WorldWideScience

Sample records for asia pacific pathways

  1. New Zealand pathway towards Asia-Pacific and global e-VLBI research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Gulyaev, Sergei; Weston, Stuart; Thomasson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, Auckland University of Technology has established the first radio astronomical observatory in New Zealand, which, because of its remote geographic location, has quickly become a member of a number of international VLBI networks, in particular the IVS and the LBA. Not only has this added significantly to the observational power in the Pacific and Oceania, but by utilising new fibre connections within New Zealand, and across the Pacific and the Tasman Sea, the New Zealand radio telescopes have now been linked to many in Australia, Asia and the Pacific. Recent astronomical results are presented and plans for widening New Zealand participation in Australasian, Asia-Pacific and global VLBI research and development are outlined. Real-time e-VLBI is a vital part of New Zealand's capability development towards the SKA. The rapid and challenging establishment of New Zealand radio astronomy can serve as a model for the engagement in mega-Science and e-Science by resource-limited institutions and ...

  2. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ASIA -PACIFIC A Selected Bibliography U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE LIBRARY JANUARY 2013 Report Documentation Page Form...2.REPORTTYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Asia -Pacific A Selected Bibliography Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The references selected for this bibliography focus on important elements of power in the Asia

  3. Asia-Pacific energy database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  4. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  5. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  6. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  7. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Pathways between childhood trauma, intimate partner violence, and harsh parenting: findings from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie; Roselli, Tim; McCook, Sarah; Chan, Ko Ling; Haardörfer, Regine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Although childhood trauma and violence against women are global public health issues, few population-based data from low-income and middle-income countries exist about the links between them. We present data from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific, exploring the pathways between different forms of childhood trauma and violence against women. In this multicountry study, we interviewed multistage representative samples of men and women, aged 18-49 years, in Asia and the Pacific, using standardised population-based household surveys. Men were interviewed in six countries, and women in four. Respondents were asked questions about their perpetration or experience of intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence, childhood trauma, and harsh parenting (smacking their children as a form of discipline). We used maximum likelihood multivariate logit models to explore associations between childhood trauma and violence against women, and fitted path models to explore associations between experience and perpetration of child maltreatment. Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 1, 2012, 10 178 men and 3106 women completed interviews in this study, with between 815 and 1812 men per site and 477 and 1103 women per site. The proportion of men who experienced any childhood trauma varied between 59% (n=478, 95% CI 54·0-63·3; Indonesia rural site) and 92% (n=791, 89·4-93·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). For women, the results ranged from 44% (n=272, 37·7-50·8; Sri Lanka) to 84% (n=725, 80·7-86·8; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). For men, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with all forms of intimate partner violence perpetration. For women, all forms of childhood trauma were associated with physical intimate partner violence, and both physical and sexual intimate partner violence. There were significant, often gendered, pathways between men's and women's perpetration and experiences of childhood trauma, physical intimate

  9. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  10. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulombe Caroline

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown.

  11. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown. PMID:19732423

  12. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  13. Asia-Pacific Security: Policy Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, our newspapers have been filled with the ‘war on terror’; our governments have mobilised their resources for ‘homeland security’; and people everywhere are braced for more terrorist attacks. Yet while the new threat is genuine, we must not lose sight of the continuing security concerns in the Asia-Pacific. Tensions persist on the Korean peninsula, in the Taiwan Straits and the South China Sea, and in Kashmir. The region is well supplied with weapons of mass destr...

  14. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  15. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-02

    Jun 2, 2009 ... The Digital Review of Asia Pacific meets an urgent need for current and relevant information and viewpoints on ICT for development in Asia and the Pacific. As such, it is a tremendously valuable resource for the policymakers, government leaders, and public sector managers. — Hyeun-Suk Rhee (Director, ...

  16. Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  17. The Strategic Shift to the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SHIFT TO THE ASIA -PACIFIC by Angel D. Cruzcruz September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Michael Malley Second Reader: James Russell THIS PAGE......ABSTRACT In 2011, President Barack Obama announced that the United States was going to pivot toward the Asia -Pacific. There is widespread

  18. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  19. Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Adjustments to Information Technology (IT) in Trade Facilitation: The South Korean Experience. Documents. Asia - Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT) newsletter, volume 6, issue 1 / October 2009 - January 2010. Documents. Asia - Pacific Research and ...

  20. Knowledge Networking for Rural Development in Asia/Pacific ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Networking for Rural Development in Asia/Pacific Region (ENRAP) - Phase III. This project builds on previous (IDRC) partnership with the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) for establishing a knowledge-sharing network of IFAD rural poverty alleviation projects and partners in the Asia-Pacific ...

  1. Russia, America, and Security in the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Far East will be of exceptional importance for the future progress of Russia and the many states of the Asia -Pacific. The population of these areas is...openness and predictability of Asia -Pacific countries’ military activities; 41 • Restrictive regimes (regimes of non-proliferation and export control ...distances must also be addressed. Many components of non-proliferation and export control in the Asia -Pacific—such as the NPT and related agreements and

  2. Strategic Flexibility to Deter in the Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fall 2016 | 23 Strategic Flexibility to Deter in the Asia -Pacific Col Tom Torkelson, USAF COL Dan Kelley, USA Col Yasumasa Hayashi, JASDF CAPT... Asia -Pacific and declining military budgets, suggests the need and opportunity to reevaluate US military policy for the region. Increased air and...particularly in the Asia -Pacific—the United States should continue to move away from pre–Cold War models of bilateral defense agreements supported by

  3. Multiculturalism and Conflict Reconciliation in the Asia-Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shimizu, Kosuke; Bradley, William S

    2014-01-01

    .... The chapters in this book are grouped in three parts—theories, language, and migration—and they explicate details of multiculturalism in the Asia-Pacific, largely focused on Japan, but including cases that extend beyond Japan as well...

  4. Bolster Ground Force Capabilities in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT...Joint Force Quarterly 77 (2 nd Quarter 2015): 115-116. 51. Raul Pedrozo, “The Bull in the China Shop and Raising Tensions in the Asia- Pacific...Review (March-April 2015): 6-21. Pedrozo, Raul . “The Bull in the China Shop and Raising Tensions in the Asia-Pacific Region.” Naval War College

  5. Dietary Guidelines for the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu; Low, Wah Yun; Liqian, Qiu; Guldan, Georgia S; Hokama, Tomiko; Nanishi, Keiko; Oy, Sreymom; Tang, Li; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program. It may also be of value in reminding public health practitioners, educators, administrators, and policy makers of current nutrition issues. It may additionally be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs and regulations. The main areas of nutrition that are included in the Guidelines are eating a variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, and nuts. Choose fish, poultry, and meats grown in a sustainable way. Appropriate growth, including avoiding obesity, and physical activity are important. Breastfeeding is the basis of infant nutrition and nutrition of mothers is an important public health measure. Negative factors in the Asian diet include salt, refined sugar, alcohol and fats. The APACPH Dietary Guidelines will need to be kept under review and modified to meet regional differences in food supply. The Guidelines will be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs, addressing both acute and chronic diseases.

  6. Asia-Pacific malaria is singular, pervasive, diverse and invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Malaria in the Asia-Pacific region has been targeted for elimination by the year 2030. This article asks the question, "by what means?" in the context of proven technical strategies and tools against key challenges imposed by the distinct character of the Asia-Pacific malaria problem. The misperception of malaria in the Asia-Pacific region as a less serious but otherwise essentially similar problem to African malaria lulls us into rote application of the same tools and strategies. Those now mitigating the harm done by malaria in Africa will not suffice to eliminate malaria in the Asia-Pacific region - these tasks and the problems are fundamentally distinct. This article describes the singular characteristics of Asia-Pacific malaria and the bearing of those upon the technical strategy of malaria elimination. Most of the tools needed for that endeavour do not yet exist and spirited calls for elimination within the next 14years may discourage the patience and investments needed to conceive, optimise and validate them. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  8. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckman, G.J. E-mail: gary.luckman@aqis.gov.au

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region.

  9. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, Gary James

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region.

  10. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Robyn Margaret; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon

    2015-01-01

    for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) for the period 2014 to 2016. RESULTS: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV...... in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region......NTRODUCTION Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance...

  11. Evolution of the clinical trial landscape in Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathindranath S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shourav Yathindranath,1 Amar Kureishi,2 Simranjit Singh,3 Spencer Yeow,3 Grace Geng,4 Karen Wai,1 Audrey Ho,1 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee5 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, 2Drug Development Asia, 3Strategic Planning Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 4People’s Republic of China Site Services, Quintiles, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore Introduction: Asia Pacific has and continues to be one of the fastest-growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. This growth has a carry-over effect of driving pharmaceutical research and development investment in the region. Coupled with this, there have been multiple initiatives conducted by governments and other research focused organizations and societies in the region to help support this growth in research. In this report, we discuss the latest developments in pharmaceutical research and development in Asia Pacific and how these various initiatives have made an impact. Methods: An extensive search of the major clinical trial registries, along with the literature and Internet review of the recent developments in clinical trials, was performed comparing two time periods – 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. Results: In overall numbers, the clinical trial industry in Asia Pacific has remained stable when comparing the two time periods, with stable volumes of clinical trial numbers and site numbers. However, on closer inspection, a dynamic change in geography, nature, and therapeutic areas of the trials being conducted is observed. Japan, South Korea, People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan continue to be major clinical trial destinations. Developing countries, such as Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines, have seen rising standards of living and medical care; this is starting to impact their contribution to trials. Also, there are an increasing number of local trials in Asia Pacific with a bigger role

  12. The Dynamics of Security in the Asia-Pacific Region,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    spreading faster in Asia than elsewhere. Thailand has a major epidemic among the heterosexual population . Projections suggest that deaths from AIDS could...CRM 95-172 / January 1996 The Dynamics of Security in the Asia -Pacific Region M. Lyall Breckon • Thomas J. Hirschfeld Cleared for Public Release... Control and Distribution Section at 703-824-2942 Contents Summary 1 Key trends 2 Implications for the Navy 4 Introduction ’ Background

  13. Asia-Pacific Journal for Student Affairs (AJSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Bardill Moscaritolo; Kathleen Callahan

    2017-01-01

    The International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS) serves as a global network of student affairs and services workers that encourages sharing, cooperation, research, exchanges, and attendance at each other’s conferences. The Vice President and General Secretary of IASAS attended the 2016 Asia Pacific Student Services Association (APSSA) Conference in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Long-time colleague and past regional coordinator in Asia for IASAS, Evelyn Ariola-Songco, presented bo...

  14. Digital Review of AsiaPacific 2007–2008

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Key policy issues in intellectual property and technology in Asia Pacific Elizabeth V. Cardoza and Lawrence Liang. 59. State and .... The voices of DirAP are independent and if they are ideological at all, they are the voices of these writers who are the key movers and shakers in the ICT for development arena in the region.

  15. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  16. The 2015 CASE Asia-Pacific Alumni Relations Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Judith A.; Bakerman, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) launched the volunteer-led Asia-Pacific Alumni Relations Survey in 2014 to provide a resource for alumni relations professionals to benchmark performance internally and against fellow institutions of higher education. That was the first survey CASE has done on alumni relations programmes…

  17. Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET) was established in 2004 to enhance the capacity of researchers and research institutions to deliver timely, demand-driven, trade-related research to policymakers in the region. During the first phase of support (102568), the Network produced a number of ...

  18. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn M Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (ODA for HIV programmes in the region. Methods: The donor countries considered in this analysis are Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. To estimate bilateral and multilateral ODA financing for HIV programmes in the Asia-Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund for the period 2014 to 2016. Results: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region, but the United States is the bilateral donor providing the greatest amount of assistance in the region. Funding from the Global Fund has increased consistently since 2005, reaching a total of US$1.2 billion for the Asia-Pacific region from 2014 to 2016. Conclusions: Even with Global Fund allocations, countries in the Asia-Pacific region will not have enough resources to meet their epidemiological targets. Prevention funding is particularly

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Implications for Asia-Pacific Oncology Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Boyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a prominent malignancy in the Asia-Pacific region. Despite considerable knowledge about it's scope and nature this malignancy remains incurable. This manuscript reviews the epidemiology of this cancer, its pathogenesis, risk factors, potential prevention, surveillance, treatment, and the oncology nurses' role relative to this malignancy. A literature search from the past decade was performed using the PubMed and CINAHL databases using the search terms “hepatocellular carcinoma,” “Asia,” and “nursing issues”. Themes such as etiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis were included in this synthesis which has particular relevance to oncology nurses within the Asia-Pacific region.

  20. Water, energy, and food security in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Taniguchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Security measures of three resources; water, energy and food are analyzed for thirty two countries in the Asia Pacific region which are faced to Pacific Ocean, in terms of amounts of the resource, self-production, and diversity of sources of each resource. Diversity for all the three resources is also analyzed using surface water and groundwater for water sources; hydro power, geothermal power, solar, and biomass for energy; and cereals, vegetable, fruit, meat, and fish for food. We see high diversity of sources of water in the US and the Philippines, and a low diversity of sources of food in the US, Canada, and Indonesia. These security measures including water security show new hydrological insight for Asia-Pacific region.

  1. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  2. Relevance of CBR for the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Yuenwah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the focus of CBR action is at the community level, it is pertinent to note some of the Asia-Pacific region’s overall development trends. In an interconnected world, these trends have significant implications for the practice of CBR and its advancement in the region.This paper discusses how CBR could give impetus to a community-supported self-help movement for change. The paper presents seven prisms for akaleidoscopic view to highlight some parameters that are unique to the Asia-Pacific scenario for CBR. The relevance of CBR for this region is discussed in relation to two groups of issues: the first refers to chronic issues of poverty, hunger and inequalities; and the second, to dramatic emerging challenges, from urbanisation to the current economic scenario.

  3. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of institutional balancing theory, I argue that (i) China’s rise has led to a competition among different regional orders, that is, the US-led bilateralism versus ASEAN-centered and China-supported multilateralism. However, conflicts or wars are not inevitable since the contested regional orders......The rise of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) is gradually transforming the international system from a unipolar world toward multipolarity. China’s ascent not only challenges US domination, but also intensifies the institutionalization of security in the Asia Pacific...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  4. Trade, Transparency, and Welfare in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutomo Abe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by USD 406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product (GDP of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase by approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

  5. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric Clinical Trials: Current Scenario in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldanha LM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Marie Saldanha,1 Saumya Nayak,1 Adeline Sng,1 Mei-Ling Long,1 Elisabeth Schrader,2 Amanur Rahman,3 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Karen Wai,1 Ken Lee41Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 2Quintiles Pediatric Center of Excellence, Durham, NC, USA; 3Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, SingaporeObjective: This site survey was conducted to understand the current pediatric clinical trial landscape across countries in the Asia Pacific region, specifically in terms of interest, experience, capabilities, requirements of the ethics committee, patient availability, and overall challenges involved in conducting pediatric trials.Methods and materials: Between May and June 2012, an English language survey form was sent to sites (identified through Quintiles’ internal database with pediatric capability and referrals from doctors during a preliminary outreach. In July 2012, the responses from the completed survey forms were entered into SurveyMethods, a web-based central repository. Data analysis was performed in August–September 2012 using SurveyMethods.Results: Seventy-seven sites were contacted for this survey across the Asia Pacific region. Sixty-four percent (49 sites completed 63 surveys and confirmed interest to participate in clinical trials in the pediatric population. Seventy-one percent of the sites had prior experience. Eighty percent confirmed needing an assent from pediatric patients; 81%–95% confirmed acceptance of placebo-controlled and pharmacokinetic studies by ethics committees; and 37% cited challenges in conducting studies in this population.Conclusion: This survey indicates that there is a high level of interest among sites in the Asia Pacific region in conducting pediatric trials across various therapeutic indications. No major insurmountable challenges were identified in conducting

  7. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. Asia-Pacific Journal for Student Affairs (AJSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bardill Moscaritolo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS serves as a global network of student affairs and services workers that encourages sharing, cooperation, research, exchanges, and attendance at each other’s conferences. The Vice President and General Secretary of IASAS attended the 2016 Asia Pacific Student Services Association (APSSA Conference in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Long-time colleague and past regional coordinator in Asia for IASAS, Evelyn Ariola-Songco, presented both members with a copy of the inaugural Journal of the Philippine Association of Administrators of Student Affairs (PAASA. This is the first journal in the South East Asian region and is an important first step in advancing the field.

  9. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Baade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine and compare available data on incidence, mortality and survival for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Incidence data were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008, other online data sources and individual cancer registries. Country-specific mortality statistics by individual year were sourced from the World Health Organization Statistical Information System Mortality Database. All incidence and mortality rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and joinpoint models were used to assess trends. Data on survival were obtained from country-specific published reports where available. Approximately 14% (122,000 of all prostate cancers diagnosed worldwide in 2008 were within the Asia-Pacific region (10 per 100,000 population, with three out of every four of these prostate cancer cases diagnosed in either Japan (32%, China (28% or Australia (15%. There were also about 42,000 deaths due to prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region (3 per 100,000. For the nine countries with incidence trend data available, eight showed recent significant increases in prostate cancer incidence. In contrast, recent decreases in prostate cancer mortality have been reported for Australia, Japan and New Zealand, but mortality has increased in several other countries. The lack of population-based data across most of the countries in this region limits the ability of researchers to understand and report on the patterns and distribution of this important cancer. Governments and health planners typically require quantitative evidence as a motivation for change. Unless there is a widespread commitment to improve the collection and reporting of data on prostate cancer it is likely that the burden of prostate cancer will continue to increase. Enhancing knowledge transfer between countries where there are differentials in capacity, policy and experience may provide the necessary impetus and opportunity to overcome at

  10. Food crisis in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Katinka M; Easdown, Warwick J; Yang, Ray-yu; Keatinge, John Donough H

    2009-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region was on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of extreme poverty by 2015, but recent dramatic rises in the price of rice and other staples have pushed millions of people back into hunger and poverty. This indicates that the region's food supply system is more fragile and imbalanced than what was previously believed. Proximate causes of the rise in staple prices can be found in market forces such as export restrictions and rising energy prices but the ultimate causes are policies that have led to under-investment in agricultural research and emergency mitigation. Large numbers of people in the Asia-Pacific were already undernourished prior to the recent price rises, relying on monotonous diets dominated by a few staples. Pushed into reducing their dietary diversity even further, many more millions are now suffering from hunger and deteriorating health. The most fundamental food crisis in the Asia-Pacific is one of poor diets, and this affects the obese just as much as the undernourished. The solution lies in a food system that focuses on producing balanced diets, developing safe production practices, increasing food supplies by reducing losses, and investing in the research that make it all happen. Improving food systems is a fundamental community expectation and can be a matter of government survival, but if the urgency to improve food supplies overrides improving diets, the long-term impact on national health will be severe. Proactive policies, regional responses, and more integrated scientific approaches are needed.

  11. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  12. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  13. Quality of Life and Economic Burden of Respiratory Disease in Asia-Pacific-Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De Yun; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Bin Abdul Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Brnabic, Alan J M; Dehle, Francis C; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-05-01

    Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases is a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of disease in adults with respiratory diseases across six countries. The aim of this study was to describe health care resource use (HCRU), work impairment, cost burden, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) associated with respiratory disease in the Asia-Pacific. Consecutive participants aged 18 years or older with a primary diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity and activity impairment, and HRQOL. Locally sourced unit costs for each country were used in the calculation of total costs. The study enrolled 5250 patients. Overall, the mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US $4191 (SGD 8489) per patient. For patients who reported impairment at work, the mean annual cost was US $7315 (SGD 10,244), with productivity loss being the highest cost component for all four diseases (US $6310 [SGD 9100]). On average, patients were impaired for one-third of their time at work and 5% of their work time missed because of respiratory disease, which resulted in a 36% reduction in productivity. Patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had the greatest impact on HRQOL. In the Asia-Pacific, respiratory diseases have a significant impact on HCRU and associated costs, along with work productivity. Timely and effective management of these diseases has the potential to reduce disease burden and health care costs and improve work productivity and HRQOL. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: climate change, phosphorus, ozone and other environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two articles on challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on five mechanisms, which can be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios, described in the first paper, may become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. This article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements.

  15. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  16. Stock Market Linkages in Emerging Asia-Pacific Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Palamalai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the stock market integration among major stock markets of emerging Asia-Pacific economies, viz. India, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, China, and Indonesia. The Johansen and Juselius multivariate cointegration test, Granger causality/Block exogeneity Wald test based on the vector error correction model (VECM approach, and variance decomposition analysis were used to investigate the dynamic linkages between markets. Cointegration test confirmed a well-defined long-run equilibrium relationship among the major stock markets, implying that there exists a common force, such as arbitrage activity, which brings these stock markets together in the long run. The results of Granger causality/Block exogeneity Wald test based on VECM and variance decomposition analysis revealed the stock market interdependencies and dynamic interactions among the selected emerging Asia-Pacific economies. This result implies that investors can gain feasible benefits from international portfolio diversification in the short run. On the whole, the study results suggest that although long-term diversification benefits from exposure to these markets might be limited, short-run benefits might exist due to substantial transitory fluctuations.

  17. Building Conservation Capacity in Southeast Asia: Outcomes of the ATBC 2015 Asia-Pacific Chapter Meeting Conservation Education Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, Nicholas J.; Hughes, Alice C.; Savini, Tommaso; Rao, Madhu; Goodale, Eben; Van Nice, Amy; Huang, Natalia; Liu, Jing-Xin; Hunt, Matt P.; O'Connor, David A.; Heung-Lam, Anny Li; Gnuen, Gneb; Sun, Yoeung; Silva, Inês

    2017-01-01

    The "Building Capacity for Conservation in Southeast Asia" symposium was held at the 2015 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Asia-Pacific Chapter meeting. The range of programs discussed fell into three categories: career development, project-specific activities and outreach, and delivering conservation information to…

  18. Digital Review of Asia Pacific (DirAP) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Digital Review of Asia Pacific (DirAP) has a mission to generate new knowledge and literature about the state of practice of information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) in the Asia-Pacific region. It does so by providing in-depth analyses and syntheses of ICT policy, technology development and ...

  19. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 juin 2009 ... The Digital Review of Asia Pacific meets an urgent need for current and relevant information and viewpoints on ICT for development in Asia and the Pacific. As such, it is a tremendously valuable resource for the policymakers, government leaders, and public sector managers. — Hyeun-Suk Rhee (Director, ...

  20. Digital Review of Asia Pacific (DirAP) - Phase II | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Digital Review of Asia Pacific (DirAP) has a mission to generate new knowledge and literature about the state of practice of information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) in the Asia-Pacific region. It does so by providing in-depth analyses and syntheses of ICT policy, technology development and ...

  1. Sustainability in Business Education in the Asia Pacific Region: A Snapshot of the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Malik; Neal, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into business school education and learning in the Asia Pacific region. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was developed, and administered to business schools in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to measuring the number of…

  2. 76 FR 45303 - ING Asia Pacific High Dividend Equity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ING Asia Pacific High Dividend Equity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application July 21, 2011... outstanding preferred stock that such investment companies may issue. Applicants: ING Asia Pacific High...

  3. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  4. Asia-Pacific Regional Economic Integration: Coopetition vs. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuJane Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of economic globalization, promoting regional trade agreements or regional cooperation has become a plausible strategy to attract foreign direct investment and to promote national competitiveness at a global level. Nonetheless, facing the differential national economic interests and the needs of protection of domestic industries, as well as the diverse levels of economic liberalization domestically, the involvement of FTA negotiation in every country is universally in the situation of struggling between securing economic sovereignty and national economic development. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are in the same situation. This article analyzes how countries balance between securing economic sovereignty and promoting national economic development when they are involved in TPP and RCEP negotiations. By confirming the appropriate linkage between each participating countries’ decision for balancing between domestic economic sovereignty and further integrating into regional economic cooperation institutions the validity of the proposition for this research project can be verified.

  5. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Zablotska; Grulich, Andrew E; Nittaya Phanuphak; Tarandeep Anand; Surang Janyam; Midnight Poonkasetwattana; Rachel Baggaley; Frits van Griensven; Ying-Ru Lo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion: Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion...

  7. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, there should be no complacency about medium to long term food security in the region, whether or not food security improves in the near future. The first paper places this debate in the context of the long-standing arguments between Malthusianists and optimists. The apparent reversal of position in the last decade of two leading agricultural experts is discussed. Their recent writings reflect intensified Malthusian concerns curbed in their writings from the 1990s. The paper concludes that far more credence needs to be given to the pessimistic position in order to avoid it becoming reality. The second paper focusses on five interrelated challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific. These may be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. The article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements.

  8. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2007–2008 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of-practice and trends in information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) in Asia Pacific. This third edition (2007–2008) covers 31 countries and economies, including North Korea for the first time.

  9. Asia-Pacific Economic Update. Volume 2. Connecting Economics to Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The three decades of economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region demonstrated to the world that economic prosperity through international trade and investment improves the domestic and international...

  10. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of the Asia Pacific Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Asia Pacific Region. This compilation is part of an interim...

  11. Asia-Pacific pediatric cardiac society: My vision for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Niwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, further expansion of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD and adults with CHD (ACHD and evolution of specialized care facilities for pediatric cardiology and ACHD can be anticipated in the Asia-Pacific countries. These patients have a lot of problems to be solved now and in next decade, and they include various medical issues including issues specific to oriental populations, psychosocial issues, establishment of CHD care facilities and so on. We now have two established societies namely, Asia-Pacific Pediatric Cardiology Society (APPCS and Asia Pacific Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (APSACHD. Through these Societies, we should solve these problems by promoting international collaborative studies and support projects to facilitate the rapid progress that is desperately needed in the field in the Asia Pacific Region.

  12. Trade, Growth and Economic Inequality in the Asia-Pacific Region: Lessons for Policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Karacaovali, Baybars; GREANEY, Theresa M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This policy brief is intended to provide policymakers with a summary of the results of our research project entitled “Trade, Growth and Economic Inequality in the Asia-Pacific Region”, which explores and documents the linkages between international trade and inequality in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR).The project’s eleven research papers appeared in a special issue of the Journal of Asian Economics in February 2017. Overall, we conclude that the relationships between international t...

  13. Myopia Genetics-The Asia-Pacific Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shi Song; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    Myopia is a major cause of visual impairment worldwide. In particular, high myopia is associated with serious blinding complications, including retinal detachment, chorioretinal degeneration, and choroidal neovascularization. Myopia is multifactorial in etiology, resulting from the interaction of environmental and genetic risk factors. During the past 2 decades, a large number of gene loci and variants have been identified for myopia. There are more than 20 myopia-associated loci spanning all chromosomes. Earlier findings were obtained mainly from family linkage analyses and candidate gene studies, and more recent results are principally from genome-wide association studies and exome sequencing. Some genetic associations have been successfully validated and replicated in populations of different geographic localities and ethnicities, but some have not. Compared with Whites, Asian populations-in particular Japanese, Korean, and Chinese-have a much higher prevalence of myopia, especially high myopia. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to such ethnic variations. This review attempts to summarize and compare the allelic frequencies of gene variants known to be associated with myopia in different ethnic groups, especially in the Asia-Pacific region.

  14. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo.9 No.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This article includes `JAPAC International Symposium: Coal Flow 1997,` `Study to consolidate infrastructure to import overseas coal,` and `China`s coal-fired thermal power development plans and Japan`s subjects.` The theme of Coal Flow 1997 was `The supply and demand of coal up to 2020 - Its outlook and related issues.` The main subject for discussion was `a review of the long-term outlook for coal supply and demand from now into the year 2020 in coal producing and consuming members of the Asia-Pacific community, of which economic growth rate is expected to continue.` For the study to consolidate infrastructure to import overseas coal, subjects for stable Australian coal supply under environmental constraints are outlined. Coal resources and reserves in Australia, Australia`s coal supply capabilities, and export markets for Australian coal and its supply capabilities to Japan are discussed. For China`s coal-fired thermal power development plans and Japan`s subjects, subjects of coal-fired thermal power, coal-fired thermal power development plans and foreign-funded projects, and Japan`s cooperation and subjects are outlined. 26 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  16. Food industry and economic development in the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, John

    2007-01-01

    The food industry in the Asia Pacific region is gigantic in size, and is therefore a key element in the economic development prospects for the region. It is estimated that in 2000, for example, total expenditure on food and beverages in China was worth $US 188.5 billion, second only to that in Japan at $322 billion. Yet it is clear that given the expansion of both populations and incomes in the region this market will expand rapidly over the next few years. Particularly important will be the continued growth of cities and of the share of employment in industrial and service activities. Much of this growth in food purchases will be supplied from local sources, but this will demand some fundamental changes in domestic food production systems. There will also be a substantial growth in the food trade, with ever increasing levels of national and regional specialisation. These developments will put increasing pressures on quality standards at all levels, with a growing emphasis on food safety, integrity, quality, and nutritional and health impacts. This paper reviews the current status of the food industry and the food trade in the region, and presents some projections for future developments. Particular emphasis is given to policy choices that must be made to ensure that the food system in the region develops in ways that are sustainable and most beneficial to the population as a whole.

  17. Food and health considerations in Asia-Pacific regional security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent dramatic increases in food prices in much of the world have caused much concern, and have even resulted in some public protests and riots. This is easy to understand given the large percentages of incomes that the poor devote to food purchases. Many commentators have predicted that food supplies in the Asia-Pacific region will become much more limited in the future as the result of population growth, the rapid growth of cities, new food demands by a growing middle class, the impacts of climate change, and the growth of a global food industry. But will these possible shortages of food result in pressures that will destabilise the security situation in the region? Recent work of the whole concept of security has resulted in some redefinition of the term to include issues of human security, but it could also be argued that severe strains on the human security situation could even result in increased instability in the more traditional kind of security regime. The extreme case of North Korea is used as an example of how this might happen. But we really do not know if such dangers are real ones for the region as a whole, and it is suggested that much more research is needed in this area. The whole concept of resilience has been used in some studies elsewhere and this may be useful starting point for new work in this area.

  18. Cost of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. W. Lai

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The substantial morbidity caused by asthma suggests that the disease is associated with a large economic burden. The current study analysed the burden of asthma in eight countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Responses to questions regarding resource use from a survey of people with asthma were analysed. Unit costs were obtained for each resource use element. Individual patient costs were estimated and means calculated for each country. A multivariate model was developed to identify potential predictors of resource use. Annual per-patient direct costs ranged from US$108 for Malaysia to US$1,010 for Hong Kong. When productivity costs were included, total per-patient societal costs ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1,189 in Hong Kong. Urgent care costs were responsible for 18–90% of total per-patient direct costs. Overall, total per-patient direct costs were equivalent to 13% of per capita gross domestic product and 300% of per capita healthcare spending. Extremes of age, greater severity of asthma, and poorer general health status were predictive of high cost. The per-patient cost of asthma in these countries is high, particularly when seen in the context of overall per-patient healthcare spending. Strategies to improve asthma control are likely to not only improve patient outcomes, but also to decrease societal costs.

  19. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  20. East Asia and the Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : Philippines Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Philippines country study forms part of the East Asia and the Pacific region urban sanitation review that focuses on three of the emerging middle income countries of East Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The regional review aims to develop a strategic framework to help guide national urban sanitation programs and their implementation in these emerging middle income countries...

  1. Pathways of Rice Diversification across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of rice has made important methodological advances over the past decade that have contributed new data on the domestication process, spread and ecology of cultivation. Growing evidence from spikelet bases indicates that non-shattering, domesticated forms evolved gradually in the Yangtze basin and that there were at least two distinct processes around the Middle Yangtze region pre-dating 6000 BC, and the in the Lower Yangtze region between 6000 and 4000 BC. Early rice cultivation in these areas was based on wet field ecologies, in contrast to rainfed rice that is indicated among the earliest systems in India. When rice first spread north it was not entirely suited to shorter temperate summer growth seasons, and we are able to infer from high levels of apparently green-harvested spikelets that genetic adaptations to temperate conditions evolved after 2000 BC. When rice first spread south, to mainland Southeast Asia, after 2500 BC, it was grown in rainfed, dry ecologies that were less labour- demanding and less-productive. More productive and intensive irrigated rice then redeveloped in Southeast Asia around 2000 years ago, supporting growing population densities and social complexity.

  2. Asia-Pacific clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatocellular carcinoma: a 2017 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Masao; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kudo, Masatoshi; Lee, Jeong Min; Jia, Jidong; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chawla, Yoghesh K; Shiina, Shuichiro; Jafri, Wasim; Payawal, Diana Alcantara; Ohki, Takamasa; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Chen, Pei-Jer; Lesmana, Cosmas Rinaldi A; Lesmana, Laurentius A; Gani, Rino A; Obi, Shuntaro; Dokmeci, A Kadir; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-07-01

    There is great geographical variation in the distribution of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with the majority of all cases worldwide found in the Asia-Pacific region, where HCC is one of the leading public health problems. Since the "Toward Revision of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) HCC Guidelines" meeting held at the 25th annual conference of the APASL in Tokyo, the newest guidelines for the treatment of HCC published by the APASL has been discussed. This latest guidelines recommend evidence-based management of HCC and are considered suitable for universal use in the Asia-Pacific region, which has a diversity of medical environments.

  3. Palliative care development in the Asia-Pacific region: an international survey from the Asia Pacific Hospice Palliative Care Network (APHN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kuriya, Meiko; Morita, Tatsuya; Agar, Meera; Choi, Youn Seon; Goh, Cynthia; Lingegowda, K B; Lim, Richard; Liu, Rico K Y; MacLeod, Roderick; Ocampo, Rhodora; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Phungrassami, Temsak; Nguyen, Yen-Phi; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2017-03-01

    Although palliative care is an important public healthcare issue worldwide, the current situation in the Asia-Pacific region has not been systematically evaluated. This survey aimed to clarify the current status of palliative care in the Asia-Pacific region. Questionnaires were sent to a representative physician of each member country/region of the Asia Pacific Hospice Palliative Care Network (APHN). The questionnaire examined palliative care service provision, information regarding physician certification in palliative care, the availability of essential drugs for palliative care listed by the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) and the regulation of opioid-prescribing practice. Of the 14 member countries/regions of the APHN, 12 (86%) responded. Some form of specialist palliative care services had developed in all the responding countries/regions. Eight member countries/regions had physician certifications for palliative care. Most essential drugs for palliative care listed by the IAHPC were available, whereas hydromorphone, oxycodone and transmucosal fentanyl were unavailable in most countries/regions. Six member countries/regions required permission to prescribe and receive opioids. The development of palliative care is in different stages across the surveyed countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific region. Data from this survey can be used as baseline data for monitoring the development of palliative care in this region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  5. Cardiovascular epidemiology in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, G L

    2001-01-01

    By 2020, non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are expected to account for seven out of every 10 deaths in the developing countries compared with less than half this value today. As a proportion of total deaths from all-causes, CVD in the Asia Pacific region ranges from less than 20% in countries such as Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia to 20-30% in urban China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Malaysia. Countries such as New Zealand, Australia and Singapore have relatively high rates that exceed 30-35%. The latter countries also rank high for coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rate (more than 150 deaths per 100,000). In contrast, death from cerebrovascular disease is higher among East Asian countries including Japan, China and Taiwan (more than 100 per 100,000). It is worth noting that a number of countries in the region with high proportions of deaths from CVD have undergone marked declining rates in recent decades. For example, in Australia, between 1986 and 1996, mortality from CHD in men and women aged 30-69 years declined by 46 and 51%, respectively. In Japan. stroke mortality dropped from a high level of 150 per 100,000 during the 1920s-1940s to the present level of approximately 100 per 100,000. Nonetheless, CVD mortality rate is reportedly on the rise in several countries in the region, including urban China, Malaysia, Korea and Taiwan. In China, CVD mortality increased as a proportion of total deaths from 12.8% in 1957 to 35.8% in 1990. The region is undergoing a rapid pace of urbanization, industrialization and major technological and lifestyle changes. Thus, monitoring the impact of these changes on cardiovascular risks is essential to enable the implementation of appropriate strategies towards countering the rise of CVD mortality.

  6. Current practices of Asia-Pacific cardiologists in the utilization of bioresorbable scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, B B; Chandra, Praveen; Cheng, Jack Jun; Dick, Ron; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Hiremath, M S; Huan, Do Quang; Jeamanukoolkit, Anuruck; Jiang, Tiemin; Kwok, On-Hing; Lim, Michael C L; Low, Adrian F; Mathew, Rony; Mathew, Samuel K; McClean, Dougal; Nakamura, Sunao; Nguyen, Michael; Qiao, Shubin; Santoso, Teguh; Saxena, Sudheer; Schultz, Carl; Sengottuvelu, G; Seth, Ashok; Simonton, Charles A; Soo, Chee Siong; Sudhir, Krishnankutty; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Wasan, Udayachalerm; Whelan, Alan; Wong, Chris; Yap, Yee Guan

    2016-11-01

    Although Absorb Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds (A-BVS) are routinely used in the Asia-Pacific, there is little information on patient selection or deployment technique here. This document investigates the experiences of leading interventional cardiologists from the Asia-Pacific region with a focus on patient characteristics, deployment techniques and management. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to 28 highly-experienced interventional cardiologists ('Authors') from 13 Asia-Pacific countries. The results were discussed at a meeting on patient selection, technical consideration, deployment practices and patient management. Potential patient benefits of Absorb compared to metallic DES, the learning curve for patient selection and preparation, device deployment, and subsequent patient management approaches are presented. Current practices are derived from guidelines optimized for European patients. Differences in approach exist in the Asia-Pacific context, including limited access to imaging and frequency of occurrence of complex lesions. Nevertheless, the use of the Absorb BVS ('Absorb') in certain Asia-Pacific countries has flourished and practices here are continuing to mature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Updates in the epidemiology of eating disorders in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J; Lee, Sing; Becker, Anne E

    2016-11-01

    This review summarizes and contextualizes the recent epidemiologic data on eating disorders in the Asia and Pacific regions. Gaps in epidemiologic data on eating disorders from the Asia and Pacific regions stem, in part, from omission of eating disorder-specific assessments in large nationally representative cohort studies of mental disorders. Available data - often from clinical and school-going cohorts - support that the prevalence of both eating disorders and associated attitudes and behaviors in many Asian and Pacific regions studied may be comparable to those reported in Europe and North America. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders in some regions of Asia may be increasing. Some of the national and subnational regions with the highest annual percent increases in disability-adjusted life years per 100 000 caused by eating disorders over the past two decades are located in Asia. Notwithstanding sparse epidemiologic data concerning eating disorders in Asia and the Pacific, available evidence supports comparable prevalence to other global regions and that associated health burdens in some regions of Asia may be rising. This further supports that eating disorders are trans-national in distribution and challenges the previous understanding that they were primarily culture-bound to the Global North.

  8. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992

  9. The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Leaders’ Retreat Statement on Climate Change, 1997. Annex I of 28th South Pacific Forum Communiqué, Rarotonga , Cook Islands , 19 September. ERIC SHIBUYA...about a lasting a durable peace to Bougainville Province’. Forum Communiqué, 1997, Twenty-Eighth South Pacific Forum, Rarotonga , Cook Islands , 17...the South Pacific (New York: Praeger, 1989). Cook Islands Prime Minister Albert Henry coined the term in 1975. 3 The Netherlands would leave the SPC

  10. Mexico's challenges in the Asia-Pacific region: prospects in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María Ramírez Meda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to make a count of the actions taken by Mexico for its correct insertion in the Asia Pacific region and subsequently, to assess whether these strategies have been enhanced and promoted a real membership in the region. In the first part a theoretical and conceptual count of the term "region" and "regionalism" it's done. Second section deals with the question; can Asia Pacific be considered a region by addressing economic, political, social and cultural elements? Subsequently, in a third section the question; "in which region it's Mexico located?" its answered and in this way, finally we analyze if Asia Pacific is or not a mega (macro region unlikely to Mexico, where the latter could benefit if some recommendations that are seen at the end of the present work are applied.

