 has been conducted at a uniform horizontal resolution of 50 km. The impacts of regional air-sea couplings on the simulations of East Asian summer monsoon rainfall have been investigated, and comparisons have been made to corresponding simulations performed using a stand-alone regional climate model (RCM). The added value of the FROALS model with respect to the driving global climate model was evident in terms of both climatology and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over East China by the contributions of both the high horizontal resolution and the reasonably simulated convergence of the moisture fluxes. Compared with the stand-alone RCM simulations, the spatial pattern of the simulated low-level monsoon flow over East Asia and the western North Pacific was improved in the FROALS model due to its inclusion of regional air-sea coupling. The results indicated that the simulated sea surface temperature (SSTs) resulting from the regional air-sea coupling were lower than those derived directly from the driving global model over the western North Pacific north of 15°N. These colder SSTs had both positive and negative effects. On the one hand, they strengthened the western Pacific subtropical high, which improved the simulation of the summer monsoon circulation over East Asia. On the other hand, the colder SSTs suppressed surface evaporation and favored weaker local interannual variability in the SST, which led to less summer rainfall and weaker interannual rainfall variability over the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Overall, the reference simulation performed using the FROALS model is reasonable in terms of rainfall over the land area of

  13. Negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Evaluation and Implications for East Asian Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Inkyo

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement seems to have reached a crossroads : it could either be a building block toward achieving economic integration in Asia and the Pacific, or trigger the formation of two large trade blocs which will work independently of one another. When the Government of Japan announced its participation in the TPP negotiations in March 2013, the partnership began to attract greater interest from other East Asian countries. This paper analyzes the progress and ...

  14. Regional Integration in the Americas and the Pacific Rim: A Project Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Mena, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies (CILAS) and the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IR/PS) launched a two-year program on “Latin America and the Pacific Rim” at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Its aim is to promote understanding of the increasingly significant relationship between Asia and Latin America, especially in light of the relatively scant scholarly attention which has been devoted to this subject. This wo...

  15. Progress and Advance of Memory of the World in Asia-Pacific%亚太地区世界记忆工程的现状与推进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀林; 王倩倩

    2012-01-01

    亚太地区世界记忆工程是世界记忆工程的重要组成部分,对于保护亚太地区各民族记忆起着重要作用。本文在论述亚太地区世界记忆工程进展的基础上,从与世界记忆工程保持一致、宣传力度较大、记忆名录层次丰富三个方面总结了成绩,从参与度、合作度、网站建设方面分析了存在的不足。最后,本文从宣传、合作与网站建设三个主要方面提出了推进亚太地区世界记忆工程进一步发展的措施。%Memory of the World in Asia-Pacific as a part of Memory of the World, plays an important role in protecting national memory in Asia-Pacific. This article is based on the progress of Memory of the World in Asia-Pacific, concluding the achievements of the Memory of the World in Asia-Pacific from the aspects of consistent with Memory of the World ,lots of activities in promoting, rich heritage lists, then,analyzes the shortages in participation ,cooperation and websites construction. Finally, the article proposes to promote Memory of the World in Asia-Pacific in propaganda, cooperation and websites construction.

  16. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  17. Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT. We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges. Future rGLC activities should include (1 advocacy for high-level political commitment; (2 monitoring, evaluation, and supervision; (3 technical support and contextualized guidance; and (4 training, capacity building, and operational research. Regional activities require close collaboration with both national and global efforts, and should be an important component of the new Global Drug-resistant TB Initiative.

  18. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  19. A Mechanism for the Interannual Variation of the Early Summer East Asia-Pacific Teleconnection Wave Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ruowen; TAO Yun; CAO Jie

    2010-01-01

    Based on the 500-hPa geopotential height, surface air temperature, and China summer rain-belt type data from 1978 to 2002, the spatial spectrum function sets which well represent the variation of large scale atmospheric circulations were obtained using the least square method. A mechanism for the interannual variation of the East Asia-Pacific teleconnection (EAP) wave train in early summer was identified with the low-order spectral method and the hypothesis-test method. The results indicate that, when nonlinear wave-wave and wave-flow interactions on large scale are stronger in the inner dynamic process of the atmosphere, there are obvious nonlinear features in the evolution of the atmospheric circulation, and the EAP exhibits a negative-positive-negative ("- +-") spatial distribution in low to high latitudes in early summer. The corresponding EAP index is positive, which leads to a northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the China rain-belt is located in the Huaihe River valley and its north in summer. On the contrary, when nonlinear wave-wave and wave-flow interactions on large scale are weaker, there appears a linear feature in the evolution of the atmospheric circulation, and the EAP shows a positive-negative-positive ("+-+") spatial distribution in low to high latitudes. The corresponding EAP index is negative, which inhibits the WPSH against moving northward, and the China rain-belt is located in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys and their south.