  11. The Actual Balance of Power in Asia-Pacific: Determinants, Characteristics and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Sincai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is structured around the following research objectives: (1 identification of the main characteristics of AsiaPacific relations, strategic partnerships and regional rivalries; (2 justification of the need to address this topic both economically and geostrategically; (3 correlation between India’s intention to become a member of APEC (aimed at expanding its sphere of influence in the region, its Act East strategy and the invigoration of strategic partnerships with China’s competitors; (4 reactivation of the debate on principles of governance in Asia and the features of the Factory Asia, highlighting the roles played by China, Japan, ASEAN and India’s new role in the Asian economic integration; (5 the entry of the UK into the Asia-Pacific equation, supported, among other determinants, by the goal of expanding its sphere of influence worldwide.

  12. The United States Strategy in East Asia-Pacific-Implications for Australia’s Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    United States to the New Security Environment in North East Asia," Pacific Forum CSIS Special Report, June 1995, 24. 158 Mary Jordan , "Japan Turns... Jordan , A19. Also, Mary Jordan , "Perry Rules Out Reducing Troops in Japan Despite Groundswell of Opposition, The Washington Post, 2 November 1995, A25...34 In Asia in the 21st Century: Evolving Strategic Priorities. Ed. Micheal D. Bellows, 91-114. Washington D.C.: National Defense University Press

  13. Ageing and Long-Term Care : National Policies in the Asia-Pacific ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ageing and Long-Term Care : National Policies in the Asia-Pacific. Couverture du livre Ageing and Long-Term Care: National Policies in the Asia-. Directeur(s) : David R. Phillips et Alfred C.M. Chan. Maison(s) d'édition : ISEAS, CRDI. 1 janvier 2002. ISBN : 9812301739. 260 pages. e-ISBN : 1552500055. Téléchargez le ...

  14. A Benchmarking of Operational Efficiency in Asia Pacific International Cargo Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-won Chung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares operational efficiency of major cargo airports in the Asia Pacific region. The multi-dimensional scaling cluster analysis by R-square method was used as the benchmarking tool to provide airport management with a means to examine various aspects of their operational efficiency against those of other airports. Ten operational efficiency factors for the clustering and efficiency estimation of airports in the Asia Pacific region were used in a regression model to overcome the complexity of multi-dimensional scaling approach. The resulting classification is used to identify the efficiency benchmarks of leading air cargo airports which have implications for Incheon airport in Korea.

  15. Cellular therapy in the Asia-Pacific region. A guide for the future pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Janet L; Rasko, John E J

    2011-10-01

    The Asia-Pacific region includes a large number of countries offering a broad range and quality of healthcare services. Almost every country in the region offers at least some cellular therapies, from the highly regulated countries like Japan, Korea and Australia, through to countries where the oversight is less formal. The key healthcare drivers for this sector are the ageing population, obesity epidemic, organ donation statistics and the emergence of personalised medicine. This is a rapidly advancing field with breakthroughs announced regularly. The Asia-Pacific region is poised to become a world leader in the provision of this new generation of therapeutic options in a safe and standardised manner.

  16. Regulating Religion in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ropi, Ismatu

    2012-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the most diverse regions, with hundreds of ethnic groups, various religious beliefs and denominations, and different spoken languages and dialects. These different backgrounds pose serious challenges for the governments in Southeast Asia, not only on how they should manage those diversities in building the nation but also in ensuring a harmonious life. Many believe that cultural and racial diversities have the potential to create tension and conflict in the com...

  17. 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Saik; Krob, Daniel; Lui, Pao; Tan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the second edition of the Asia-Pacific conference on « Complex Systems Design & Management Asia» (CSD&M Asia 2016) that took place in Singapore from February 24 to February 26, 2016 (Website: http://www.2016.csdm-asia.net/). These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Complex Systems, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on Smart Nations: Designing and Sustaining. The CSD&M Asia 2016 conference is organized under the guidance of the Singapore division of the Center of Excellence on Systems Architecture, Management, Economy and Strategy (CESAMES) – Legal address: C.E.S.A.M.E.S. Singapore – 16 Raffles Quay – #38-03 Hong Leong Building – Singapore 048581 (website : http://www.cesames.net/en – email: contact@cesames.net).

  18. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The

  19. 2014 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, on behalf of the Organising Committee

    2014-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2014 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here. The second Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics, AEPSHEP2014, to be held in Puri, India, from 4 to 17 November 2014, is now open for applications (deadline 11 April 2014). AEPSHEP is held every second year, hosted in countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The first School in the series was held in Fukuoka, Japan in 2012. Applications to attend the School are invited particularly from students from countries in the Asia-Pacific region and from Europe, although applications from other regions will also be considered. The programme of the school will be at a level appropriate for PhD students in experimental particle physics. It is anticipated that students working on phenomenology (if not too far from experimental particle-physics) will also be accepted. The School is open to junior post-docs (typically less than two years after completing their PhD), an...

  20. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  1. Comparisons of metabolic syndrome definitions in four populations of the Asia-Pacific region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C.M.; Huxley, R.R.; Woodward, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by four MetS definitions in four Asia-Pacific populations, and to compare the prevalence of individual metabolic components. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional studies from Australia, Japan, Korea, and Samoa were used to as...

  2. Brokering Sonic Modernities: migrant Manila musicians in the Asia Pacific, 1881-1948

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamomo, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th and in the beginning of the 20th century, the Asia Pacific region was inevitably entangled with early modern globalisation. In this article the author examines the spread of town bands and popular music in this period, and the ways in which both the bands and their

  3. Understanding the Epidemiology of Heart Failure to Improve Management Practices: An Asia-Pacific Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Tse, Hung-Fat; Wang, Chao-Hung; Yang, Ning-I; Zhou, Jingmin; Sim, David

    2017-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major global healthcare problem with an estimated prevalence of approximately 26 million. In Asia-Pacific regions, HF is associated with a significant socioeconomic burden and high rates of hospital admission. Epidemiological data that could help to improve management approaches to address this burden in Asia-Pacific regions are limited, but suggest patients with HF in the Asia-Pacific are younger and have more severe signs and symptoms of HF than those of Western countries. However, local guidelines are based largely on the European Society of Cardiology and American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines, which draw their evidence from studies where Western patients form the major demographic and patients from the Asia-Pacific region are underrepresented. Furthermore, regional differences in treatment practices likely affect patient outcomes. In the following review, we examine epidemiological data from existing regional registries, which indicate that these patients represent a distinct subpopulation of patients with HF. In addition, we highlight that patients with HF are under-treated in the region despite the existence of local guidelines. Finally, we provide suggestions on how data can be enriched throughout the region, which may positively affect local guidelines and improve management practices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  5. Towards Education for a Sustainable Future in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, John; Obe, Osamu; Bhandari, Bishnu

    2000-01-01

    Outlines initial steps toward education for a sustainable future in the Asia-Pacific Region. Presents results from over 10,000 secondary students in 13 countries on environmental interest and attitudes and willingness to adopt a sustainable lifestyle. Describes an international program to support teacher educators as they reorient teacher…

  6. The Value of Higher Education for Individuals and Society in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.; Bethke, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Central to this study is an exploration of the degree to which higher education is perceived as an individual and/or a collective value. Seminal literature supports the notion that colleges and universities are Western institutions. Throughout the Asia Pacific, higher education is expanding in a hybrid form in collectivist societies. This…

  7. Rethinking the Mission of Internationalization of Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2012-01-01

    This article adopts the critical theory approach to reflect and analyse the impacts of globalization on the internationalization process of higher education in the Asia-Pacific region. It argues that globalization forces many of the higher education institutions in the region to follow global practices and ideologies of the Anglo-American paradigm…

  8. 2016 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Dear colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2016 Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here.  The third Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics, AEPSHEP2016, to be held near Beijing, China, 12-25 October 2016, is open for applications (deadline 1st April 2016). AEPSHEP is held every second year, hosted in countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The first two schools in the series were held in Fukuoka, Japan, in 2012 and Puri, India, in 2014.  Applications to attend the school are invited particularly from students from countries in the Asia-Pacific region and from Europe, although applications from other regions will also be considered. The programme of the school will be at a level appropriate for PhD students in experimental particle physics. It is anticipated that students working on phenomenology (if not too far from experimental particle-physics) will also be accepted. The...

  9. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  10. Design and Usability of Digital Libraries: Case Studies in the Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theng, Yin-Leng, Ed.; Foo, Schubert, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book showcases some of the best digital library practices from organizations in the Asia Pacific. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design, use and usability of digital libraries. Not only are digital libraries examined, but related technologies, the management of knowledge in digital libraries, and the associated usability and…

  11. Trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asia-Pacific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan C

    2011-03-01

    The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is rapidly growing in the Asia-Pacific region. There is the need for region-specific research and analysis of the epidemiology of COPD to raise awareness of the disease and highlight its causes. Such information is essential to for the development of effective national health policies to ensure evidence-based deployment of finite healthcare resources in the prevention and management of COPD. Recent population-based epidemiological studies have confirmed previous assumptions that COPD in the Asia-Pacific region is as prevalent as in the mature economies of the western world. The greatest numbers of deaths and hospitalizations from COPD are concentrated in this populous region of the world. The patterns in trends in mortality and hospitalization in the past 10 years in Asia-Pacific countries show a spectrum from the 'mature' to the 'evolving' and are likely related to the combined effects of cigarette smoking and nonsmoking risk factors. Gross underdiagnosis of COPD and underutilization of spirometry further contribute to burden and are barriers to appropriate and timely management of COPD. COPD is a common disease with a large disease burden throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Effective public health preventive measures coupled with timely case detection are needed for the reversal of trends and the reduction of disease burden.

  12. Introduction: exploring and explaining the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S. I.; van Asselt, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction lays the groundwork for this Special Issue by providing an overview of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP), and by introducing three main analytical themes. The first theme concerns the emergence and continuation of the APP. The contributions show

  13. Material Choices: Refashioning Bast and Leaf Fibers in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Material Choices: Refashioning Bast and Leaf Fibers in Asia and the Pacific. Roy W. Hamilton and B. Lynne Milgram, eds. 2008. Fowler Museum at UCLA, Los Angeles. Pp. 187, bibliography, index, copious color illustrations. $30.00 (paper. ISBN-13 9780974872988.

  14. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing four temporary security zones on the navigable waters of Oahu's southern and western shores in support of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Oahu...

  15. Asia-Pacific Journal for Student Affairs (AJSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS) serves as a global network of student affairs and services workers that encourages sharing, cooperation, research, exchanges, and attendance at each other's conferences. The Vice President and. General Secretary of IASAS attended the 2016 Asia ...

  16. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies Annual Report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    4 7 El Salvador 0 8 Fiji...police, government crisis agency, and civil society, as well as from the U.S. Embassy. Keynote speakers included Dr. Orlando Mercado , former e...Virginia Watson was quoted in an article by Juan Mercado entitled “Morning-after Sisyphus,” Philippine Inquirer (May 11, 2010) Appeared on “Asia in

  17. Cautious Peace: Strategy and Circumstance in Asia-Pacific Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    half and three-quarters of the illiterate population. High maternal mortality and nutritional neglect of girls in almost all of Asia have contributed to...security policy (more on this under Japan, 82 below). For at least a decade war- gamers of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military

  18. The Changing Eastern Winds: Dispersal in the Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Cliffs’ bitter trial, they fought with fire: Fire’s the perfect weapon, all agreed. But it was Pang Tong’s boat-connecting scheme That let Zhou Yu...discussion. The case study of US Pacific operations in World War II, and their genesis in War Plan Orange , provides a modern point of reference for...materials emerge as the primary priorities for waging western-style warfare in the Pacific. War Plan Orange was the secret plan to defeat Japan in

  19. The Changing Eastern Winds: Dispersal in the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Cliffs’ bitter trial, they fought with fire: Fire’s the perfect weapon, all agreed. But it was Pang Tong’s boat-connecting scheme That let Zhou Yu...discussion. The case study of US Pacific operations in World War II, and their genesis in War Plan Orange , provides a modern point of reference for...materials emerge as the primary priorities for waging western-style warfare in the Pacific. War Plan Orange was the secret plan to defeat Japan in

  20. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes.

  1. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. Ethnic comparisons of obesity in the Asia-Pacific region : protocol for a collaborative overview of cross-sectional studies - Obesity in Asia Collaboration (OAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huxley, R

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been rapidly increasing within countries of the Asia-Pacific region, with adverse consequences for health. The Obesity in Asia Collaboration (OAC) was initiated to provide reliable evidence concerning the relationships between anthropometrical markers of

  3. Model-informed risk assessment for Zika virus outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Bi, Dehua; Xie, Guigang; Jin, Yuan; Huang, Yong; Lin, Baihan; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Feng, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as a significant threat to global public health. The disease was present in large parts of the Americas, the Caribbean, and also the western Pacific area with southern Asia during 2015 and 2016. However, little is known about the factors affecting the transmission of ZIKV. We used Gradient Boosted Regression Tree models to investigate the effects of various potential explanatory variables on the spread of ZIKV, and used current with historical information from a range of sources to assess the risks of future ZIKV outbreaks. Our results indicated that the probability of ZIKV outbreaks increases with vapor pressure, the occurrence of Dengue virus, and population density but decreases as health expenditure, GDP, and numbers of travelers. The predictive results revealed the potential risk countries of ZIKV infection in the Asia-Pacific regions between October 2016 and January 2017. We believe that the high-risk conditions would continue in South Asia and Australia over this period. By integrating information on eco-environmental, social-economical, and ZIKV-related niche factors, this study estimated the probability for locally acquired mosquito-borne ZIKV infections in the Asia-Pacific region and improves the ability to forecast, and possibly even prevent, future outbreaks of ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 3rd Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    AEPSHEP (Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics) is a series of Schools held in the Asia-Pacific region every two years, in even-numbered years. It caters to students at a similar level to the annual CERN-JINR European School of High-Energy physics, and the CERN Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics (held every two years, in odd-numbered years). AEPSHEP is built upon the experience from these Schools as well as from the successful France-Asia Particle-Physics School. The purpose of the School is to provide young physicists with an opportunity to learn about recent advances in elementary-particle physics from world-leading researchers. It also aims to encourage communications among Asian, European and Pacific-region young researchers. The School provides High-Energy Physics courses from an experimental and phenomenological perspective, with a focus on accelerator-based programmes in Asia and Europe, and other related fields such as astro-particle physics and cosmological aspects of particle ...

  5. 2017 consensus of the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society on stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chern-En Chiang, MD, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia, causing a 2-fold increase in mortality and a 5-fold increase in stroke. The Asian population is rapidly aging, and in 2050, the estimated population with AF will reach 72 million, of whom 2.9 million may suffer from AF-associated stroke. Therefore, stroke prevention in AF is an urgent issue in Asia. Many innovative advances in the management of AF-associated stroke have emerged recently, including new scoring systems for predicting stroke and bleeding risks, the development of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, knowledge of their special benefits in Asians, and new techniques. The Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS aimed to update the available information, and appointed the Practice Guideline sub-committee to write a consensus statement regarding stroke prevention in AF. The Practice Guidelines sub-committee members comprehensively reviewed updated information on stroke prevention in AF, emphasizing data on NOACs from the Asia Pacific region, and summarized them in this 2017 Consensus of the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society on Stroke Prevention in AF. This consensus includes details of the updated recommendations, along with their background and rationale, focusing on data from the Asia Pacific region. We hope this consensus can be a practical tool for cardiologists, neurologists, geriatricians, and general practitioners in this region. We fully realize that there are gaps, unaddressed questions, and many areas of uncertainty and debate in the current knowledge of AF, and the physician׳s decision remains the most important factor in the management of AF.

  6. An assessment of national surveillance systems for malaria elimination in the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Chris Erwin G; Ekapirat, Nattwut; Dondorp, Arjen M; Maude, Richard J

    2017-03-21

    Heads of Government from Asia and the Pacific have committed to a malaria-free region by 2030. In 2015, the total number of confirmed cases reported to the World Health Organization by 22 Asia Pacific countries was 2,461,025. However, this was likely a gross underestimate due in part to incidence data not being available from the wide variety of known sources. There is a recognized need for an accurate picture of malaria over time and space to support the goal of elimination. A survey was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the collection of malaria incidence data for surveillance by National Malaria Control Programmes in 22 countries identified by the Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance. In 2015-2016, a short questionnaire on malaria surveillance was distributed to 22 country National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCP) in the Asia Pacific. It collected country-specific information about the extent of inclusion of the range of possible sources of malaria incidence data and the role of the private sector in malaria treatment. The findings were used to produce recommendations for the regional heads of government on improving malaria surveillance to inform regional efforts towards malaria elimination. A survey response was received from all 22 target countries. Most of the malaria incidence data collected by NMCPs originated from government health facilities, while many did not collect comprehensive data from mobile and migrant populations, the private sector or the military. All data from village health workers were included by 10/20 countries and some by 5/20. Other sources of data included by some countries were plantations, police and other security forces, sentinel surveillance sites, research or academic institutions, private laboratories and other government ministries. Malaria was treated in private health facilities in 19/21 countries, while anti-malarials were available in private pharmacies in 16/21 and private shops in 6/21. Most countries use

  7. Proceedings of Regional Asia Pacific Defence Environmental Workshop Held in Darwin, Australia on 11-14 May 1998 (Environmental Security Series Number 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 1998 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regional Asia Pacific Defence...3about the size of South Korea, in the Asia /Pacific region alone. The world population continues to grow by approximately 87 million people per year... Asia & Pacific Europe & Former USSR Latin America & Caribbean North America West Asia FIGURE 1: World Population -Recent and Projected Trends. Similar

  8. Regulating Religion in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatu Ropi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia is one of the most diverse regions, with hundreds of ethnic groups, various religious beliefs and denominations, and different spoken languages and dialects. These different backgrounds pose serious challenges for the governments in Southeast Asia, not only on how they should manage those diversities in building the nation but also in ensuring a harmonious life. Many believe that cultural and racial diversities have the potential to create tension and conflict in the community. Thus, government and public officials have the responsibility to ensure that societies with different backgrounds embrace a sense of unity so that everyone shares their pride and attachment to their community and the nation. In sum, this is one of the main arguments why regulation (including in terms of religious life is important. Hence, regulating religion is the most visible manifestation of the state–religion relationship, particularly in a state where religion dominates the political domain and plays an important role in legal and social systems.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v19i3.360 

  9. Future Joint Seabasing in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    the South Pacific to defeat the Nazis and Japanese. Over the years, various forms of seabasing have been employed by the United States throughout...Channel to the Nazi occupied coastal area of Normandy, it was primarily spearheaded through the use of some form of seabasing to deliver waves of US and...the United States Marine Corps Combat Development Command Home Page, http://hqinet001.hqmc.usmc.mil/i&L/ v2 /LP/LPD/LPD-3%20Stategic%20Mobility/ Docs

  10. Age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia and its geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Sanzhong; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    We study the age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia using a high-resolution model of P-wave tomography and paleo-age data of ancient seafloor. Our results show that the lithosphere age of the subducting slab becomes younger from the Japan Trench (∼130 Ma) to the slab's western edge (∼90 Ma) beneath East China, and the flat (stagnant) slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) is the subducted Pacific plate rather than the proposed Izanagi plate which should have already collapsed into the lower mantle. The flat Pacific slab has been in the MTZ for no more than ∼10-20 million years, considerably less than the age of the big mantle wedge beneath East Asia (>110 million years). Hence, the present flat Pacific slab in the MTZ has contributed to the Cenozoic destruction of the East Asian continental lithosphere with extensive intraplate volcanism and back-arc spreading, whereas the destruction of the North China Craton during the Early Cretaceous (∼140-110 Ma) was caused by the subduction of the Izanagi (or the Paleo-Pacific) plate.

  11. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  12. TPP: Is the best path to regional integration of Asia Pacific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carlos Martínez Jurado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia-Pacific has distinguished itself for its high levels of interdependence and its fast economic growth, however, it lacks of a strong regional institutional framework. Despite the existence of APEC as a forum which includes the region’s diversity of economic development levels and cultural differences, its voluntary approach which relays on open regionalism has not allowed member economies to advance towards its ambitious goals of trade and investment liberalization. Therefore, several of its members have decided to embrace binding schemes, at a bilateral and multilateral basis, among them the TPP, which due to its comprehensive approach, for many represents the better route to achieve regional integration. However, there are questions raised regarding the convenience for Asia-Pacific to transit from a flexible model towards a reciprocal one, and the possible costs involved in such process.

  13. Application of radiation processing in asia and the pacific region: Focus on malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman HJ.

    1995-09-01

    Applications of radiation processing in Malaysia and other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region is increasing as the countries move toward industrialisation. At present, there are more than 85 gamma facilities and 334 electron accelerators in Asia and the Pacific region which are mainly in Japan, Rep. of Korea and China. The main applications which are in the interest of the region are radiation sterilisation of medical products; radiation crosslinking of wire and cable, heat shrinkable film and tube, and foam; radiation curing of surface coatings, printing inks and adhesive; radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex; radiation processing of agro-industrial waste; radiation treatment of sewage sludge and municipal waste; food irradiation; tissue grafts and radiation synthesis of bioactive materials.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  15. Development of Crop Yield Estimation Method by Applying Seasonal Climate Prediction in Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y.; Lee, E.

    2015-12-01

    Under the influence of recent climate change, abnormal weather condition such as floods and droughts has issued frequently all over the world. The occurrence of abnormal weather in major crop production areas leads to soaring world grain prices because it influence the reduction of crop yield. Development of crop yield estimation method is important means to accommodate the global food crisis caused by abnormal weather. However, due to problems with the reliability of the seasonal climate prediction, application research on agricultural productivity has not been much progress yet. In this study, it is an object to develop long-term crop yield estimation method in major crop production countries worldwide using multi seasonal climate prediction data collected by APEC Climate Center. There are 6-month lead seasonal predictions produced by six state-of-the-art global coupled ocean-atmosphere models(MSC_CANCM3, MSC_CANCM4, NASA, NCEP, PNU, POAMA). First of all, we produce a customized climate data through temporal and spatial downscaling methods for use as a climatic input data to the global scale crop model. Next, we evaluate the uncertainty of climate prediction by applying multi seasonal climate prediction in the crop model. Because rice is the most important staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region, we assess the reliability of the rice yields using seasonal climate prediction for main rice production countries. RMSE(Root Mean Squire Error) and TCC(Temporal Correlation Coefficient) analysis is performed in Asia-Pacific countries, major 14 rice production countries, to evaluate the reliability of the rice yield according to the climate prediction models. We compare the rice yield data obtained from FAOSTAT and estimated using the seasonal climate prediction data in Asia-Pacific countries. In addition, we show that the reliability of seasonal climate prediction according to the climate models in Asia-Pacific countries where rice cultivation is being carried out.

  16. The Impact of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) on International Airline Demand in Asia Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yit Kee

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to analyse the impact of exogenous factors on efficiency of airlines based in the Asia Pacific using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. In measuring the efficiency of different airlines, the effects of the environment (exogenous factors) and the effects of productive efficiency are isolated. Exogenous factors refer to essentials outside the control of the firms while productive efficiency signifies the individual airline’s profitability state of affa...

  17. Teaching Neuro-Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific Region and China: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, John

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, I have been involved in a number of projects helping to educate and train local ophthalmologists in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, which lack adequate training and service in neuro-ophthalmology. In this article, I offer an overview of a number of different teaching initiatives and offer practical suggestions to anyone who might wish to become involved.

  18. The influence of board diversity on financial performance : an empirical study of Asia-Pacific companies

    OpenAIRE

    Herdhayinta, Heyvon

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon – Universitetet i Agder 2014 This study investigates board diversity and its influence on financial performance. The main purpose of the study is to examine whether nationality and gender diversity influence financial performance as measured by Tobin’s Q. The study examines the biggest 50 Asia-Pacific companies according to Forbes Magazine. Data analysis is performed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Two-Stage Least Square (2SLS) regressions an...

  19. The influence of board diversity on financial performance : an empirical study of Asia-Pacific companies

    OpenAIRE

    Herdhayinta, Heyvon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates board diversity and its influence on financial performance. The main purpose of the study is to examine whether nationality and gender diversity influence financial performance as measured by Tobin’s Q. The study examines the biggest 50 Asia-Pacific companies according to Forbes Magazine. Data analysis is performed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Two-Stage Least Square (2SLS) regressions analysis. The results show that gender diversity of board member has a posit...

  20. Are unemployment rates stationary in Asia-Pacific countries? New findings from Fourier ADF test

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether the unemployment rates in five Asia-Pacific countries can be described as a stationary process. It employs a newly developed nonlinear Fourier ADF test for this purpose. The findings indicated that South Korea’s unemployment rate could be described as a stationary process; the unemployment rates in Australia and Hong Kong could be considered as a stationary process around the structural breaks; in China and Japan the unemployment rates exhibited a weak tendency t...

  1. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Griffin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capital and operating cost estimates for converting microalgae to oil or biodiesel are compared. These cost comparisons are based on Australian locations, which are expected to fall at the lower end of the cost spectrum in the Asia-Pacific Region and other parts of the world.  It is assumed that microalgae are grown in a concentrated saltwater medium in raceway ponds, then are harvested, dewatered and the oil is extracted and converted to biodiesel by transesterification. The size of the desired pond system affects the number of potential locations due to constraints in resource availability. Cost estimates vary significantly due to differences in the assumed oil productivity, the harvesting equipment and the method of converting residual biomass to electric power. A comparison is made with recent cost estimates from other parts of the world, in which the expected costs of microalgae oil production from a number of publicly available sources lay between 0.34–31.0 USD/L.  The resulting cost estimates of between 1.37—2.66 USD/L are at the lower end of this scale, thereby confirming that Australia has the potential to be a low-cost producer of algal oil and biodiesel in the Asia-Pacific Region.  It was significant that, despite similar assumptions for the microalgae-to-oil process, cost estimates for the final biodiesel or oil price differed by a factor of 2.  This highlights the high degree of uncertainty in such economic predictions. Keywords: Asia-Pacific region; biodiesel; economics; microalgaeThis article is cited as :Griffin, G., Batten, D., Beer, T., & Campbell, P. (2013. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal Of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED, 2(3, 105-113. doi:10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113Permalinkhttp://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113

  2. A review of intrauterine contraception in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Deborah; Kang, Sukho; Paterson, Helen; Singh, Kuldip

    2017-01-01

    Across the Asia-Pacific region, approximately 38% of pregnancies are unintended. Long-acting reversible contraception, such as intrauterine contraception (IUC), is effective in reducing unintended pregnancy. This study aims to review access to, uptake of and influencing factors on IUC use in the Asia-Pacific region. We searched PubMed and MEDLINE for articles published between 1990 and 2015. We identified and reviewed primary studies that examined the following points and were relevant to the Asia-Pacific region: available types and utilization rates of IUC and factors that influence these. We also obtained the opinions of local experts to gain a better understanding of the situation in specific countries. Types of IUC used and utilization rates vary widely across the region. Factors influencing rates of utilization relate to healthcare systems, such as government policy on and subsidization of IUC, types of healthcare providers authorized to place IUC and local guidelines on preinsertion screening. Healthcare provider factors include concerns around pelvic inflammatory disease and the suitability of IUC in certain groups of women, whereas end-user factors include lack of awareness of IUC, concerns about safety, cultural or religious attitudes, access to IUC and costs. Across the Asia-Pacific region, clear data gaps and unmet needs exist in terms of access to and uptake of IUC. We believe that several recommendations are necessary to update future practice and policy for enhanced IUC utilization so that women across this region have better access to IUC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Agroforestry in the management of sloping lands in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Craswell, E.; Sajjapongse, A.; Howlett, D.; Dowling, A.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record Results from studies in Asia and the Pacific sponsored by the International Board for Soil Research and Management (IBSRAM) are summarized. Soil loss data are presented as well as comments on the effectiveness of hedgerow systems in terms of economics and soil conservation. References pointing to additional IBSRAM data are provided. Labor is listed as a potentially major obstacle to adoption of agroforestry systems. The authors emphasize the importance of involving far...

  4. Air and Sea Power Shaped for the Asia-Pacific Rebalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    attempted to link CPGS to ASB, which could not be more different. ASB has never endorsed CPGS. Once again ASB seems to be the “ lightening rod” for those...2013_china_report_final.pdf. 10. Ian Easton, “China’s Military Power and America’s Poor Pacific Hedge,” Asia Eye , http://blog.project2049.net/2013/05/chinas-military

  5. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-Pacific region, 1955-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Banu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02 of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004. The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  6. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  7. Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders: Proposed recommendations for children of the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Donald; Hock, Quak Seng; Kadim, Musal; Mohan, Neelam; Ryoo, Eell; Sandhu, Bhupinder; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Jie, Chen; Hoekstra, Hans; Guarino, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were strongly recommended as adjunct treatment to oral rehydration therapy for gastroenteritis. Lactobacillus reuteri could also be considered. Probiotics may be considered for prevention of (with the indicated strains): antibiotic-associated diarrhea (LGG or Sb); Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea (Sb); nosocomial diarrhea (LGG); infantile colic (L reuteri) and as adjunct treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Sb and others). Specific probiotics with a history of safe use in preterm and term infants may be considered in infants for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. There is insufficient evidence for recommendations in other conditions. Despite a diversity of epidemiological, socioeconomical and health system conditions, similar recommendations apply well to Asia pacific countries. These need to be validated with local randomized-controlled trials. PMID:29259371

  8. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed.

  9. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Zablotska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion: Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions: Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes.

  10. The Dialectic Characteristics of Policies for Asia-Pacific Regional Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The regional relations within the Asia-Pacific are essentially reflecting a stage for powers to exercise their individual influences. States employ their own strength to echo the themes advocated by the international powers and international organizations in order to introduce their influences for balancing the attempt conducted by the powers for changing the power structure. To establish and shape the regional relations in the Asia-Pacific is basically based on the Asian-Pacific policies of states within or outside the region. All these policies and regional relations as well as the power structure itself is dynamic thus keeping it in development all the time. To well perceive the interest calculation of the Asian-Pacific policies for various states and the principles followed for policy adjustment from this dynamic development process is indeed worthy of further observation. This paper would like to introduce Hegel’s dialectic principles of unity of opposites, transition from quantity to quality and negation of the negation as the tools to observe the Asia-Pacific state formulating their regional policies and by so doing to interpret the rules for them to adjust these policies. As the national interests may extend across various aspects, states therefore need to consider all these factors in order to make the best judgment for the political calculations of their external policies. Precisely based on the plural characteristics of the national interests, there is definitely no absolute friendly or foe relation in dealing with the regional relations. The co-existed competition and cooperation within the framework of the unity of opposites is specifically reflecting such dialectic thinking. By the same token, states adjusting their regional policies must respond to the realities of the power structure accordingly. Yet, the eco-political strength for various states keeps on changing. The commercial activities are gradually evolving and

  11. Alcohol Related Disorders in Asia Pacific Region: Prevalence, Health Consequences and Impacts on the Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Asia Pacific (AP region, the exact picture of the alcohol use problems has remained relatively obscure. In this study, the profile of alcohol consumption and alcohol related disorders in AP countries are presented.     Methods: Official statistics on average alcohol consumption (alcohol per capita consumption, APC, alcohol related health variables, income group and alcohol policy of countries geographically related to Asia and Oceania continents were extracted from the 2014 edition of World Health Organization report on global status of alcohol and health. Results: The data of 57 AP countries were analyzed. Two-third of the countries did not establish comprehensive national monitoring systems (NMSs. Median of total APC in people aged 15 years and older was 2.4 (1-4.6 L during 2003 to 2005, while this indicator was 2.8 (1-5.5 L during 2008 to 2010 which accounts for about 0.4 L (in median increase in consumption. In 13 countries which were mostly located in South-east Asia and the Pacific region, APC was higher than average global consumption. Comparing the countries with and without total ban policy, the countries with total ban policy had significantly lower APC (P = 0.003, higher rate of abstainers (P = 0.002 and lower rate of alcohol related disorders (P < 0.001. Higher APC and higher rates of alcohol related disorders were observed in higher income countries. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in AP region is comparatively lower than global average. However, the status of some countries in Southeast Asia and Pacific region is alarming and needs serious attention. Moreover, establishment of comprehensive NMSs, proper data registry and holistic harm reduction and rehabilitation programs for users should receive meaningful governmental and public support.

  12. The U.S. Rebalance toward Asia-Pacific in The Light of “The Rise of China”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Rebalancing toward Asia-Pacific” is the most important diplomatic legacy of the Obama administration. The United States put the Asia-Pacific region in an unprecedented position in its global strategy. The rise of China led to changes in the structure of the Asia-Pacific region. It is the important background of the Obama administration that launched the “rebalancing” strategy. With the promotion of the “Asia-Pacific rebalancing” strategy in the political, diplomatic, military and economic fields, American Policy towards China has evolved from cooperation to prevention. This change undermines the strategic mutual trust between China and the United States. The United States do not actively build “the new model of major-country relationship”. The struggle between China and the United States is becoming increasingly fierce in the South China Sea issue and network security issues.

  13. The changing face of crises and aid in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Elin A; Burkle, Frederick M; Hamon, David W; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture.

  14. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  15. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T; Azhari, HA; Voon, EO; Cheung, KY; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, NM; Bold, L; Win, UM; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, JCL; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world’s population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Results and discussion: Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. Conclusion: As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:22970066

  16. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T; Azhari, Ha; Voon, Eo; Cheung, Ky; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, Nm; Bold, L; Win, Um; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, Jcl; Kumara, A; Lee, Cc; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, Xc; Ng, Kh

    2012-04-01

    Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world's population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region.

  17. Survey on medical records and EHR in Asia-Pacific region: languages, purposes, IDs and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Croll, P; Li, B; Wong, C P; Gogia, S; Faud, A; Kwak, Y-S; Chu, S; Marcelo, A; Chow, Y-H; Paoin, W; Li, Y-C

    2011-01-01

    To clarify health record background information in the Asia-Pacific region, for planning and evaluation of medical information systems. The survey was carried out in the summer of 2009. Of the 14 APAMI (Asia-Pacific Association for Medical Informatics) delegates 12 responded which were Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan. English is used for records and education in Australia, Hong Kong, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Most of the countries/regions are British Commonwealth. Nine out of 12 delegates responded that the second purpose of medical records was for the billing of medical services. Seven out of nine responders to this question answered that the second purpose of EHR (Electronic Health Records) was healthcare cost cutting. In Singapore, a versatile resident ID is used which can be applied to a variety of uses. Seven other regions have resident IDs which are used for a varying range of purposes. Regarding healthcare ID, resident ID is simply used as healthcare ID in Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand. In most cases, disclosure of medical data with patient's name identified is allowed only for the purpose of disease control within a legal framework and for disclosure to the patient and referred doctors. Secondary use of medical information with the patient's identification anonymized is usually allowed in particular cases for specific purposes. This survey on the health record background information has yielded the above mentioned results. This information contributes to the planning and evaluation of medical information systems in the Asia-Pacific region.

  18. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  19. Excerpt from Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsu Shigematsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foregrounding indigenous and feminist scholarship, this collection analyzes militarization as an extension of colonialism from the late twentieth to the twenty-first century in Asia and the Pacific. The contributors theorize the effects of militarization across former and current territories of Japan and the United States, demonstrating that the relationship between militarization and colonial subordination shapes bodies of memory, knowledge, and resistance.

  20. The 7th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group (APTWG) meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Kong, D. F.; Fujita, T.; Ido, T.; Ko, W. H.; Maeyama, S.

    2018-01-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 7th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held at Nagoya University, Japan, during 5–8 June 2017. The topics of the meeting were organized under four main headings: (1) turbulence and blob at the boundary of magnetic topology, (2) model reduction and experiments for validation, (3) mode competition in turbulence and MHD driven by energetic particle, (4) mechanism determining plasma flows and their impact on transport and MHD. The Young Researchers Forum which was held in this meeting is also described in this report.

  1. Information and Communications Technology in Asia Pacific Countries: implications for small and medium enterprises in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Beal

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Information communications and technology (ICT is transforming the environment in which SMEs operate and changing the paradigms of value creation, customer satisfaction and business effectiveness. This paper attempts to explore global and Asia Pacific ICT usage and the major factors influencing SMEs. It focuses particularly on Malaysia where the development of ICT usage amongst SMEs is one of the main policy items in the agenda of the Malaysian government. It describes a survey of SMEs in north and eastern peninsula Malaysia 1999-2000.

  2. Population and development in Asia and the Pacific: a demographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debavalya, N

    1982-06-01

    Close examinations of population trends shows that the new trends reflect demographic changes that have occurred in many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. In East Asia the population growth rate has declined rather rapidly from 1.94% in 1960-65 to 1.38% in 1975-80 and 1.24% in 1980-85. Since nearly 85% of this region's population is accounted for by China, demographic trends there virtually dictate the trends for the region as a whole. The available data suggest that the growth rate in China declined from 2.02% in 1970-75 to 1.4% in 1975-80 and is expected to reach 1.27% during 1980-85. The sharp decline in China's population growth rate is expected to continue. It is anticipated that the population of East Asia will increase to 1.4 billion by the year 2000. In addition, the growth rate has declined significantly in Japan and the Republic of Korea. The growth rate is declining in Eastern South and Middle South Asia as well. Longterm declines have brought growth rates down in Sri Lanka and Singapore. More recently, the rate of growth also has begun to fall in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand, while it remains generally at high levels in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. In the Oceania region, 79% of which is made up of Australia and New Zealand, the growth rate is also steadily decreasing. Despite the decrease in the growth rate of Asia and the Pacific, especially during 1980-2000, in absolute terms its growth will be the largest in the world during these 29 years; 908 million out of 1687 million of the total growth. Asia and the Pacific will contribute more than 45 million people a year during the final 20 years of this century. For the world as a whole, the new estimates and projections indicate a slow but steady decline of the crude birthrate from 36.3/1000 in 1950-55 to 28.5 in 1975-80, then to 23.9 in 1995-2000, and finally to 17.9 in 2020-2025. China had a birthrate estimated at about 21 in 1975-80; and India and Indonesia

  3. Imperial Queerness: The U.S. Homophile Press and Constructions of Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carly

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which U.S. homophile magazines represented and constructed Asia and the Pacific from 1953 to 1964. Through an analysis of 209 items that referenced Asia and the Pacific in ONE, Mattachine Review, and the Ladder, the essay argues that U.S. homophiles referenced the region in three primary ways: first, to create relationships, allies, and exchanges with people living in the region; second, to highlight the inferiority of the East and superiority of the West; and, third, to reveal the cross-cultural and transhistorical nature of homosexuality. These references were influenced by Orientalism, colonialism, and the Cold War, which framed Asia and the Pacific as both sexually and culturally backward, but also as a potential tourist destination for gay men and lesbian women.

  4. Did Focusing on Asia Pacific Emerging Markets Provide Much Benefit to Portfolio Diversification during the Late 2000s Recession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Hermanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the international co-movement among Asia Pacific emerging markets stock price indices during the late 2000s recession by using the monthly observations start from 1st October 2001 until 1st April 2011. The co-integration analysis and parsimonious Vector Error Correction Model employed in this research reveal a long-term relationship and inter-dependencies among seven Asia Pacific emerging market stock price indices. This research finds that the unique co-integration exists on the equations. Specifically, two indices from China and Taiwan having meteor shower potential while the rest indices from Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia are known to have heat waves effects or country specific factors on the equation. Finally, all the results are linked to the international diversification strategies. Keywords: Co-movement, co-integration, emerging market, heat waves, meteor shower, Asia Pacific, inter-dependencies, Vector Error Correction Model, international diversification

  5. Capital Markets, Infrastructure Investment and Growth in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Regan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure investment activity, capital market development, the role of public institutions and economic development in the Asia Pacific. It adopts a review approach drawing on empirical evidence over recent decades. Infrastructure is shown to be an important asset class playing a central role in a nation’s output, growth, productivity and microeconomic performance. Infrastructure investment also requires investment and predictions of a widening gap in the future supply of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific will require new forms of capital from both traditional and new sources including wider use of private participation, institutional investment, asset recycling and revenue bonds. Capital market development is also necessary to raise long-term local currency finance and evidence suggests that progress with regional capital market integration is slow and a continuing reform agenda is required. The dividend for regional countries is the prospect of higher levels of economic growth with infrastructure investment, capital market development, and foreign direct investment shown to have a strong and positive association with growth. A crucial link in this association identified in the review is the part played by national and regional institutions in improving the efficiency with which infrastructure is managed and providing promising ground for further research where the importance of these links can be researched in greater depth.

  6. Green Growth, Resources and Resilience. Environmental Sustainability in Asia and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    While regional countries are driving the global 'green growth' agenda, policymakers are facing a new economic reality and heightened uncertainty. The challenge of eco-efficient economic growth and inclusive resource use is critical and growing in several countries. Fundamental, rather than incremental changes are needed. Governments must therefore take the lead in re-orienting both the 'visible' and the 'invisible' economic infrastructure. At the same time the implications of heightened uncertainty and risk for policymaking requires more attention. This report highlights changes in the policy landscape that have taken place since 2005, focuses on the emerging challenges of resources and resilience, presents new regional and country data produced by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia (CSIRO) and UNEP, and provides insights to key policy arenas for greening of growth. The report is the sixth in a series of reports produced every five years by ESCAP for the Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development. It is also the third in the ADB's Asian Environment Outlook series. This year, it complements a UNEP report: Resource Efficiency: Economics and Outlook for Asia and the Pacific (Canberra, CSIRO Publishing), providing new insights into regional use of key resources, and what that means for economies in the Asia-Pacific Region. The report is also intended to support stakeholders preparing for Rio+20.

  7. European Union - Asia-Pacific Trade Relations: Tentative Bilateralism amidst Competing Plurilateral Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez de las Heras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses major current trends in EU trade policy and their impact on the Asia-Pacific region. It explains how after being a guardian of multilateralism for many years, the EU is currently negotiating bilateral Free Trade Agreements with countries in the area while important and competing trade initiatives are also emerging amongst these nations. The fact that the EU is not a party to any of these plurilateral projects jeopardises its goal of becoming an active player in this challenging geopolitical landscape. Moreover, the political conditionality linked to EU trade diplomacy is generally not welcomed by these countries, which are becoming increasingly more economically and politically assertive. The divergent trade agendas of Member States further complicate any joint EU policy in the region. In light of these factors, political conditionality needs to be revised to provide more flexibility to global dialogue with these countries and a genuinely common trade strategy must be defined for the EU to leverage more effective influence and involve itself in regional integration deals in Asia-Pacific.

  8. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  9. Regional ash fall hazard II: Asia-Pacific modelling results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Susanna; McAneney, John; Magill, Christina; Blong, Russell

    2012-09-01

    In a companion paper (this volume), the authors propose a methodology for assessing ash fall hazard on a regional scale. In this study, the methodology is applied to the Asia-Pacific region, determining the hazard from 190 volcanoes to over one million square kilometre of urban area. Ash fall hazard is quantified for each square kilometre grid cell of urban area in terms of the annual exceedance probability (AEP), and its inverse, the average recurrence interval (ARI), for ash falls exceeding 1, 10 and 100 mm. A surrogate risk variable, the Population-Weighted Hazard Score: the product of AEP and population density, approximates the relative risk for each grid cell. Within the Asia-Pacific region, urban areas in Indonesia are found to have the highest levels of hazard and risk, while Australia has the lowest. A clear demarcation emerges between the hazard in countries close to and farther from major subduction plate boundaries, with the latter having ARIs at least 2 orders of magnitude longer for the same thickness thresholds. Countries with no volcanoes, such as North Korea and Malaysia, also face ash falls from volcanoes in neighbouring countries. Ash falls exceeding 1 mm are expected to affect more than one million people living in urban areas within the study region; in Indonesia, Japan and the Philippines, this situation could occur with ARIs less than 40 years.

  10. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically.

  11. Critical issues in implementing low vision care in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-thirds of the world′s population with low vision resides in the Asia-Pacific region. Provision of comprehensive low vision services is important to improve vision-related quality of life (QoL for people with this condition. This review outlines the critical issues and challenges facing the provision of low vision services in the Asia-Pacific region. The review offers possible strategies to tackle these issues and challenges facing service providers and policy makers in lieu of Vision 2020 strategies in this area. Pertinent findings from the global survey of low vision services and extensive ground work conducted in the region are used; in addition, a discussion on the availability of services, human resources and training, and funding and the future sustainability of low vision care will be covered. In summary, current issues and challenges facing the region are the lack of specific evidence-based data, access, appropriate equipment and facilities, human resources, funding, and sustainability. These issues are inextricably interlinked and thus cannot be addressed in isolation. The solutions proposed cover all areas of the VISION 2020 strategy that include service delivery, human resources, infrastructure and equipment, advocacy and partnership; and include provision of comprehensive care via vertical and horizontal integration; strengthening primary level care in the community; providing formal and informal training to enable task shifting and capacity building; and promoting strong government and private sector partnership to achieve long-term service financial sustainability.

  12. Conference scene. A bright future for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Jessica E; Hudson, James E; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2011-03-01

    The Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society-Asia Pacific (TERMIS-AP) annual meeting was held in Sydney, Australia from 15-17 September 2010 and highlighted the latest developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in the Asia-Pacific region. Several of the plenary lectures focused on the vascularization of tissue engineering constructs, an issue that is critical for the success of larger tissue engineered constructs and was central to the meeting overall. In addition, a wide range of research also presented developments in tissue engineering for a range of body tissues (including cardiac, neural, bone, cartilage, tendon, skeletal muscle and skin), as well as advances in technologies (high-throughput screening and microfluidics). Looking more broadly, the meeting incorporated developments covering the spectrum of fundamental research through to clinical studies, with discussions on how best to direct the scientific advances being made into realistic therapies that could be made widely available in the future. Overall, the meeting highlighted the promise of early strategies, which are now showing promising results in clinical trials, and the development of a strong foundation of research from which future therapies will no doubt be developed.

  13. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youlden, Danny R.; Cramb, Susanna M.; Yip, Cheng Har; Baade, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and Thailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes. PMID:25009752

  14. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Diagnostic laboratories in Asia Pacific region: Investigation on quality characteristics and time of reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrick, Tony C; Gutscher, Anton; Sakamoto, Nakako; Chin, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    This is the result of a Survey of various aspects of quality, cost and speed in a large sample of diagnostic laboratories in the Asia Pacific region. It is the first of its type to be published and represents a snapshot of the current performance in a large number of diagnostic laboratories in a broad range of countries in the Asia Pacific region. This demonstrates that there are common issues facing all the laboratories surveyed but also common solutions using a Quality Systems approach which involves Accreditation, Customer responsiveness, greater use of IT, automation and Lean principles. The Survey provides data on some quality characteristics such as Turnaround Time (TAT) and quality improvement activities. It has been the case that some of the KPIs have improved over the course of the Surveys for example a reduction in the average TAT, and it might be that this occurred as a result of participation. Most laboratories have a target of 46-60min for STAT (Short Turnaround Time) on Clinical Chemistry and Immunoassay samples. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Keatinge, John Donough H; Butler, Colin D; Friel, Sharon; McKay, John; Easdown, Warwick; Kuo, Ken N; Huang, Ching-jang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yang, Ray-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Jaron, Dov; Krawinkel, Michael; Barlow, Snow; Walsh, Greg; Chiang, Tung-liang; Huang, Po-Chao; Li, Duo

    2009-01-01

    The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific Region who work in the food and health systems met in August, 2009 in Taiwan and instigated a Food in Health Security (FIHS) Network which might join with other like-minded networks in and beyond the region. Sustainable health has many dimensions, among which food and nutrition is often neglected; there is a wide spectrum of nutritionally-related disorders. Malnutrition remains the global concern for agricultural research and development scientists and linkage with the health sector is key to progress. The disconnect between agricultural and health sectors negatively impacts consumer nutrition and health. Ethical and equity affect food and health systems. Food and health security is attainable only when the underlying social inequities are addressed; it is an ethical issue as reflected in the UN Universal declaration of Human Rights which includes the right to food for health and well-being. Food and health security are part of the larger security agenda and merit corresponding attention. Policy recommendations with immediacy are greater investment in combined food and health research; an Asia Pacific security agenda which emphasizes planetary, human, health and food security as relevant to traditional defence security; and community and household security measures which include maternal literacy, communication technology and entrepreneurial opportunity.

  17. Equity, food security and health equity in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Baker, Phillip I

    2009-01-01

    What, and how much, people eat is a response to their socio-political, socio-economic, socio-environmental and socio-cultural environments. Good nutrition is central to good health. Globally, health has improved for many but not for everyone equally. That food and nutrition-related health is unequally distributed is a marker of societal failure. For some individuals, communities and even nations, it is a matter of not having enough food, of being unable to afford food and there being little nutritious food readily available. For others there is an over abundance of food but its nutritional quality is compromised, access to healthy food is poor and cost of food is high relative to other commodities. Human development and poverty reduction in the Asia Pacific region cannot be achieved without improving nutrition in an equitable way. There is no biological reason for the scale of difference in health, including diet-related health that is observed in the Asia Pacific region. That it exists is unethical and inequitable. Asymmetric economic growth, unequal improvements in daily living conditions, unequal distribution of technical developments and suppression of human rights have seen health inequities perpetuate and worsen, particularly over the last three decades. Addressing diet-related health inequities requires attention to the underlying structural drivers and inequities in conditions of daily living that disempower individuals, social groups and even nations from the pursuit of good nutrition and health. These are matters of economic and social policy at the global, regional and national level.

  18. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Yang; He, Gengsheng; Li, Liangli; Zeng, Lingxia; Hadi, Hamam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Hoe, Ng See; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2016-03-01

    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffelfinger, James D; Li, Xi; Batmunkh, Nyambat; Grabovac, Varja; Diorditsa, Sergey; Liyanage, Jayantha B; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Bahl, Sunil; Vannice, Kirsten S; Hyde, Terri B; Chu, Susan Y; Fox, Kimberley K; Hills, Susan L; Marfin, Anthony A

    2017-06-09

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific in 2012 (2). Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become available through the GAVI Alliance, three JE vaccines have been WHO-prequalified,* and an updated WHO JE vaccine position paper providing guidance on JE vaccines and vaccination strategies has been published (1). Data for this report were obtained from a survey of JE surveillance and immunization practices administered to health officials in countries with JE virus transmission risk, the 2015 WHO/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, notes and reports from JE meetings held during 2014-2016, published literature, and websites. In 2016, 22 (92%) of 24 countries with JE virus transmission risk conducted JE surveillance, an increase from 18 (75%) countries in 2012, and 12 (50%) countries had a JE immunization program, compared with 11 (46%) countries in 2012. Strengthened JE surveillance, continued commitment, and adequate resources for JE vaccination should help maintain progress toward prevention and control of JE.

  20. The development of academic entrepreneurship in some counters of the Asia-Pacific (overview of scientific publications)

    OpenAIRE

    Belkin Viktor; Babak Larisa; Khegay Elena; Filatkina Irina

    2016-01-01

    The article provides an overview of scientific publications in the field of development of academic entrepreneurship in some Asia-Pacific countries: India, Indonesia, China, South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand over the period 2005–2015 gg. Search for articles carried by the most authoritative database of scientific pub-lications: Scopus, Web of Science, Taylor & Francis Group and e-LIBRARY by the introduction of a search query string key phrase "Academic Entrepreneurship in Asia...

  1. Comparison of World Health Organization and Asia-Pacific body mass index classifications in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim JU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeong Uk Lim,1 Jae Ha Lee,2 Ju Sang Kim,3 Yong Il Hwang,4 Tae-Hyung Kim,5 Seong Yong Lim,6 Kwang Ha Yoo,7 Ki-Suck Jung,4 Young Kyoon Kim,8 Chin Kook Rhee8 1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 2Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Introduction: A low body mass index (BMI is associated with increased mortality and low health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. The Asia-Pacific classification of BMI has a lower cutoff for overweight and obese categories compared to the World Health Organization (WHO classification. The present study assessed patients with COPD among different BMI categories according to two BMI classification systems: WHO and Asia-Pacific. Patients and methods: Patients with COPD aged 40 years or older from the Korean COPD Subtype Study cohort were selected for evaluation

  2. Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Myanmar. However, when we apply LM unit root with structural break, we find overwhelming evidence that there is no unit root in per capita energy consumption for these 15 East Asia & Pacific countries.

  3. Role of bilastine in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: an Asia-Pacific consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösges, Ralph; Lee, Dennis Lip Yen; Abong, Jovilia; Siasoco, Bella; Chow, Steven Kw; Leong, Jern-Lin; Singh, Harvinder; Kuljit, S; Campomanes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing globally, most particularly in middle- to low-income countries. This article examines the burden of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region, unmet clinical needs, and the potential role of bilastine in the management of these conditions. An International Advisory Group meeting was convened in association with the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology Annual Congress in November 2014, followed by a literature review, and consensus-based outcomes from the meeting and literature review are described. Regional estimates of the prevalence of allergic rhinitis range from 10% to 50%, while little is known regarding the burden of urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region. A survey of allergy patients in the region identified fast, complete, and long-lasting symptom relief as the medication attributes most important to patients. International treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria advocate the first-line use of second-generation, no-sedating H1-antihistamines, such as bilastine, over their first-generation counterparts and a range of these agents are available to Asia-Pacific patients. The newer agents possess many of the properties of an "ideal" antihistamine (once daily administration, rapid and complete symptom relief, limited potential for drug-drug interactions, minimal side effects). The burgeoning prevalence of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the uncontrolled symptoms that these patients experience demand a new antihistamine that offers the highest number of positive features according to the international guidelines.

  4. Seeking A Breakthrough: The Improvement of The Asia-Pacific Security Structure From the Perspective of “One Belt One Road” Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhaoxi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The U.S alliance in the Asia-Pacific region has exerted significant influence on Asia-Pacific security architecture for a long time. While with the deepening of interdependence among Asia-Pacific countries, the development of regional international relations has outdated the existing security architecture in this region. It is imperative to improve the architecture in that there are plenty of structural hurdles, such as the obsolescence of security concepts, the fragmentation of security mechanism and the dearth of public goods on security affairs. OBOR, which is exemplary as a new multilateral cooperative initiative and has interacted profoundly with the regional security of the Asia-Pacific, holds endogenous relations with the Asia-Pacific security architecture. OBOR could improve the Asia-Pacific security architecture in the following ways: to create a new model of security maintenance in light of the advanced ideas given by OBOR; to design new institutional frameworks which are more normative and effective with mechanical innovations stemming from OBOR; to enrich the security public goods in the Asia-Pacific region under the reference of co-construction and sharing the idea of OBOR. However, the practice of improvement will face tremendous challenges both internally and externally. These challenges should be prudently analyzed and treated in order to better fulfill the co-evolution in the process of the construction of OBOR and the improvement of the Asia-Pacific security architecture, for the promotion of long-termed prosperity and stability in this region.

  5. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  6. Autoimmune liver diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Proceedings of APASL symposium on AIH and PBC 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Ma, Xiong; Yokosuka, Osamu; Weltman, Martin; You, Hong; Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Kim, Yoon Jun; Abbas, Zaigham; Payawal, Diana A; Chang, Ming-Ling; Efe, Cumali; Ozaslan, Ersan; Abe, Masanori; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Zeniya, Mikio; Han, Kwang Hyub; Vierling, John M; Takikawa, Hajime

    2016-11-01

    During the 25th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL 2016) in Tokyo, we organized and moderated an inaugural satellite symposium on the autoimmune liver diseases, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Following the keynote lecture by John M. Vierling (USA), speakers from the Asia-Pacific region provided an up-to-date perspective on the epidemiology, clinical practice and research in AIH and PBC in the Asia-Pacific region. Although epidemiology and clinical features of AIH seem to be similar in East Asia compared to those in western countries, the majority of patients with AIH are detected at an advanced stage and have higher mortality rates in South Asia, indicating an unmet need for earlier diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate immunosuppressive treatment. PBC is more commonly seen in Australia and East Asia. As of 2016, clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for PBC have been published in Japan and China. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is recommended as a first-line therapy by both CPG. Nevertheless, one of the unmet therapeutic needs in PBC is the treatment of patients refractory to or intolerant of UDCA. It is of interest that the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in PBC patients was low in Taiwan and mainland China where the prevalence of CHB is very high. In this review, we overview this exciting and epoch-making symposium.

  7. A Robustness Analysis of CMIP5 Models over the East Asia-Western North Pacific Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP is an international community-based infrastructure that supports climate model intercomparison, climate variability, climate prediction, and climate projection. Improving the performance of climate models over East Asia and the western North Pacific has been a challenge for the climate-modeling community. In this paper, we provide a synthesis robustness analysis of the climate models participating in CMIP-Phase 5 (CMIP5. The strengths and weaknesses of the CMIP5 models are assessed from the perspective of climate mean state, interannual variability, past climate change during the mid-Pliocene (MP and the last millennium, and climate projection. The added values of regional climate models relative to the driving global climate models are also assessed. Although an encouraging increase in credibility and an improvement in the simulation of mean states, interannual variability, and past climate changes are visible in the progression from CMIP3 to CMIP5, some previously noticed biases such as the ridge position of the western North Pacific subtropical high and the associated rainfall bias are still evident in CMIP5 models. Weaknesses are also evident in simulations of the interannual amplitude, such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO-monsoon relationships. Coupled models generally show better results than standalone atmospheric models in simulating both mean states and interannual variability. Multi-model intercomparison indicates significant uncertainties in the future projection of climate change, although precipitation increases consistently across models constrained by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. Regional ocean-atmosphere coupled models are recommended for the dynamical downscaling of climate change projections over the East Asia-western North Pacific domain.

  8. Strategies for Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific in the Post-Cold War Era. IIEP Contributions, No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bikas C.

    This paper suggests some strategies for higher education in Asia and the Pacific in the context of ideological, societal, economic, and technological changes that have been experienced in the region during recent years. Some characteristics of the region and its socioeconomic characteristics are outlined, and the impact of changes on the area's…

  9. The Institutionalization of Comparative Education in Asia and the Pacific: Roles and Contributions of Comparative Education Societies and the WCCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Manzon, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The institutional framework of the field of comparative education has developed significantly in recent decades. One manifestation of development has been the establishment and activities of professional societies. This paper focuses on 12 societies that operate in Asia and the Pacific. Some of these societies have long histories while others are…

  10. The Impact of English as a Global Language on Educational Policies and Practices in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation into the place of English in the curriculum in several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The study indicates that the emergence of English as a global language is having considerable impact on policies and practices in all countries surveyed. However, it also reveals significant problems,…

  11. Leadership Challenges in International Schools in the Asia Pacific Region: Evidence from Programme Implementation of the International Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four decades, International Baccalaureate (IB) schools have become increasingly important in the global market of international education. This is especially evident in Asia Pacific, which has evidenced the fastest growth in IB schools, as well as international schools more generally, across the world over the last decade. Despite…

  12. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  13. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kompas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM, based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India, and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  14. An Appraisal of Asia-Pacific Cities as Control and Command Centres Embedded in World City Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the globalization trend is proliferating at a staggering rate, world cities have emerged as the most dominant vanguard incorporated into global economy. Control and command function is one of the robust integral parts of world city formation, which is closely associated with the corporate headquarter status of some dominant multinational companies. Previous research works on this topic tend to concentrate on the Western Europe and North American arenas neglecting the Asia-Pacific region. Hence, the objective of this paper is to explore control and command functions of Asia-Pacific cities with reference to headquarters’ locations of multinational companies. The methodology will utilize the Forbes global 2000 dataset from the seminal study of GaWC research group, and apply the control and command center model and the interlocking city network model to discover the control and command index, as well as network connectivity of Asia-Pacific cities. Based upon the empirical study of this research, we could identify the hierarchical structure and spatial structure of Asia-Pacific world cities to emerge as some control and command centers embedded in world city network.

  15. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  16. Why Offer the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme? A Comparison between Schools in Asia-Pacific and Other Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung; Tang, Hayes; Chak Pong Tsui, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) has become a powerful educational brand by developing a reputation for combining progressive approaches with academic rigour. This can be identified by the growing number of schools adopting IB programmes globally and especially in the IB Asia-Pacific region. As part of this trend, the IB Middle Years Programme…

  17. Report of the researcher exchange promotion project on the environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region; Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Proposals have been made for the establishment of a network (ETERNET-APR) linking those involved in the research and development of environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region in order to limit the environmental impact of industrial activity. By pursuing active exchanges of information and personnel, researchers in environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region have been making serious efforts to establish such a network. This fiscal year, the Internet Web site of the ETERNET-APR has been created using the data collected to date. This database includes information on some 350 researchers and 200 research projects from seven countries. The first international symposium was successfully held at Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand (ERIC), hosting 200 environmental researchers from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Tripartite sister laboratories ties among the National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) and three Korean laboratories were forged. The sister laboratory project between ICETT and ERIC is also proving effective. These successes prove that intraregional joint research, the objective of ETERNET-APR, has begun to take shape in this year

  18. Japanese Mapping of Asia-Pacific Areas, 1873-1945: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kobayashi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese mapping in the Asia-Pacific region up to 1945 calls for scrutiny, because its development was a multifaceted process with military, administrative, political, and cultural dimensions. This article traces the changes in Japanese mapping of overseas areas to the end of World War II and assesses the significance of the resulting maps, called gaihōzu, as sources for East Asian history. As implements of military operation and colonial administration, the gaihōzu were produced during a protracted period by various means under changing circumstances. Expanding military activity also promoted differentiation among the gaihōzu by increasing the use of maps originally produced in foreign countries. In conclusion, the need for detailed cataloging, in combination with chronologically arranged index mapping, is emphasized for the systematic use of the gaihōzu.

  19. Does NVIX matter for market volatility? Evidence from Asia-Pacific markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi; Fang, Tong; Yin, Libo

    2018-02-01

    Forecasting financial market volatility is an important issue in the area of econophysics, and revealing the determinants of the market volatility has drawn much attentions of the academics. In order to better predict market volatilities, we use news-based implied volatility (NVIX) to measure uncertainty, and examine the predictive power of NVIX on the stock market volatility in both long and short-term among Asia-Pacific markets via GARCH-MIDAS model. We find that NVIX does not well explain long-term volatility variants in the full sample period, and it is positively associated with market volatility through a subsample analysis starting from the Financial Crisis. We also find that NVIX is more efficient in determining short-term volatility than the long-term volatility, indicating that the impact of NVIX is short-lived and information that investors concern could be quickly reflected in the stock market volatilities.

  20. Travel-Related Parasitic Infections in Travellers to Southeast Asia and Western Pacific Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdur Öztürk, Eylem; Ünver, Ayşegül

    2017-12-01

    In the last decades, there has been a significant increase in international human mobility with increase in the prosperity, travel possibilities, and number of refugees. In the first half of 2016, the Asian continent showed the fastest growth in the number of tourists. Such increase is seen due to the interest in Asian history, culture, and cuisine. In the globalizing world, human mobility causes changes in the epidemiology of diseases and the spread of various infections across continents. Parasitic infections that may pose a risk for travellers to the Asia-Pacific are malaria, leishmaniasis, filariasis, foodborne trematode infections, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted infections, and tourist diarrhea. Consulting a travel medical expert and using health services such as pre-travel vaccination and chemoprophylaxis will reduce the risk of infectious diseases among travelers.

  1. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Development of the technology and used in accumulation and absorption of the heavy metals and other nutrients under phytoremediation from the aquatic bodies, biofuel and biogas production through fermentation and decomposition, fertilizer production through composting / vermicomposting, production of feeds for animal and many more utilities which are beneficial is discussed in this review. The review paper also deals with this multifaceted utility approach of this plant and their application in management.

  2. Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE 2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the I2009 Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Software Engineering (KESE 2009) was held on December 19~ 20, 2009, Shenzhen, China.   Volume 1 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of Computer and Software Engineering to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 140 high-quality papers are included in the volume. Each paper has been peer-reviewed by at least 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof. Yanwen Wu.   On behalf of this volume, we would like to express our sincere appreciation to all of authors and referees for their efforts reviewing the papers. Hoping you can find lots of profound research ideas and results on the related fields of Computer and Software Engineering.

  3. E-Government in the Asia-Pacific Region: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Wescott

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on two issues: (i recent e-government progress and challenges, and (ii the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits. Beginning with an overview of efforts to improve governance in the region, it then analyzes recent progress in the use of information and communication technology (ICT in the Asia-Pacific region to promote more efficient, cost-effective, and participatory government, facilitate more convenient government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accountable to citizens. Successful adoption of e-government presents major challenges. The paper concludes by examining the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits.

  4. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vol.9. No.1. Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Third APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Coal Flow Seminar was held featuring regional investment strategies for coal, power infrastructure, and technology transfer in Terrigal, Australia in 26-28, November, 1996. This publication introduces the summary and the papers presented for the keynote speeches and the panels of this seminar. For the keynote speeches, `Investment requirements for steaming coal supplies in APEC member economies,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC regional coal chain,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment in clean coal power plants,` and `Role of multilateral development banks in financing clean coal technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission` were presented. In addition, summary and papers describing individual situations of APEC member economies are introduced. 59 refs., 42 figs., 37 tabs.

  5. Epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility in invasive Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-10-01

    In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3.9-10%) and voriconazole (5-17.8%), and echinocandin resistance (2.1-2.2% in anidulafungin and 2.2% in micafungin) among invasive C. glabrata complex isolates are increasing in prevalence. Moreover, not all isolates of C. tropicalis have been shown to be susceptible to fluconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-11.6% in China) or voriconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-9.6% in China).

  6. Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Tsuko; Strom, Richard G; ICOA-6 Conference

    2011-01-01

    This book provides readers with the results of recent research from some of the world's leading historians of astronomy on aspects of Arabic, Australian, Chinese, Japanese, and North and South American astronomy and astrophysics. It contains peer-reviewed papers gathered from the International Conferences on Oriental Astronomy 6 (ICO-6) with the chosen theme of "Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region." Of particular note are the sections on Arabic astronomy, Asian applied astronomy and the history of Australian radio astronomy, and the chapter on Peruvian astronomy. This title is a valuable complement for those with research interests in applied historical astronomy; archaeoastronomy; calendars, manuscripts, and star charts; historical instruments and observatories, and the history of radio astronomy.

  7. Second Asia-Pacific Conference on the Computer Aided System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chaczko, Zenon; Jacak, Witold; Łuba, Tadeusz; Computational Intelligence and Efficiency in Engineering Systems

    2015-01-01

    This carefully edited and reviewed volume addresses the increasingly popular demand for seeking more clarity in the data that we are immersed in. It offers excellent examples of the intelligent ubiquitous computation, as well as recent advances in systems engineering and informatics. The content represents state-of-the-art foundations for researchers in the domain of modern computation, computer science, system engineering and networking, with many examples that are set in industrial application context. The book includes the carefully selected best contributions to APCASE 2014, the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on  Computer Aided System Engineering, held February 10-12, 2014 in South Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. The book consists of four main parts that cover data-oriented engineering science research in a wide range of applications: computational models and knowledge discovery; communications networks and cloud computing; computer-based systems; and data-oriented and software-intensive systems.

  8. First Asia-Pacific Regional School of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 program

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Ambastha, Ashok; Heliophysical Processes

    2010-01-01

    An outgrowth of the first Asia-Pacific Regional School on the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), this volume contains a collection of review articles describing the universal physical processes in the heliospace influenced by solar electromagnetic and mass emissions. The Sun affects the heliosphere in the short term (space weather) and in the long term (space climate) through numerous physical processes that exhibit similarities in various spatial domains of the heliosphere. The articles take into account various aspects of the Sun-heliosphere connection under a systems approach. This volume will serve as a ready reference work for research in the emerging field of heliophysics, which describes the physical processes taking place in the physical space controlled by the Sun out to the local interstellar medium.

  9. The universities of Asia Pacific and Mexico in the international competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martín Santos Virgen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, higher education is considered the greatest force for development of knowledge-based societies (UNESCO, 2009. In this context, the environment for globalization of higher education extends student and faculty exchanges, cross-border investment and competition between universities worldwide. The mobility of students traveling to another country to study a university degree continues to grow, in 2008, over 3.3 million university students were enrolled outside their country of origin, a 10.7% increase over the previous year (OECD, 2010. These international pressures have forced higher education institutions to reexamine their expectations and commitments for development of human resources of international quality (Salmi, 2009. For Mexico, a major problem in this concern, is the lack of a model of international quality for its universities, as evidenced by its lag problem in driving development and contribution to building its knowledge-based society, in comparison with improvement of leading universities in Asia Pacific.

  10. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Taniguchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water, energy, and food are among the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Despite the large potential for efficiency and reduction of losses, the demand for these resources is likely to increase due to population growth, changes in lifestyles, climate change, and other aspect of global change. The strong interconnectedness of these three vital resources has been termed the “Nexus” in the scientific literature in recent years. While many papers claim its fundamental importance, few provide specific ideas on how to deal with this Nexus in practice. This paper introduces twenty case-studies that are highlighted in this special issue that explore the practice of the Nexus and its scientific basis with particular focus on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Asia-Pacific Region.

  11. Regulatory aspects of food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2000-03-01

    The latest information on the countries in the Asia/Pacific region with approvals for food to be irradiated is provided. Differences in the type of regulations used are contrasted. However, progress has been made towards greater uniformity in regulations based around the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food. Australia and New Zealand instituted, respectively, a moratorium and a ban on food irradiation in 1988. Australia has proposed a new draft Standard for food irradiation and this is the subject of public discussion under the Australia New Zealand Food Authority. The draft Standard is a prohibition with the possibility of exemptions being given on a case-by-case basis. Some details of the draft Standard are provided.

  12. Food: a priority for consumer protection in Asia and the Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R K

    1981-01-01

    Food is mankind's most basic need. A recent global survey revealed that the single most important problem in the world--in developed and developing countries alike--was the high cost of living, and of food, its major component. In a world where many are starving, undernourished, malnourished or suffering from deficiency diseases, the problems of food quality and safety must be given special attention. Many developed countries have already made food a priority and created effective systems of consumer protection for food. But a number of developing countries are still struggling with the best way to control food problems. This paper will deal primarily with food and consumer protection problems in Asia and the Pacific region, but the solutions offered are universal.

  13. Regulatory aspects of food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter B. E-mail: p.roberts@gns.cri.nz

    2000-03-01

    The latest information on the countries in the Asia/Pacific region with approvals for food to be irradiated is provided. Differences in the type of regulations used are contrasted. However, progress has been made towards greater uniformity in regulations based around the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food. Australia and New Zealand instituted, respectively, a moratorium and a ban on food irradiation in 1988. Australia has proposed a new draft Standard for food irradiation and this is the subject of public discussion under the Australia New Zealand Food Authority. The draft Standard is a prohibition with the possibility of exemptions being given on a case-by-case basis. Some details of the draft Standard are provided. (author)

  14. Child Community Mental Health Services in Asia Pacific and Singapore's REACH Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Choon Guan; Loh, Hannah; Renjan, Vidhya; Tan, Jason; Fung, Daniel

    2017-10-06

    In recent decades, there have been concerted efforts to improve mental health services for youths alongside the challenges of rising healthcare costs and increasing demand for mental health needs. One important phenomenon is the shift from traditional clinic-based care to community-based mental health services to improve accessibility to services and provide patient-centred care. In this article, we discuss the child and adolescent community mental health efforts within the Asia-Pacific region. We also discuss Singapore's community and school-based mental health service, known as the Response, Early Intervention and Assessment in Community Mental Health (REACH). This article discusses how REACH has evolved over the years in response to the changing needs of youths in Singapore. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future directions for youth mental health care.

  15. Pathways to Institutionalizing and Extending Social Protection in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis (1999), the Ford Foundation initiated a research program on Social Protection in Asia. This program contributed to a growing body of research on the many dimensions of poverty and vulnerability by identifying categories of vulnerable groups, the nature and sources of vulnerability ...

  16. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yee Peng; Muhammad, Junaina; Amin Noordin, Bany Ariffin; Cheng, Fan Fah

    2018-02-01

    This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004-2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy, it is not spared from various sources of macroeconomic volatility through the decades. The reported data cover 15 types of macroeconomic data series, representing three broad categories of indicators that can be used to proxy macroeconomic volatility. They are indicators that account for macroeconomic volatility (i.e. volatility as a macroeconomic outcome), domestic sources of macroeconomic volatility and external sources of macroeconomic volatility. In particular, the selected countries are Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, which are regarded as developing countries, while Singapore, Japan and Australia are developed countries. Despite the differences in level of economic development, these countries were affected by similar sources of macroeconomic volatility such as the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis. These countries were also affected by other similar external turbulence arising from factors such as the global economic slowdown, geopolitical risks in the Middle East and volatile commodity prices. Nonetheless, there were also sources of macroeconomic volatility which were peculiar to certain countries only. These were generally domestic sources of volatility such as political instability (for Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines), natural disasters and anomalous weather conditions (for Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan and Australia) and over-dependence on the electronic sector (for Singapore).

  17. Public Health & Nutrition in the Asia-Pacific: reflections on a quarter century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, Luca Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Some reflections from work in the Asia Pacific Region, mostly with WHO, in the past 25 years, and the changes in nutrition seen in this time are shared. In 1988-89 I helped to start a Centre for Child Nutrition in Chengdu, Sichuan, through the Italian Development Cooperation. The nutritional problems in urban and rural China, 25 years ago, were similar to those elsewhere in the Region. Like China, these countries underwent rapid economic development and changes in health patterns, within two decades. The main problems for child nutrition had to do with infant feeding practices and less breastfeeding: anaemia, protein energy malnutrition and rickets were frequent. How did China and other countries tackle these and other nutrition problems? In the 1990s the global nutrition community started working on a problem-solving framework. In 1992, at the 1st FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition, 159 countries agreed to develop national nutrition plans. In 2014, 22 years later, FAO and WHO invited countries to review their national nutrition situation and plans. The epidemiological picture today is profoundly different. Many Asia-Pacific countries have achieved remarkable progress in socio-economic development, including malnutrition reduction. To reach the MDGs and the post-MDG goals being formulated, the remaining under-nutrition problems need to be alleviated, inequalities between sectors of society reduced, and also the growing threat of overweight/obesity and NCDs prevented and controlled. Assessing, monitoring and evaluating programmes to improve progress, now requires focusing not only on biological outcomes, but also on food security, programme process, and the policy environment.

  18. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  19. Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Elissa; Gray, Natalie; Azzopardi, Peter; Creati, Mick

    2011-05-05

    Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report data for unmarried adolescents and report age-disaggregated data

  20. Patient access schemes in Asia-pacific markets: current experience and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Christine Y; Lupton, Caitlin; Rakowsky, Shana; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wagner, Anita K

    2015-01-01

    Patient access (or risk-sharing) schemes are alternative market access agreements between healthcare payers and medical product manufacturers for conditional coverage of promising health technologies. This study aims to identify and characterize patient access schemes to date in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the literature on patient access schemes over the last two decades using publicly available databases, Internet, and grey literature searches. We extracted key features of each scheme identified, including the drug, clinical indication, stakeholders involved, and details of the scheme. We categorized schemes according to a previously published taxonomy of scheme types and by country. We identified 3 schemes in South Korea, 5 in New Zealand, and 98 in Australia. Most (97.2%; n = 103) schemes focused on pharmaceuticals, few on medical technologies. More than half of the schemes related to treatments for cancer and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The majority (77.4%; n =82) involved pricing arrangements. Evidence generation schemes were rarely used. About half (41.8%; n = 41) of schemes in Australia were hybrid by nature, consisting of pricing arrangements with a conditional treatment continuation component. Australia has the most experience with patient access schemes and its experience may provide useful insights for other Asia-Pacific countries. The main targets are pharmaceuticals likely to have high budget impact (due to high per-patient costs and/or large volumes of use), and pharmaceuticals that may be adopted more widely than indicated. With the proliferation of high-cost medicines, the use of schemes may increase to address rising cost pressures, consumer demands, and uncertainties, while attempting to provide patient access to innovative care within finite budgets. Future research is warranted to evaluate the performance of patient access schemes.

  1. Growing Pains: The Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network at Seven Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Taylor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network (APRRN, founded in late 2008, now has 249 members, including 135 organisational members, across 26 countries. APRRN’s mission, as stated in its Constitution, is ‘to advance the rights of refugees and other people in need of protection in the Asia Pacific region’. APRRN’s organisational membership (i.e. voting membership is incredibly diverse. APRRN has chosen to deal with this challenge through incrementally increasing the formalisation of its governance arrangements as its membership has grown. In theory, this kind of bureaucratisation makes for greater organisational longevity and stability than more informal ways of operating.  The problem is that APRRN’s membership and agenda have expanded to a point where the weight has probably become too great for the actual strength of APRRN’s supporting infrastructure. Over the period 2012-2014, APRRN developed a Vision for Regional Protection which is very expansive in scope. APRRN has foreshadowed development of a Plan of Action to achieve the Vision as well as a Research and Consultation Framework though there has been not much movement on this front. If APRRN decides to continue pursuing its agenda setting ambitions, it needs to prioritise its goals and focus on achieving one at a time; otherwise it risks achieving none at all. Agenda setting ambitions aside, APRRN endeavours to achieve its mission through ‘outreach and sharing of knowledge and resources’, ‘mutual capacity strengthening’, and ‘joint advocacy’. Mutual capacity strengthening undoubtedly advances APRRN’s mission; outreach carries risks as well as benefits; and some joint advocacy activities are more useful than others. Other things being held constant, APRRN probably needs to decide whether it wants to focus on being an agenda setter at a regional level or wants to focus on supporting organisational members to achieve their individual goals, which will usually be

  2. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Peng Chow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy, it is not spared from various sources of macroeconomic volatility through the decades. The reported data cover 15 types of macroeconomic data series, representing three broad categories of indicators that can be used to proxy macroeconomic volatility. They are indicators that account for macroeconomic volatility (i.e. volatility as a macroeconomic outcome, domestic sources of macroeconomic volatility and external sources of macroeconomic volatility. In particular, the selected countries are Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, which are regarded as developing countries, while Singapore, Japan and Australia are developed countries. Despite the differences in level of economic development, these countries were affected by similar sources of macroeconomic volatility such as the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis. These countries were also affected by other similar external turbulence arising from factors such as the global economic slowdown, geopolitical risks in the Middle East and volatile commodity prices. Nonetheless, there were also sources of macroeconomic volatility which were peculiar to certain countries only. These were generally domestic sources of volatility such as political instability (for Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, natural disasters and anomalous weather conditions (for Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan and Australia and over-dependence on the electronic sector (for Singapore.