  20. Extrabudgetary programme on the safety of nuclear installations in South East Asia Pacific and Far East countries. Report of the consultative meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the good experience with the rapid expansion of nuclear utilization in Japan and South Korea, China is planning to significantly expand its nuclear programme, and other countries in the region are likely to follow this example in order to meet their expected high electricity demand growth. The building of NPPs is being considered in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is however recognized that countries in the region are in different stages of nuclear power programme, and that their needs for assistance in nuclear safety will be substantially different. In this situation it would be advantageous for all countries to establish regional co-operation on nuclear safety to learn from each other, use the experience accumulated in the world, and to commonly assess the progress made in nuclear safety matters. The objective of this Consultative Meeting was to discuss co-operation and the needs for assistance by Member States in South-East Asia, Pacific and Far East to strengthen the safety of their nuclear installations. Refs, figs, tabs

  1. 浅析“亚太再平衡”战略下美国与南太岛国关系的新发展%Brief Analysis on the New Development of the Relation between the U.S.and the South Pacific Islands under the Background of“Asia Pacific Rebalancing Strategy”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀琚; 叶圣萱

    2016-01-01

    历史上,美国与南太平洋岛国(以下简称“南太岛国”)有着长期而复杂的关系。自新世纪奥巴马政府实施“亚太再平衡”战略以来,美国重新提升了南太地区在其全球地缘政治安全战略中的地位,将其确立为“亚太再平衡”战略的第二道战线。美国增进了与该地区岛国的政治、安全关系,同时在经济援助、文化交流、气候变化、环境保护等方面,也加大了与南太岛国的合作。本文阐述了“亚太再平衡”战略背景下美国对南太岛国的重新定位,并探析了美国与南太岛国关系的新发展,进而提出中国的应对策略。%Historically,there was a long and complex relationship between the United States and the South Pacific islands.Since the Obama administration implemented “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”in the new century,the United States has newly promoted the status of the South Pacific region in its global geopo-litical and security strategy,and regarded this region as its second frontline of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”.The US enhances political and security relations with the islands in this region,and in the as-pects of economic assistance,cultural exchanges,climate change,and environmental protection.The Unit-ed States pushes forward cooperation with the South Pacific islands.This paper illustrates American reloca-tion towards the South Pacific islands under the background of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”,discus-ses the new development of the relation between the United States and the South Pacific islands,and then puts forward China’s replying strategies.

  2. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtland L. Smith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle—capital, connectedness, and resilience—we infer the resilience of the five fisheries based on a qualitative assessment of capital accumulation and connectedness at the regional scale. In our assessment, we evaluate natural capital and connectedness and constructed capital and connectedness. The Russian Far East fishery is the most resilient, followed by Alaska, British Columbia, Japan, and WOC. Adaptive capacity in the fisheries is contingent upon high levels of natural capital and connectedness and moderate levels of constructed capital and connectedness. Cross-scale interactions and global market demand are significant factors in reduced resilience. Greater attention to ecological functioning and cultural signification has the potential to increase resilience in Pacific salmon ecosystems.

  3. Regional climate model projections of the South Pacific Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. P.; Bormann, K.; Katzfey, J.; Dean, S.; Arritt, R.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents results from regional climate model (RCM) projections for the south-west Pacific Ocean. The regional models used bias corrected sea surface temperatures. Six global climate models (GCMs) were used to drive a global variable resolution model on a quasi-uniform 60 km grid. One of these simulations was used to drive three limited area regional models. Thus a four member ensemble was produced by different RCMs downscaling the same GCM (GFDL2.1), and a six member ensemble was produced by the same RCM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model—CCAM) downscaling six different GCMs. Comparison of the model results with precipitation observations shows the differences to be dominated by the choice of RCM, with all the CCAM simulations performing similarly and generally having lower error than the other RCMs. However, evaluating aspects of the model representation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) does not show CCAM to perform better in this regard. In terms of the future projections of the SPCZ for the December-January-February season, the ensemble showed no consensus change in most characteristics though a majority of the ensemble members project a decrease in the SPCZ strength. Thus, similar to GCM based studies, there is large uncertainty concerning future changes in the SPCZ and there is no evidence to suggest that future changes will be outside the natural variability. These RCM simulations do not support an increase in the frequency of zonal SPCZ events.