  3. Surveying trends in radiation oncology medical physics in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Healy, Brendan; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-07-01

    Our study aims to assess and track work load, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific Region over time. A structured questionnaire was mailed in 2008, 2011 and 2014 to senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. The questionnaire covers 7 themes: education and training including certification; staffing; typical tasks; professional organisations; resources; research and teaching; job satisfaction. Across all surveys the response rate was >85% with the replies representing practice affecting more than half of the world's population. The expectation of ROMP qualifications (MSc and between 1 and 3years of clinical experience) has not changed much over the years. However, compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. Formal professional certification is only available in a small number of countries. The number of experienced ROMPs is small in particular in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff numbers from 2008 to 2014 is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units which is accompanied by an increase in treatment complexity. Many ROMPs are required to work overtime and not many find time for research. Resource availability has only improved marginally and ROMPs still feel generally overworked, but professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving slowly. While number of physicists and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased significantly, ROMP practice remains essentially unchanged over the last 6years in the Asia Pacific Region. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  5. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  7. The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hallmark, Brian; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F; Cox, Murray P

    2013-03-01

    Indonesia, an island nation linking mainland Asia with the Pacific world, hosts a wide range of linguistic, ethnic and genetic diversity. Despite the complexity of this cultural environment, genetic studies in Indonesia remain surprisingly sparse. Here, we report mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and associated Y-chromosome diversity for the largest cohort of Indonesians examined to date-2740 individuals from 70 communities spanning 12 islands across the breadth of the Indonesian archipelago. We reconstruct 50 000 years of population movements, from mitochondrial lineages reflecting the very earliest settlers in island southeast Asia, to Neolithic population dispersals. Historic contacts from Chinese, Indians, Arabs and Europeans comprise a noticeable fraction of Y-chromosome variation, but are not reflected in the maternally inherited mtDNA. While this historic immigration favored men, patterns of genetic diversity show that women moved more widely in earlier times. However, measures of population differentiation signal that Indonesian communities are trending away from the matri- or ambilocality of early Austronesian societies toward the more common practice of patrilocal residence today. Such sex-specific dispersal patterns remain even after correcting for the different mutation rates of mtDNA and the Y chromosome. This detailed palimpsest of Indonesian genetic diversity is a direct outcome of the region's complex history of immigration, transitory migrants and populations that have endured in situ since the region's first settlement.

  8. Microbiomes in respiratory health and disease: An Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Gellatly, Shaan L; Budden, Kurtis F; Mac Aogain, Micheál; Shukla, Shakti D; Wood, David L A; Hugenholtz, Philip; Pethe, Kevin; Hansbro, Philip M

    2017-02-01

    There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment. There are issues that are particular to the Asia-Pacific region involving diet and prevalence of specific respiratory diseases. Each of these issues is further complicated by the effects of ageing. The challenges now are to elucidate the cause and effect relationships between changes in microbiomes and respiratory diseases and how to translate these into new treatments and clinical care. Here we review the current understanding and progression in these areas. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F.; Delinom, R.; Shoji, J.; Fujii, M.; Baba, K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and economic development are causing increased pressure on water, energy and food resources, presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts among these resources. Therefore, the water-energy-food nexus is one of the most important and fundamental global environmental issues facing the world. For the purposes of this research project, we define human-environmental security as the joint optimization between human and environmental security as well as the water-energy-food nexus. To optimize the governance and management within these inter-connected needs, it is desirable to increase human-environmental security by improving social managements for the water-energy-food nexus. In this research project, we intend to establish a method to manage and optimize the human-environmental security of the water-energy-food nexus by using integrated models, indices, and maps as well as social and natural investigations with stakeholder analyses. We base our approach on the viewpoint that it is important for a sustainable society to increase human-environmental security with decreasing risk and increasing resilience by optimizing the connections within the critical water-energy and water-food clusters. We will take a regional perspective to address these global environmental problems. The geological and geomorphological conditions in our proposed study area are heavily influenced by the so-called 'Ring of Fire,' around the Pacific Ocean. Within these areas including Japan and Southeast Asia, the hydro-meteorological conditions are dominated by the Asia monsoon. The populations that live under these natural conditions face elevated risk and potential disaster as negative impacts, while also benefitting from positive ecological goods and services. There are therefore tradeoffs and conflicts within the water-energy-food nexus, as well as among various stakeholders in the region. The objective of this project is to maximize human

  10. Diabetes epidemic in the Asia Pacific region: has hemoglobin A1C finally earned its place as a diagnostic tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two-third of the world's population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.

  11. Potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission in resource limited countries in Africa and Asia-Pacific: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Matthew; Creatore, Maria I.; Brent, Shannon; Watts, Alexander G.; Hay, Simon I.; Kulkarni, Manisha A.; Brownstein, John S.; Khan, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background As the epidemic of Zika virus expands in the Americas, countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are becoming increasingly susceptible to the importation and possible local spread of the virus. To support public health readiness, we aim to identify regions and times where the potential health, economic, and social effects from Zika virus are greatest, focusing on resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Our model combined transportation network analysis, ecological modelling of mosquito occurrences, and vector competence for flavivirus transmission, using data from the International Air Transport Association, entomological observations from Zika’s primary vector species, and climate conditions using WorldClim. We overlaid monthly flows of airline travellers arriving to Africa and the Asia-Pacific region from areas of the Americas suitable for year-round transmission of Zika virus with monthly maps of climatic suitability for mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus within Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Findings An estimated 2·6 billion people live in areas of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region where the presence of competent mosquito vectors and suitable climatic conditions could support local transmission of Zika virus. Countries with large volumes of travellers arriving from Zika affected areas of the Americas and large populations at risk of mosquito-borne Zika virus infection include, India (67 422 travellers arriving per year; 1·2 billion residents in potential Zika transmission areas), China (238 415 travellers; 242 million residents), Indonesia (13 865 travellers; 197 million residents), Philippines (35 635 travellers; 70 million residents), and Thailand (29 241 travellers; 59 million residents). Interpretation Many countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are vulnerable to Zika virus. Strategic use of available health and human resources is essential to prevent or mitigate

  12. Looking back to move forward: a twenty-year audit of herpes zoster in Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Arai, Hidenori; Chen, Liang-Yu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Dong, Birong; Kojima, Taro; Kwon, Ki Tae; Leong, Hoe Nam; Leung, Edward M F; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Xiaohong; Mathai, Dilip; Pan, Jiun Yit; Peng, Li-Ning; Poblete, Eduardo Rommel S; Poi, Philip J H; Reid, Stewart; Tantawichien, Terapong; Won, Chang Won

    2017-03-15

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a prevalent viral disease that inflicts substantial morbidity and associated healthcare and socioeconomic burdens. Current treatments are not fully effective, especially among the most vulnerable patients. Although widely recommended, vaccination against HZ is not routine; barriers in Asia-Pacific include long-standing neglect of adult immunisation and sparse local data. To address knowledge gaps, raise awareness, and disseminate best practice, we reviewed recent data and guidelines on HZ from the Asia-Pacific region. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and World Health Organization databases for articles about HZ published from 1994 to 2014 by authors from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We selected articles about epidemiology, burden, complications, comorbidities, management, prevention, and recommendations/guidelines. Internet searches retrieved additional HZ immunisation guidelines. From 4007 retrieved articles, we screened-out 1501 duplicates and excluded 1264 extraneous articles, leaving 1242 unique articles. We found guidelines on adult immunisation from Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand. HZ epidemiology in Asia-Pacific is similar to elsewhere; incidence rises with age and peaks at around 70 years - lifetime risk is approximately one-third. Average incidence of 3-10/1000 person-years is rising at around 5% per year. The principal risk factors are immunosenescence and immunosuppression. HZ almost always causes pain, and post-herpetic neuralgia is its most common complication. Half or more of hospitalised HZ patients have post-herpetic neuralgia, secondary infections, or inflammatory sequelae that are occasionally fatal. These disease burdens severely diminish patients' quality of life and incur heavy healthcare utilisation. Several countries have abundant data on HZ, but

  13. Asia-Pacific nursing scholarship development: qualitative exploration of nurse scholars in Taiwan (Republic of China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turale, Sue; Shih, Fu-Jin; Klunklin, Areewan; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Ito, Misae; Nakao, Fujiko

    2010-09-01

    From the perspective of scholars, to describe a contemporary view of the development, facilitators of and barriers to nursing scholarship in Taiwan, to enhance policy-making about research, education and practise development. Nursing scholarship in the Asia-Pacific region is in different stages of development, depending on in-country resources and socio-economic conditions. Little is known about the facilitators or barriers to nursing scholarship in some of these countries, including Taiwan, where nursing education has changed considerably over the last decade. A qualitative exploratory design. The study used snowballing to identify scholars who underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. These were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. Interviews were held with 12 scholars and six major themes arose: 'fulfilling our missions'; 'active research productivity'; 'low levels of collaborative research'; 'increasing demands on time'; 'gender issues' and 'developing effective collaborative networks across Taiwan and Asia'. Participants described Taiwanese scholarship development in terms of fulfilling the missions of universities; trying to balance work and culturally relevant family responsibilities, against a background of decreasing pressures to produce more qualified nurses and being more research productive in rapidly changing and challenging work environments. Taiwan's nursing scholarship is in a dynamic early stage of development, with increasing graduate programmes and research productivity, evidenced by rising international publications and the research productivity indexes of academics. However, scholars are facing increasing pressure because of high workloads and balancing family and work responsibilities. Understanding scholarship development and its facilitators and barriers in Taiwan helps inform policy makers, the higher education sector and nurses in the country and across the region about what needs to be done to

  14. Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Natalie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report

  15. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  16. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state‐of‐the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. PMID:27818853

  17. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI reveal that airlines of Western countries exhibit a more remarkable CSR performance than Asia-Pacific airlines, suggesting that the CSR programs of Asia-Pacific airlines need improvement. By constructing an evaluation hierarchy and applying the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study found that the key strategic factors in the airline industry’s implementation of CSR include corporate governance, risk and crisis management, brand management, and product responsibility (safety.

  18. Economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Mannan, Munim; Long, Kurt Z; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-04-01

    To assess the economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Systematic review of articles published until March 2015. Seventeen suitable articles were found, of which 13 assess the economic burden of overweight/obesity and estimate that it accounts for 1.5-9.9% of a country's total healthcare expenditure. Four articles on the economic burden of underweight estimate it at 2.5-3.8% of the country's total GDP. Using hospital data, and compared to normal weight individuals, four articles estimated extra healthcare costs for overweight individuals of 7-9.8% and more, and extra healthcare costs for obese individuals of 17-22.3% and higher. Despite methodological diversity across the studies, there is a consensus that both underweight and overweight impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. MARINE CORPS ASIA PACIFIC REALIGNMENT: DOD Should Resolve Capability Deficiencies and Infrastructure Risks and Revise Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    every high- quality cost estimate, as a risk analysis Page 46 GAO-17-415 Marine Corps Asia-Pacific Realignment captures the cumulative... Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide identifies best practices that represent work across the federal government and are the basis for a high- quality ... costs necessary for decision makers to gain confidence that the estimate is accurate, complete, and high in quality . Appendix IV: Assessment Tables

  20. Human Capital Index Rankings 2013 for Asia and Pacific Countries and Evaluation of Human Capital Indicators for Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Human Capital Index Rankings for 20 Asia and Pacific Countries. The Human Capital Index (HCI) developed by the (World Economic Forum) assesses 122 countries, representing over 90% of the world’s population. The Human Capital Index (HCI) measures the countries on their ability to develop and deploy healthy, educated and able workers through 4 pillars: education, health & wellness, workforce & employment and enabling environment. The Index consists of 51 indicators in total,...

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease-related Colorectal Cancer in the Asia-Pacific Region: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqin, Wong; Palaniappan, Shanthi; Raja Ali, Raja Affendi

    2014-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), and key contributing factors include chronic colonic inflammation and the extent and duration of disease. This increase in risk is more likely to result from chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa than from any clearly defined genetic predisposition. However, globally, the true magnitude of this risk is debatable, since results from different studies are heterogeneous in terms of geographical and methodological variables. The prevalence of IBD-related CRC in the Asia-Pacific region ranges from 0.3% to 1.8% and a recent study found that the cumulative incidence of IBD-related CRC is comparable to that in Western countries. However, the CRC mortality rate in the Asia-Pacific region is on the rise compared with that in Western countries, and a few Asian countries show particularly rapid upward trends in CRC incidence. Although our understanding of the molecular and clinical basis for IBD-related CRC has improved substantially, our means of prevention, endoscopic surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery remain modest at best. Furthermore, published data on IBD-related CRC in the Asia-Pacific region is lacking, and this review addresses many aspects including epidemiology, natural history, etiopathogenesis, morphology, and biological behaviors of IBD-related CRC and sporadic CRC in the Asia-Pacific region. In this review, we will also discuss the risk factors for CRC in IBD patients, endoscopic technology screening, and surveillance programs and management strategies for IBD-related CRC.

  2. Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alla; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Tyurina, Elena; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region) Food security is a complex issue of both international and national levels. The food embargo on imported products has defined the preservation and regeneration of soils as a priority task in ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. Soils are a finite, non-renewable resource and their preservation is extremely important for the national food security. Food production is the major function of soils; production of high-quality foods, rich in nutrients, is possible only in healthy soils. Therefore, a healthy and fertile soil is the most important factor in ensuring the food security and improved subsistence. By 2050, in order to meet the demand for food, the global agricultural production has to increase by 60%, and almost by 100% in the developing countries. In many countries and subregions of the Asia-Pacific Region, the population growth rates outrun the rates of food production. The possibilities of incorporating new lands into agricultural activities and providing their irrigation are also limited. In the context of expanding cooperation with the Asia-Pacific neighbors, Russia can make its contribution into improving the food security of the region. Russia has vast territories that could be used for crops farming; a substantial part of these lands have not been farmed yet. Hence, in the Russian Far East, production of grain crops can be increased by incorporating the unused territories into agricultural activities. Therefore, the Russian Far East is a unique site for creating a crops farming territory. And the preservation and regeneration of soils will provide for the production growth and ensure the food security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.

  3. Public spending on education, health care and economic growth in selected countries of Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Biswajit Maitra; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of public spending on the education and health sectors is examined with regard to promoting the gross domestic product (GDP) of 12 countries in Asia and the Pacific over the last three decades. In six of those countries, namely Bangladesh, Kiribati, Malaysia, Maldives, the Philippines and the Republic of Korea, Johansen cointegration tests confirmed the existence of cointegrating relations. In the remaining countries, namely Fiji, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tonga and ...

  4. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view.

  5. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 21st Pacific Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017 Held in Jeju, South Korea, May 23 26, 2017. Proceedings Part I, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    currently val!d OMB control number. PLEASE DD NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...Data Mining 21’’ Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017Jeju, South Korea, May 23-26, Sb. GRANT NUMBER 2017 Proceedings, Part I, Part II Sc. PROGRAM...Springer; Switzerland. 14. ABSTRACT The Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD) is a leading international conference

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ASIA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-14 to 1977-04-21 (NCEI Accession 8100275)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ASIA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from April 14, 1977 to April 21, 1977. Data were...

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ASIA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-23 to 1977-02-01 (NCEI Accession 8100281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ASIA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from January 23, 1977 to February 1, 1977. Data...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ASIA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-09 to 1977-02-17 (NCEI Accession 8100279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ASIA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from February 9, 1977 to February 17, 1977. Data...

  9. Optimal nutrition therapy in paediatric critical care in the Asia-Pacific and Middle East: a consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Rogers, Elizabeth; Chor, Yek Kee; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Koh, Pei Lin; Miqdady, Mohamad; Al-Mehaidib, Ali Ibrahim; Pudjiadi, Antonius; Singhi, Sunit; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2016-12-01

    Current practices and available resources for nutrition therapy in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the Asia Pacific-Middle East region are expected to differ from western countries. Existing guidelines for nutrition management in critically ill children may not be directly applicable in this region. This paper outlines consensus statements developed by the Asia Pacific-Middle East Consensus Working Group on Nutrition Therapy in the Paediatric Critical Care Environment. Challenges and recommendations unique to the region are described. Following a systematic literature search from 2004-2014, consensus statements were developed for key areas of nutrient delivery in the PICU. This review focused on evidence applicable to the Asia Pacific-Middle East region. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Enteral nutrition (EN) is the preferred mode of nutritional support. Feeding algorithms that optimize EN should be encouraged and must include: assessment and monitoring of nutritional status, selection of feeding route, time to initiate and advance EN, management strategies for EN intolerance and indications for using parenteral nutrition (PN). Despite heterogeneity in nutritional status of patients, availability of resources and diversity of cultures, PICUs in the region should consider involvement of dieticians and/or nutritional support teams. Robust evidence for several aspects of optimal nutrition therapy in PICUs is lacking. Nutritional assessment must be implemented to document prevalence and impact of malnutrition. Nutritional support must be given greater priority in PICUs, with particular emphasis in optimizing EN delivery.

  10. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah-Yun Low

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG. People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs. The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration.

  11. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  12. Practical approaches for self-monitoring of blood glucose: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ji, Linong; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Yu, Neng-Chun; Tan, Eng Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Comprehensive glycemic control is necessary to improve outcomes and avoid complications in individuals with diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key enabler of glycemic assessment, providing real-time information that complements HbA1c monitoring and supports treatment optimization. However, SMBG is under-utilized by patients and physicians within the Asia-Pacific region, because of barriers such as the cost of monitoring supplies, lack of diabetes self-management skills, or concerns about the reliability of blood glucose readings. Practice recommendations in international and regional guidelines vary widely, and may not be detailed or specific enough to guide SMBG use effectively. This contributes to uncertainty among patients and physicians about how best to utilize this tool: when and how often to test, and what action(s) to take in response to high or low readings. In developing a practical SMBG regimen, the first step is to determine the recommended SMBG frequency and intensity needed to support the chosen treatment regimen. If there are practical obstacles to monitoring, such as affordability or access, physicians should identify the most important aspects of glycemic control to target for individual patients, and modify monitoring patterns accordingly. This consensus paper proposes a selection of structured, flexible SMBG patterns that can be tailored to the clinical, educational, behavioral, and financial requirements of individuals with diabetes.

  13. Current advances in ant venom proteins causing hypersensitivity reactions in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisong, Hathairat; Daduang, Sakda; Lopata, Andreas L

    2016-01-01

    The main insects causing allergy reactions to stinging insect in humans are Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps, yellow jackets and hornets) and Formicidae (ants). Their venom stings are composed of various biologically active peptides and protein components, some of which can cause toxicity or anaphylaxis in humans. The protein venom demonstrate some common allergenic activity such as for fire ants and vespids, which have two common allergens that are phospholipase A1 (enzymatic activity) and antigen 5 with unknown biological activity. The common allergens seem to share some degree of immunological cross-reactivity, particularly when the sequence homology is above 70%. Therefore immunotherapeutic approaches targeting more than one specific species are of interest. Recent widespread increases of various ant species in many countries have resulted in higher number of reported about serious allergic reactions to stings. Most insect-allergy related cases have been reported for species from Solenopsis, Myrmecia and Pachycondyla genera, and their stings can often result in human fatalities. In addition, stinging ants can have serious health effects on livestock, agricultural damage adversely affecting the biodiversity of the region. This review discusses the impact of important ant species on human health in the Asia-Pacific region along with the molecular immunological aspects of the identified venoms and current status of diagnostics and therapeutics. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved food availability for food security in Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ray-Yu; Hanson, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Food security requires that all people can access sufficient food for a healthy life. Enough food is produced to feed the global population, but more than 1.02 billion people are malnourished. Malnutrition and chronic food insecurity are widespread in some countries of the Asia-Pacific region; as much as 20 to 60 percent of the region's population lacks sufficient food to meet their minimum energy requirement. Food security greatly depends on food availability, although this alone is not sufficient to secure satisfactory nutritional status. Food security at the national level requires an effective framework of food, health, and economic systems coupled with awareness and consideration of environmental conditions. To improve food availability and security in the short term, lower income countries should focus on increasing productivity in the food system to generate higher incomes for workers on-farm and off-farm in the food chain. Over the long term, sustainable and small-scale farming based on ecologically viable systems should be the emphasis for agricultural development. Nutrition and health sectors should help promote food-based approaches that lead to diversification of crops, balanced diets, and ultimately better health.

  15. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity. © 2015 APJPH.

  16. Prawn biomonitors of nutrient and trace metal pollution along Asia-Pacific coastlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Brian; Carter, James F; Tinggi, Ujang; Arman, Ali; Kamal, Masud; Metian, Marc; Waduge, Vajira Ariyaratna; Yaccup, Rahman Bin

    2016-12-01

    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites.

  17. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome among adults in the asia-pacific region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asia-Pacific region is home to nearly half of the world’s population. The region has seen a recent rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present systematic review summarizes the recent prevalence and trends of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among adults in countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. Methods Data on MetS in Asia-Pacific countries were obtained using a stepwise process by searching the online Medline database using MeSH terms ‘Metabolic Syndrome X’ and ‘Epidemiology/EP’. For the purpose of describing prevalence data for the individual countries, studies that were most recent, nationally representative or with the largest sample size were included. When evaluating secular trends in prevalence in a country we only considered studies that evaluated the temporal change in prevalence between similar populations, prospective studies based on the same population or National surveys conducted during different time periods. Results This literature search yielded a total of 757 articles, and five additional article were identified by screening of reference lists. From this total, 18 studies were eligible to be included in the final analysis. Of the 51 Asia-Pacific countries (WHO we only located data for 15. There was wide between country variation in prevalence of MetS. A national survey from Philippines conducted in 2003 revealed the lowest reported prevalence of 11.9% according to NCEP ATP III criteria. In contrast, the highest recorded prevalence in the region (49.0% came from a study conducted in urban Pakistan (Karachchi, 2004. Most studies reported a higher prevalence of MetS in females and urban residents. Data on secular trends were available for China, South Korea and Taiwan. An increase in the prevalence of MetS was observed in all three countries. Conclusion Despite differences in methodology, diagnostic criteria and age of subjects studied, the Asia-Pacific

  18. Brominated flame retardants in the environment of Asia-Pacific: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we summarize spatial and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in coastal and marine biota, and further assess human exposure to these brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in Asia-Pacific. The review is based mainly on the studies that were conducted in our laboratory and utilized samples archived in the environmental specimen bank (es-BANK) of Ehime University, Japan. The studies suggest that the target BFRs are ubiquitous in the environment of Asia-Pacific. Examination of spatial trends reveals that concentrations of these contaminants are relatively high in samples from Korea, South China and Japan. In general, the magnitude of environmental contamination by PBDEs in Asia-Pacific, as well as human exposure to these contaminants, seem to be comparable to or slightly higher than in Europe, but lower than in North America. Evaluation of temporal trends in concentrations of BFRs in marine mammals from the coastal waters of Japan and China showed drastic increase during the last 30 years. These changes in BFR levels in samples from Japan were in line with trends in production/use of the commercial formulations. Since the withdrawal of some PBDE products from the Japanese market in the 1990s, concentrations of HBCDs appear to exceed those of PBDEs, reflecting increasing usage of HBCDs over PBDEs. The increasing environmental contamination by BFRs in Chinese coastal waters indicates that contamination by BFRs has already become evident, even in developing countries. In view of the rising environmental levels and the high consumption volume of BFRs in Asia, further efforts should be made to monitor environmental contamination by these chemicals in order to identify sources and reduce emissions.

  19. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of tin accumulation in mussels. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on butyltin pollution monitoring in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

  20. Megacities in the Asia/Pacific Region: Focusing on Their Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Gary; Kim, Pearl; Li, Alan; Chenette, Sara

    This curriculum unit explains that currently Asia has 9 of the world's 14 megacities (a city with a population of 10 million people or more) and that by the year 2015 there will be 27 megacities with 17 of them in Asia. The unit introduces students to several megacities in Asia and uses these cities as examples for understanding the ecological…

  1. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: perspective from Portland and the Pacific Northwest : summary of a workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brose, Dominic A

    2014-01-01

    "Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Perspective from Portland and the Pacific Northwest is the summary of a workshop convened by the National Research Council's Science and Technology for Sustainability Program in May 2013 to examine...

  2. Asia Pacific menu patterns in relation to lipid abnormalities: An Indonesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walujo Soerjodibroto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries in the Asia-Pacific region differ widely with respect to their nutritional intake and nutritional status. The highest daily energy and proportion of fat intakes of the population is shown by the New Zealanders (total energy 3475 Kcals; fat proportion 37.2% or 1293 Kcals, while the lowest is the Siamese (total energy 2288 Kcals; fat proportion 13.1% or 300 Kcals. The Indonesian on the other hand, is at the third from the bottom (total energy 2631 Kcals; proportion of fat is 14.5% or 381.9 Kcals. Animal fat contributes to 29.7% (1033 Kcals of the total daily energy intake of the New Zealanders (total 3475 Kcals, and the mortality rate coronary heart disease (CHD is also the highest (228 per 100,000 populations for men and 173 for women. In contrast, the proportion of animal fat in Indonesian menu is only 1.47% (38.7 Kcals of the total daily energy intake, while the CHD mortality rate is still below 50 per 100,000 for both men and women. Compared to the same values fifteen years before, animal fat intake of the New Zealanders has a decrease of 90%, Australian 88%, Philippines 99%, however the Indonesian on the other hand, has an increase of 157%. In New Zealand and Australia, the proportion of mortality attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD for men accounts for over 40% of total mortality. Japan however, the proportion mortality rate for CVD is only less than 30% of total mortality. In this level, Japan places itself among less industrialized group such as Malaysia and the Philippines. In the case of cerebrovascular (stroke mortality however, Japan belongs to the highest category group. It seems that apart of high fat intake, stress and possibly also other factors play a major role in the development of stroke. The mean Indonesian total energy intake is 2631 Kcals, consisting of 8.7% protein (228.9 Kcals, 52.2 g, 76.8% carbohydrate (2020 Kcals, 505 g, and 14.5% fat (381.9 Kcals, 42.4 g. Animal fat intake is only 4.3 g/day (38.7 Kcals

  3. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  4. Borders in the South: Migration News in South Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnnabi Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of unprecedented movement of people, many migrants end up in the industrialized countries but originate from all over the world. A fuller picture of migration journalism thus warrants examining news from both the ‘source’ and ‘receiving’ countries of migration. However, most of the studies undertaken in this particular area deal with the issues from the perspectives of North America and Europe (i.e., ‘receiving’ countries, an approach which is inconsistent with the broad goal of comparative studies. The current study examines migration news from both the source and receiving countries. Given that South Asia and the Pacific are two regions that tend to be overlooked in the comparative studies literature, we studied the coverage of migration issues in six prominent English-language newspapers from six countries of these regions (Australia, Bangladesh, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and Sri Lanka over a four-month period in 2014. Our study utilized an exploratory frame analysis to determine whether, in line with several earlier studies, issues of migration are depicted as a crisis to be managed in the receiving countries. Moreover, we examined the emphasis attached to the subject matter by the source countries’ media. The findings suggest that the media frames in receiving countries are more diverse than expected. While newspapers in some countries follow the previously found crisis frame, others highlight the economic benefits of migration. Similarly, in the source countries, the frames are varied. Most newspapers portray migration as a problem to be solved, but some do focus on protecting the interests of the migrants.

  5. Cognitive capital, equity and child-sensitive social protection in Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Michael; Fajth, Gaspar; François, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Promoting child development and welfare delivers human rights and builds sustainable economies through investment in ‘cognitive capital’. This analysis looks at conditions that support optimal brain development in childhood and highlights how social protection promotes these conditions and strengthens the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Asia and the Pacific. Embracing child-sensitive social protection offers multiple benefits. The region has been a leader in global poverty reduction but the underlying pattern of economic growth exacerbates inequality and is increasingly unsustainable. The strategy of channelling low-skilled rural labour to industrial jobs left millions of children behind with limited opportunities for development. Building child-sensitive social protection and investing better in children's cognitive capacity could check these trends and trigger powerful long-term human capital development—enabling labour productivity to grow faster than populations age. While governments are investing more in social protection, the region's spending remains low by international comparison. Investment is particularly inadequate where it yields the highest returns: during the first 1000 days of life. Five steps are recommended for moving forward: (1) building cognitive capital by adjusting the region's development paradigms to reflect better the economic and social returns from investing in children; (2) understand and track better child poverty and vulnerability; (3) progressively build universal, child-sensitive systems that strengthen comprehensive interventions within life cycle frameworks; (4) mobilise national resources for early childhood investments and child-sensitive social protection; and (5) leverage the SDGs and other channels of national and international collaboration. PMID:28588990

  6. Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Faruque Ghulam, Mohammed; Lim, Soo Teik; Ngo Minh, Hung; Nwe, Nwe; Sharma, Anil; Sim, Kui-Hian; Srimahachota, Suphot; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries. Design The survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). An important step was the creation of the ‘Asian network of Cardiologists in Radiation Protection’ and a newsletter. Data were collected on: radiation protection tools, number of IC laboratories, and annual number of various IC paediatric and adult procedures in the hospital and in the country. Patient radiation dose data were collected in terms of Kerma Area Product (KAP) and cumulative dose (CD). Results It is encouraging that protection devices for staff are largely used in the routine practice. Only 39% of the angiographic machines were equipped with a KAP meter. Operators' initial lack of awareness on radiation-protection optimisation improved significantly after participation in IAEA radiation-protection training. Only two out of five countries reporting patient percutaneous coronary intervention radiation-dose data were fully within the international guidance levels. Data from 51 patients who underwent multiple therapeutic procedures (median 2–3) indicated a total KAP reaching 995 Gy.cm2 (range 10.1–995) and CD 15.1 Gy (range 0.4–15.1), stressing the importance of dose monitoring and optimisation. Conclusions There is a need for interventional cardiology societies to play an active role in training actions and implementation of radiation protection. PMID:27325974

  7. Cognitive capital, equity and child-sensitive social protection in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Michael; Fajth, Gaspar; François, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Promoting child development and welfare delivers human rights and builds sustainable economies through investment in 'cognitive capital'. This analysis looks at conditions that support optimal brain development in childhood and highlights how social protection promotes these conditions and strengthens the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Asia and the Pacific. Embracing child-sensitive social protection offers multiple benefits. The region has been a leader in global poverty reduction but the underlying pattern of economic growth exacerbates inequality and is increasingly unsustainable. The strategy of channelling low-skilled rural labour to industrial jobs left millions of children behind with limited opportunities for development. Building child-sensitive social protection and investing better in children's cognitive capacity could check these trends and trigger powerful long-term human capital development-enabling labour productivity to grow faster than populations age. While governments are investing more in social protection, the region's spending remains low by international comparison. Investment is particularly inadequate where it yields the highest returns: during the first 1000 days of life. Five steps are recommended for moving forward: (1) building cognitive capital by adjusting the region's development paradigms to reflect better the economic and social returns from investing in children; (2) understand and track better child poverty and vulnerability; (3) progressively build universal, child-sensitive systems that strengthen comprehensive interventions within life cycle frameworks; (4) mobilise national resources for early childhood investments and child-sensitive social protection; and (5) leverage the SDGs and other channels of national and international collaboration.

  8. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  9. Effect of current breastfeeding on sleep patterns in infants from Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Mahesh Babu; Sekartini, Rini; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Huynh, Duy Houng T; Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi A

    2012-08-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and sleep patterns in infants from Asia-Pacific region.   Parents of 10 321 infants (0-11 months) from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam completed an expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire.   Overall, 4714 (45.72%) were currently being breastfed; 61.3% of those between 0 and 5 months and 36.6% of those between 6 and 11 months. Currently breastfed infants, when compared with not currently breastfed infants, had a significant increase in the number and duration of night-time wakings and less consolidated sleep. Interestingly, currently breastfed infants less than 6 months also showed longer duration of daytime sleep and obtained more sleep overall. Of note, of those who were currently breastfed, those infants who were nursed back to sleep during night, woke up more often at night (2.41 vs. 1.67 times) and had shorter continuous night-time sleep period (5.58 vs. 6.88 h; P sleep variable was controlled for in the analysis of variance.   Breastfeeding is associated with reduced sleep consolidation in infants. This relationship, however, may be moderated by parenting practices of nursing to sleep and back to sleep during the night. Thus, parents of infants with night waking problems should be encouraged to limit the association between nursing and falling to sleep, to improve sleep while maintaining breastfeeding. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T; Cheung, KY; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, JY; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, TJ; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists. Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist. There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future

  11. A review of population-based prevalence studies of physical activity in adults in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macniven Rona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%, with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%. For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%, for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance.

  12. Co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and the tropical Pacific ENSO system since 2.36 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaojie

    2017-04-01

    Clay mineralogical analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were performed on deep-sea sediments cored on the Benham Rise (core MD06-3050) in order to reconstruct long-term evolution of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) rainfall in the period since 2.36 Ma. Clay mineralogical variations are due to changes in the ratios of smectite, which derive from weathering of volcanic rocks in Luzon Island during intervals of intensive monsoon rainfall, and illite- and chlorite-rich dusts, which are transported from East Asia by winds associated with the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Since Luzon is the main source of smectite to the Benham Rise, long-term consistent variations in the smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio in core MD06-3050 as well as ODP site 1146 in the Northern South China Sea suggest that minor contributions of eolian dust played a role in the variability of this mineralogical ratio and indicate strengthening EASM precipitation in SE Asia during time intervals from 2360 to 1900 kyr, 1200 to 600 kyr, and after 200 kyr. The EASM rainfall record displays a 30 kyr periodicity suggesting the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These intervals of rainfall intensification on Luzon Island are coeval with a reduction in precipitation over central China and an increase in zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, implying a reinforcement of La Niña-like conditions. In contrast, periods of reduced rainfall on Luzon Island are associated with higher precipitation in central China and a weakening zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, thereby suggesting the development of dominant El Niño-like conditions. Our study, therefore, highlights for the first time a long-term temporal and spatial co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and of the tropical Pacific ENSO system over the past 2.36 Ma.

  13. A report on 5th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The 5th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training. PMID:25684899

  14. A report on 5 th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5 th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training.

  15. Change in mean temperature as a predictor of extreme temperature change in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G. M.; Chambers, L. E.; Haylock, M. R.; Manton, M. J.; Nicholls, N.; Baek, H.-J.; Choi, Y.; della-Marta, P. M.; Gosai, A.; Iga, N.; Lata, R.; Laurent, V.; Maitrepierre, L.; Nakamigawa, H.; Ouprasitwong, N.; Solofa, D.; Tahani, L.; Thuy, D. T.; Tibig, L.; Trewin, B.; Vediapan, K.; Zhai, P.

    2005-08-01

    Trends (1961-2003) in daily maximum and minimum temperatures, extremes and variance were found to be spatially coherent across the Asia-Pacific region. The majority of stations exhibited significant trends: increases in mean maximum and mean minimum temperature, decreases in cold nights and cool days, and increases in warm nights. No station showed a significant increase in cold days or cold nights, but a few sites showed significant decreases in hot days and warm nights. Significant decreases were observed in both maximum and minimum temperature standard deviation in China, Korea and some stations in Japan (probably reflecting urbanization effects), but also for some Thailand and coastal Australian sites. The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) region between Fiji and the Solomon Islands showed a significant increase in maximum temperature variability.Correlations between mean temperature and the frequency of extreme temperatures were strongest in the tropical Pacific Ocean from French Polynesia to Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and southern Japan. Correlations were weaker at continental or higher latitude locations, which may partly reflect urbanization.For non-urban stations, the dominant distribution change for both maximum and minimum temperature involved a change in the mean, impacting on one or both extremes, with no change in standard deviation. This occurred from French Polynesia to Papua New Guinea (except for maximum temperature changes near the SPCZ), in Malaysia, the Philippines, and several outlying Japanese islands. For urbanized stations the dominant change was a change in the mean and variance, impacting on one or both extremes. This result was particularly evident for minimum temperature.The results presented here, for non-urban tropical and maritime locations in the Asia-Pacific region, support the hypothesis that changes in mean temperature may be used to predict changes in extreme temperatures. At urbanized or higher

  16. Trans-Pacific transport of dust aerosols from East Asia: Insights gained from multiple observations and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Lou, Mengyun; Miao, Yucong; Wang, Yuan; Zeng, Zhaoliang; Liu, Huan; He, Jing; Xu, Hui; Wang, Fu; Min, Min; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-11-01

    East Asia is one of the world's largest sources of dust and anthropogenic pollution. Dust particles originating from East Asia have been recognized to travel across the Pacific to North America and beyond, thereby affecting the radiation incident on the surface as well as clouds aloft in the atmosphere. In this study, integrated analyses are performed focusing on one trans-Pacific dust episode during 12-22 March 2015, based on space-borne, ground-based observations, reanalysis data combined with Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). From the perspective of synoptic patterns, the location and strength of Aleutian low pressure system largely determined the eastward transport of dust plumes towards western North America. Multi-sensor satellite observations reveal that dust aerosols in this episode originated from the Taklimakan and Gobi Deserts. Moreover, the satellite observations suggest that the dust particles can be transformed to polluted particles over the East Asian regions after encountering high concentration of anthropogenic pollutants. In terms of the vertical distribution of polluted dust particles, at the very beginning, they were mainly located in the altitudes ranging from 1 km to 7 km over the source region, then ascended to 2 km-9 km over the Pacific Ocean. The simulations confirm that these elevated dust particles in the lower free troposphere were largely transported along the prevailing westerly jet stream. Overall, observations and modeling demonstrate how a typical springtime dust episode develops and how the dust particles travel over the North Pacific Ocean all the way to North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Epidemiology (CE) and Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in the Asia Pacific region (Round Table Forum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Bulgiba, Awang M; Sampatanukul, Pichet; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Chang, Peter; Tharyan, Prathap; Lin, Vivian; Wong, Yut Lin

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Epidemiology (CE) and Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) have become increasingly important in an era of rising costs, patient safety concerns and evidence-based health care. CE and EBM research in the Asia Pacific region have grown significantly. However, there are three main challenges such as linking evidence to practice and policy; developing a strong collaborative network; and a need for resources and technical expertise to produce evidence. The Cochrane Collaboration is a possible solution to resolve above challenges identified, particularly the challenge of transforming evidence to practice. In addition, training can be carried out to enhance technical expertise in the region and there is also the promising potential that collaborations could extend beyond systematic reviews. To improve the adoption of evidence-based health policy, selection of the best evidence for the right audience and focusing on the relevant issues through appropriate methodology are essential. Information on effectiveness and cost effectiveness needs to be highlighted for policy makers. The way forward to strengthen research and capacity building is to establish the Asia Pacific Consortium for CE and EBM. The consortium would help to create mutually rewarding scientific research and collaborations that will augur well for advances in CE and EBM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Asia-Pacific from the perspective of the United States: an agenda where commercial and security priorities coexist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Crespo Alcázar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Barack Obama cabinets (2008-2012; 2012-2016 entailed a significant shift regarding the issues considered as priorities during the former Republican administration (2000-2008. The priority of fighting against jihadist terrorism was coupled with an approach that gave more importance to diplomacy and international institutions. We should not interpret this phenomenon as the United States giving up the development of its role as a global leader. When it comes to the regional level, the main transformation constituted the new geostrategic and geopolitical importance conferred upon the Asia-Pacific region in detriment of the European Union, for instance. This was due to a variety of factors, some of which arise from the recent past (issues related to security and defense or the present (the economic crisis that the EU could not fight effectively. The new US agenda towards the Asia-Pacific generated reactions of different nature, since some international actors reacted cautiously (China, Russia or the European Union, each of them for different motives. Nevertheless, it was positively regarded by the traditional US allies in the region (Australia, Japan and South Korea.