  4. First Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Minority Language Contexts in Asia (Kunming, China, May 17-22, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There are at least 6,000--7,000 languages spoken in the world today, with over half of them endangered. And 61 percent of the endangered languages are within the Asia and Pacific Region. The publication is a report derived from the Regional (Asia and Pacific Region) Workshop on Mother Tongue/Bilingual Literacy Programs for Ethnic Minorities, held…

  5. Global change and biogeochemical cycles: The south Asia region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitra, A.P.; DileepKumar, M.; Kumar, K.R.; Abrol, Y.P.; Kalra, N.; Velayutham, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    stream_size 33 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt stream_source_info Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  6. Mechanisms controlling surface ozone over East Asia: a multiscale study coupling regional and global chemical transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms controlling surface ozone (O3 over East Asia are examined using the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model at two horizontal scales: 81 km and 27 km. Through sensitivity studies and comparison with recently available satellite data and surface measurements in China and Japan, we find that the O3 budget over East Asia shows complex interactions among photochemical production, regional transport, meteorological conditions, burning of agricultural residues, and global inflows. For example, wintertime surface O3 over northern domain is sensitive to boundary conditions derived from the MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related Tracers global model, whereas summertime O3 budget is controlled by the competitive processes between photochemical production and monsoonal intrusion of low-O3 marine air masses from tropical Pacific. We find that simulated surface O3 for 2001 does not exhibit the same sharp drop in July and August concentrations that is observed at two mountaintop sites (Tai and Hua for 2004 and Beijing for 1995–2005. CMAQ sensitivity tests with two widely used photochemical schemes demonstrate that over the industrial areas in East Asia north of 30° N, SAPRC99 produces higher values of mean summertime O3 than CBIV, amounting to a difference of 10 ppb. In addition, analysis of NCEP winds and geopotential heights suggests that southwesterly monsoonal intrusion in central east China is weakened in August 2001 as compared with the climatologically mean for 1980–2005. Further examination of the O3 diurnal cycle at nine Japanese sites shows that boundary layer evolution has an important effect on the vertical mixing of ground-level O3, and error in near surface meteorology might contribute to overprediction of nighttime O3 in urban and rural areas. In conclusion, the uncertainties in simulating cloud activities and

  7. Women in the Workforce: An Unmet Potential in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2015-01-01

    Despite economic growth, decreasing fertility rates, and rising education levels, women in Asia are on average 70% less likely than men to be in the labor force, with the country-to-country percentage varying anywhere from 3% to 80%. Results of a new simulation model suggest that closing the gender gap could generate a 30% increase in the per capita income of a hypothetical average Asian economy in one generation. This report discusses the reasons behind the continuing gap in the labor force ...

  8. Exhibitors and Brief Introduction to Their Main Products at Asia-Pacific Diecasting Industry Exhibition'2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1. ABB Engineering (Shanghai) Co., Ltd Built on ABB's worldwide leading position in power and automation technology, ABB Engineering (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. established itself as lead center to support the fast growing industry in Asia. Its offerings include automation solutions and services for industrial and utility customers. ABB is also a leading robot-based system supplier in China. The systems offer a wide range of applications such as trim and final assembly, process applications, arc welding systems, material handling and machine tending, packing and palletizing, etc.

  9. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Fu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning was mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and Southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader, potentially including the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% to CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and

  10. Regional Quality Assurance Activity in Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Its Characteristics and Driving Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemiya, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the characteristics and driving forces of regional quality assurance activity in Southeast Asia, which has been actively promoted in recent years by the ASEAN University Network, an organisation for higher education under the auspices of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). There are now more collaborative…

  11. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel McKinnon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA and Eastern Mediterranean (EM Regions.