  19. Numerical Modeling of 1997-2006 Asian Dust and Mass Budget Analysis in East Asia and West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Westphal, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    East Asia has two of the Earth's major natural dust sources: the Taklamakan Desert in west China and the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and northwest China. Desertification has increased dust-erodible areas surrounding the deserts so the dust storm frequency has increased in the last few decades. Severe dust storms not only impact East Asia, but also can reach far beyond the continent, as did the dust clouds of April 1998, 2001 and 2005 that drifted over the Pacific Ocean and to North America. The US Navy's operational Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to simulate the dust events for the springs of 1997 through 2006 at a resolution of one quarter of degree with multiple size bins. We use the modeled data to investigate the spatial and temporal dependence of dust emission, transport and deposition, and estimate the impacts of dust on environment. The distribution of dust plumes in area coverage and vertical depth is studied, as is the inter-annual variation of dust patterns from the different deserts of China and Mongolia, and the fluxes across the Pacific. It is found that PM10 is the dominant fraction particles over the continent and near the ocean, while PM2.5 becomes dominant in the boundary outflow along 170E. The details of analyzed model results will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  1. Limitations of BCC_CSM's ability to predict summer precipitation over East Asia and the Northwestern Pacific

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Zhiqiang

    2017-04-05

    This study examines the ability of the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM) to predict the meridional pattern of summer precipitation over East Asia-Northwest Pacific (EA-NWP) and its East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection. The differences of summer precipitation modes of the empirical orthogonal function and the bias of atmospheric circulations over EA-NWP are analyzed to determine the reason for the precipitation prediction errors. Results indicate that the BCC_CSM could not reproduce the positive-negative-positive meridional tripole pattern from south to north that differs markedly from that observed over the last 20 years. This failure can be attributed to the bias of the BCC_CSM hindcasts of the summer EAP teleconnection and the low predictability of 500 hPa at the mid-high latitude lobe of the EAP. Meanwhile, the BCC_CSM hindcasts\\' deficiencies of atmospheric responses to SST anomalies over the Indonesia maritime continent (IMC) resulted in opposite and geographically shifted geopotential anomalies at 500 hPa as well as wind and vorticity anomalies at 850 hPa, rendering the BCC_CSM unable to correctly reproduce the EAP teleconnection pattern. Understanding these two problems will help further improve BCC_CSM\\'s summer precipitation forecasting ability over EA-NWP.

  2. P-wave tomography of Northeast Asia: Constraints on the western Pacific plate subduction and mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jincheng; Tian, You; Liu, Cai; Zhao, Dapeng; Feng, Xuan; Zhu, Hongxiang

    2018-01-01

    A high-resolution model of 3-D P-wave velocity structure beneath Northeast Asia and adjacent regions is determined by using 244,180 arrival times of 14,163 local and regional earthquakes and 319,857 relative travel-time residuals of 9988 teleseismic events recorded at ∼2100 seismic stations in the study region. Our tomographic results reveal the subducting Pacific slab clearly as a prominent high-velocity anomaly from the Japan Trench to the North-South Gravity lineament (NSGL) in East China. The NSGL is roughly coincident with the western edge of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The subducting Pacific slab has partly sunk into the lower mantle beneath Northeast China, but under the Sino-Korean Craton the slab lies horizontally in the MTZ. The NSGL, as an important tectonic line in Mainland China, is marked by sharp differences in the surface topography, gravity anomaly, crustal and lithospheric thickness and mantle seismic velocity from the east to the west. These features of the NSGL and large-scale hot and wet upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) in the east of the NSGL are all related to the subduction processes of the Western Pacific plate. The Changbai intraplate volcanic group is underlain by a striking low-velocity anomaly from the upper MTZ and the BMW up to the surface, and deep earthquakes (410-650 km depths) occur actively in the subducting Pacific slab to the east of the Changbai volcano. We propose that the Changbai volcanic group is caused by upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and active convection in the BMW. The formation of other volcanic groups in the east of the NSGL is also associated with the subduction-driven corner flow in the BMW.

  3. The Glory of Intelligence: China’s Smart Power and the Implications for Security in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Mikhnevich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the interconnection between the institutional change in the sphere of security and China’s smart power in the Asia-Pacific region. It explores the practical dimension of China’s smart power in the region after the Cold War, and analyzes the multilateral interaction on security issues in the Association of the Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN. The appropriate mechanisms in which all the major actors participate are the basis and essence of the macro regional security architecture. This article identifies the links between China’s smart power and the macro regional security institutionalization. It begins by describing the ideological dimension of Chinese foreign policy since the establishment of the People’s Republic. It considers the main theoretical concept constituting China’s international strategy and its economical methods of spreading soft power in the Asia-Pacific region. It goes on to analyze the process of multilateral interaction in macro regional security after the Cold War, recognizing that despite the promotion of cooperation in non-traditional security issues there are still challenges for China, the United States and ASEAN in the realm of traditional security. Moreover, the effective and efficient use of smart power in the ASEAN mechanisms helps China counteract the efforts of other countries in the region to limit its politics. The article concludes that regional multilateral security institutions have reached their limit of effectiveness due to their design and the politics of the main actors. To sustain an acceptable level of security in the region, all participants need to develop new institutions or radically reorganize the existing ones.

  4. Shaping China’s Development: Stable Growth of an Asia-Pacific Might

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-05

    to Central Asia , is a vast expanse with a large, diverse population supporting the gamut of social, economic, religious, and governmental constructs...the Southeast, to the eastern Indian Ocean, to the area of Central Asia , is a vast expanse of the earth. Its population is extremely large, very...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 15 07 2006 2. REPORT TYPE

  5. Fiscal 2000 survey report on Asia/Pacific Regional Environment Problems Researcher Exchange Promotion Projects. Construction of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia/Pacific Region; 2000 nendo Asia Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho. Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu network kochiku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing and popularizing environment conservation technologies in the Asia/Pacific region, activities were conducted for Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia/Pacific Area (ETERNET-APR). In this fiscal year, under the motto of Expansion of International Collaborative Researches on Environmental Technology, a 7th international workshop was held in Yokkaichi City, Mie Prefecture, with the attendance of approximately 60 people in Japan and from abroad. Researchers from overseas, in addition, attended a 10-day training program at the National Institute for Resources and Development and others in preparation for the embodiment of international collaborative research. A survey was conducted overseas for the promotion of database utilization and registration and for grasping the problems intrinsic to the respective research institutes and problems to occur at every stage of development. People's Republic of China was visited, where a miniscale workshop was held, study tours were made, and opinions were exchanged. It was actually felt, at the places that were visited, that ETERNET-APR was certainly in function in various fields. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1999 Project of information exchange by researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region. Report on investigations for establishing Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region; 1999 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho. Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihtsu network kochiku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 1999 activities for the project of information exchange by researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region. In 1999, the 6th International Workshop was held in City of Yokkaichi, Mie Pref., with the theme (Implementation of international collaborative researches on environmental technology) at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer, with a total of more than 50 domestic and foreign attendees actively participating in the discussion. The keynote addresses were (Use of coal and environmental improvements) presented by Mr. Yoshisada Nitta, Director at Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, and (Potential of clean fuel from biomass) presented by Dr. Kyu-Wan Lee of Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology. The overseas surveys were conducted to promote the use and registration of the databases, and to identify problems by the on-the-spot investigations in Vietnam, the Philippines and Republic of Korea. At the same time, the mini-workshops were held for information exchange with the research institutes. It is keenly felt that Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region (ENTERNET-APR) works certainly in various areas, with the attendees in the last workshops serving as the key persons. (NEDO)

  7. A Report on Ten Asia Pacific Countries on Current Status and Future Directions of the Genetic Counseling Profession: The Establishment of the Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, Mercy Y; Leppig, Kathleen A; Abad, Peter James; Cham, Breana; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Kejriwal, Saahil; Lee, Juliana M H; Sternen, Darci L; Thompson, Jennifer K; Burgess, Matthew J; Chien, Shu; Elackatt, Niby; Lim, Jiin Ying; Sura, Thanyachai; Faradz, Sultana; Padilla, Carmencita; Paz, Eva Cutiongco de-la; Nauphar, Donny; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Zayts, Olya; Vu, Dung Chi; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2017-07-11

    The Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia (PSGCA) was recently established as a special interest group of the Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics. Fostering partnerships across the globe, the PSGCA's vision is to be the lead organization that advances and mainstreams the genetic counseling profession in Asia and ensures individuals have access to genetic counseling services. Its mission is to promote quality genetic counseling services in the region by enhancing practice and curricular standards, research and continuing education. The PSGCA was formally launched during the Genetic Counseling Pre-Conference Workshop held at the 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Human Genetics in Hanoi, Viet Nam, September 16, 2015. The pre-conference workshop provided an opportunity for medical geneticists and genetic counselors from across 10 Asia Pacific countries to learn about the varied genetic counseling practices and strategies for genetic counseling training. This paper provides an overview of the current status and challenges in these countries, and proposed course of unified actions for the future of the genetic counseling profession.

  8. Assessment of Capacity Building by UN Centre For Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukund, Rao; Deekshatulu, B. L.; Sundarramiah, V.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-01-01

    Space technology has introduced new dimensions into the study and understanding of Earth's processes and in improving the quality of life for the humanity. The benefits from the space technology are mostly confined to the space faring nations. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA) has taken initiative to disseminate the scientific and technology knowledge to developing countries through the establishment of regional Centres mainly dedicated to the education, training and research. The establishment of the UN Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (UN CSSTE-AP), in 1995 in India, has opened up new vistas for sharing and learning from experiences and also in capacity building in the region. The Centre has education and research programmes in the field of Remote Sensing, Satellite Communications, Satellite Meteorology and Space Sciences. The education courses are comprising of two phases viz. Phase I, of 9 months duration and is a resident programme in India. The 9 months programme is modular in structure dealing with fundamentals, applications and pilot projects. The Phase II, of 12 months duration, concludes with the submission of a project work assignment in the home country institution. The research programmes are oriented towards carrying out advanced research and development in these fields and provides an opportunity to Asia Pacific students to build their academic capabilities. The education course curriculum is primarily aimed to disseminate the Space Science and Technology in the Asia Pacific region and draws on the experiences and needs of the region. The Centre also assists in research and consultancy in environmental analysis, monitoring, judicious exploitation, rural/urban communication, understanding weather system, conservation of natural resources and sustainable development. The issues are of utmost importance in the backdrop of high population density, unstable economic status, depleting natural

  9. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC: Models of Engagement with International Institutions in the Process of Regional Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Andreyevna Safonkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the global financial crisis in 2008 the Asia-Pacific region has become a main driver of global economic growth leaving behind the US and European economies. The regional integration processes and business environment improvement as a result of the multilateral regional fora`s activities, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC laid the foundation for such economic successes. In the process of regional governance the APEC engages with various international and regional organizations applying the models which help it to address its agenda demands in the best way. The article aims to explore what models of engagement with international and regional organizations the APEC forum applies in the process of regional governance; reasons and results of applying these models; track the evolution of engagement as well as assess the effectiveness of APEC`s engagement with international organizations in the context of shifting agenda. The research methods the author applied include qualitative and quantitative content analysis and comparative historical analysis. The official APEC documents adopted at the summits and ministerial meetings constituted the evidence base for the analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation has clearly organized agenda aimed at implementing primary goals on trade and investment liberalization and favorable business environment in the region. Accomplishing objectives of its agenda the APEC takes advantage of policy, finance and expert potential as well as instruments and mechanisms of the international organizations (model “governance through multilateral organizations”. The model of “catalytic influence” is applied by the APEC in very rare cases. APEC applies the model of “parallel treatment” when it establishes its own bodies. APEC uses the “core group” model when it defines the mission of its own bodies as well as gives mandates to the international

  10. Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H. B.; Chatenet, B.; Gomes, L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Tsay, S.-C.; Ji, Q.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.

    2005-03-01

    The column-integrated optical properties of aerosol in the central eastern region of Asia and midtropical Pacific were investigated based on Sun/sky radiometer measurements made at Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites in these regions. Characterization of aerosol properties in the Asian region is important due to the rapid growth of both population and economic activity, with associated increases in fossil fuel combustion, and the possible regional and global climatic impacts of related aerosol emissions. Multiyear monitoring over the complete annual cycle at sites in China, Mongolia, South Korea, and Japan suggest spring and/or summer maximum in aerosol optical depth (τa) and a winter minimum; however, more monitoring is needed to establish accurate climatologies. The annual cycle of Angstrom wavelength exponent (α) showed a springtime minimum associated with dust storm activity; however, the monthly mean α440-870 was >0.8 even for the peak dust season at eastern Asian sites suggesting that fine mode pollution aerosol emitted from population centers in eastern Asia dominates the monthly aerosol optical influence even in spring as pollution aerosol mixes with coarse mode dust originating in western source regions. Aerosol optical depth peaks in spring in the tropical mid-Pacific Ocean associated with seasonal shifts in atmospheric transport from Asia, and ˜35% of the springtime τa500 enhancement occurs at altitudes above 3.4 km. For predominately fine mode aerosol pollution cases, the average midvisible (˜550 nm) single scattering albedo (ω0) at two continental urban sites in China averaged ˜0.89, while it was significantly higher, ˜0.93, at two relatively rural coastal sites in South Korea and Japan. Differences in fine mode absorption between these regions may result from a combination of factors including aerosol aging during transport, relative humidity differences, sea salt at coastal sites, and fuel type and combustion differences in the two

  11. What Lessons to Take from Educational Reforms in Asia-Pacific Region? Factors That May Influence the Restructuring of Secondary Education in East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Ana; Pedrosa, Maria Arminda; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria

    2013-01-01

    To better understand current curricular reforms in some Asia-Pacific countries that came out of conflict periods, documents and information posted on various national and international agency websites were analysed. In this paper we aimed to (i) present a brief description of the conditions under which new secondary education curricula are being…

  12. Towards an uncertain future? The strengthening of Japan's autonomy in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguenoli Miyamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Japan has been increasing tensions with China regarding the Pinnacle Senkaku/Diaoyu islands. Due to the Chinese military development, Japan has been working on its political and military strengthening in Asia. This essay presents two possible scenarios for Japan.

  13. THE CHINA’S ENERGY SECURITY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Sergeevich Krasantsov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to determine the level of the Chinese energy security that was built up for last several decades. In order to reach the set aim the author figured the current condition of the energy sector within the leading states of the Asia-Pacific Region and compared it with a similar condition ofChina. The condition’s characteristics included the following: Chinese energy balance, oil production, import and consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, electricity amount produced by using the renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind energy, sun energy and nuclear energy. In addition the authorities’ plans for the expansion of the mentioned renewable and nuclear energy production were as well discovered. The probable threats of the energy security and possible obstacles for the extensive means of sustaining the country’s energy security were also brought up.Statistical, comparative and analytical methods were applied in the process of the current research. As a result the PRC was found to be at a threshold to energetic crisis. In order to avoid the scenario two innovative methods were proposed as the means of avoiding the possible future crisis and sustaining energy security.The research results can be applied in determining the domestic and foreign policy of China as well as the foreign policies of the PRC’s energetic partners both within the Asia-Pacific Region and beyond its borders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-39

  14. Model-Informed Risk Assessment and Decision Making for an Emerging Infectious Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective response to emerging infectious disease (EID threats relies on health care systems that can detect and contain localised outbreaks before they reach a national or international scale. The Asia-Pacific region contains low and middle income countries in which the risk of EID outbreaks is elevated and whose health care systems may require international support to effectively detect and respond to such events. The absence of comprehensive data on populations, health care systems and disease characteristics in this region makes risk assessment and decisions about the provision of such support challenging.We describe a mathematical modelling framework that can inform this process by integrating available data sources, systematically explore the effects of uncertainty, and provide estimates of outbreak risk under a range of intervention scenarios. We illustrate the use of this framework in the context of a potential importation of Ebola Virus Disease into the Asia-Pacific region. Results suggest that, across a wide range of plausible scenarios, preemptive interventions supporting the timely detection of early cases provide substantially greater reductions in the probability of large outbreaks than interventions that support health care system capacity after an outbreak has commenced.Our study demonstrates how, in the presence of substantial uncertainty about health care system infrastructure and other relevant aspects of disease control, mathematical models can be used to assess the constraints that limited resources place upon the ability of local health care systems to detect and respond to EID outbreaks in a timely and effective fashion. Our framework can help evaluate the relative impact of these constraints to identify resourcing priorities for health care system support, in order to inform principled and quantifiable decision making.

  15. Pharmacodynamic profiling of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem against prevalent Gram-negative organisms in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Keel, Rebecca A; Nicolau, David P

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenems are increasingly being utilised owing to the escalating prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from community and hospital settings. In this study, pharmacodynamic profiles of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalised patients. MICs for carbapenems were determined for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from the COMPACT II programme conducted in the Asia-Pacific region. Monte Carlo simulations were undertaken to assess the pharmacodynamic profile of carbapenems against each of the pathogens. All carbapenem regimens achieved optimal exposures [cumulative fraction of response (CFR) ≥90%] against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Against P. aeruginosa, doripenem achieved 81.3-95.3% CFR, imipenem achieved 55.2-77.9% CFR and meropenem achieved 71.9-91.3% CFR; only doripenem regimens of 4-h infusion of 1000 mg every 8h (q8h) and 1-h and 4-h infusion of 2000 mg q8h and a meropenem regimen of 3-h infusion of 2000 mg q8h obtained optimal exposures; all carbapenem regimens showed slight (1-7%) improvement in CFRs in favour of isolates collected from ICU sources. Against A. baumannii, CFRs were much lower (25.9-46.7% CFR) and no carbapenem regimens achieved optimal exposure in or outside the ICU. Owing to the high potency of carbapenems against these Enterobacteriaceae populations, standard regimens are likely to perform well in the Asia-Pacific region. However, larger doses combined with prolonged infusions will be required to increase the CFR for these carbapenems against resistant non-fermenting Gram-negatives such as P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii that are prevalent in these countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Significant gaps in awareness of familial hypercholesterolemia among physicians in selected Asia-Pacific countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jing; Sullivan, David R; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Ding, Phillip Y A; Selvey, Sheryl; Ali, Shariq; Watts, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by high plasma cholesterol levels and a very high risk of early heart disease. The prevalence of FH is estimated to be at least 1:500, with at least 3.6 million individuals in the Asia-Pacific region. To assess awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practicing physicians in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Physicians from 3 economically developed Asian countries were requested to anonymously complete a structured Internet-based survey regarding FH. This survey sought responses on the clinical description, inheritance, prevalence, cardiovascular disease risk, practices, and opinions on screening. Of 230 physicians surveyed, 47% were aware of the heritability, 27% of the prevalence, and 13% of the risk of cardiovascular disease relating to FH. The majority (70%) perceived themselves to have an above-moderate familiarity with FH. Primary care physicians (59%) and lipid specialists (41%) were perceived as the best providers for caring for FH, including cascade screening services, with a lesser role perceived for cardiologists, endocrinologists, and no significant role for nursing staff. Only 35% of physicians were aware of specialist clinical services for lipid disorders in their geographic area. Extensive education and training programs are required to complement the implementation of region-specific models of care for FH in Asia. Further enhancement of existing lipid services and facilities are also warranted to optimise service models. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Security in the Asia-Pacific: In Australia’s National Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    as a potential catalyst for increased Islamic extremism. However, despite strong Malaysian and Indonesian opposition to physical intervention of...migration. 6. Increased coral bleaching reduces marine habitats upon which much of the Pacific Island states depend for both their personal food

  18. A continuation of the Asia-Pacific Risk Index for natural disasters: extending the record for an updated analysis from 1900-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Daniell, Trevor; Daniell, Katherine; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, an Asia-Pacific risk index was created for the CECAR5 (Civil Engineering Conference for the Asia-Pacific Region) by Daniell et al. (2010a) for floods and earthquakes, using empirical and analytical risk data for direct as well as socio-economic community vulnerability. The socio-economic situation of countries can aggravate the physical risk of natural disaster impacts, as demonstrated by the impacts of earthquakes in Christchurch and Tohoku 2011; add to this a number of deadly typhoon (Haiyan 2013), cyclone (Yasi 2011), flood (Thailand 2011), bushfire and weather effects, and significant changes to the index in 2010 have been seen. At least 10,000 historical events have been recorded since 1900 across the Asia-Pacific region (western Pacific). The database for global socio-economic indicators was produced to allow comparison of countries in terms of their socio-economic situation for use in risk studies. In addition, a global damaging natural disasters database (CATDAT) has been created over the last 14 years to better understand the historical impact of natural disasters on the Asia-Pacific region as well as globally. Simplified hazard models have been used in conjunction with historical damage data added to human exposure. Post-flood and post-typhoon loss models have been produced this methodology. The relative country level rural and urban building inventories and historical building trends are used to define levels of vulnerability, exposure and hazard. From this, physical and community risk indices are derived for the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It was found that the vulnerabilities in communities of developing countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines can further intensify the impact from direct damages by many times, showing the increased need for earthquake and flood risk reduction policy. Trends based on HDI and other indicators within the fields of economy, poverty, demographics, governance and environment are also presented

  19. The Japan-US Military Alliance and the Asia-Pacific Challenges: Prospects for Deep Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos quince años se ha producido un cambio fundamental en el equilibrio estratégico de Asia-Pacífico. El artículo trata de presentar las dificultades de adaptación de la alianza de Japón con Estados Unidos al nuevo contexto estratégico. Asimismo presenta la nueva estrategia que está tratando de implementar la administración del presidente Obama denominada inicialmente 'pivot to Asia' y posteriormente 'rebalance'. El artículo trata de mostrar los desafíos que esta nueva estrategia tiene para Japón y los Estados Unidos, presentado varios escenarios cuya probabilidad es cuestionable, y decantándose por una mayor reafirmación de Japón.

  20. A step forward in addressing cancer survivorship in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Chan, Alexandre; Yates, Patsy; Molassiotis, Alex

    2017-01-26

    Cancer survivorship is being increasingly recognized as an important component of cancer care. This commentary reviews the key findings reported in the recent BMC Medicine publication of the ACTION study, which focuses on the health-related quality of life and psychological distress in 5249 cancer survivors in eight low- and middle-income countries in Southeast Asia. The study identified that more than one-third of survivors experience at least mild levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and that poorer outcomes in quality of life, anxiety, and depressive symptoms are linked to a number of clinical and demographic factors. Such data provides an important foundation to inform cancer policy and service planning in Asia. Future research efforts are required to further understand the needs of cancer survivors in this region and determine interventions to improve outcomes for this population.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0768-2 .

  1. Conflict and Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Strategic Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    conflict or using nuclear weapons. Anything less—including the ongoing development of nuclear weapons—would most likely be tolerated by China, with a... developed suite of long-range strike capabilities, and the willingness to support deep penetrating strikes on mainland targets at the outset of a conflict ... development projects in South and Southeast Asia, or accommodation on issues such as Kashmir , Tibet, or the South China Sea. Such relative

  2. Mass communication in Asia and the Pacific. Recent trends and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, J A

    1989-01-01

    1 of the current trends in Asian mass communication discernbile in 1964-65 was mass media evolution as a big business. 25 years ago the makings of big business journalism already were evident. At this time, Asia is deeply involved in corporate journalism, and in recent years newspaper groups have become affiliated with multinational corporations such as Dow Jones and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Combines of government, local business, and regional conglomerates have purchased chunks of broadcast stations and newspapers in at least Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and India. Although government control of mass media is not new to Asia, the manner of control differs from 25 years ago. Overt repressive actions still persist but not as frequently or blatantly as a generation ago. Less noisy forms of control are preferred in many countries, which resort to suspensions, arrests, or direct censorship when subtle means are ineffective. An irony of Asian mass communication is that authorities do not always shut out more pernicious outside channels and messages, while rather effectively curbing the foreign media's role in and impact upon their societies. The speed with which much of the new technology has been introduced and expanded in Asia has brought undesired consequences, e.g., much dialogue previously focused on development journalism, ethics, or freedom of expression has shifted to information hardware.

  3. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  4. 2nd Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini

    2017-01-01

    The Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introductionto the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecturenotes on quantum field theory and the electroweak Standard Model, the theory of quantum chromodynamics,flavour physics and CP violation, neutrino physics, heavy-ion physics, cosmology and a brief introduction tothe principles of instrumentation and detectors for particle physics.

  5. Potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission in resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; German, Matthew; Creatore, Maria I; Brent, Shannon; Watts, Alexander G; Hay, Simon I; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran

    2016-11-01

    As the epidemic of Zika virus expands in the Americas, countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are becoming increasingly susceptible to the importation and possible local spread of the virus. To support public health readiness, we aim to identify regions and times where the potential health, economic, and social effects from Zika virus are greatest, focusing on resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Our model combined transportation network analysis, ecological modelling of mosquito occurrences, and vector competence for flavivirus transmission, using data from the International Air Transport Association, entomological observations from Zika's primary vector species, and climate conditions using WorldClim. We overlaid monthly flows of airline travellers arriving to Africa and the Asia-Pacific region from areas of the Americas suitable for year-round transmission of Zika virus with monthly maps of climatic suitability for mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus within Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. An estimated 2·6 billion people live in areas of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region where the presence of competent mosquito vectors and suitable climatic conditions could support local transmission of Zika virus. Countries with large volumes of travellers arriving from Zika virus-affected areas of the Americas and large populations at risk of mosquito-borne Zika virus infection include India (67 422 travellers arriving per year; 1·2 billion residents in potential Zika transmission areas), China (238 415 travellers; 242 million residents), Indonesia (13 865 travellers; 197 million residents), Philippines (35 635 travellers; 70 million residents), and Thailand (29 241 travellers; 59 million residents). Many countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are vulnerable to Zika virus. Strategic use of available health and human resources is essential to prevent or mitigate the health, economic, and social

  6. Role of sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region in the northeast Asia severe drought in summer 2014: month-to-month perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqing; Fan, Ke; Wang, HuiJun

    2017-09-01

    The severe drought over northeast Asia in summer 2014 and the contribution to it by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region were investigated from the month-to-month perspective. The severe drought was accompanied by weak lower-level summer monsoon flow and featured an obvious northward movement during summer. The mid-latitude Asian summer (MAS) pattern and East Asia/Pacific teleconnection (EAP) pattern, induced by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) rainfall anomalies respectively, were two main bridges between the SST anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the severe drought. Warming in the Arabian Sea induced reduced rainfall over northeast India and then triggered a negative MAS pattern favoring the severe drought in June 2014. In July 2014, warming in the tropical western North Pacific led to a strong WNPSM and increased rainfall over the Philippine Sea, triggering a positive EAP pattern. The equatorial eastern Pacific and local warming resulted in increased rainfall over the off-equatorial western Pacific and triggered an EAP-like pattern. The EAP pattern and EAP-like pattern contributed to the severe drought in July 2014. A negative Indian Ocean dipole induced an anomalous meridional circulation, and warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific induced an anomalous zonal circulation, in August 2014. The two anomalous cells led to a weak ISM and WNPSM, triggering the negative MAS and EAP patterns responsible for the severe drought. Two possible reasons for the northward movement of the drought were also proposed.

  7. Long-Range Transport of SO2 from Continental Asia to Northeast Asia and the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Flow Rate Estimation Using OMI Data, Surface in Situ Data, and the HYSPLIT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsung Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This present study suggests a method to calculate the SO2 flow rate from a source area to receptor areas on a regional scale using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI SO2 products, surface in situ SO2 data, and the hybrid single particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT model. The method was implemented to calculate the SO2 flow rate from continental Asia to northeast Asia and the Northwest Pacific Ocean. For the high SO2 events when SO2 was transported from continental Asia to Japan via the Korean Peninsula on 22–24 December 2006, the long-range transported SO2 flow rates were 14.0 (21.0 Mg·h−1 OMI·gird−1 at Gangneung (Seoul in Korea and 4.2 (5.3 Mg·h−1 OMI·gird−1 at Hiroshima (Kumamoto in Japan. For the long-range transport of SO2 from continental Asia to the Northwest Pacific Ocean on 6–7 October 2008 (9–11 October 2006, the flow rates were 16.1 (16.2 Mg·h−1 OMI·gird−1 at Hokkaido, Japan (Vladivostok, Russia and 5.6 (16.7 Mg·h−1 OMI·gird−1 at the Aleutian Islands, Northwest Pacific Ocean (Bering Sea. The mean rates of decrease in the SO2 flow rate per 1000 km were also calculated between continental Asia and the receptor areas. Uncertainties in the flow rate estimates were also assessed and discussed.

  8. 1st Asia-Europe-Pacific School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kawagoe, K; AEPSHEP 12

    2014-01-01

    The Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), practical statistics for particle physicists and a short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  9. Report on fiscal 1995 project to promote an exchange of researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1995 nendo itakujigyo (Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of solving environmental problems caused in association with the increasing industrial activities in the Asia-Pacific region, the construction of a research network is being advanced aiming at promoting exchanges with researchers of other countries and activating information exchanges. Investigators were sent overseas to grasp the present situation, and researchers participated in a symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation for mutual understanding and personal interchange. In the overseas survey, visits were paid mainly to national research institutes and universities in India and Thailand. Positive approval was obtained on the construction of the ETERNET APR (Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region). In the symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation held in Nagoya, researchers participated mostly in the second session and made earnest discussions with researchers from other countries. The necessity and importance of the network was emphasized. Countries which participated the symposium have problems common to each, and it was greatly significant to meet together and discuss together. The environmental problem is on a global scale, and it is necessary to make close exchange/interchange of information/opinion on a long term basis and to tackle it in the whole Asia-Pacific region. 3 tabs.

  10. Joint effects of systolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol on cardiovascular disease in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-29

    Although interest in multifactorial interventions for cardiovascular disease is increasing, data on the strength and shape of the joint effects of blood pressure and cholesterol levels on the risk of cardiovascular disease are scarce, confined primarily to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in early middle-aged Western populations. This analysis included 29 cohorts from Asia (78% of the total 380,216 participants) and 7 from Australia and New Zealand, with a total of 2,547,447 person-years of observation. Stratified time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards analyses were used to regress time until first event against baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and total cholesterol levels. A total of 3079 CHD and 4247 stroke events occurred; stroke subtypes were confirmed by CT, MRI, or necropsy in 1471 (35%) stroke events. Usual values of SBP were strongly linearly associated with ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and CHD. The slope of the association with SBP became steeper with decreasing levels of cholesterol for ischemic stroke (P=0.007) and CHD (Pcholesterol groups of 50 to 6.24, and > or =6.25 mmol/L, each 10-mm Hg-higher systolic pressure was associated with 34% (95% CI, 30% to 37%), 28% (95% CI, 21% to 35%), 25% (95% CI, 18% to 32%), and 21% (95% CI, 13% to 27%) higher CHD risk, respectively. Adjustments for other leading cardiovascular risk factors made no appreciable differences in these results. In Asia-Pacific populations, there are hazards of increasing SBP at all cholesterol levels and hazards of increasing cholesterol at all levels of SBP, but the associations of SBP with CHD risk and ischemic stroke risk are slightly steeper among those with low cholesterol levels. The joint effects of SBP and total cholesterol on cardiovascular disease seem consistent across various Western and Asian populations.

  11. The Historical Experience of the Transformation of the Asia-Pacific Order and Its Future Development Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiteng Zhong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine the dynamics and evolutional way of the Asia-Pacific regional order. In general, there have been three waves of regional order change since the 1970s. The first kind of regional order adjustment was the reconciliation between China and the U.S.A.-Japan alliance, which was a geopolitical arrangement driven by the strategic imbalance between the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union. The second one took place in the late 1980s with the rise of Japanese economic power, and the United States having succeeded in persuading Japan to 50 upgrade the U.S.A.-Japan alliance without any great change in the regional order. The most recent regional order adjustment continues to develop and initially emerged due to the quick and continuous rise of China. Due to the great scale and multi-dimensionality of the rise of China, Asia-Pacific regional order adjustment might change the global order in the near future. On the one hand, the third wave of regional order adjustment is driven by peaceful dynamics, and the current American hegemony cannot contain China’s rise through military force. On the other hand, the new regional order is directly based on the experiences of its two predecessors and tries to combine geopolitical balance with geo-economics. Focusing on the power transition between China and the U.S.A., many believe that regional order has disintegrated into “two Asias”, with China dominating economic growth and the United States providing security order. However, this kind of judgment is not a reality but merely speculation. Although China and the United States certainly play the greatest roles in future regional order formation, other regional countries still have their positions in the new regional order. The ideal regional order model in their minds is a much more balanced and stable relationship between the U.S.A. and China, not a conflictual and divided one. Moreover, an open regionalism may help them to play a functional

  12. The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Low, Wah Yun; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-10-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries. The SDGs are broader in focus than the MDGs, but include several goals that relate directly to nutrition: 2 (zero hunger-food), 3 (good health and well-being-healthy life), and 12 (responsible consumption and production-sustainability). Other SDGs that are closely related to nutrition are 4 and 5 (quality education and equality in gender-education and health for girls and mothers, which is very important for infant health) and 13 (climate action). Goal 3 is "good health and well-being," which includes targets for child mortality, maternal mortality, and reducing chronic disease. The Global Burden of Disease Project has confirmed that the majority of risk for these targets can be attributed to nutrition-related targets. Dietary Guidelines were developed to address public health nutrition risk in the Asia Pacific region at the 48th APACPH 2016 conference and they are relevant to the achievement of the SDGs. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal death from haemorrhage, a cause of 300000 deaths world-wide each year. Improving diets and iron supplementation are important public health interventions in the APACPH region. Chronic disease and obesity rates in the APACPH region are now a major challenge and healthy life course nutrition is a major public health priority in answering this challenge. This article discusses the role of public health nutrition in achieving the SDGs. It also examines the role of

  13. Data and Data Products for Climate Research: Web Services at the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    The International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) at the University of Hawaii maintains a data center for climate studies called the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC). This data center was designed within a center of excellence in climate research with the intention of serving the needs of the research scientist. The APDRC provides easy access to a wide collection of climate data and data products for a wide variety of users. The data center maintains an archive of approximately 100 data sets including in-situ and remote data, as well as a range of model-based output. All data are available via on-line browsing tools such as a Live Access Server (LAS) and DChart, and direct binary access is available through OPeNDAP services. On-line tutorials on how to use these services are now available. Users can keep up-to-date with new data and product announcements via the APDRC facebook page. The main focus of the APDRC has been climate scientists, and the services are therefore streamlined to such users, both in the number and types of data served, but also in the way data are served. In addition, due to the integration of the APDRC within the IPRC, several value-added data products (see figure for an example using Argo floats) have been developed via a variety of research activities. The APDRC, therefore, has three main foci: 1. acquisition of climate-related data, 2. maintenance of integrated data servers, and 3. development and distribution of data products The APDRC can be found at http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu. The presentation will provide an overview along with specific examples of the data, data products and data services available at the APDRC.; APDRC product example: gridded field from Argo profiling floats

  14. Optimizing the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Allen, Diana; Gurdak, Jason

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and economic development are causing increased pressure on global water, energy, and food resources, presenting increased levels of trade-offs and conflicts among these resources and stakeholders. Because these resources are interconnected, policy development and resource management require careful consideration of the complex interconnections between nature and society. A balance between risk and resilience is critical for achieving human and environmental security, particularly in Asia, a region within the "Ring of Fire," which is experiencing drastic social change alongside the huge potential risks and benefits associated with development. The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident and aftermath underscore the importance of developing policy and management options that maximize security and minimize risk within the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus.

  15. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    OpenAIRE

    J. Li; S. D. Xie; L. M. Zeng; L. Y. Li; Y. Q. Li; R. R. Wu

    2015-01-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic...

  16. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    OpenAIRE

    J. Li; S. D. Xie; L. M. Zeng; L. Y. Li; Y. Q. Li; R. R. Wu

    2015-01-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potent...

  17. Best practices of internationalization of the Higher Education in Asia-Pacific: The case of management of a double degree program

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Rogelio Flores; Genoveva Amador Fierros

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of nations from Asia and the Pacific to create sustainable and economic spaces, have led their people to seek new educative mechanisms to forge from their childhood and youth, more competitive people, generators of wealth; as an example, China, Korea and India, being the internationalization the best example. This article presents a brief overview of the major events that have given way to new patterns of mobility and internationalization of Umap since its inception in 1...

  18. The future role of the professional associations in the promotion of tissue banking activities in Asia and the Pacific and in the Latin America regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Vajaradul, Yongyudh; Alvarez, Ines

    2011-11-01

    There are several important roles that the established professional associations [Asia-Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB) and Latin American Association of Tissue Banks (ALABAT)] could play for the promotion of tissue banking activities in Asia and the Pacific and in the Latin American regions in the future. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) could also play an important role in supporting the activities of both professional associations in the field of training, exchange of scientific information, the standardisation of national norms and regulations, the use of the IAEA documents, particularly the "Radiation Sterilisation of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. A Code of Practice", with the purpose to improve the quality of the activities carried out by the established tissue banks and the nuclear facilities in charge of the sterilisation of the processed tissues, and to increase tissue donations. The role of APASTB and ALABAT could be relevant and important for the improvement of the work of the established tissue banks in Asia and the Pacific and in the Latin American regions, and could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their works, the improvement of management good practices and for increasing the awareness of the community on the importance of the activities carried out by the tissue banks, among others.

  19. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  20. Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Honghua; Gao, Guanjun; Zhou, Qian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Wenjuan; Sun, Huizhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Quartz particles are a toxic component of airborne particulate matter (PM). Quartz concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in eighty-seven airborne PM samples collected from three locations in Beijing before, during, and after the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Meeting in 2014. The results showed that the mean concentrations of quartz in PM samples from the two urban sites were considerably higher than those from the rural site. The quartz concentrations in samples collected after the APEC meeting, when the pollution restriction lever was lifted, were higher than those in the samples collected before or during the APEC meeting. The quartz concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 13.2 μg/m(3), which were among the highest values amid those reported from other countries. The highest quartz concentration exceeded the Californian Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment reference exposure level and was close to the occupational threshold limit values for occupational settings. Moreover, a correlation analysis showed that quartz concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations of pollution parameters PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx, but were negatively correlated with O3 concentration. The results suggest that the airborne quartz particles may potentially pose health risks to the general population of Beijing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Loss to Followup in HIV-Infected Patients from Asia-Pacific Region: Results from TAHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined characteristics of HIV-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who were lost to follow-up (LTFU from treatment and care. Time from last clinic visit to 31 March 2009 was analysed to determine the interval that best classified LTFU. Patients defined as LTFU were then categorised into permanently LTFU (never returned and temporary LTFU (re-entered later, and these groups compared. A total of 3626 patients were included (71% male. No clinic visits for 180 days was the best-performing LTFU definition (sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 92.3%. During 7697 person-years of follow-up, 1648 episodes of LFTU were recorded (21.4 per 100-person-years. Patients LFTU were younger (P=0.002, had HIV viral load ≥500 copies/mL or missing (P=0.021, had shorter history of HIV infection (P=0.048, and received no, single- or double-antiretroviral therapy, or a triple-drug regimen containing a protease inhibitor (P<0.001. 48% of patients LTFU never returned. These patients were more likely to have low or missing haemoglobin (P<0.001, missing recent HIV viral load (P<0.001, negative hepatitis C test (P=0.025, and previous temporary LTFU episodes (P<0.001. Our analyses suggest that patients not seen at a clinic for 180 days are at high risk of permanent LTFU, and should be aggressively traced.

  2. Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis: an Asia-Pacific perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) to drugs which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. High risk drugs in Asia are similar to those reported worldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related risk alleles for carbamazepine and allopurinol SCAR are unique to Asians. Although prognostic scoring systems like the SCORTEN have been used for more than a decade, pitfalls and caveats need to be recognized, in particular in patients with multiple medical co-morbidities and systemic features in SJS/TEN. In centres without a tertiary Burns Centre, SJS/TEN patients can still be managed successfully in general and dermatology wards with well-executed supportive/nursing care. Controversy remains regarding the effectiveness of immunomodulation in reducing SJS/TEN morbidity, mortality and hastening re-epithelialization. Despite paucity of robust evidence, intravenous immunoglobulins and ciclosporin remain the most commonly used modalities worldwide. Acute and long-term ocular effects are an important source of morbidity for which emerging ophthalmic therapies appear promising. Quality of life issues have now become an important outcome in patients with SJS/TEN as they often impact survivors' future attitudes towards pharmacotherapy. Even though pharmacogenetic testing for high-risk drugs appears to be the panacea for preventing carbamazepine- and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN in ethnic Asians, many issues remain before health regulators in our region can conclusively determine whether testing should be made mandatory or highly recommended as standard of care. PMID:24260726

  3. Medical toxicologists' practice patterns regarding drug-induced QT prolongation in overdose patients: a survey in the United States of America, Europe, and Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othong, Rittirak; Devlin, John J; Kazzi, Ziad N

    2015-05-01

    To describe practice patterns of medical toxicologists in the United States of America (USA), Europe, and Asia Pacific Region regarding management of drug induced QT prolongation and torsades de pointes in overdose. A survey was developed to assess current practice patterns and consistency with guidelines published by the American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Cardiology (ACC), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC). It was reviewed by our department research committee and the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT). The ACMT, European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, and Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology electronically disseminated the survey to their physician members in the USA, Europe and Asia Pacific Region. The overall response rate was 37% (229/617) (36% USA; 32% Europe; 52% Asia Pacific Region). Twelve toxicologists from Asia Pacific Region and Europe used the QT nomogram (Australia-5, New Zealand-1, United Kingdom-1) or QT alone (France-1, Russia-1, Romania-1, Germany-1, Philippines-1), in lieu of the corrected QT (QTc) to determine risks of developing torsades de pointes. Because only those who used QTc could proceed through the remainder of the survey, only 217 could do so. Approximately half of the respondents (52%) did not calculate QTc manually and based decisions on the electrocardiogram machines automated measurement. For those who corrected the QT interval themselves, the most common formula used was Bazett's (40%). There is great variation in the QTc value considered prolonged. Most responders considered QTc greater than 450 ms in men (28%) and 460 ms in women (25%) to be prolonged. Interestingly, approximately 15% of participants did not consider the QTc prolonged until it exceeded 500 ms in both men and women. Given an overdose scenario of a male patient with a QTc of 560 ms, heart rate of 90 beats/minute, 59% would not recommend administering intravenous magnesium sulfate. Forty

  4. Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emma Fulu, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention—a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; UN Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

  5. Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Rachel Jewkes, MBBS MD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention—a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; United Nations Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

  6. Long-range transport pathways of tropospheric source gases originating in Asia into the northern lower stratosphere during the Asian monsoon season 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vogel

    2016-12-01

    Northern Hemisphere stratosphere (at 380 K from source regions both in Asia and in the tropical Pacific compared to a mean water vapor content of  ≈  5 ppmv. In addition to this main transport pathway from the Asian monsoon anticyclone to the east along the subtropical jet and subsequent transport into the northern lower stratosphere, a second horizontal transport pathway out of the anticyclone to the west into the tropics (TTL is found in agreement with MIPAS HCFC-22 measurements.

  7. The demographics and diving behaviour of DAN Asia-Pacific members with and without pre-existing medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; McD Taylor, David; Stevenson, Christopher; Mitchell, Simon

    2016-12-01

    This report examines Diver Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members with and without cardiac or respiratory conditions, diabetes or hypertension and compares their demographics, health and diving activities. Two online cross-sectional surveys of DAN AP members were conducted. The first sought information from 833 divers who applied for membership between July 2009 and August 2013 and who had declared the targeted medical conditions. The second, conducted between December 2014 and April 2015, was sent to 9,927 current members with known email addresses. The groups were compared for age, gender, body mass index, fitness, smoking and diving qualifications, history, currency and practices. Of 343 (41%) respondents to the first survey, 267 (32%) provided sufficient information for inclusion. Of 1,786 (18%) respondents to the second survey, 1,437 (15%) had no targeted medical condition and were included in the analysis. Those with medical conditions were on average 4.7 years older (P 〈 0.001); more overweight or obese (68% versus 57%, P = 0.001); took more medications (57% vs. 29%, P 〈 0.001), smoked less (4% vs. 7%, P = 0.02) and did less repetitive diving (median 75 vs 90, P 〈 0.001). Other diving demographics were similar. A substantial number of people are diving with medical conditions and there is a need to better understand the associated risks. Divers need to be well-educated about the potential impact such conditions may have on diving safety and should monitor their health status, especially as they age.

  8. Psychiatrists' awareness of partial and nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: results from an Asia-Pacific survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jose Manuel; Thirunavukarasu, Manickam; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Zhang, Hong Yan; Zhang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Nonadherence is a well-known problem among schizophrenia patients, among whom relapse is fivefold more likely, adversely affecting health, employment, and social functioning. The Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was developed to determine the scope and causes of medication nonadherence in schizophrenia. The 20-question ADHES survey was distributed to 19,370 psychiatrists in 13 Asia-Pacific countries in January-April 2012, to ascertain psychiatrists' perceptions of antipsychotic medication adherence levels among their schizophrenia patients, reasons for partial/nonadherence, their preferred methods of assessing adherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Responses are reported as mean and range across countries. Four thousand, six hundred sixty one psychiatrists (24% of recipients) completed the survey (highest contributors: People's Republic of China, 1854; India, 1616). Psychiatrists perceived that 56% (range, 30%-71%) of schizophrenia patients were non- or partially adherent to medication. Patients discontinue medication primarily due to lack of insight into their condition (mean, 37%; 1%-65%) and because patients consider medication unnecessary when feeling better (mean, 27%; 15%-68%). Over half of psychiatrists (mean, 55%; 42%-99%) assess medication adherence at every visit, almost exclusively (81%) by asking their patients, versus quantitative measures. One in three psychiatrists expressed their preference to switch to or add a long-acting antipsychotic to improve adherence (15%-82%). The substantial prevalence of partial/nonadherence to medication demonstrates that more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia is needed to improve adherence and thereby treatment outcomes. Registration of this study was not required.

  9. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  10. Energy outlook to 2035 in Asia and its pathways towards a low carbon energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-09-15

    This report analyzes energy outlook in Asia and the world to 2035. In Technologically Advanced Scenario, advanced low-carbon technology yields, in 2035, 2,305 Mtoe or 14% of the saving in world primary energy demand and 12.3 Gt or 30% of the reduction in global CO2 emissions compared with the Reference Scenario. In these savings, Asia will account for 58% in the world primary energy reduction and 55% of the world CO2 mitigation, emphasizing immense potential of energy and CO2 saving in Asia and the importance of the deployment of clean energy technology through technology transfer to Asian region.

  11. Impact of gastrointestinal events on patient-reported outcomes in Asia-Pacific women with osteoporosis: baseline results of the MUSIC OS-AP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, A; Ebeling, P R; Lee, M S; Min, Y K; Mithal, A; Yang, X; Baidya, S; Sen, S; Sajjan, S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of gastrointestinal events on patient-reported outcomes and health care resource use among Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The results of this study show that gastrointestinal events decreased adherence, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life in Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to describe the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) events on patient-reported outcomes and health care resource use among Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The MUSIC OS-AP study included an observational cohort study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Women were classified as untreated or treated, with treated patients further classified as new or experienced users. Adherence was measured by the Adherence Evaluation of Osteoporosis treatment (ADEOS) questionnaire, treatment satisfaction by the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (OPSAT) while general health-related and osteoporosis-specific quality of life were measured by the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire and the Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire (OPAQ), respectively. The association of GI events with these outcomes was determined by covariate-adjusted regression analysis of least squares mean differences in the scores of treated patients with and without GI events. Resource utilization was measured as the number of physician visits over the past 3 months, and multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the association of GI events with the likelihood of a visit. The GI event profile, quality of life scores, and resource use were numerically similar in untreated and treated women. The rate of adherence among treated women was higher in experienced than in new users. As indicated by mean scores, experienced users had better quality of life and slightly higher treatment satisfaction and fewer physician visits than new users. Except for adherence in

  12. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  13. ESCAP Asia Pacific environmental white paper. 2. ; Environmental outlook in Asia and issues for the 21st century. ESCAP Asia Taiheiyo kankyo hakusho. 2. ; Asia no kankyo tenbo to 21 seiki eno kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    ESCAP reports the environmental situation in Asia in its white paper. In the ESCAP area the population was 271 million in 1955, 747 million in 1985, and will probably be 1.2 billion in 2000. Therefore, the number of megalopolis increases. The increasing population in megalopolises becomes much heavier burdens to various facilities and administrative organizations, and management of the urban environment which should be durable is a big challenge. There are three environmental issues on urbanization in the ESCAP area. The first is encroachment on fertile farmland and deforestation in the outskirts of the cities arising from expanding urbanization. The second is housing, and the related water-supply/sewerage and waste disposal. The third is the environmental situation seen in the increasing danger with increasing chemical and hazardous wastes, and marked pollution of city rivers, and air pollution caused by dust, and smoke and soot. Local environmental issues are the limited natural resources and the continuously increasing population. 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Use of targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific region: opinion statement from China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dingwei; Eto, Masatoshi; Chung, Jin Soo; Kimura, Go; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Pang, See-Tong; Lee, Jae Lyun; Niu, Yuanjie; Gurney, Howard; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2014-08-01

    Rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) morbidity and mortality vary widely by geography, with increasing incidence in most countries. Interestingly, RCC incidence is significantly lower in Asian countries relative to other regions, which is attributed to environmental and genetic influences. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that different ethnic groups differ in their RCC characteristics which might lead to varied responses to therapy. In this review, physicians drawn from countries across the Asia-Pacific region--China, Japan, Taiwan, Republic of Korea, and Australia--take all available data into consideration to develop the first opinion statement on treatment of advanced RCC in the region. We have sought to determine what factors influence treatment patterns and availability of therapeutic agents in our respective countries, discussed whether these factors are fully justified or should be modified, and considered what additional efforts should be undertaken to optimize treatment outcomes in RCC. Additionally, we have addressed the limitations on treatment of RCC in the region, capturing the restrictive situations of targeted therapy use in the Asia-Pacific region, mainly because of drug availability and treatment reimbursement. Often this illustrates the gap between Western and regional or even among local guidelines, the opinions of leading physicians regarding the treatment, and the realistic access to agents for most patients. Proposals made in this document are based on clinical experience and data from clinical trials of RCC therapies in which Asian patients have been included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  16. Chemical Characteristics of Continental Outflow from Asia to the Troposphere over the Western Pacific Ocean during September - October 1991: Results from PEM-West A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Klemm, K. I.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Heikes, B. G.; Gregory, G. L.; hide

    1996-01-01

    An important objective of the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A (PEM-West A) was the chemical characterization of the outflow of tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particles from the Asian continent over the western Pacific Ocean. This paper summarizes the chemistry of this outflow during the period September - October 1991. The vertical distributions of CO, C2H6, and NO(x), showed regions of outflow at altitudes below 2 km and from 8 to 12 km. Mixing ratios of CO were approx. equals 130 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), approx. equals 1OOO parts per trillion by volume (pptv) for C2H6, and approx. equals 100 pptv for NO(x) in both of these regions. Direct outflow of Asian industrial materials was clearly evident at altitudes below 2 km, where halocarbon tracer compounds such as CH3CCl3 and C2Cl4 were enhanced about threefold compared to aged Pacific air. The source attribution of species outflowing from Asia to the Pacific at 8-12 km altitude was not straightforward. Above 10 km altitude there were substantial enhancements of NO(y), O3, CO, CH4, SO2, C2H6, C3H8, C2H2, and aerosol Pb-210 but not halocarbon industrial tracers. These air masses were rich in nitrogen relative to sulfur and contained ratios of C2H2/CO and C3H8/C2H6 (approx. equals l.5 and 0.1 respectively) indicative of several- day-old combustion emissions. It is unclear if these emissions were of Asian origin, or if they were rapidly transported to this region from Europe by the high wind speeds in this tropospheric region (60 - 70 m/s). The significant cyclonic activity over Asia at this time could have transported to the upper troposphere emissions from biomass burning in Southeast Asia or emissions from the extensive use of various biomass materials for cooking and space heating. Apparently, the emissions in the upper troposphere were brought there by wet convective systems since water-soluble gases and aerosols were depleted in these air masses. Near 9 km altitude there was a distinct

  17. Future role of gastroenterologists in digestive oncology in the Asia Pacific region: Panir Chelvam Memorial Lecture, Asian Pacific Digestive Week 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    There is an increasing burden in digestive cancer in the coming years. With the advancement of endoscopic therapy, new molecular target therapy and minimally invasive ablation therapy, the treatment of digestive cancer will become more complicated. In Asia where gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma are still prevalent and colorectal cancer is rapidly on the rise, the need in digestive oncology will be even higher. A new subspecialty of digestive oncology will be needed from the patient's perspective, from the healthcare authority's viewpoint and for the future development of gastroenterology. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Insights, attitudes and perceptions about asthma and its treatment: findings from a multinational survey of patients from 8 Asia-Pacific countries and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip J; Salvi, Sundeep; Lin, Jiangtao; Cho, Young Joo; Eng, Philip; Abdul Manap, Roslina; Boonsawat, Watchara; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Faruqi, Rab A; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2013-08-01

    The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey was conducted in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America to characterize patients' insights, attitudes and perceptions about their asthma and its treatment. We report findings from the Asia-Pacific survey. Asthma patients (≥12 years) from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand were surveyed. Patients answered 53 questions exploring general health, diagnosis/history, symptoms, exacerbations, patient burden, disease management, medications/treatments and patient's attitudes. The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines were used to assess asthma control. The survey was conducted by random digit telephone dialling (Australia, China and Hong Kong) or by random face-to-face interviews (India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand). There were 80 761 households screened. Data from 3630 patients were collected. Wide disparity existed between objective measures of control and patient perception. Reported exacerbations during the previous year ranged from 19% (Hong Kong) to 67% (India). Reported unscheduled urgent/emergency visits to a doctor's office/hospital/clinic in the previous year ranged from 15% (Hong Kong) to 46% (Taiwan). Patients who reported having controlled asthma in the previous month ranged from 27% (South Korea) to 84% (Taiwan). Substantial functional and emotional limitations due to asthma were identified by 13% (South Korea) to 78% (India) of patients. Asthma has a profound impact on patients' well-being despite the availability of effective treatments and evidence-based management guidelines. Substantial differences across the surveyed countries exist, suggesting unmet, country-specific cultural and educational needs. A large proportion of asthma patients overestimate their level of control. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

  20. Paleoclimatic and paleolatitude settings of accumulation of radiolarian siliceous–volcanogenic sequences in the middle Mesozoic Pacific: Evidence from allochthons of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, V. S.; Filatova, N. I.

    2017-09-01

    Jurassic-Cretaceous siliceous-volcanogenic rocks from nappes of tectonostratigraphic sequences of the East Asia Middle Cretaceous Okhotsk-Koryak orogenic belt are represented by a wide range of geodynamic sedimentation settings: oceanic (near-spreading zones, seamounts, and deep-water basins), marginal seas, and island arcs. The taxonomic compositions of radiolarian communities are used as paleolatitude indicators in the Northern Pacific. In addition, a tendency toward climate change in the Mesozoic is revealed based on these communities: from the warm Triassic to the cold Jurassic with intense warming from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. Cretaceous warming led to heating of ocean waters even at moderately high latitudes and to the development of Tethyan radiolarians there. These data are confirmed by a global Cretaceous temperature peak coinciding with a high-activity pulse of the planetary mantle superplume system, which created thermal anomalies and the greenhouse effect. In addition, the Pacific superplume attributed to this system caused accelerated movement of oceanic plates, which resulted in a compression setting on the periphery of the Pacific and the formation of the Okhotsk-Koryak orogenic belt on its northwestern framing in the Middle Cretaceous, where Mesozoic rocks of different geodynamic and latitudinal-climate settings were juxtaposed into allochthonous units.

  1. Outlook for coal supply and demand and environmental protection measures in the Asia-Pacific; The JAPAC coal flow '94 meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H. (Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    Summarises the papers and reports presented at the JAPAC-sponsored panel discussion on coal supply and demand, held during the 1994 symposium on Pacific energy cooperation (SPEC). The keynote address discussed the dramatic increase in Asian demand for coal, hurdles to the establishment of stable supply and demand, and the Japanese response to the situation. The three reports presented by panellists focused on production and estimates for coal demand in Indonesia, the transition in the Chinese coal industry which has occurred in the last decade, the Chinese coal strategy from now to the year 2000, Chinese coal exports, the influence of China over energy issues in the Asia-Pacific region, environmental concerns and the importance of addressing these concerns, particularly in China. The questions and answers following the presentation are reported as is the chairman's summary. The article also briefly describes the JAPAC (Japanese Committee for Pacific Coal Flow) reception which marked the start of the sixth JAPAC coal flow meeting on the evening of the SPEC panel discussion, and provides a description of the Hekinan coal-fired power station which was visited on the following day. Questions and answers relating to the power plant are recorded. 5 figs., 1 tab., 4 photos.

  2. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    again identified as the vehicle for promoting this action. The responsibility of the next meeting of the Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine will be to measure progress made in these areas by assessing how well these collective decisions have been implemented.

  3. Future coal demand and supply in the Asia-Pacific region and environmental measures. JAPAC Coal Flow Meeting 1994. Asia Taiheiyo chiiki ni okeru sekitan jukyu no shorai to kankyo taisaku. JAPAC coal furo '94 meeting kaisai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    This article reports the panel session of the coal demand and supply, the welcome reception, and the inspection of Hekinan Power Station of Chubu Electric Power Co. in the SPEC (Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation). Mr. Ando of NEDO, Japan, presented the trend of coal demand and supply and the response from the viewpoint of effective utilization of coal. He described the expanding coal demand, hurdles for achieving stable demand and supply, and Japan's response. Mr. Ambyo of Coal Corporation, Indonesia, presented the coal production in Indonesia and forecast of demand. Mr. Wang of Ministry of Coal Industries, China, presented the change of coal industries for past ten years in China, coal strategy for coming seven years up to 2000, and export of coal. Mr. Wilcox of Association Coal Trade and Technology, Australia, emphasized the influence of China on energy problems and environment in Asia-Pacific region. Mr. Bomasang of Ministry of Energy, Philippine, summarized the discussions as a chairman. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Norovirus contamination and the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis pathway in Pacific oyster: A transcriptomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Su, Laijin; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Deqing; Duan, Delin

    2017-07-01

    Noroviruses are the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. These viruses remain stable in oysters, suggesting an active mechanism for virus concentration. In this study, a deep RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of Pacific oysters at different time points after inoculation with norovirus (GII.4). We obtained a maximum of 65, 294, 698 clean sample reads. When aligned to the reference genome, the average mapping ratio of clean data was approximately 65%. In the samples harvested at 12, 24, and 48 h after contamination, 2,223, 2,990, and 2020 genes, respectively, were differentially expressed in contaminated and non-contaminated oyster digestive tissues, including 500, 1748, and 1039 up-regulated and 1723, 1242, and 981 down-regulated genes, respectively. In particular, FUT2 and B3GNT4, genes encoding the signaling components of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, were significantly up-regulated in contaminated samples. In addition, we found up-regulation of some immune- and disease-related genes in the MHC I pathway (PA28, HSP 70, HSP90, CANX, BRp57, and CALR) and MHC II pathway (GILT, CTSBLS, RFX, and NFY), although NoVs did not cause diseases in the oysters. We detected two types of HBGA-like molecules with positive-to-negative ratios similar to type A and H1 HBGA-like molecules in digestive tissues that were significantly higher in norovirus-contaminated than in non-contaminated oysters. Thus, our transcriptome data analysis indicated that a human pathogen (GII.4 Norovirus) was likely concentrated in the digestive tissues of oysters via HBGA-like molecules that were synthesized by the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis pathway. The identified differentially expressed genes also provide potential candidates for functional analysis to identify genes involved in the accumulation of noroviruses in oysters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef…

  6. Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment is better than the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of Liver criteria for defining acute-on-chronic liver failure and predicting outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiman, Radha K; Agrawal, Swastik; Gupta, Tarana; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the utility of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) and Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL) definitions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in predicting short-term prognosis of patients with ACLF.

  7. Variability in the origins and pathways of Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xuerong; Sen Gupta, Alex; Van Sebille, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831921

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) transports water originating from a number of distinct source regions, eastward across the Pacific Ocean. It is responsible for supplying nutrients to the productive eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of particular importance is the transport of iron by the

  8. China’s Challenges and Its Countermeasures to Hunt the Fugitives Who are Involved in Corruption and Fled to the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Rong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the main problems faced by the Chinese justice in anticorruption prosecution and to find their solutions. Methods the method of analysis theoretical methods of cognition. Results the article attempts to systemically analyze the lessons of history and legal issues facing in the implementation of anticorruption prosecution in the AsiaPacific region in order to ensure its effectiveness in China. Scientific novelty the research proposes solutions to the problem of corrupt officials escaping from justice and seeks to find a compromise in the issues of international cooperation in this field. Practical significance the Chinese experience can be used in Russia to improve the legal system in the struggle against corruption and the international cooperation on criminal justice matters. nbsp

  9. Best practices of internationalization of the Higher Education in Asia-Pacific: The case of management of a double degree program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Rogelio Flores

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of nations from Asia and the Pacific to create sustainable and economic spaces, have led their people to seek new educative mechanisms to forge from their childhood and youth, more competitive people, generators of wealth; as an example, China, Korea and India, being the internationalization the best example. This article presents a brief overview of the major events that have given way to new patterns of mobility and internationalization of Umap since its inception in 1993 until today. We present the case of the school of marketing in which outlines the learning, as a result of the institutional efforts of a double degree program with a University of the Umap program, this will allow to identify areas of prospect to establish improvements in an internationalization program of any Institution of higher education that aspire to any position in the global context.

  10. Widespread detection of a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, in expanded polystyrene marine debris and microplastics from South Korea and the Asia-Pacific coastal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2017-12-01

    The role of marine plastic debris and microplastics as a carrier of hazardous chemicals in the marine environment is an emerging issue. This study investigated expanded polystyrene (EPS, commonly known as styrofoam) debris, which is a common marine debris item worldwide, and its additive chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To obtain a better understanding of chemical dispersion via EPS pollution in the marine environment, intensive monitoring of HBCD levels in EPS debris and microplastics was conducted in South Korea, where EPS is the predominant marine debris originate mainly from fishing and aquaculture buoys. At the same time, EPS debris were collected from 12 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and HBCD concentrations were measured. HBCD was detected extensively in EPS buoy debris and EPS microplastics stranded along the Korean coasts, which might be related to the detection of a quantity of HBCD in non-flame-retardant EPS bead (raw material). The wide detection of the flame retardant in sea-floating buoys, and the recycling of high-HBCD-containing EPS waste inside large buoys highlight the need for proper guidelines for the production and use of EPS raw materials, and the recycling of EPS waste. HBCD was also abundantly detected in EPS debris collected from the Asia-Pacific coastal region, indicating that HBCD contamination via EPS debris is a common environmental issue worldwide. Suspected tsunami debris from Alaskan beaches indicated that EPS debris has the potential for long-range transport in the ocean, accompanying the movement of hazardous chemicals. The results of this study indicate that EPS debris can be a source of HBCD in marine environments and marine food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Association of Smokeless Tobacco and of Betel Quid without Tobacco with Incidence of Oral Cancer in South Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Methods Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary ORRE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary ORRE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Results Meta-analysis of fifteen case–control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies ORRE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86–9.50, Poral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35–3.40, Poral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed. PMID:25411778

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE) for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE), Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE) = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, Ptobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, Ptobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco, are both strong and independent risk factors for oral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed.

  13. Pharmacodynamic profiling of intravenous antibiotics against prevalent Gram-negative organisms across the globe: the PASSPORT Program-Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; Kwa, Andrea; Montakantikul, Preecha; Gomersall, Charles; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P

    2011-03-01

    Due to escalating antimicrobial resistance amongst Gram-negative organisms, the choice of effective empirical antimicrobial regimens has become challenging. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted for conventional and prolonged infusion regimens of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem using pharmacokinetic data from adult patients with conserved renal function. Minimum inhibitory concentration data against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were incorporated from the COMPACT surveillance programme in the Asia-Pacific region of the world. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was determined for each regimen against each bacterial population. All simulated carbapenem regimens achieved an optimal CFR against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (94.5-100% CFR). Against P. aeruginosa, doripenem achieved 78.7-92.6% CFR, imipenem achieved 60.4-79.0% CFR and meropenem achieved 73.0-85.1% CFR. The only dosing regimen to achieve ≥ 90% CFR against P. aeruginosa was doripenem 1000 mg and 2000 mg every 8 h (4-h infusion). Carbapenem CFRs against A. baumannii were much lower (29.2-54.4% CFR). CFRs for non-fermenting isolates were ca. 10% lower for isolates collected in the Intensive Care Unit. Carbapenem resistance amongst Enterobacteriaceae remains low in the Asia-Pacific region and thus standard carbapenem dosing regimens had a high likelihood of achieving pharmacodynamic exposures. However, larger doses combined with prolonged infusion will be required to increase the CFR for these carbapenems against resistant non-fermenting Gram-negatives that are common in these countries. The safety and efficacy of these high dosing regimens will need to be confirmed in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Recommendations for the Use of Donepezil 23 mg in Moderate-to-Severe Alzheimer's Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Marwan; Han, SeolHeui; Kim, SangYun; Na, Hae-Ri; Lee, Jae-Hong; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee; Senanarong, Vorapun; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Narilastri, Diatri; Sowani, Ajit M.; Ampil, Encarnita; Dash, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Background The ‘Asia-Pacific Expert Panel (APEX) for donepezil 23 mg’ met in November 2015 to review evidence for the recently approved high dose of donepezil and to provide recommendations to help physicians in Asia make informed clinical decisions about using donepezil 23 mg in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Summary In a global phase III study (study 326) in patients with moderate-to-severe AD, donepezil 23 mg/day demonstrated significantly greater cognitive benefits versus donepezil 10 mg/day, with a between-treatment difference in mean change in the Severe Impairment Battery score of 2.2 points (p < 0.001) in the overall population and 3.1 points (p < 0.001) in patients with advanced AD. A subanalysis of study 326 demonstrated that the benefits and risks associated with donepezil 23 mg/day versus donepezil 10 mg/day in Asian patients with moderate-to-severe AD were comparable to those in the global study population. Key Message Donepezil 23 mg is a valuable treatment for patients with AD, particularly those with advanced disease. The APEX emphasized the importance of patient selection (AD severity, tolerability of lower doses of donepezil, and absence of contraindications), a stepwise titration strategy for dose escalation, and appropriate monitoring and counseling of patients and caregivers in the management of patients with AD. PMID:27703471

  15. Clinical Recommendations for the Use of Donepezil 23 mg in Moderate-to-Severe Alzheimer's Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Sabbagh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘Asia-Pacific Expert Panel (APEX for donepezil 23 mg' met in November 2015 to review evidence for the recently approved high dose of donepezil and to provide recommendations to help physicians in Asia make informed clinical decisions about using donepezil 23 mg in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Summary: In a global phase III study (study 326 in patients with moderate-to-severe AD, donepezil 23 mg/day demonstrated significantly greater cognitive benefits versus donepezil 10 mg/day, with a between-treatment difference in mean change in the Severe Impairment Battery score of 2.2 points (p Key Message: Donepezil 23 mg is a valuable treatment for patients with AD, particularly those with advanced disease. The APEX emphasized the importance of patient selection (AD severity, tolerability of lower doses of donepezil, and absence of contraindications, a stepwise titration strategy for dose escalation, and appropriate monitoring and counseling of patients and caregivers in the management of patients with AD.

  16. "Chasing Pavements": The East Asia Summit and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Discursive Regionalism as Disguised Multilateralism

    OpenAIRE

    Camroux, David

    2011-01-01

    Revolving around the concept of "Community", or "community" - the use of the capital "c" being seen as indicative of cultural homogeneity - debate on an Asian region has ostensibly pitted those who favour an entity limited to East Asia (China, Japan, South Korea and the ten countries of ASEAN) against those who propose a much wider entity embracing India, North (and, perhaps, South) America, as well as Australasia. Previously these two conceptualizations possessed their eponymous translation ...

  17. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  18. On the dominant intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyung-Ja; Oh, Hyoeun

    2017-04-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The major modes tend to be dominated by the moisture convergence of the moisture budget equation along the rain-band. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We discuss the major driving forces of sub-seasonal variability over EA-WNPSM regions. Lastly we attempted to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode

  19. Asia-Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 16-20, 1992, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topics discussed include the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Station, and space activities in the Pacific Rim region. Possible future space missions are also examined, with particular attention given to medium-term and long-term perspectives in the ESA scientific program, projected lunar and planetary missions in the Japanese space program, and post-Cold War international cooperation in planetary exploration. Also presented are workshops on such topics as the future space transportation system, JERS-1 and ERS-1, and cover change and disaster mitigation, polar stratospheric ozone, and Space Station utilization.

  20. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  2. Marine sponge: a potential source for methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Asia-Pacific food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Koichi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Endo, Tetsuya

    2011-12-28

    Marine sponges collected in Palau, Micronesia, were investigated for hydroxylated or methoxylated analogues of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), brominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (BDD), and brominated biphenyls. The neutral fractions of Haliclona sp. and Callyspongia sp. contained 2'-methoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetraBDE, 6-methoxy-2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE, 2',6-dimethoxy-2,3',4,5-tetraBDE 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl, several methoxy-triBDEs, and dimethoxy-penta-/hexaBDEs. The methoxylated BDEs in sponges were strikingly similar to those of local fish living in the western Pacific Ocean. The total concentrations of these compounds (ΣMeO-PBDE) in both sponges were 63.5 μg/g extractable organic matter (EOM) for Haliclona sp. and 36.5 μg/g EOM for Callyspongia sp., which were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than the levels seen in tropical coral reef fish (unicornfish or surgeonfish) (280-290 ng/g lipid) and groupers (550 ng/g lipid) from Okinawan coastal waters. The phenolic fractions of both sponges contained hydroxy-methoxy tetra-/pentaBDEs as well as hydroxy-tetraBDD, in addition to the corresponding phenolic tetraBDE analogues. Although the total concentrations of phenolic products (27-80 μg/g EOM) in both sponges fell within a range comparable to the methoxylated products, ΣOH-PBDE in local fish were trace level (less than 10 ng/g lipid of) or undetectable. This survey indicates that marine sponges are a possible source of the MeO-PBDE analogues that biomagnify via the food chain to the higher trophic organisms in the western Pacific, whereas the distribution of the corresponding hydroxylated analogues is limited.

  3. Recommended Guidelines for Use of Intravitreal Aflibercept With a Treat-and-Extend Regimen for the Management of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Asia-Pacific Region: Report From a Consensus Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Adrian; Lanzetta, Paolo; Lee, Won Ki; Lai, Chi-Chun; Chan, Wai-Man; Yang, Chung-May; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy

    2017-01-01

    To summarize recommendations for the use of intravitreal aflibercept with a treat-and-extend regimen to manage neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. Although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies have improved the quality of life of patients with nAMD, a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the high treatment frequency recommended by current guidelines places a significant burden on patients and healthcare providers. Recommended guidelines from a consensus panel. An expert panel formed a consensus on recommendations for use of intravitreal aflibercept as treatment of nAMD in the Asia-Pacific region. After 3 initial monthly doses, treatment interval could be extended by 4-week increments, to a maximum of 12 weeks, in patients with inactive disease. Conversely, in active disease, treatment intervals should be shortened, by 4 weeks, or to 4 weeks in cases of severe recurrence. Treatment could be ceased in patients with stable disease activity after 12 months of treatment at 12-week intervals, as a means to prevent over treatent and lifelong injections. These recommendations could potentially minimize the number of treatments while maintaining efficacy and improve compliance by reducing the number of clinic visits compared with existing recommendations. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  4. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  5. Righting the mismatch between law, policy and the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, John; Szabo, Gabrielle; Sass, Justine; Sauvarin, Josephine

    2014-11-01

    The context of sexual relations is changing in the Asia-Pacific. While the age of sexual debut remains the same, young people are generally marrying later and sex outside of marriage is increasing. The first systematic review of how laws and policies govern young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services was conducted in 2013. The study considered >400 national documents and held focus group discussions with >60 young people across three countries in the region. This paper examines the study findings in light of epidemiological data on young people's sexual behaviour and health, exposing a critical mismatch between the onset of sexual activity and laws and policies governing consent (to sex and medical treatment), and the restriction and orientation of services to married persons. An enabling legal and policy environment is an essential foundation for efforts to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. This paper argues that international guidance and commitments (including the widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child) provide a framework for recognising young people's evolving capacity for independent decision-making, including in the realm of sexual and reproductive health. A number of countries in the region are using these frameworks to expand access to services, providing valuable examples for others to build on. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving adolescent reproductive health in Asia and the Pacific: do we have the data? A review of DHS and MICS surveys in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Natalie; Azzopardi, Peter; Kennedy, Elissa; Willersdorf, Elise; Creati, Mick

    2013-03-01

    Data on adolescent reproductive health (ARH) are required to inform evidence-based policies and programs. The reports of national-level household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) are important sources of such data in developing countries. The aim of this study was to map data on ARH from DHS and MICS reports from selected countries in the Asia and Pacific regions. The DHS and MICS reports for Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, and Vietnam were reviewed. Data on 128 indicators, including ARH outcomes, outcomes for babies of adolescent mothers, and adolescents' access to health information and services, were mapped. Available data are limited because of the omission of cohorts such as young adolescents (10-14 years old) and, in many surveys, unmarried women; the omission of important indicators; and failure to report data disaggregated by age. DHS and MICS reports have limited capacity to inform policy and programs to improve ARH. A review of DHS and MICS sampling strategies and reporting templates, and a consideration of alternative data collection strategies, are warranted.

  7. Personal values, marketing attitudes and nutrition trust are associated with patronage of convenience food outlets in the Asia-Pacific region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Breanna; Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei Chun; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-02-16

    An online cross-sectional survey examined the relationships between the demographic characteristics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and the use of convenience food outlets among middle-class household food providers in the Asia-Pacific region. The survey was administered to 3945 household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Vietnam and Indonesia in late 2013. Information about demographics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and use of convenience food outlets was elicited. Exploratory factor analysis, two-step clustering and logistic regression were employed. The analyses found that the use of convenience food outlets was positively related to hedonist values and trust in food industry sources of nutrition information. However, lesser use of convenience food outlets and trust in health sources of nutrition information was associated with traditional (community-oriented) values. Further replication and extension of these findings would be useful. However, they suggest that improvements in the quality of foods sold in convenience food outlets combined with stronger regulation of food marketing and long-term food education are required.

  8. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda.

  9. Activity of telavancin against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from bone and joint infections in North American, Latin American, European and Asia-Pacific nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Flamm, Robert K; Castanheira, Mariana; Sader, Helio S; Smart, Jennifer I; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2017-06-01

    Telavancin was tested against a worldwide collection of Gram-positive pathogens (967) isolated from bone and joint infections (BJI). Most BJI isolates were from the United States (US) (49.9%) followed by Europe (26.4%), Latin America (LATAM; 14.4%), and Asia-Pacific (APAC; 9.3%). Organisms were tested by broth microdilution susceptibility methods. S. aureus (66.4%; range of 48.9% in APAC to 71.2% in LATAM) was the most common pathogen and had a 35.7% methicillin resistance (MRSA) rate and telavancin MIC50/90 of 0.03/0.06μg/mL (100% susceptible). MRSA isolates that were daptomycin resistant (0.2%) were telavancin susceptible. CoNS (12.1% of BJI) had telavancin MIC50/90 at 0.06/0.06μg/mL, and 13.7% were teicoplanin resistant. Enterococci had telavancin MIC50/90 at 0.12/0.25μg/mL, but telavancin inhibited vancomycin-susceptible isolates at ≤0.25μg/mL. All streptococci were telavancin susceptible (MIC90, 0.03-0.06μg/mL). The in vitro results presented here warrant further investigations to access the role of telavancin for BJI/osteomyelitis treatment caused by Gram-positive cocci. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    collaboration in dealing with the geohazards of the Russian Far East - Alaska region. Subduction within this segment of the Pacific Rim has produced 50% of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, numerous Pacific-crossing tsunamis, and the largest ash eruption in almost 200 years. Recognizing that Russia and the United States need to develop a whole-region perspective of disaster risk, scientists and program managers from several Russian and U.S. government agencies met at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in July to identify bilateral steps that would improve safety for communities of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska region. Significantly, the meeting included disaster preparation and response agencies EMERCOM and FEMA. Participants proposed development of a standing committee to advocate and facilitate bilateral collaboration, expanded exchange of real-time monitoring data, development of a strategy for monitoring currently unmonitored sections of plate and micro-plate boundaries, and holding of an inclusive, all-stakeholders meeting in the U.S. next year.

  11. Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wright

    Full Text Available In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO's public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region.We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD. We dichotomised each country's per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H and lower-middle/low (T-L. Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class.A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95% CI of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52, 0.33 (0.30-0.36 and 0.21 (0.18-0.23 for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 & HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring.Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was

  12. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaria Caroline W

    2011-05-01

    continuing research into the aspects of taxonomy, biology and ecology relevant to species-specific vector control. This research is particularly relevant to help unravel the complicated taxonomic status, ecology and epidemiology of the vectors of the Asia-Pacific region. All the occurrence data, predictive maps and EO-shape files generated during the production of these publications will be made available in the public domain. We hope that this will encourage data sharing to improve future iterations of the distribution maps.

  13. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, Marianne E; Bangs, Michael J; Manguin, Sylvie; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Patil, Anand P; Temperley, William H; Gething, Peter W; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Kabaria, Caroline W; Harbach, Ralph E; Hay, Simon I

    2011-05-25

    ecology relevant to species-specific vector control. This research is particularly relevant to help unravel the complicated taxonomic status, ecology and epidemiology of the vectors of the Asia-Pacific region. All the occurrence data, predictive maps and EO-shape files generated during the production of these publications will be made available in the public domain. We hope that this will encourage data sharing to improve future iterations of the distribution maps.

  14. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  15. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific.

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    Bukoski, Jacob J; Broadhead, Jeremy S; Donato, Daniel C; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves.

  16. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  17. Relative Impact of Emissions Controls and Meteorology on Air Pollution Mitigation Associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schauer, J. J.; de Foy, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22nd Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10th - 11th, 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11th - November 2nd, 2014), during (November 3rd - 12th, 2014) and after (November 13th, 2014 - January 31st, 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, mobile source, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The Industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, follows by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and mobile source reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for Xilingele League.

  18. Radiocarbon-derived source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols before, during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwen; Mo, Yangzhi; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Ding, Ping; Jiang, Haoyu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Xiangyun; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-04-01

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Beijing, China, 5-11 November 2014, during which numerous measures were performed to control the air pollution, and consequently, the sky of Beijing was so clean that the public called it "APEC blue." The concentrations before, during, and after the APEC summit are 14.4 ± 6.81 µg C/m3, 6.66 ± 2.99 µg C/m3, and 32.3 ± 10.6 µg C/m3, respectively, for organic carbon (OC), and 2.27 ± 1.17 µg C/m3, 0.76 ± 0.52 µg C/m3, and 4.99 ± 1.74 µg C/m3, respectively, for elemental carbon (EC). We quantify the contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to the OC and EC using radiocarbon. Results show that the contribution of nonfossil sources is 56 ± 1% (before APEC), 61 ± 1% (during APEC), and 48 ± 1% (after APEC), respectively, for OC, and 36 ± 4% (before APEC), 46 ± 1% (during APEC), and 33 ± 4% (after APEC), respectively, for EC. Comparing to the period before APEC, 70% and 60% of fossil EC and OC and 60% and 50% of nonfossil EC and OC are reduced, respectively, implying that the control on the nonfossil sources has considerable contribution to the good air quality in Beijing. Both EC and OC mass loadings during the APEC summit would have increased by 60% if the biomass-burning activities were not taken into account for control. In such a case, the atmospheric visibility would decrease 20% at least and the blue sky thereby would likely not have been visible during the summit.

  19. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15-20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four-China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia-with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R(2) =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62-1.44 and R(2)=.65-.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so.