  12. Genetic diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreike, C M; Van Eck, H J; Lebot, V

    2004-08-01

    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were grouped according to their country of origin, to their ploidy level (diploid or triploid) and to their habitat--cultivated or wild. Gene diversity within these groups and the genetic distance between these groups were computed. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA cluster analysis. In each country, the gene diversity within the groups of wild genotypes was the highest compared to the diploid and triploid cultivars groups. The highest gene diversity was observed for the wild group from Thailand (0.19), the lowest for the diploid cultivars group from Thailand(0.007). In Malaysia there was hardly any difference between the gene diversity of the cultivars and wild groups, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively. The genetic distances between the diploid cultivars groups ranges from 0.02 to 0.10, with the distance between the diploid accessions from Thailand and Malaysia being the highest. The genetic distances between the wild groups range from 0.05 to 0.07. First, a dendrogram was constructed with only the diploids cultivars from all countries. The accessions formed clusters largely according to the country from which they originated. Two major groups of clusters were revealed, one group assembling accessions from Asian countries and the other assembling accessions from the Pacific. Surprisingly, the group of diploid cultivars from Thailand clustered among the Pacific countries. Secondly,a dendrogram was constructed with diploid cultivated,triploid cultivated and wild accessions. Again the division of the accessions into an Asian and a Pacific gene pool is obvious. The presence of two gene pools for cultivated diploid taro has major implications for the breeding and conservation of

  13. A regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed for CORDEX East Asia: assessment of Asian summer monsoon simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a developed regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model FROALS was applied to the CORDEX East Asia domain. The performance of FROALS in the simulation of Asian summer monsoon during 1989-2010 was assessed using the metrics developed by the CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel Diagnostics Task Team. The results indicated that FROALS exhibited good performance in simulating Asian summer monsoon climatology. The simulated JJA mean SST biases were weaker than those of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM). The skill of FROALS approached that of CMIP5 MMEM in terms of the annual cycle of Asian summer monsoon. The simulated monsoon duration matched the observed counterpart well (with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.59). Some biases of CMIP5 MMEM were also found in FROALS, highlighting the importance of local forcing and model physics within the Asian monsoon domain. Corresponding to a strong East Asian summer monsoon, an anomalous anticyclone was found over western North Pacific in both observation and simulation. However, the simulated strength was weaker than the observed due to the responses to incorrect sea surface anomalies over the key regions. The model also accurately captured the spatial pattern of the intraseasonal variability variance and the extreme climate indices of Asian summer monsoons, although with larger amplitude. The results suggest that FROALS could be used as a dynamical downscaling tool nested within the global climate model with coarse resolution to develop high-resolution regional climate change projections over the CORDEX East Asia domain.

  14. SIMULATION OF PRESENT CLIMATE OVER EAST ASIA BY A REGIONAL CLIMATE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-feng; GAO Xue-jie; OUYANG Li-cheng; DONG Wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    A 15-year simulation of climate over East Asia is conducted with the latest version of a regional climate model RegCM3 nested in one-way mode to the ERA40 Re-analysis data. The performance of themodel in simulating present climate over East Asia and China is investigated. Results show that RegCM3 can reproduce well the atmospheric circulation over East Asia. The simulation of the main distribution patterns of surface air temperature and precipitation over China and their seasonal cycle/evolution, are basically agree with that of the observation. Meanwhile a general cold bias is found in the simulation. AS for the precipitation, the model tends to overestimate the precipitation in northern China while underestimate it in southern China, particularly in winter. In general, the model has better performance in simulating temperature than precipitation.

  15. Integration versus Segmentation in Asian Financial Market: The Prospect of Regionalism in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Yoka Roida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws the prospect of regionalism among inancial market in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,  Philippine,  Singapore,  China,  Hong  Kong,  Japan  and  South  Korea.  The  irst part  examines  the  correlation  among  them  that  lead  to  regional  integration.  The  second part shows the possibility of integration or segmentation between Asia countries and world. The  next  part,  tries  to  draw  whether  last  inancial  crises  1997  gave  different  result  to  the integration process. The correlation between Asia regional return and world return is tested by F-test (degree of signiicant 5%. The inal part of this paper gives a picture as to how the prospect  of  integration  or  segmentation  return  of Asia  and  world  can  initiate  a  process  of economic integration   towards a trade block development. ";} // -->activate javascript

  16. Welfare Gains from Regional Economic Integration in Asia : ASEAN+3 or EAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, S. K.; Sanjib Pohit

    2007-01-01

    The experiences of Asian countries suggest that the region has substantial economic potentials and synergies between these countries and they can be better tapped with comprehensive economic cooperation. With this approach formation of an Asian Economic Community is not too far away from now. Next phase of liberalisation in Asia should focus on deep economic integration. Sitting on the driving seat, ASEANs economic interest should be given priority while taking a view on further regional econ...

  17. The Rival of U.S and China in Establishing a New Asia-Pacific Order 2015%2015年中美亚太新秩序博弈激烈复杂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向阳

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 witnessed the reshaping of the Asia-Pacific order and the rival between many international players,including China,U.S,Japan,ASEAN,India and Russia,featuring the gaming between the US-Japan alliance and China-Russia Partnership.The focus of this revival occurs between U.S and China. The Obama administration intended to obtain or maintain its predominance in the Asia-Pacific region by strengthening its military projection,economic offensives,taking advantage of the South China Sea disputes. China tried to maximize its economic prowess and security capacity for new initiatives in the regions.By virtue of multilateral instruments,U.S and China compete in the new Asia-Pacific economic order basically on equal footings.They compete in the new Asia-Pacific security order with the South China Sea as the focus,and China now mainly assumes defensives.%2015年是亚太秩序深刻重塑与大国博弈激烈复杂的重要一年。亚太格局呈现为六大力量即中、美、日、东盟、印度和俄罗斯,美日同盟与中俄战略协作两大“集群”此消彼长,中美博弈成为左右亚太格局的主要矛盾。美国奥巴马政府着力“转向亚太”,强化军事优势,加强经济攻势,投机取巧利用中国与邻国的海洋领土争端,竭力谋求亚太秩序主导权。中国扎实经略周边,发挥经济特长,强化安全能力,力争亚太秩序主动权。中美以地区多边机制为工具、复杂博弈亚太经济新秩序,呈现“分庭抗礼”之势。中美以南海为焦点、激烈博弈亚太安全新秩序,呈现“美攻中守”之势。

  18. Current status of orthodontic professionals in the Asian Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Tanne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian Pacific Orthodontic Society (APOS was developed in Tokyo on October 1, 2001. Currently, APOS has grown up to a scientific association specified to orthodontics with 18 affiliated societies. However, the status of orthodontic professionals in each society remains unclear beyond our understanding. To this end, I have recently conducted an internet interview to the representatives of affiliated societies. The questionnaire includes the educational system for dentists and orthodontists, the number of orthodontic departments with post-graduate programs, the number of orthodontists or members of each society, orthodontic treatment fee on average, the prevalence of CLP and the treatment, orthodontic treatment for jaw deformity patients, current status of orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances and TADs, important issues for orthodontic specialists, future plans of each society. It is hopefully anticipated that the current status of orthodontic professionals in the Asian Pacific region are well understood by all the APOS members and will become a great benefit for the development of all the affiliate societies.

  19. Reassessment of stable continental regions of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic-hazard assessments of the central and eastern United States (CEUS) require estimates of the size of the largest possible earthquake (Mmax). In most of the CEUS, sparse historical seismicity does not provide a record of moderate and large earthquakes that is sufficient to constrain Mmax. One remedy for the insufficient catalog is to combine the catalog of moderate to large CEUS earthquakes with catalogs from other regions worldwide that are tectonically analogous to the CEUS (stable continental regions, or SCRs). After the North America SCR, the largest contribution of earthquakes to this global SCR catalog comes from a Southeast Asian SCR that extends from Indochina to southeasternmost Russia. Integration and interpretation of recently published geological and geophysical results show that most of these Southeast Asian earthquakes occurred in areas exposing abundant alkaline igneous rocks and extensional faults, both of Neogene age (last 23 million years). The implied Neogene extension precludes classification of the areas as SCR crust. The extension also reduces the number of moderate and large Southeast Asian historical earthquakes that are available to constrain CEUS Mmax by 86 percent, from 43 to six.

  20. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Gongal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies.

  1. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongal, Gyanendra; Wright, Alice E

    2011-01-01

    There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste) of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies. PMID:21991437

  2. A regional ocean model for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region to assess the risk of storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoo, N.; Paul, A.; Hadfield, M.; Jendersie, S.; Bornman, J.; de Lange, W.; Ye, W.; Schulz, M.