  20. Identifying vulnerable populations using a social determinants of health framework: analysis of national survey data across six Asia-Pacific countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Ward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO called for research on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper analyses four key SDH (social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. METHODS: Population surveys were undertaken using a validated instrument in 2009-10, with sample sizes around 1000 in each country. The four SDH were analysed using multivariate binomial logistic regression to identify socio-demographic predictors in each country. RESULTS: Low socio-economic security was associated with low income in all six study countries and with poor subjective health in Japan, South Korea and Thailand and with being married or cohabiting in Australia and Hong Kong. Low social cohesion was associated with low income in all countries and with undertaking household duties in South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Low social inclusion was associated with low income in Australia, South Korea and Taiwan and with poor subjective health in Australia, Japan and South Korea. Older people had lower social inclusion in Taiwan (50-59 years and Hong Kong (retired, younger people in Japan and South Korea (20-29 years in both countries and younger and middle-aged people in Australia. Low social empowerment was associated with low income in Australia, Thailand and Taiwan, with being aged 60 years or over in Australia, Hong Kong and South Korea, and over 50 years in Thailand. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides baseline measures for identifying where and how policy should be altered to improve the SDH. Furthermore, these data can be used for future policy evaluation to identify whether changes in policy have indeed improved the SDH, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable populations.

  1. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44 %, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23 %, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced, followed by industrial manufacturing and solvent utilization. Reductions of these three sources were responsible for 50, 26, and 16 % of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, and contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were the most important

  2. A critical review of traditional medicine and traditional healer use for malaria and among people in malaria-endemic areas: contemporary research in low to middle-income Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suswardany, Dwi L; Sibbritt, David W; Supardi, Sudibyo; Chang, Sungwon; Adams, Jon

    2015-03-01

    Malaria is a leading health threat for low to middle-income countries and around 1.8 billion people in the Southeast Asian region and 870 million people in the Western Pacific region remain at risk of contracting malaria. Traditional medicine/traditional healer (TM/TH) use is prominent amongst populations in low- to middle-income countries and constitutes an important issue influencing and potentially challenging effective, safe and coordinated prevention and treatment strategies around malaria. This paper presents the first critical review of literature on the use of TM/TH for malaria prevention and treatment in low- to middle-income countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A comprehensive search of English language, peer-reviewed literature reporting TM and/or TH use for malaria or among people in malaria-endemic areas in low- to middle-income Asia-Pacific countries published between 2003 and 2014 was undertaken. Twenty-eight papers reporting 27 studies met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of TM/TH use for malaria treatment ranged from 1 to 40.1%. A majority of studies conducted in rural/remote areas reported higher prevalence of TM/TH use than those conducted in mixed areas of urban, semi-urban, rural, and remote areas. Those utilizing TM/TH for malaria are more likely to be: women, people with lower educational attainment, people with lower household income, those with farming occupations, and those from ethnic minorities (identified from only three studies). The majority of adult participants delayed seeking treatment from a health centre or conventional providers while initially practicing TH use. The most common reasons for TM/TH use for malaria across the Asia-Pacific region are a lack of accessibility to conventional health services (due to geographical and financial barriers), faith in traditional treatment, and the perception of lower severity of malaria symptoms. This review has provided crucial insights into the prevalence and profile of TM/TH use for

  3. An enquiry based on a standardised questionnaire into knowledge, awareness and preferences concerning the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia among primary care physicians in the Asia-Pacific region: the "Ten Countries Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jing; Hu, Miao; Lin, Jie; Miida, Takashi; Nawawi, Hapizah M; Park, Jeong Euy; Wu, Xue; Ramli, Anis S; Kim, Ngoc Thanh; Kwok, See; Gonzalez-Santos, Lourdes E; Su, Ta-Chen; Truong, Thanh Huong; Soran, Handrean; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian; Watts, Gerald F

    2017-10-25

    To determine physicians' knowledge, awareness and preferences regarding the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in the Asia-Pacific region. A formal questionnaire was anonymously completed by physicians from different countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific. The survey sought responses relating to general familiarity, awareness of management guidelines, identification (clinical characteristics and lipid profile), prevalence and inheritance, extent of elevation in risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and practice on screening and treatment. Practising community physicians from Australia, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, Philippines, Hong Kong, China, Vietnam and Taiwan were recruited to complete the questionnaire, with the UK as the international benchmark. An assessment and comparison of the knowledge, awareness and preferences of FH among physicians in 10 different countries/regions. 1078 physicians completed the questionnaire from the Asia-Pacific region; only 34% considered themselves to be familiar with FH. 72% correctly described FH and 65% identified the typical lipid profile, with a higher proportion of physicians from Japan and China selecting the correct FH definition and lipid profile compared with those from Vietnam and Philippines. However, less than half of the physician were aware of national or international management guidelines; this was significantly worse than physicians from the UK (35% vs 61%, pcountry-specific guidelines and extensive work in FH education and awareness programmes are imperative to improve the care of FH in the region. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liu, Yung-Ching; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the rates of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that had been obtained from patients with intraabdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Susceptibility profiles obtained using 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were compared with those obtained using the 2011 CLSI breakpoints. From 2002 to 2010, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae together accounted for more than 60% of the 13714 Enterobacteriaceae isolates analyzed during the study period. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers comprised 28.2% of E. coli isolates and 22.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region, with China (55.6% and 33.7%, respectively) and Thailand (43.1% and 40.7%, respectively) having the highest proportions of ESBL producers. Based on the 2011 CLSI criteria, 77.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 40.4% of ESBL-producing E. coli, and 25.2% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime. Carbapenems showed in vitro activity against >90% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in all participating countries, except for ertapenem in South Korea (susceptibility rate 82.2%). Marked differences (>5%) in susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to carbapenems were noted between the profiles obtained using the 2009 CLSI criteria and those using the 2011 CLSI criteria. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is necessary in the Asia-Pacific region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A single-arm phase III study exploring the efficacy and safety of LNG-IUS 8, a low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (total content 13.5 mg), in an Asia-Pacific population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangsheng; Kang, Sukho; Ren, Mulan; Weisberg, Edith; Lukkari-Lax, Eeva; Roth, Katrin; Shin, SoYoung

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine system with total content 13.5 mg (average approximately 8 μg/24 h over the first year; LNG-IUS 8; Jaydess®) in an Asia-Pacific population. An open-label, single-arm phase III study conducted at 25 centers in China, Australia and Korea assessed LNG-IUS 8 use over 3 years in nulliparous and parous women (N=1114) aged 18-40 years with regular menstrual cycles (21-35 days). Primary outcome was pregnancy rate, expressed as the Pearl Index. Secondary outcomes included 3-year cumulative failure rate, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), discontinuation rate, bleeding profile and placement pain. The full analysis set comprised 925 women (mean age 31.6 years, 6.4% nulliparous). Overall unadjusted Pearl Index was 0.35 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.70); the 3-year cumulative failure rate was 0.9% (95% confidence interval 0.4-1.9). TEAEs and study drug-related TEAEs were reported in 70.1% and 31.2% of women, respectively. Overall, 27.9% of women discontinued the study, 16.9% due to adverse events. Frequent or prolonged bleeding (World Health Organization criteria) decreased from the first to the twelfth 90-day reference intervals (from 5.0% to 0.7% and from 44.1% to 3.0%, respectively), and the percentage of women with amenorrhea increased over time (from 0.4% to 10.8%). Pain on placement was reported as "none" or "mild" in 91.9% of women. LNG-IUS 8 was an effective and well-tolerated contraceptive method, providing another option for women in the Asia-Pacific region. In this phase III study, LNG-IUS 8 was shown to be highly effective and well tolerated in an Asia-Pacific population and was not associated with any new or unexpected safety events. LNG-IUS 8 provides another contraceptive option for women in the Asia-Pacific region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. "When I am in Japan, I feel as though I'm not disabled": A cross-cultural adjustment study of trainees with disabilities from Asia-Pacific regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Iwakuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the cross-cultural adjustment processes of trainees with disabilities from Asia-Pacific regions, with the aim to explore factors that influence cross-cultural adjustments and uncover experiences by individuals with disabilities. We interviewed a total of 13 trainees, some of whom were interviewed multiple times. Several factors (e.g., affluence of the Japanese lifestyle, maintaining contact with home via the Internet, and/or previous knowledge of the host culture greatly affected their transitions to Japan. Notably, participant adjustments were made on several different levels, including physical, social, and attitudinal.

  7. Adolescents with HIV and transition to adult care in the Caribbean, Central America and South America, Eastern Europe and Asia and Pacific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather; Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Songtaweesin, Wipaporn Natalie; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2017-05-16

    The HIV epidemics in the Caribbean, Central America and South America (CCASA), Eastern Europe (EE) and Asia and Pacific (AP) regions are diverse epidemics affecting different key populations in predominantly middle-income countries. This narrative review describes the populations of HIV-positive youth approaching adolescence and adulthood in CCASA, EE and AP, what is known of their outcomes in paediatric and adult care to date, ongoing research efforts and future research priorities. We searched PubMed and abstracts from recent conferences and workshops using keywords including HIV, transition and adolescents, to identify published data on transition outcomes in CCASA, EE and AP. We also searched within our regional clinical/research networks for work conducted in this area and presented at local or national meetings. To give insight into future research priorities, we describe published data on characteristics and health status of young people as they approach age of transition, as a key determinant of health in early adulthood, and information available on current transition processes. The perinatally HIV-infected populations in these three regions face a range of challenges including parental death and loss of family support; HIV-related stigma and socio-economic disparities; exposure to maternal injecting drug use; and late disclosure of HIV status. Behaviourally HIV-infected youth often belong to marginalized sub-groups, with particular challenges accessing services and care. Differences between and within countries in characteristics of HIV-positive youth and models of care need to be considered in comparisons of outcomes in young adulthood. The very little data published to date on transition outcomes across these three regions highlight some emerging issues around adherence, virological failure and loss to follow-up, alongside examples of programmes which have successfully supported adolescents to remain engaged with services and virologically suppressed

  8. Women's and men's reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women's risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Tabassam Naved, Ruchira; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Haardörfer, Regine; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific. A further objective is to describe the risk factors associated with women's experience of past-year physical or sexual IPV from women's reports and factors driving women's past-year experience of partner violence. This paper presents findings from the United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. In the course of this study, in population-based cross-sectional surveys, 5,206 men and 3,106 women aged 18-49 years were interviewed from 4 countries: Cambodia, China, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Sri Lanka. To measure risk factors, we use logistic regression and structural equation modelling to show pathways and mediators. The analysis was not based on a written plan, and following a reviewer's comments, some material was moved to supplementary files and the regression was performed without variable elimination. Men reported more lifetime perpetration of IPV (physical or sexual IPV range 32.5%-80%) than women did experience (physical or sexual IPV range 27.5%-67.4%), but women's reports of past-year experience (physical or sexual IPV range 8.2%-32.1%) were not very clearly different from men's (physical or sexual IPV range 10.1%-34.0%). Women reported much more emotional/economic abuse (past-year ranges 1.4%-5.7% for men and 4.1%-27.7% for women). Reports of nonpartner rape were similar for men (range 0.8%-1.9% in the past year) and women (range 0.4%-2.3% in past year), except in Bougainville, where they were higher for men (11.7% versus 5.7%). The

  9. Women's and men's reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women's risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific. A further objective is to describe the risk factors associated with women's experience of past-year physical or sexual IPV from women's reports and factors driving women's past-year experience of partner violence.This paper presents findings from the United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. In the course of this study, in population-based cross-sectional surveys, 5,206 men and 3,106 women aged 18-49 years were interviewed from 4 countries: Cambodia, China, Papua New Guinea (PNG, and Sri Lanka. To measure risk factors, we use logistic regression and structural equation modelling to show pathways and mediators. The analysis was not based on a written plan, and following a reviewer's comments, some material was moved to supplementary files and the regression was performed without variable elimination. Men reported more lifetime perpetration of IPV (physical or sexual IPV range 32.5%-80% than women did experience (physical or sexual IPV range 27.5%-67.4%, but women's reports of past-year experience (physical or sexual IPV range 8.2%-32.1% were not very clearly different from men's (physical or sexual IPV range 10.1%-34.0%. Women reported much more emotional/economic abuse (past-year ranges 1.4%-5.7% for men and 4.1%-27.7% for women. Reports of nonpartner rape were similar for men (range 0.8%-1.9% in the past year and women (range 0.4%-2.3% in past year, except in Bougainville, where they were higher for men (11.7% versus 5

  10. Sources and mass inventory of sedimentary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gulf of Thailand: Implications for pathways and energy structure in SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa; Qiao, Shuqing; Lin, Tian; Li, Yuanyuan; Bai, Yazhi; Wu, Bin; Liu, Shengfa; Kornkanitnan, Narumol; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat

    2017-01-01

    Surface sediments obtained from a matrix of 92 sample sites in the Gulf of Thailand (GOT) were analyzed for a comprehensive study of the distribution, sources, and mass inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess their input pathways and impacts of the regional land-based energy structure on the deposition of PAHs on the adjacent continental margins. The concentration of 16 PAHs in the GOT ranged from 2.6 to 78.1ng/g (dry weight), and the mean concentration was 19.4±15.1ng/g. The spatial distribution pattern of 16 PAH was generally consistent with that of sediment grain size, suggesting the influence of regional hydrodynamic conditions. Correlation and principal component analysis of the PAHs indicated that direct land-based inputs were dominantly responsible for the occurrence of PAHs in the upper GOT and the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs in the coastal region could be from petrogenic sources. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model apportioned five contributors: petroleum residues (~44%), biomass burning (~13%), vehicular emissions (~11%), coal combustion (~6%), and air-water exchange (~25%). Gas absorption may be a significant external input pathway for the volatile PAHs in the open GOT, which further implies that atmospheric loading could be important for the sink of PAHs in the open sea of the Southeast Asia (SE Asia). The different PAH source patterns obtained and a significant disparity of PAH mass inventory in the sediments along the East and Southeast Asia continental margins can be ascribed mainly to different land-based PAH emission features under the varied regional energy structure in addition to the depositional environment and climatic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  12. Predictors and Extent of Institutional Trust in Government, Banks, the Media and Religious Organisations: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys in Six Asia-Pacific Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Ward

    Full Text Available Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust. Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media and religious organisations. This paper focuses on institutional trust-the level and predictors of trust in some of the major institutions in society, namely politics, the media, banks, the legal system and religious organisations. We present analyses from a consolidated dataset containing data from six countries in the Asia Pacific region-Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in each country in 2009-10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of institutional trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country.Religious institutions, banks and the judicial system had the highest overall trust across all countries (70%, 70% and 67% respectively, followed by newspapers and TV (59% and 58% and then political leaders (43%. The range of levels of higher trust between countries differed from 43% for banks (range 49% in Australia to 92% in Thailand to 59% for newspapers (28% in Australia to 87% in Japan. Across all countries, except for Australia, trust in political leaders had the lowest scores, particularly in Japan and South Korea (25% in both countries. In Thailand, people expressed the most trust in religious organisations (94%, banks (92% and in their judicial/legal system (89%. In Hong Kong, people expressed the highest level of

  13. Comparative effectiveness of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors and human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue as add-on therapies to sulphonylurea among diabetes patients in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising globally, and it induces a substantial public health burden to the healthcare systems. Its optimal control is one of the most significant challenges faced by physicians and policy-makers. Whereas some of the established oral hypoglycaemic drug classes like biguanide, sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones have been extensively used, the newer agents like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors and the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogues have recently emerged as suitable options due to their similar efficacy and favorable side effect profiles. These agents are widely recognized alternatives to the traditional oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin, especially in conditions where they are contraindicated or unacceptable to patients. Many studies which evaluated their clinical effects, either alone or as add-on agents, were conducted in Western countries. There exist few reviews on their effectiveness in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this systematic review is to address the comparative effectiveness of these new classes of medications as add-on therapies to sulphonylurea drugs among diabetic patients in the Asia-Pacific countries. We conducted a thorough literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE from the inception of these databases to August 2013, supplemented by an additional manual search using reference lists from research studies, meta-analyses and review articles as retrieved by the electronic databases. A total of nine randomized controlled trials were identified and described in this article. It was found that DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues were in general effective as add-on therapies to existing sulphonylurea therapies, achieving HbA1c reductions by a magnitude of 0.59-0.90% and 0.77-1.62%, respectively. Few adverse events including hypoglycaemic attacks were reported. Therefore, these two new drug classes represent novel therapies with great potential to be major

  14. Implementation of the Asia-Pacific guidelines of obesity classification on the APACHE-O scoring system and its role in the prediction of outcomes of acute pancreatitis: a study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Appasani, Sreekanth; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Dutta, Usha; Indrajit, Abujam; Singh, Kartar; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2014-06-01

    We studied the role of obesity and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) O score in predicting the outcome in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) using the Asia-Pacific obesity classification. Two hundred eighty AP patients were classified into three different groups, normal weight [body mass index (BMI) = 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2)], overweight (BMI = 23-24.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)), according to the Asia-Pacific obesity classification. For all patients APACHE II scores and modified APACHE O (i.e., APACHE Oap) scores that included a factor for obesity were calculated. The patients were managed using a standard protocol, and the outcome measures were compared for different obesity groups. Of the 280 patients (mean age 40.7 years), 46.8% were normal weight, 29.6% overweight and 23.6% obese. Forty-six (16.4%) patients underwent surgery, and 61 (21.8%) patients died. Patients with higher BMI had worse radiological indices of severity, more infected necrosis (p APACHE II and 0.886 for APACHE Oap; at a cutoff of 8.5, the APACHE II score had a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 68.7%, and APACHE Oap 90.2 and 64.0%, respectively. BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) was an important predictor of a severe disease course and fatal outcome in patients with AP. However, the predictive accuracy of APACHE Oap for mortality was similar to APACHE II.

  15. Variation in cold hardiness of nondiapausing eggs of nine Aedes (Stegomyia) species (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Asia and Pacific islands ranging from the tropics to the cool-temperate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Motoyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Variation in cold hardiness was studied in the laboratory for the nondiapausing eggs of nine Aedes (Stegomyia) species from eastern Asia and Pacific islands, ranging from the tropics to the cool-temperate zone. Species included were Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes flavopictus Yamada, Aedes galloisi Yamada, Aedes hensilli Farner, Aedes palauensis Bohart, Aedes paullusi Stone and Farner, Aedes riversi Bohart and Ingram, and Aedes scutellaris (Walker). For species with distributions covering two or three climatic zones, at least one population was included from each zone, except for Ae. aegypti (subtropical populations were unavailable). Some eggs of four species confined to the tropical zone survived short exposure to freezing temperature (> or = -5 degrees C) when humidity was high. There were inter- and intraspecies variations in cold hardiness of nondiapausing eggs. Cold hardiness in each climatic zone differed in that populations of species with more northerly distributions were more cold-hardy than species with southerly distributions. In Ae. albopictus and Ae. flavopictus that cover three climatic zones, populations from cooler regions were more cold-hardy than populations from warmer regions. A possibility of southern species without diapausing eggs to colonize temperate eastern Asia was discussed.

  16. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    standards for internal control related to establishing an organizational structure, assigning responsibility, and delegating authority, in order to...off the west coast of the United States to the western border of India, and from Antarctica to the North Pole . U.S. Pacific Command is supported by...operate in the Pacific during a contingency, including how it integrates with joint and international partners and moves its forces. As of September

  17. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  18. Research report for fiscal 1998 including researches into global environmental problems. Business report on the promotion of interaction of scientists over environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1998 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Global environmental problems are growing quite serious in developing countries, yet they are requested to properly deal with them without making light of sustainable development, for which international cooperation and diffusion of technologies for the development of environmental technologies are mandatory. Japan, utilizing what it learned from pollution within in the past and making the best use of its technologies and knowledge for environmental improvement in developing countries in Asia, has been hosting since fiscal 1997 a function of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region function. In fiscal 1998, a fifth international symposium was convened at Science City Center at the foot of Mt. Suzuka on November 26 and 27. The central theme was the development of environmental technologies and international cooperation for developing nations, and the event attracted 180 participants from inside Japan and abroad. A number of concrete themes came out of working groups on water quality, air quality, and energy/waste, which concerned the drafting of propositions for international collaborative researches. As for researches abroad, four typical Malaysian institutes were visited. (NEDO)

  19. From the subtropics to the equator in the Southwest Pacific: Continental material fluxes quantified using neodymium data along modeled thermocline water pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Mélanie; Jeandel, Catherine; Cravatte, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    The southwestern tropical Pacific, part of a major pathway for waters feeding the Equatorial Undercurrent, is a region of important geochemical enrichment through land-ocean boundary exchange. Here we develop an original method based on the coupling between dynamical modeling and geochemical tracer data to identify regions of enrichment along the water pathways from the subtropics to the equator, and to allow a refined quantification of continental material fluxes. Neodymium data are interpreted with the help of modeled Lagrangian trajectories of an Ocean General Circulation Model. We reveal that upper and lower thermocline waters have different pathways together with different geochemical evolutions. The upper thermocline waters entering the Solomon Sea mainly originate from the central subtropical gyre, enter the Coral Sea in the North Vanuatu Jet and likely receive radiogenic neodymium from the basaltic island margins encountered along their route. The lower thermocline waters entering the Solomon Sea mainly originate from northeast of New Zealand and enter the Coral Sea in the North Caledonian Jet. Depletion of their neodymium content likely occurs when flowing along the Australian and Papua coasts. Downstream from the Solomon Sea, waters flowing along the Papua New Guinea margins near the Sepik river mouth become surprisingly depleted in their neodymium content in the upper thermocline while enriched in the lower thermocline. This coupled approach is proposed as strong support to interpret the origin of the equatorial Pacific natural fertilization through a better understanding of the circulation, important objectives of the international GEOTRACES and SPICE programs, respectively.

  20. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergy from an Asian perspective-An Asia Pacific Association of Pediatric Allergy, Respirology & Immunology (APAPARI) consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elizabeth Huiwen; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Van Bever, Hugo Ps; Vichyanond, Pakit; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary Wk; Lee, Bee Wah

    2017-10-25

    Emerging evidence for the early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergies, such as peanut allergy in Western populations, has led to the recent publication of guidelines in the USA and Europe recommending early peanut introduction for high-risk infants with severe eczema or egg allergy. Peanut allergy is, however, much less prevalent in Asia compared to the West. Varying patterns of food allergy are seen even within Asian countries-such as a predominance of wheat allergy in Japan and Thailand and shellfish allergy in Singapore and the Philippines. Customs and traditions, such as diet and infant feeding practices, also differ between Asian populations. Hence, there are unique challenges in adapting guidelines on early allergenic food introduction to the Asian setting. In this paper, we review the evidence and discuss the possible approaches to guide the timely introduction of allergenic food in high-risk infants in Asia. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  2. Implementing rotavirus vaccination in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosham, Mathuram; Nelson, E Anthony S; Bresee, Joseph S

    2007-11-01

    At the 2006 meeting of the Asian Pacific Pediatric Association (APPA), the Asia Pacific regional rotavirus community and international experts strongly recommended that rotavirus vaccines be used in National Immunization Programmes (NIP) in countries in Asia. Two rotavirus vaccine candidates are currently licensed and have been demonstrated to be safe, well tolerated and highly efficacious. Several additional vaccines are in the late stages of development. The conference participants agreed that decisions on the introduction of rotavirus vaccines may require additional disease burden data in some countries and that economic evaluations will help policymakers reach decisions on nationwide rotavirus vaccine implementation. Other potential issues that arise with vaccine implementation, for example, the concomitant use of rotavirus vaccines with other vaccines, were also discussed. Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from rotavirus disease and impact children's health in Asia.

  3. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%–70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC. PMID:28487836

  4. Asbestos in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  6. Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology consensus on tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. Part 1: risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Il Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 1 of the statements comprised 2 parts: risk of TB infection Recommendaduring anti-TNF therapy, and screening for TB infection prior to commencing anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

  7. Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology consensus on tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. Part 2: management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Il Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 2 of the statements comprised 3 parts: management of latent TB in preparation for anti-TNF therapy, monitoring during anti-TNF therapy, and management of an active TB infection after anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

  8. Isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 23 studies in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Barzi, Federica; Lam, Tai Hing; Czernichow, Sebastien; Fang, Xianghua; Welborn, Tim; Shaw, Jonathan; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zimmet, Paul; Jee, Sun Ha; Patel, Jeetesh V; Caterson, Ian; Perkovic, Vlado; Woodward, Mark

    2011-11-08

    Previous studies have suggested that there is a novel dyslipidemic profile consisting of isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level that is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, and that this trait may be especially prevalent in Asian populations. Individual participant data from 220 060 participants (87% Asian) in 37 studies from the Asia-Pacific region were included. Low HDL-C (HDL coronary heart disease and 739 stroke events. There was an inverse relationship between low HDL-C with coronary heart disease in all individuals (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.87). In Asians, isolated low levels of HDL-C were as strongly associated with coronary heart disease risk as low levels of HDL-C combined with other lipid abnormalities (hazard ratio, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.27-2.19] versus 1.63 [95% CI, 1.24-2.15], respectively). There was no association between low HDL-C and stroke risk in this population (hazard ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.78 to 1.17] with nonisolated low HDL-C and 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-1.00] with isolated low HDL-C). Isolated low HDL-C is a novel lipid phenotype that appears to be more prevalent among Asian populations, in whom it is associated with increased coronary risk. Further investigation into this type of dyslipidemia is warranted.

  9. Weight management strategies for those with chronic kidney disease - a consensus report from the Asia Pacific Society of Nephrology and Australia and New Zealand Society of Nephrology 2016 renal dietitians meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kelly; Beer, Jo; Dumont, Ruth; Hewitt, Katie; Manley, Karen; Meade, Anthony; Salamon, Karen; Campbell, Katrina

    2017-07-25

    Develop a consensus report to guide dietetic management of overweight or obese individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Six statements relating weight management in CKD guided a comprehensive review of the literature. A summary of the evidence was then presented at the renal nutrition meeting of the 2016 Asia Pacific Society of Nephrology and Australia and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Majority agreement was defined as group agreement on a statement of between 50-74%, and consensus was considered ≥ 75% agreement. The recommendations were developed via a mini Delphi process. Two statements achieved group consensus: the current guidelines used by dietitians to estimate energy requirements for overweight and obese people with CKD are not relevant and weight loss medications may be unsafe or ineffective in isolation for those with CKD. One statement achieved group agreement: Meal replacement formulas are safe and efficacious in those with CKD. No agreement was achieved on the statements of whether there is strong evidence of benefit for weight loss prior to kidney transplantation; whether traditional weight loss strategies can be used in those with CKD and if bariatric surgery in those with end stage kidney disease is feasible and effective. There is a limited evidence base to guide the dietetic management of overweight and obese individuals with CKD. Medical or surgical strategies to facilitate weight loss are not recommended in isolation and require a multidisciplinary approach with the involvement of a skilled renal dietitian. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The distribution and origin of PAHs over the Asian marginal seas, the Indian, and the Pacific Oceans: Implications for outflows from Asia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwen; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Tian, Chongguo; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan

    2014-02-01

    Aerosol samples were collected aboard the R/V Dayang Yihao from 8 January to 7 August 2007 to investigate the geographical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over oceans and to assess their continental origins. The highest concentrations were found over the marginal seas in Asia, especially the East and South China Seas, indicating that China is a top source of emissions into the marine atmosphere in the areas monitored on this cruise. PAH concentrations over the west oceanic region in the South Indian Ocean were noticeably higher than in other areas of the Indian Ocean, most likely because air masses from Africa, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal exert a negative impact on those regions through long-range atmospheric transport. The PAH isomer ratio values varied over the oceans that were impacted by continental sources but remained relatively uniform over most of the remote oceans. Using diagnostic ratio analysis, we found PAHs emitted from China were mainly associated with biomass/coal burning. The measurements of levoglucosan were consistent with the results mentioned above. The western part of the South Indian Ocean atmosphere was likely affected by wildfire emissions from Africa, while the northern part was by petroleum combustion, biofuel, and wildfire burning, because the winter monsoon most likely carries aerosol from the Arabian Peninsula and India across the equator. Using the monthly images of fire activity and aerosol optical depth, it can be confirmed biomass burning from Africa can significantly influence the aerosol over the Indian Ocean.

  11. Chemical characteristics of continental outflow from Asia to the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean during February-March 1994: Results from PEM-West B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Lefer, B. L.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E.; Heikes, B. G.; Merrill, J. T.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Singh, H. B.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Pueschel, R. F.

    1997-12-01

    We present here the chemical composition of outflow from the Asian continent to the atmosphere over the western Pacific basin during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) in February-March 1994. Comprehensive measurements of important tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particulate matter were performed from the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory. Backward 5 day isentropic trajectories were used to partition the outflow from two major source regions: continental north (>20°N) and continental south (industrial solvent vapors such as C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, and C6H6, intermixed with the combustion emission products C2H2, C2H6, CO, and NO. The mixing ratios of all species were up to tenfold greater in outflow from the continental north compared to the continental south source region, with 210Pb concentrations reaching 38 fCi (10-15 curies) per standard cubic meter. In the upper troposphere we again observed significant enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-10 km altitude range, but water-soluble trace gases and aerosol species were depleted. These observations suggest that ground level emissions were lofted to the upper troposphere by wet convective systems which stripped water-soluble components from these air parcels. There were good correlations between C2H2 and CO and C2H6 (r2=0.70-0.97) in these air parcels and much weaker ones between C2H2 and H2O2 or CH3OOH (r2 ≈0.50). These correlations were the strongest in the continental north outflow where combustion inputs appeared to be recent (1-2 days old). Ozone and PAN showed general correlation in these same air parcels but not with the combustion products. It thus appears that several source inputs were intermixed in these upper tropospheric air masses, with possible contributions from European or Middle Eastern source regions. In aged marine air mixing ratios of O3 (≈20 parts per billion by volume) and PAN (≤10 parts per trillion by volume) were nearly identical at H2O2 during PEM-West A

  12. Prevalence of and factors associated with non-partner rape perpetration: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Roselli, Tim; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    Rape perpetration is under-researched. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of rape of non-partner women and of men, and the reasons for rape, from nine sites in Asia and the Pacific across six countries: Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka. In this cross-sectional study, undertaken in January 2011-December 2012, for each site we chose a multistage representative sample of households and interviewed one man aged 18-49 years from each. Men self-completed questions about rape perpetration. We present multinomial regression models of factors associated with single and multiple perpetrator rape and multivariable logistic regression models of factors associated with perpetration of male rape with population-attributable fractions. We interviewed 10,178 men in our study (815-1812 per site). The prevalence of non-partner single perpetrator rape varied between 2·5% (28/1131; rural Bangladesh) and 26·6% (225/846; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), multiple perpetrator rape between 1·4% (18/1246; urban Bangladesh) and 14·1% (119/846; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), and male rape between 1·5% (13/880; Jayapura, Indonesia) and 7·7% (65/850; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). 57·5% (587/1022) of men who raped a non-partner committed their first rape as teenagers. Frequent reasons for rape were sexual entitlement (666/909; 73·3%, 95% CI 70·3-76·0), seeking of entertainment (541/921; 58·7%, 55·0-62·4), and as a punishment (343/905; 37·9%, 34·5-41·4). Alcohol was a factor in 249 of 921 cases (27·0%, 95% CI 24·2-30·1). Associated factors included poverty, personal history of victimisation (especially in childhood), low empathy, alcohol misuse, masculinities emphasising heterosexual performance, dominance over women, and participation in gangs and related activities. Only 443 of 1933 men (22·9%, 95% CI 20·7-25·3) who had committed rape had ever been sent to prison

  13. Boceprevir early-access for advanced-fibrosis/cirrhosis in Asia-Pacific hepatitis C virus genotype 1 non-responders/relapsers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Wattana; Pham, Tri; Tanwandee, Tewesak; Nazareth, Saroja; Galhenage, Sam; Mollison, Lindsay; Totten, Leanne; Wigg, Alan; Altus, Rosalie; Colman, Anton; Morales, Brenda; Mason, Sue; Jones, Tracey; Leembruggen, Nadine; Fragomelli, Vince; Sendall, Cheryl; Guan, Richard; Sutedja, Dede; Tan, Soek Siam; Dan, Yock Young; Lee, Yin Mei; Luman, Widjaja; Teo, Eng Kiong; Than, Yin Min; Piratvisuth, Teerha; Lim, Seng Gee

    2015-07-28

    To examined the efficacy and safety of treatment with boceprevir, PEGylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCVGT1) PR treatment-failures in Asia. The Boceprevir Named-Patient Program provided boceprevir to HCVGT1 PR treatment-failures. Participating physicians were invited to contribute data from their patients: baseline characteristics, on-treatment responses, sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR12), and safety were collected and analysed. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictors of response. 150 patients were enrolled from Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand (Asians = 86, Caucasians = 63). Overall SVR12 was 61% (Asians = 59.3%, Caucasians = 63.5%). SVR12 was higher in relapsers (78%) compared with non-responders (34%). On-treatment responses predicted SVR, with undetectable HCVRNA at week 4, 8 and 12 leading to SVR12s of 100%, 87%, and 82% respectively, and detectable HCVRNA at week 4, 8 and 12, leading to SVR12s of 58%, 22% and 6% respectively. Asian patients were similar to Caucasian patients with regards to on-treatment responses. Patients with cirrhosis (n = 69) also behaved in the same manner with regards to on-treatment responses. Those with the IL28B CC genotype (80%) had higher SVRs than those with the CT/TT (56%) genotype (P = 0.010). Multivariate analysis showed that TW8 and TW12 responses were independent predictors of SVR. Serious adverse events occurred in 18.6%: sepsis (2%), decompensation (2.7%) and blood transfusion (14%). Discontinuations occurred in 30.7%, with 18.6% fulfilling stopping rules. Boceprevir can be used successfully in PR treatment failures with a SVR12 > 80% if they have good on-treatment responses; however, discontinuations occurred in 30% because of virological failure or adverse events.

  14. Antiemetic therapy in Asia Pacific countries for patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy--a descriptive analysis of practice patterns, antiemetic quality of care, and use of antiemetic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiying; Burke, Thomas A; Chan, Alexandre; Kim, Hoon-Kyo; Hsieh, Ruey Kuen; Hu, Xichun; Liang, Jin-Tung; Baños, Ana; Spiteri, Carmel; Keefe, Dorothy M K

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports prescribing patterns for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC) for cancer in six Asia Pacific countries. In a prospective noninterventional study, 31 sites in Australia, China, India, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan recorded details of CINV prophylaxis for the acute phase (first 24 h) and delayed phase (days 2-5) after single-day HEC or MEC for adult patients. Additional information on CINV prophylactic medications was collected from 6-day patient diaries. Primary antiemetic therapies were defined as corticosteroids, the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5HT3-RAs), and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1-RAs). Evaluable patients in cycle 1 numbered 648 (318 [49%] HEC and 330 [51%] MEC) of mean (SD) age of 56 (12) years, including 58% women. For the acute phase after HEC, overall (and country range), 96% (91-100%) of patients received a 5HT3-RA, 87% (70-100%) a corticosteroid, and 43% (0-91%) an NK1-RA. CINV prophylaxis for the HEC delayed phase was more variable: including 22% (7-65%) 5HT3-RA, 52% (12-93%) corticosteroid, and 46% (0-88%) NK1-RA. For the MEC acute phase, 97% (87-100%) of patients received 5HT3-RA and 86% (73-97%) a corticosteroid. For the MEC delayed phase, 201 patients (61%) received a primary antiemetic, including 5HT3-RA (41%), corticosteroid (37%), and/or NK1-RA (4%). The 5HT3-RAs were prescribed consistently in all countries, while prescribing of other antiemetic therapies was variable, and corticosteroids were under-prescribed for CINV prophylaxis, particularly in the delayed phase.

  15. Pathways to Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Mitry, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    core competencies and branding. Development situations of the company‘s four geographic segments, North America, South America, Europe, and APMEA (Asia, Pacific, Middle East and Africa), are presented in order to fully understand how McDonald‘s influences and is influenced by its domestic and global......For marketing and economic researchers, an important aspect of globalization is the degree to which various consumer behavior dimensions and consumption patterns in different parts of the world are becoming similar, and how multinational companies have identified pathways to global success....... An important case study is McDonald‘s corporation, the world‘s largest fast food restaurant chain. This company has employed divergent marketing and economic strategies in both domestic and the international markets to become a leader in the global marketplace. An overview of the company‘s background...

  16. Design and Use of Representative Agricultural Pathways for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change in U.S. Pacific Northwest Cereal-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Antle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and use of Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs in regional integrated assessment of climate impacts. In the first part of the paper, we describe the role of pathways and scenarios in regional integrated assessment as well as the three RAPs developed for a study of dryland wheat-based systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We use this example to illustrate the challenges associated with the development and implementation of RAPs, including the engagement of research team and stakeholders, the dimensionality problem in integrated assessment, incorporation of economic data, and quantification of uncertainties. In the second part, we illustrate the use of RAPs in the study of climate impacts on dryland wheat-based systems. Results show that the direct impacts of future climate projections through crop yields provide the largest source of uncertainty in the climate impact and vulnerability analysis, but the indirect impacts of climate change through price projections embedded in RAPs also play an important role in the analysis. We conclude that in addition to being an essential element in designing an integrated assessment at the regional level, the RAPs development process can facilitate stakeholder engagement and improve communication of climate impact assessments.

  17. Pathways between childhood trauma, intimate partner violence, and harsh parenting: findings from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emma Fulu, PhD

    2017-05-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention. National studies were funded by the UN Population Fund in Bangladesh and China, UN Women in Cambodia and Indonesia, UN Develoment Programme in Papua New Guinea, and CARE in Sri Lanka.

  18. Multi-causal pathways of public opposition to dam projects in Asia: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars overwhelmingly adopt the case study method when analyzing causal conditions inducing anti-dam-protests. We have carried out the first medium-N-study on this topic analyzing public opposition to 12 dam projects in Asia. For this purpose, we employ a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

  19. Melt extraction pathways at segmented oceanic ridges: Application to the East Pacific Rise at the Siqueiros transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Laura B.; Montési, Laurent G. J.

    2011-06-01

    Throughout the global mid-ocean ridge system, transform faults offset spreading centers. Conductive cooling may be more efficient beneath transform faults, producing a thickened lithosphere that directs melt away from the transform. However, recent observations of thickened crust along transform faults at fast ridges suggest melt redistribution toward transforms, intra-crustal melt production, or efficient extraction of melt. We apply a 3-D model of melt migration and extraction along an oceanic transform domain bounded by ridge segments. Melt is assumed to travel vertically before collecting and migrating beneath a low-permeability boundary inclined towards the ridge axis. A melt extraction zone, which may be geologically interpreted as the presence of faults and/or dikes leading to rapid lateral and vertical melt migration toward plate boundaries, affects the pattern of crustal accretion at segmented ridges. First, we examine a generic ridge-transform-ridge geometry and then a model that represents the Siqueiros transform on the East Pacific Rise. On the basis of crustal thickness variations within the intra-transform spreading centers along the fast-slipping Siqueiros fault, we constrain the presence of a melt extraction zone within 10 km of the transform zone.

  20. A 3-D modeling approach to melt migration and extraction pathways at the Siqueiros transform along the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, L. B.; Montesi, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    Within the global mid-ocean ridge system, transform faults offset spreading centers. Conductive cooling is probably more efficient beneath transform faults, producing a thickened lithosphere that potentially reduces melting and directs melt away from the transform. However, recent observations of thick crust along transform faults at fast-spreading ridges [Gregg et al., Nature 2007] suggest melt redistribution toward transforms, intra-crustal melt production, or efficient extraction of melt. We investigate the origin of these crustal anomalies by applying a 3-D model of melt migration and extraction to an oceanic transform domain bounded by ridge segments. We consider that melt extraction occurs in three steps: First, melt rises vertically from the zone of melt production to a melt-impermeable boundary, or permeability barrier, associated with a crystallization front controlled by the conductive regime at the base of the thermal boundary layer. Second, melt travels along the permeability barrier, which is generally inclined towards the ridge axis. It is at this stage that melt focusing occurs. Third, melt reaches the surface, usually because it enters a melt extraction zone, which may be physically interpreted as the presence of faults and/or dikes leading to rapid lateral and vertical melt migration toward plate boundaries. The geometry of the permeability barrier and the melt extraction zone are both affected by the detailed geometry of the segmented ridge axis. We examine a model that represents the Siqueiros transform on the East Pacific Rise. All three steps are necessary to explain the observed crustal thickness variations within the intra-transform spreading centers along the fast-slipping Siqueiros fault. In particular, we constrain the presence of a melt extraction zone within 10 km of the transform axis.