    2012-04-01

    New Zealand's coasts are not only affected by mid-latitude storms, but infrequently also by storms that originate from the tropics. Projections for the southern hemisphere's southwest Pacific island countries for the 21st century show a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks, which consequently might result in changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns. Furthermore, an increase in frequency of intense storms is expected for the New Zealand region, which will very likely increase the risk of storm surges and flooding of coastal and low-lying regions. We employ the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to assess the changes in the storm climate of the New Zealand region. The model set-up uses a resolution of ~50 km for the Southwest Pacific Ocean "parent domain" and ~10 km for the New Zealand "child domain", to well represent the major eddies that influence the climate of North Island. With the aim to later utilize this nested ocean model set-up as part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region, results for the 20th century will be presented. The simulated circulation is shown to be largely consistent with the observed regional oceanography.

  3. A CHARACTERISTIC CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE ASIA SUMMER MONSOON MEMBERS AND THE WEST PACIFIC SUBTROPICAL HIGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan-dan; ZHANG Ren; HONG Mei; MIN Jin-zhong; GUO Pin-wen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, by using the pentad-mean NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data for the period of 1958-1997,some characteristic indices of describing the activity of Asian summer monsoon system members are defined and calculated. Based on the above works, a time-lag correlation analysis method is introduced for the correlation analysis between the Asian summer monsoon system and the west Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) area index, and some meaningful interaction processes and characteristic phenomena between them are revealed and discussed accordingly. It is shown that there exists some remarkable time-lag correlations in various degree between the Asian summer monsoon system members and the WPSH area index, and they interact and feedback with each other, which consists of the whole Asian summer monsoon system.

  4. Development of an International Research Project of Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C.

    2006-05-01

    Monson Asia has been recommended as one of the critical regions of integrated study of global change. Among a number of reasons, the most significant features of Monsoon Asia is that this is a region where the major features of landscape, such as vegetation, soil and water system are mainly developed under the most representative monsoon climate. On the other hand, the Monsoon Asia is a region with the most active human development. It has more than 5000 years long history of civilization and highest population density of the world, reaching 57 percent of word population. It also had the most rapid development in last decades and is projected to maintain its high growth rates in the foreseeable future. The human-monsoon system interactions and their linkages with the earth system dynamics could be a challenge issue of global change research and a sustainable Asia . A science plan of MAIRS is under drafting by SSC of MAIRS under the guidance of START and an international project office of MAIRS was formally opened in IAP/Chinese Academy of Sciences under the support of Chinese government. The overall objectives of the MAIRS that will combine field experiments, process studies, and modeling components are: 1) To better understand how human activities in regions are interacting with and altering natural regional variability of the atmospheric, terrestrial, and marine components of the environment; 2) To contribute to the provision of a sound scientific basis for sustainable regional development; 3) To develop a predictive capability of estimating changes in global-regional linkages in the Earth System and to recognize on a sound scientific basis the future consequences of such changes.

  5. Proceedings of the 1st Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP 12), Fukuoka, Japan, 14 - 27 Oct 2012

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kawagoe; Mulders, M

    2014-01-01

    The Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), practical statistics...

  6. Behavioural and metabolic risk factors for mortality from colon and rectum cancer: analysis of data from the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, D S; Parr, C.L.; Lam, T. H.; Ueshima, H; Kim, H. C.; Jee, S.H.; Murakami, Y.; Giles, G; Fang, X.; Barzi, F; Batty, G D; Huxley, R. R.; Woodward, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has several modifiable behavioural risk factors but their relationship to the risk of colon and rectum cancer separately and between countries with high and low incidence is not clear. METHODS: Data from participants in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) were used to estimate mortality from colon (International Classification of Diseases, revision 9 (ICD-9) 153, ICD-10 C18) and rectum (ICD-9 154, ICD-10 C19-20) cancers. Data on age, body mass i...

  7. PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL COLLABORATORY ANNUAL REPORT FOR SYNERGY VII (2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Bolte, John; Guzy, Michael; Woodruff, Dana L.; Humes, Karen; Walden, Von; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Glenn, Nancy; Ames, Dan; Rope, Ronald; Martin, David; Sandgathe, Scott

    2008-04-01

    During this final year of the Pacific Northwest Regional Collaboratory we focused significantly on continuing the relationship between technical teams and government end-users. The main theme of the year was integration. This took the form of data integration via our web portal and integration of our technologies with the end users. The PNWRC's technical portfolio is based on EOS strategies, and focuses on 'applications of national priority: water management, invasive species, coastal management and ecological forecasting.' The products of our technical approaches have been well received by the community of focused end-users. The objective this year was to broaden that community and develop external support to continue and operationalize product development.

  8. Impacts of vegetation onset time on the net primary productivity in a mountainous island in Pacific Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation phenology reflects the response of a terrestrial ecosystem to climate change. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-associated temporal dynamics of the vegetation onset and its influence on the net primary productivity (NPP) in a subtropical island (Taiwan) of Pacific Asia. We utilized a decade-long (2001–2010) time series of photosynthetically active vegetation cover (PV) data, which were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data, to delineate the vegetation phenology. These data served as inputs for the phenological analysis toolbox TIMESAT. The results indicated that the delayed vegetation onset time was directly influenced by a dry spring (February and March) in which less than 40 mm of rainfall was received. This seasonal drought impeded vegetation growth in the subsequent growing season, most likely due to delayed impacts of moisture stress related to the preceding ENSO events. The significant correlations obtained between the annual MODIS NPP and both the vegetation onset time and the length of the growing season may imply that the accumulated rainfall in the spring season governs the annual NPP. The model simulations revealed that the frequency and intensity of the ENSO-related spring droughts might increase, which would result in cascading effects on the ecosystem metabolism. (letter)

  9. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  10. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. PMID:26760713

  11. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants.

  12. A present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of earthquake centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, P-wave first motion focal mechanism solution and deep hole breakouts, a present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region is compiled. The origi-nal stress data are smoothed for every 200 km ′ 200 km area by taking the average of all stress indicators within each sub-region. The stress map shows the spatial distribution of the orientation of principal stress axes and the stress regimes. An earthquake focal mechanism map for the eastern Asia is also given. The maps of orientation of principal stress axes show that, apart from the strong influence of the collision between the Indian Ocean plate and Eurasian plate, the present-day tectonic stress in eastern Asia is significantly affected by the back-arc extension of the subduction zones. The joint effect of the continental collision at the Himalaya arc and back-arc extension in the Burma arc region may be responsible for the remarkable rotation of the principal stress orientations in southeastern part of the Tibet plateau. The joint action of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate at Taiwan Island and the back-arc extension of the Ryukyu arc affect the stress field in eastern part of China. There are no strong earthquakes in the present day in the vast back-arc region of the Java trench subduction zone. The back-arc extension there may create a condition favorable to the southward flow of the lithosphere material in southeastern Asia. In the inner part of the Tibet plateau region, roughly demarcated by the Kunlun mountain, the northern and northeastern part is a broad intracontinental compressive zone, while the southern and southwestern part is generally in a normal-faulting stress state.

  13. Big Prospects in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After bottoming out last year, the emerging economies of East Asia are recouping their losses and setting out onto the fast growth track.But short-term growth does not necessarily indicate a prosperous future-the region still needs to rebalance its economies and precipitate a massive shift to green technologies and energy efficiency. The World Bank discussed this issue in the latest EastAsia & Pacific Economic Update,a biannual assessment of economies in the region.Edited excerpts follow:

  14. Marine mammal strandings in the New Caledonia region, Southwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    Four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific. Sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, B. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, B. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus (18 single strandings, 2 pair strandings), pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps (5 single strandings), dwarf sperm whale, K. sima (2 single strandings, 1 triple stranding), Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris (2 single strandings), short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus (4 strandings, 56 individuals), melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra (1 single stranding and 2 mass strandings totalling 231 individuals), common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (1 single stranding), spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris (1 pair stranding and 2 mass strandings of groups of approximately 30 individuals each), Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus (2 single strandings), dugong, Dugong dugon (14 single strandings), and New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri (3 single strandings). A stranded rorqual identified as an Antarctic minke whale (B. bonaerensis), with coloration patterns that did not match known descriptions, was also reported. Sei whale was recorded for the first time in the tropical Southwest Pacific region and Antarctic minke whale, melon-headed whale, and Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin were recorded for the first time in New Caledonia. Strandings of sperm whales were most frequent in the spring, but also occurred in autumn months, suggesting a seasonal pattern of occurrence possibly related to seasonal migration. One stranded humpback whale bore the scars of a killer whale's attack and one dugong was injured by a shark. Scars left by

  15. AIDS vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN: expanding the regional role in developing HIV vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Kent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread and an AIDS vaccine is urgently needed. Regional alliances and international collaborations can foster the development and evaluation of the next generation of AIDS vaccine candidates. The importance of coordinating and harmonizing efforts across regional alliances has become abundantly clear. We recently formed the AIDS Vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN to help facilitate the development of a regional AIDS vaccine strategy that accelerates research and development of an AIDS vaccine through government advocacy, improved coordination, and harmonization of research; develops clinical trial and manufacturing capacity; supports ethical and regulatory frameworks; and ensures community participation.