  1. Improving access to health services in Asia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... Since 2000, the Southern–led research network Equitap (Equity in Asia-Pacific Health Systems) has systematically documented the performance of 15 national health systems in Asia. Equitap's first phase revealed stark disparities in access to health care and risk protection between rich and poor in most ...

  2. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  3. Trans-Pacific and trans-Arctic pathways of the intertidal macroalga Fucus distichus L. reveal multiple glacial refugia and colonizations from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, James A.; Hoarau, Galice; Van Schaik, Jaap; Luijckx, Pepijn; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    Aim We examined the phylogeography of the cold-temperate macroalgal species Fucus distichus L., a key foundation species in rocky intertidal shores and the only Fucus species to occur naturally in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Location North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans (42

  4. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    Full Text Available The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control to 3 practical salinity units (psu for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

  5. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Wang, Xiaodan; Lin, Heizhao; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

  6. Asia-Pacific: A Strategic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    China cannot set Tai- wan free and the origins and evolution of the Taiwan issue, see Lai, The United States and China in Power Transition. 76 28. See...Singapore: Dolphin Trade Press, 1995. 84. Cai Penghong, “An Analysis of the U.S. South China Sea Policy,” Contemporary International Relations (China), No. 9...China), No. 5, 2002. 84 85. Hu Suping, “The Evolution of U.S. Policy on the South China Sea, 1950-2004,” The New Orient (China), No. 5, 2010. Hu

  7. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... centuries, America's story has been tied to the Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed... honor all Americans who trace their ancestry to Asia and the Pacific Islands, we must acknowledge the...

  9. Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment is better than the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of Liver criteria for defining acute-on-chronic liver failure and predicting outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Radha K; Agrawal, Swastik; Gupta, Tarana; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh

    2014-10-28

    To compare the utility of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) and Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL) definitions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in predicting short-term prognosis of patients with ACLF. Consecutive patients of cirrhosis with acute decompensation were prospectively included. They were grouped into ACLF and no ACLF groups as per CLIF-SOFA and APASL criteria. Patients were followed up for 3 mo from inclusion or mortality whichever was earlier. Mortality at 28-d and 90-d was compared between no ACLF and ACLF groups as per both criteria. Mortality was also compared between different grades of ACLF as per CLIF-SOFA criteria. Prognostic scores like CLIF-SOFA, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II, Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were evaluated for their ability to predict 28-d mortality using area under receiver operating curves (AUROC). Of 50 patients, 38 had ACLF as per CLIF-SOFA and 19 as per APASL criteria. Males (86%) were predominant, alcoholic liver disease (68%) was the most common etiology of cirrhosis, sepsis (66%) was the most common cause of acute decompensation while infection (66%) was the most common precipitant of acute decompensation. The 28-d mortality in no ACLF and ACLF groups was 8.3% and 47.4% (P = 0.018) as per CLIF-SOFA and 39% and 37% (P = 0.895) as per APASL criteria. The 28-d mortality in patients with no ACLF (n = 12), ACLF grade 1 (n = 11), ACLF grade 2 (n = 14) and ACLF grade 3 (n = 13) as per CLIF-SOFA criteria was 8.3%, 18.2%, 42.9% and 76.9% (χ(2) for trend, P = 0.002) and 90-d mortality was 16.7%, 27.3%, 78.6% and 100% (χ(2) for trend, P < 0.0001) respectively. Patients with prior decompensation had similar 28-d and 90-d mortality (39.3% and 53.6%) as patients without prior decompensation (36.4% and 63.6%) (P = NS). AUROCs for 28-d mortality were 0.795, 0.787, 0.739 and 0.710 for CLIF-SOFA, APACHE

  10. Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  11. Evaluation of long range transport of fossil fuel originated organic aerosol at a background site in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jin; Lee, Ji Yi; Park, Jin Soo; Lee, Seok Jo; Kim, Hyun Jae; Jeon, Ha Eun; Sung, Min Young

    2013-04-01

    Northeast Asia is heavy air pollution region due to usage of large amounts of fossil fuel. In addition, meteorological conditions represented as prevailing westerlies in Northeast Asia region causes long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants emitted from China to Korea and Japan and even the United States across the Pacific Ocean (Bey et al., 2001). The Baengnyeong Island of Korea is located at the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula and close by North Korea and China, thus this site is regarded as an ideal place for background air measurements in Northeast Asia. Also, it has low local anthropogenic emissions and is frequently influenced by various air masses from China and North Korea in the Island. In this study, we performed intensive sampling during summer and winter in the Baengnyeong Island and analyzed various organic compounds including fossil fuel originated organic markers such as hopanes and PAHs using thermal desorption two dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOFMS). We also analyzed ~20 urban aerosol samples collected at Seoul, a representative urban site in Northeast Asia region to compare organic compounds distributions of aerosol samples at the Baengnyeong Island. By applying air mass back trajectory analysis and comparing organic compounds distributions in aerosol samples of the Baengnyeong Island and Seoul, the impact of long-range transport of fossil fuel originated organic pollutants at a background site in Northeast Asia were evaluated. (References) Bey, I., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Yantosca, R.M., 2001. Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: origins, pathways, and budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 106, 23097-23113.

  12. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XVI. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald in Southeast Asia (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 9, Number 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Warmbaths District (Muspratt 1955: 172). Reined.: Aedes (4edimmphus) in Southeast Asia 75 SOUTHERN COOK ISLANDS . Rarotonga ( ?) (Belkin 1962: 429). SOUTH...These species are completely described and compared with closely related forms occurring in the Pacific Islands and Oriental Zoogeographical Regions...species and 1 subspecies from Southeast Asia and compares them to closely related species in the Oriental and Pacific Islands Zoogeographical Regions

  13. Proceedings of the session on tropical forestry for people of the Pacific, XVII Pacific Science Congress; May 27-28, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene C. Conrad; Leonard A. Newell

    1992-01-01

    The 17 papers in the Proceedings of the Session on Tropical Forestry for People of the Pacific cover the topics of the USDA Forest Service's tropical forestry research, forestry research in Asia and the Pacific, management of tropical forests for products and energy; forest and wildlife management, the South Pacific Forestry Development Programme, tropical...

  14. Model Blue Economy di Kawasan Asia Pasifik (Studi Kasus: Penerapan Model Blue Economy pada Industri Perikanan Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Faisyal; Cahayasari, Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    This research explains about blue economy models in Asia Pacific region, especially the implementation of the blue economy models in Indonesia fisheries industry. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum of economic cooperation countries of Asia Pacifik which aims to improve the welfare and economic growth has a vision of marine and fisheries which competitive and sustainable for community welfare. To realize the vision of marine and fisheries development implemented by blue econom...

  15. Insight into Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Toll-Like Receptor/Interferon Signalling Pathways for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Chia Chai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes involved in toll-like receptor/interferon signalling pathways have been reported previously to be associated with SLE in many populations. This study aimed to investigate the role of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms within TNFAIP3, STAT4, and IRF5, which are involved in upstream and downstream pathways of type I interferon production, in SLE in the South East Asian populations. Genotyping of 360 Malaysian SLE patients and 430 normal healthy individuals revealed that minor alleles of STAT4 rs7574865 and rs10168266 were associated with elevated risk of SLE in the Chinese and Malay patients, respectively (P=0.028, odds ratio (OR=1.42; P=0.035, OR=1.80, respectively. Polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 and IRF5 did not show significant associations with SLE in any of the ethnicities. Combined analysis of the Malays, Chinese, and Indians for each SNP indicated that STAT4 rs10168266 was significantly associated with the Malaysian SLE as a whole (P=0.014; OR=1.435. The meta-analysis of STAT4 rs10168266, which combined the data of other studies and this study, further confirmed its importance as the risk factor for SLE by having pooled OR of 1.559 and P value of <0.001.

  16. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Turkey and Stability in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Brief Story of Ertuğrul Frigate,” 56 Kemal Girgin, Osmanli ve Cumhuriyet Donemleri Hariciye Tarihimiz (Teskilat ve Protokol), [Foreign Relations...University Turkish Revolution History Institute Ataturk Involvement Journal] (May-November 2005):238. 68 Hyerim Choi, “Mutual Perceptions of Korean and...Accessed November 28, 2016. http://www.cfr.org/asia-and-pacific/chinas-maritime-disputes/ p31345#!/p31345. Dellios, Rosita, and Nadir Kemal Yilmaz

  18. Significance of UICC Activities in Global Health Initiatives on Cancer Looking Towards the Future of Cooperative Networks for Cancer Care in Asia - A Dialogue with the Union for International Cancer Control(UICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Norie; Adams, Cary; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2017-09-01

    At the 24th Asia Pacific Cancer Conference held in Seoul, Korea from 22 to 24 June 2017, a dialogue with Dr.Cary Adams, CEO of the Union for International Cancer Control(UICC)was held to discuss the significance of UICC activities in global health initiatives on cancer and pathways for cooperation on cancer control and care.UICC is engaged in a wide range of capacity building, advocacy and convening initiatives and is increasingly focusing on multi-sectoral approaches.In Japan activities are still predominantly focused on scientific and clinical research and this dialogue provided an opportunity to discuss the possibilities for expanding cooperation in Asia, using the UICC Asia Regional Office(UICC-ARO)as a platform.Discussion also covered UICC's new C/Can 2025: City Cancer Challenge, a new multi-sectoral initiative that has the potential to bring multiple stakeholders together.

  19. Examining the predictors of academic outcomes for indigenous Māori, Pacific and rural students admitted into medicine via two equity pathways: a retrospective observational study at the University of Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elana; Wikaire, Erena; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Robert; Poole, Phillippa; Barrow, Mark; Bagg, Warwick; Reid, Papaarangi

    2017-08-27

    To determine associations between admission markers of socioeconomic status, transitioning, bridging programme attendance and prior academic preparation on academic outcomes for indigenous Māori, Pacific and rural students admitted into medicine under access pathways designed to widen participation. Findings were compared with students admitted via the general (usual) admission pathway. Retrospective observational study using secondary data.  6-year medical programme (MBChB), University of Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. Students are selected and admitted into Year 2 following a first year (undergraduate) or prior degree (graduate). 1676 domestic students admitted into Year 2 between 2002 and 2012 via three pathways: GENERAL admission (1167), Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme-MAPAS (317) or Rural Origin Medical Preferential Entry-ROMPE (192). Of these, 1082 students completed the programme in the study period. Graduated from medical programme (yes/no), academic scores in Years 2-3 (Grade Point Average (GPA), scored 0-9). 735/778 (95%) of GENERAL, 111/121 (92%) of ROMPE and 146/183 (80%) of MAPAS students graduated from intended programme. The graduation rate was significantly lower in the MAPAS students (pacademic outcomes: bridging programme attendance, admission as an undergraduate and admission GPA/Grade Point Equivalent (GPE). Attending local urban schools and higher school deciles were also associated with a greater likelihood of graduation. All regression models have controlled for predefined baseline confounders (gender, age and year of admission). There were varied associations between admission variables and academic outcomes across the three admission pathways. Equity-targeted admission programmes inclusive of variations in academic threshold for entry may support a widening participation agenda, however, additional academic and pastoral supports are recommended. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  20. Expanding Chinese Naval Power and Maritime Security in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Winterford, David

    1992-01-01

    The collapse of East-West competition for global preeminence is unleashing powerful forces for strategic change in the Asia-Pacific region. A reconfiguration of the regional security balance is taking place, especially a resurging naval rivalry, aspiring hegemons--notably China, Japan and India-- jostle for leadership roles. This report examines the central role being played by China in the unfolding security changes in Asia. Chinese naval modernization is analyzed within the context of China...

  1. Inclusive Growth and Gender Inequality in Asia's Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Zveglich, Jr., Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines gender inequality in labor markets in Asia and the Pacific, with a focus on the structural drivers of women's labor force participation. Demographic survey data indicate that in Asia's lower-income countries, economic necessity is an important push factor behind women's employment. Also, being married and having young children both reduce the likelihood that a woman is employed. In a separate analysis for Taipei,China, this disincentive effect from young children on women'...

  2. Northeast Asia - Cultural Influences on the U.S. National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Larry

    2004-01-01

    .... A decade ago, this approach towards the states of the Asia-Pacific region was highly effective as their economic or military dependency upon the United States, or their fear of both, usually forced...

  3. Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    migration.58 Extreme weather events can damage infrastructure, leaving large groups of people homeless in the short term. For example, when Typhoon...consisting of Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, Australia , and the Malay Archipelago. 21 Locklear stated that the second order effect of this...from allied Pacific nations, including Japan, the Philippines, Canada, and Australia ; and members of the OFDA staff.101 This central clearing house

  4. 19th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This PALO volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 19th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2015), held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 22-25, 2015. The IES series of conference is an annual event that was initiated back in 1997 in Canberra, Australia. IES aims to bring together researchers from countries of the Asian Pacific Rim, in the fields of intelligent systems and evolutionary computation, to exchange ideas, present recent results and discuss possible collaborations. Researchers beyond Asian Pacific Rim countries are also welcome and encouraged to participate. The theme for IES 2015 is “Transforming Big Data into Knowledge and Technological Breakthroughs”. The host organization for IES 2015 is the School of Information Technology (SIT), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), and it is technically sponsored by the International Neural Network Society (INNS). IES 2015 is collocated with three other conferences; namely, The 6th International Confere...

  5. ASIAS - Some History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASIAS effort builds on demonstrations that an open exchange of information contributes to improved aviation safety. ASIAS is a comprehensive effort, covering the...

  6. Vertical Variation of Optical Properties of Mixed Asian Dust/Pollution Plumes According to Pathway of Airmass Transport Over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Sung-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use five years (2009 – 2013 of multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements at Gwangju, Korea (35.10° N, 126.53° E for the identification of changes of optical properties of East Asian dust in dependence of its transport path over China. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and backscatter-related Ångström exponents (wavelength pair 355/532nm were measured at Gwangju. Linear particle depolarization ratios were used to identify East Asian dust layers. We used backward trajectory modelling to identify the pathway and the vertical position of dust-laden air masses over China during long-range transport. Most cases of Asian dust events can be described by the emission of dust in desert areas and subsequent transport over highly polluted regions of China. The Asian dust plumes could be categorized into two classes according to the height above ground in which these plumes were transported: (I the dust layers passed over China at high altitude levels until arrival over Gwangju, and (II the Asian dust layers were transported near the surface and the lower troposphere over industrialized areas before they arrived over Gwangju. We find that the optical characteristics of these mixed Asian dust layers over Gwangju differ in dependence of their vertical position above ground over China and the change of height above ground during transport. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.21±0.06 (at 532 nm, the mean lidar ratios were 52±7 sr at 355 nm and 53±8 sr at 532 nm, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.74±0.31 in case I. In contrast, plumes transported at lower altitudes (case II showed low depolarization ratios, and higher lidar ratio and Ångström exponents. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.13 ± 0.04, the mean lidar ratios were 63±9 sr at 355 nm and 62±8 sr at 532 nm, respectively, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.98±0.51. These numbers show that the optical

  7. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  8. The Importance of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia has now woken up. Its huge economic development is proof of this. The Asian-Pacific nations have known how to adopt Western means of production and have incorporated them into their own culture and tradition. However, this does not mean that they are not undergoing profound transformations both at a domestic and external level, as can be highlighted, with regard to the latter, by the desire to establish a new order in the Asia-Pacific region. In this context, the present article analyses whether this dynamic presents a reformation of the world order: the fundamental role that the US plays in this region after the Cold War; the new actors and power relations that are emerging such as Japan, China and ASEAN (Association of South East Nations; and forums such as APEC (AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation, EAEC (East Asian Economic Conference, ASEAN and the ASEAN Security Forum, created and empowered among other things in order to keep a check on the reappearance of those old “ghosts” (nationalisms, territorial disputes pending solution which could triumph over the growing prosperity.Finally, the author draws to attention the Europe of the EU which is too busy in its own self-construction and puts before it the challenge of knowing how to shape itself into the third great actor of the region, after the U.S. and Japan and he speaks of the necessityfor Spain to be more present in the Pacific given that it is vital for its economy.

  9. A new order in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, G.

    1991-09-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region.

  10. South Asia | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Recours aux cultures céréalières traditionnelles pour améliorer la nutrition en milieu rural en Inde. Language French. Read more about Open Crowd-Sourced Online Digital Review of Asia Pacific. Language English. Read more about Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e- ...

  11. The Tertiary tectonics of the southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honza, Eiichi (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Most of the terranes in eastern Asia appear to be relics of arcs, oceanic islands, and subduction complexes. They have collided and accreted from the inner (northwestern) side in China since the Silurian. They are characterized by three stages of Pacific and Tethys evolution. The first collision is related to the Pacific domain in the Permian in which these movements are not clearly reconstructed. The second collision is related to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. The third is related to closure of the Neo-Tethys and the subsequent collision of India in the Tertiary. Southeast Asia is in one of the most enigmatic plate boundaries in the world, forming many small plates, collisions, and consumptions. This complication is also suggested to be a result of the northward movement of Australia since its break-up from Gondwanaland in the Cretaceous. During their evolution, most of them have associated with arcs. These arcs also have formed superimpositions on the older exotic blocks of terranes. They are reconstructed on the base of the regular duration on the formation of arcs and backarc basins, which can be seen in the Western Pacific Arc Chain.

  12. Apparel in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Robertson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Apparel is the largest labor-intensive manufacturing industry in South Asia, and is a major employer of women. Although South Asia’s apparel sector benefits from many of the same favorable conditions as East Asia’s, performance in South Asian apparel remains well below that of East Asia. The objective of this study is to identify the policy changes necessary for South Asia to capitalize on...

  13. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias: a consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and ESC Council on Hypertension, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas; Boriani, Giuseppe; Manolis, Antonis S; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Oto, Ali; Potpara, Tatjana S; Steffel, Jan; Marín, Francisco; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Márcio Jansen; de Simone, Giovanni; Tzou, Wendy S; Chiang, Chern-En; Williams, Bryan; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Gorenek, Bulent; Fauchier, Laurent; Savelieva, Irina; Hatala, Robert; van Gelder, Isabelle; Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Erdine, Serap; Lovic, Dragan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Salinas-Arce, Jorge; Field, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Hypertension is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal insufficiency. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in hypertensive patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or HF. Also, some of the antihypertensive drugs commonly used to reduce blood pressure, such as thiazide diuretics, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesemia), further contributing to arrhythmias, whereas effective control of blood pressure may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between hypertension and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit to comprehensively review the available evidence to publish a joint consensus document on hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias, and to provide up-to-date consensus recommendations for use in clinical practice. The ultimate judgment regarding care of a particular patient must be made by the healthcare provider and the patient in light of all of the circumstances presented by that patient. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Southeast Asia's changing palaeogeography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, R

    2009-01-01

    Geology provides the basis for understanding distributions of faunas and floras in Southeast Asia but only via a complex interplay of plate movements, palaeogeography, ocean circulation and climate...

  15. The Pacific RANET Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  16. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. AED in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of AED endeavors in Asia. AED's work in Asia has centered on institution-building, taking advantage of its…

  18. Surveillance for highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in California during 2014–2015 provides insights into viral evolutionary pathways and the spatiotemporal extent of viruses in the Pacific Americas Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Hill, Nichola J.; Cline, Troy; Plancarte, Magdalena; De La Cruz, Susan; Casazza, Michael L.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Fleskes, Joseph; Vickers, T. Winston; Reeves, Andrew; Gulland, Frances; Fontaine, Christine; Prosser, Diann J.; Runstadler, Jonathan; Boyce, Walter M.

    2017-01-01

    We used surveillance data collected in California before, concurrent with, and subsequent to an outbreak of highly pathogenic (HP) clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A viruses (IAVs) in 2014–2015 to (i) evaluate IAV prevalence in waterfowl, (ii) assess the evidence for spill-over infections in marine mammals and (iii) genetically characterize low-pathogenic (LP) and HP IAVs to refine inference on the spatiotemporal extent of HP genome constellations and to evaluate possible evolutionary pathways. We screened samples from 1496 waterfowl and 1142 marine mammals collected from April 2014 to August 2015 and detected IAV RNA in 159 samples collected from birds (n=157) and pinnipeds (n=2). HP IAV RNA was identified in three samples originating from American wigeon (Anas americana). Genetic sequence data were generated for a clade 2.3.4.4 HP IAV-positive diagnostic sample and 57 LP IAV isolates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the HP IAV was a reassortant H5N8 virus with gene segments closely related to LP IAVs detected in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) sampled in California and other IAVs detected in wild birds sampled within the Pacific Americas Flyway. In addition, our analysis provided support for common ancestry between LP IAVs recovered from waterfowl sampled in California and gene segments of reassortant HP H5N1 IAVs detected in British Columbia, Canada and Washington, USA. Our investigation provides evidence that waterfowl are likely to have played a role in the evolution of reassortant HP IAVs in the Pacific Americas Flyway during 2014–2015, whereas we did not find support for spill-over infections in potential pinniped hosts.

  19. Tethyan calpionellids in the Neuquén Basin (Argentine Andes), their significance in defining the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary and pathways for Tethyan-Eastern Pacific connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Aguirre-Urreta, Beatriz; Lescano, Marina; Concheyro, Andrea; Vennari, Verónica; Ramos, Victor A.

    2017-10-01

    The study of calpionellid distribution in the well-documented Las Loicas section of the Vaca Muerta Formation in the Neuquén Basin, Argentine Andes, allows the recognition of the upper part of the Crassicollaria Zone and the lower part of Calpionella Zone across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The Crassicollaria Zone, Colomi Subzone (Upper Tithonian) is composed of Calpionella alpina Lorenz, Crassicollaria colomi Doben, Crassicollaria parvula Remane, Crassicollaria massutiniana (Colom), Crassicollaria brevis Remane, Tintinnopsella remanei (Borza) and Tintinnopsella carpathica (Murgeanu and Filipescu). The Calpionella Zone, Alpina Subzone (Lower Berriasian) is indicated by the explosion of the small and globular form of Calpionella alpina dominating over very scarce Crassicollaria massutiniana. The FAD of Nannoconus wintereri can be clearly correlated with the upper part of Crassicollaria Zone and the FAD of Nannoconus kamptneri minor with the Calpionella Zone. Additional studies are necessary to establish a more detailed calpionellid biozonation and its correlation with other fossil groups. The present work confirms similar calpionellid bioevents in westernmost Tethys (Cuba and Mexico) and the Andean region, strengthening the Paleo-Pacific-Tethyan connections through the Hispanic Corridor already known from other fossil groups.

  20. Food allergy in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Bee Wah

    2006-06-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence in Western populations, but little is known about it in Asia. The perception is that the prevalence in this region is low, but is likely to increase with the global increase in allergy. Asia is unique because of the many different cultures and eating habits, with the resulting occurrence of unique food allergens. This review describes the epidemiology and clinical features of food allergy, and introduces some of the unusual food allergens in Asia. Recent studies describing the pattern of anaphylaxis and the role of food triggers show that food is an important cause of severe allergic reactions in Asia. Progress has been made on the characterization of unique food allergens from the region. Peanut and tree nuts are rarely the cause of allergic reactions in Asia. The lack of availability of epinephrine auto-injectors in many countries is an important issue that needs to be addressed. The pattern of food allergy in Asia is unique. Unfortunately, data from many parts of Asia are still lacking. Large, well-designed epidemiological studies are needed so that the scale of the problem can be understood, public awareness can be increased and important food allergens in the region can be identified.

  1. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Ukrainian Crisis: Perspectives from Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Ganshina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article discusses the latest developments in Ukraine in 2013-2014. Different point of views of the Asia-Pacific region and countries like China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam and Indonesia will be considered in this topic. During this period, the country is experiencing a political crisis, that affects the Ukraine itself, as well as international relations in the described region. The point of view on these matters by the countries of the Asia-Pacific rim must be taken into account too.

  3. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  4. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A physical model for extreme drought over southwest Asia: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Barlow, Mathew; Cannon, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    The socioeconomic difficulties of southwest Asia, defined as the area bound by the domain 25°N–40°N and 40°E–70°E, are exacerbated by extreme precipitation deficits during the November–April rainy season. The precipitation deficits during many southwest Asia droughts have been examined in terms of the forcing by climate variability originating over the Pacific Ocean as a result of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific decadal variability (PDV), and the long-term warming of Pacific (LT) sea surface temperatures (SST). Here we examine how the most extreme November–April southwest Asia droughts relate to global SSTs and the associated large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and analyze the specific atmospheric forcing mechanisms responsible for changes in regional southwest Asian precipitation. The driest November–April seasons during 1948–2012 over southwest Asia are forced by subsidence and reductions of moisture fluxes as a result of the interaction of the mean flow with anomalous zonally symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The anomalous zonally symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere occurs simultaneously with cool central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies associated with La Niña and the negative phase of PDV and a warm west Pacific Ocean caused in part by the long-term warming of the west Pacific Ocean.

  6. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias: executive summary of a consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and ESC Council on Hypertension, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas; Boriani, Giuseppe; Manolis, Antonis S; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Oto, Ali; Potpara, Tatjana S; Steffel, Jan; Marín, Francisco; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Márcio Jansen; de Simone, Giovanni; Tzou, Wendy S; En Chiang, Chern; Williams, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in HTN patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), CAD, or HF. In addition, high doses of thiazide diuretics commonly used to treat HTN, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia), contributing further to arrhythmias, while effective blood pressure control may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between HTN and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence and publishing a joint consensus document on HTN and cardiac arrhythmias, and providing up-to-date consensus recommendations for use in clinical practice. The ultimate judgment on the care of a specific patient must be made by the healthcare provider and the patient in light of all individual factors presented. This is an executive summary of the full document co-published by EHRA in EP-Europace. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. East Asia and the United States into the Twenty-First Century. Planning Future American Policy and Strategy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    structural arms control arrangements in East Asia and the Pacific. xiv CADRE PAPER Chapter I Introduction THIS STUDY analyzes future US security...the China is the heart of East Asia . and her Soviet Union, Japan, the two Koreas, massive size, population , and cultural- Vietnam. and the United...reinforce our Ask; and Southeast Asia but include new presence in one region from another? buiden-sharing or arms control initia- A second criterion Is

  8. Haemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee

    2011-01-01

    In Southeast Asia ?-thalassaemia, ?-thalassaemia, haemoglobin (Hb) E and Hb Constant Spring (CS) are prevalent. The abnormal genes in different combinations lead to over 60 different thalassaemia syndromes, making Southeast Asia the locality with the most complex thalassaemia genotypes. The four major thalassaemic diseases are Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis (homozygous ?-thalassaemia 1), homozygous ?-thalassaemia, ?-thalassaemia/Hb E and Hb H diseases. ?-Thalassaemia, most often, occurs from gene ...

  9. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-23

    195010 JPRS-SEA-87-059 23 APRIL 1987 Dis iv ib ulion . ü r,limited TV A XZB; Southeast Asia Report FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE...87-059 23 APRIL 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA Jakarta’s Position on Afghan Issue Praised (ANTARA NEWS BULLETIN, 17 Mar 87) 1...various dates) 91 Daily Worries About Overpopulation , Unemployment (Editorial; BAN MUANG, 26 Jan 87) 1°5 Briefs Smugglers to PRK ^J° Workers

  10. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Springtime is also the peak season for biomass burning in southeastern Asia. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. A column satellite-surface perspective of Asian aerosols will be presented

  11. Key outbound tourism markets in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Asia and the Pacific is not only a major tourism destination region but also an increasingly important tourism outbound market. This study, a collaborative project between Tourism Australia (TA) and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), aims to provide an up-to-date perspective of the major tourism trends in five key South-East Asian outbound markets: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The report includes a regional overview in terms of tourism and travel patterns, a deta...

  12. At Periscope Depth: Exploring Submarine Proliferation In Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Malaysian case study bears a number of similarities to the Indonesian and Singaporean cases, from territorial disputes in the South China Sea to the...deterrence, enforcement, prestige, or a combination of the three? This thesis compared the case studies of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and...for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (FAR EAST, SOUTHEAST ASIA, THE PACIFIC) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2015

  13. Electricity in east Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul

    1997-06-01

    Electricity in east Asia highlights all the current regulations and policies and brings you up to data with the latest developments in the power markets in east Asia. In particular, the report assesses utility privatisation and the role and opportunities for independent power producers. It includes: the background to east Asia and its political and economic environment; an overview of the power markets in the region; the natural resources available locally within the region; the power generation technologies being used in the region and the potential for advanced technologies and renewable energy sources; the financial situation, including what opportunities and restraints affect each country; the regulatory structures and political problems associated with private power generation; detailed case studies of the Three Gorges hydropower project in China and the development of nuclear power in east Asia. Electricity in east Asia contains detailed country profiles of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macao, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan. It is an indispensable tool for anyone wishing to do business in this highly diverse and exciting region. (Author)

  14. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  15. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. The genus Capparis (Capparaceae) from the Indus to the Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1964-01-01

    This is a taxonomic revision of the genus Capparis in South and Southeast Asia, Malesia, Australia, and the Pacific. In this area, four sections are distinguished: 1. sect. Capparis, monotypic with C. spinosa, 2. sect. Sodada, monotypic with C. decidua, 3. sect. Monostichocalyx in a new

  17. Asian-Pacific Papers. Occasional Papers Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian, Ed.

    Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…

  18. Protective effect of gelatin polypeptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) against UV irradiation-induced damages by inhibiting inflammation and improving transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in skin damage, collagen reduction in the dermis, and consequently, premature skin aging (photoaging). The goal of this study was to examine the effect of gelatin hydrolysate (CH) from pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) skin on UV irradiation-induced inflammation and collagen reduction of photoaging mouse skin. The effect of CH on the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes was investigated. The expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), proinflammatory cytokines, type I and type III procollagen, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type II receptor of TGF-β1 (TGF-βRII), and Smad7 were determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA. The results showed that oral administration of CH suppressed UV irradiation-induced damages to skin by inhibiting the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity, and by suppressing the expression of NF-κB as well as NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory cytokines expression. Furthermore, CH inhibited type I procollagen synthesis reduction by up-regulating TβRII level and down-regulating Smad7 level, which demonstrates that CH is involved in matrix collagen synthesis by activating the TGF-β/Smad pathway in the photoaging skin. Based on these results, we conclude that CH protected skin from UV irradiation-induced photodamages, and CH may be a potentially effective agent for the prevention of photoaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  20. DINAMIKA KEAMANAN KAWASAN ASIA PASIFIK DALAM PERSAINGAN KEKUATAN MARITIM CHINA DAN AMERIKA SERIKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Nurdin Rachmat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The security dynamics in Asia Pacific Region are concerned with the interaction of the countries within the region. The interaction between China and the United States is became a recent interesting phenomenon linked to China’s rapid economic and military development. That conditions will have an impact on the balance of power within the region. The United States as a hegemonic force in recent decades saw the development of China’s military power as a catalyst for the instability of the region, seeing that the US re-oriented the defense policy orientation from the Atlantic back to the Pacific. The existence of two countries in an effort to seize dominance in the Pacific will have an impact on the security of the region. Therefore this paper will attempt to discuss the security dynamic of the Asia Pacific region on the rivalry of two super power, US and China. The discussion will be started by analyzing the relationship between the dominance of the inter-regional interaction in the region and make a description of US domination as a major power in Asia Pacific which was rivaled by China through the development of maritime power and will look at US defense policy in response to the development of China’s maritime power in Pacific region, where the rivalry of these two forces is predicted to escalated in conflict in the South China Sea.

  1. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  2. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal...

  3. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    War. Globalisation will ensure that economic interdependence links states and regions together more closely. 4.4 We will, however, see changed...good times, to integrate into the global economy or that are heavily dependent on exports to advanced economies or remittances will be very seriously...operate in the face of counter-proliferation and export control regimes, and the pace of WMD proliferation is unlikely to moderate. Military power will

  4. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2007–2008 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-07

    Jan 7, 2008 ... Each country chapter presents key ICT policies, applications,and initiatives for national development. In addition, five thematic chapters provide a synthesis of some of the key issues in ICT4D in the region, including mobile and wireless technologies, risk communication, intellectual property regimes,and ...

  5. Entrepreneurship and Small Business : 3rd Asia-Pacific Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Schaper, Michael; Volery, Thierry; Weber, Paull; Lewis, Kate

    2010-01-01

    (See also PDF) PART 1 The nature of small business and entrepreneurship. CHAPTER 1 Entrepreneurship: definition and evolution. CHAPTER 2 The personality of entrepreneurs. CHAPTER 3 Creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. CHAPTER 4 Small business: definitions and characteristics. PART 2 Getting into business. CHAPTER 5 Options for going into business. CHAPTER 6 Market research and strategy formulation. CHAPTER 7 Preparing a business plan. CHAPTER 7 ...

  6. Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given the complexity of the trade and investment environment in the region, ARTNET will explore the interaction between trade, investment, competition and other domestic policies. ... Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Adjustments to Information Technology (IT) in Trade Facilitation: The South Korean Experience.

  7. Online brand relationship building:Asia pacific perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Information technology is empowering consumers through the availability of information, interactivity of online communication tools, and the connectivity with others. The newly empowered consumer is a co-creator of brand communications and is rapidly developing a sense of co-ownership in brands.  Consumers are increasingly imposing themselves on the marketing function leaving many practitioners perplexed and unsure about how to respond. This thesis reports on five studies conducted to address...

  8. Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems : the 20th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hemant; Elsayed, Saber

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades the field of Intelligent Systems delivered to human kind significant achievements, while also facing major transformations. 20 years ago, automation and knowledge-based AI were still the dominant paradigms fueling the efforts of both researchers and practitioners. Later, 10 years ago, statistical machine intelligence was on the rise, heavily supported by the digital computing, and led to the unprecedented advances in and dependence on digital technology. However, the resultant intelligent systems remained designer-based endeavors and thus, were limited in their true learning and development abilities. Today, the challenge is to have in place intelligent systems that can develop themselves on behalf of their creators, and gain abilities with no or limited supervision in the tasks they are meant to perform. Cognitive development systems, and the supporting cognitive computing are on the rise today, promising yet other significant achievements for the future of human kind. This book cap...

  9. Knowledge Networking for Rural Development in Asia/Pacific ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In contrast, ENRAP III will look specifically at approaches to sustain different types of networks (regional and national) and research the use of ICT tools to improve livelihoods in the region. For national .... on value chains. Businesses can understand trade trends and future challenges in the ASEAN Economic community.

  10. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 juin 2009 ... Businesses can understand trade trends and future challenges in the ASEAN Economic community. ... Much of the research examining information and communication technology (ICT) for development or, more broadly, the information society, has focused on situations commonly found in the North .

  11. Asia-Pacific Journal for Student Affairs (AJSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Lisa Bardill Moscaritolo serves as Associate Vice President and Dean for Students at Pace University,. New York, USA. ... copy of the inaugural Journal of the Philippine Association of Administrators of Student Affairs. (PAASA). ... Bonnet, offers a reflection on the ASEAN integration and how the skills students need to.

  12. Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    activities, sports , and cultural events to allow fellows to build lasting relationships. Feedback from alumni demonstrates how these relationships have...implementation of developmental projects in the slum areas of metro manila as well as in ending the 3-decade insurgency problem in our country. The

  13. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Alumni Association of Mongolia made the closing remarks at the alumni workshop in Ulaanbaatar. Mr. Jose Tale, President of the Philippines Alumni...me a lot in our info campaign regarding AH1N1 virus which recently affected and caused panic/scare among us here.” Ms. Marina Matias Agustin

  14. Partnering for nuclear power development in Asia-pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

    1996-04-15

    KEPCO President Rieh remarked in a recent interview that the nature of nuclear technology itself highlights the need for international co-operation. The problems and solutions are global in nature. I would, respectfully, like to add my own thoughts on this subject through this paper. The Canadian writer, Marshall McLuhan, has the view of a global village where we are all virtual neighbours. International trade, telecommunications, the Internet all make it so. But there are deep-rooted regional bonds, ties that bind next dor neighbours.

  15. East Asia/Pacific Reactions to the Strategic Defense Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    close to the Foreign Minister," that Abe, a Fukuda faction member who unsuccessfully ran against Nakasone in the Liberal Democratic Party primary...the nuclear impasse presented by the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD), then discusses a number of premises that impugn the logic of a

  16. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2007–2008 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 janv. 2008 ... Publié tous les deux ans, cet ouvrage se veut un guide exhaustif de l'état de la pratique et des tendances marquantes des technologies de l'information et de la communication au service du développement (TIC-D) dans la région Asie Pacifique. Cette troisième édition (2007–2008) porte sur 31 pays et ...

  17. Expanding the State Partnership Program within Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Dakota / Suriname (2006) Texas / Chile (2008) West Virginia / Peru (1996) Wisconsin / Nicaragua (2003) USEUCOM - 22 Alabama / Romania (1993...Defense Intelligence Agency’s Joint Military Attaché School.46 This extensive training is essential in preparing FAOs for their duties and reduces the...year, Minnesota exported over $275 million to Malaysia, $9.5 million to Trinidad and Tobago, and $2.6 million to Sri Lanka, while exporting only

  18. S&T in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    similar to those of the EU (first to file vs first to invent). Given market size, universities and companies typically do an Australian provisional ...an aromatic with potent antimicrobial properties; he has 153 This program is partially...Sciences has programs in dental sciences, human movement (exercise science and education), indigenous health, medicine and surgery (preparatory; their

  19. Customer Relationship Management in Asia/Pacific Cruise Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao Meng

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study has demonstrated Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in the cruise industry is vital for its long-term success. The globalization of business has directly influenced the overall business strategy of cruise companies worldwide. Many cruise companies are consolidating into a few large corporations through merger and acquisition. These big cruise companies are extending their businesses to every corner of the world, with increasing bigger ships providing high volume pa...

  20. Health professional workforce education in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Lees

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To design and implement an international and interprofessional Global Learning Partnership Model, which involves shared learning between academics and students from Universitas 21 network with other universities with United Nations Millennium Development Goal needs. Design. Two literature reviews were conducted to inform ethical aspects and curriculum design of the GLP model. Feedback from conference presentations and consultation with experts in education and public health has been incorporated to inform the current iteration of the GLP model. Intervention. The pilot group of 25 students from U21 universities and Kathmandu University, representing six health disciplines will meet in Nepal in April 2016 for a shared learning experience, including a one week university based workshop and three week community based experience.Outcome measures. A multi-phase, mixed method design was selected for the evaluation of the GLP model, utilising a combination of focus groups and questionnaires to evaluate the efficacy of the placement through student experience and learning outcomes in cultural competency, UN SDG knowledge, community engagement and health promotion skills. Results. The literature review demonstrated that cultural awareness and cultural knowledge were improved through participation in cultural immersion programs that incorporated preparatory workshops and clinical experiences. Data will be gathered in April 2006 and the results of the evaluation will be published in the future. Conclusions. The GLP model proposes a project around the fundamental concept of engagement and sharing between students and academics across universities and cultural contexts to build capacity through education, while capitalising on strengths of existing global health placements. Further the inclusion of host-country students and academics in this learning exchange will promote the establishment of an international and interprofessional network for ongoing health promotion.