  16. La apertura económica regional de China en Asia Pacifico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Muñoz, Alfredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examine the Chinese economy’s dramatic progress in recent years has come to global attention, in particular in the East Asia Pacific. In fact, China has maintained stable, rapid economic expansion since the government changed its policy towards reform and opening up to the outside world in 1978. The main aim of this report is to present an overall picture of the Chinese economy based on macro-economic statistics.

    El artículo examina los progresos de la economía de China logrados de los últimos años, en particular su influencia en el sureste de Asia Pacífico. En efecto, China la alcanzado una rápida expansión económica desde el momento, en que el gobierno inició una política de reformas a partir de 1978. El objetivo central de este artículo es mostrar la importancia de la economía china apoyada los sus índices macroeconómicos.

  17. The regional security puzzle around Afghanistan : bordering practices in Central Asia and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    "Western military presence wanes in Afghanistan and a transformed security environment challenges borders and stability in Central Asia. This book examines how the tensions relating to the reorganization of external military presence interact with regional states’ ambitions and challenge the borders already contested by numerous dividing lines. It studies a complex political landscape across which radical Islam connected with international terrorism is feared to spread as the international mi...

  18. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    B. Aouizerats; G. R. van der Werf; Balasubramanian, R; R. Betha

    2014-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of ...

  19. IA FTA 对我国经济的影响研究%Effect of IAFTA on Asia Pacific economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英会

    2015-01-01

    IAFTA的签订加速了亚太经济整合,在IAFTA签订前,东亚尚未形成一致的整合且 TPP分散东盟及东亚成员;IAFTA签订后,TPP的成员将会回归 RCEP ,且 IAFTA 将带动南亚与东南亚之间的连结,还能刺激RCEP经济整合。美国对于IAFTA的成立基本上抱持乐观态度,然而IAFTA签订后,短期看来IAFTA对中国经济济影响还没有明显的冲击,但也许今后印度会对贸易政策作出调整来减少对中国的贸易逆差。此外,印度与中国长久以来就存在的领土争议,如今印度势力进入到南海地区可能会增加双方问题,导致其安全上仍是依靠以美国势力为首的集团。%The signing of IAFTA accelerated the Asia‐pacific economic integration .Before the signing of IAFTA sign ,east Asia has not yet formed a consistent integration and TPP disperses the Association of South‐East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and East Asian members;The signing of IAFTA can make the TPP members return to the RCEP ,drive the connections between the south and south east Asia ,and stimulate the RCEP economic integration .The United States are optimistic for the establishment of the IAFTA basically ,however ,after signing the IAFTA ,in the short run ,the impact of IAFTA on China's economy is not obvious ,but perhaps India will make trade policy adjustments to reduce the trade deficit with China .In addition ,India and China's territorial disputes have existed for a long time ,easily leading to conflict .Now India’s power goes into the south China sea and it is likely to increase both problems .Its security still depends on American forces who lead the group .

  20. A synthesis of innovative experiences in population education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Several innovative experiences in population education in Asian and Pacific countries have been designed that enhance its effective contribution to the alleviation of population related problems. As a contributor to national development goals, population education programs are used to refocus the entire educational system to hasten and facilitate macro-level development efforts to slow population growth in order to improve the standard of living. Several countries have included the programs in their development plans. Population education has also contributed to the renovation of school curricula at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels in terms of content and teaching methodologies. 3 approaches are used to integrate population education in existing disciplines in formal education. The subunit approach prepares teaching units which are added to an existing unit in the course syllabus of a subject area. This approach is used in the Philippines, Korea, and Thailand. Infusion expands existing units in the syllabi to include population related ideas. The education content remains the same but relevant new examples are substituted. In the 3rd approach, the curricula of selected subjects are overhauled to allow for the permeation of relevant ideas. Population education has been integrated into several nonformal education programs including literacy and adult education, labor training, and agricultural extension. Several approaches are utilized. Separate courses are developed and used in ongoing programs such as training for field functionaries or out-of-school youth and adults. Infusion is used especially in literacy and rural development programs to demonstrate the relationship between population issues and quality of life. Core learning kit approaches are self-contained, using teaching/learning materials to convey a predetermined set of population education concepts to target audiences with common interests and needs. 6 training schemes have evolved to train