WorldWideScience

Sample records for asia mitigating systemic

  1. Sustainable energy policy for Asia: Mitigating systemic hurdles in a highly dense city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Artie W.; Nathwani, Jatin

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission (GHG) has been increasingly a sensitive issue that is across border and impacting global public interests. While the use of renewable energy technology is perceived as a means to enable delivery of emission-free solutions, its penetration into the energy market has not been timely and significant enough as projected in prior studies. This article aims to illustrate some of the critical hurdles as the policy makers start formulating environmentally friendly energy consumption means for the public in Asian economies. In particular, through analyzing the characteristics in the case of Hong Kong, the authors unveil the challenges for this highly dense city to reach a landscape of alternative energy resources for its transition into a sustainable economy. Education and engagement with the public about a sustainable future, alignment of stakeholders' economic interests and absorption capacity of emerging technologies are argued as the three main challenges and initiatives in mitigating the underlying systemic hurdles that remain to be overcome. Observing the current responses to the externalities by the policy makers in Hong Kong, this study articulates the critical challenges to mitigate these specific systemic hurdles embedded in the existing infrastructure of a highly dense city. Possible mitigating measures to enable deployment of integrative sustainable energy solutions in dealing with climate change are discussed. (author)

  2. Study of Landslide Disaster Prevention System in Malaysia as a Disaster Mitigation Prototype for South East Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Tien Tay, Lea; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Hazarika, Hemanta; Jamaludin, Suhaimi; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of landslides occur in Malaysia and other tropical monsoon South East Asia countries. Therefore, prevention casualties and economical losses, by rain induced slope failure, are those countries government most important agenda. In Malaysia, millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for slope monitoring and mitigation in every year budget. Besides monitoring the slopes, here, we propose the IT system which provides hazard map information, landslide historical information, slope failure prediction, knowledge on natural hazard, and information on evacuation centres via internet for user to understand the risk of landslides as well as flood. Moreover, the user can obtain information on rainfall intensity in the monitoring sites to predict the occurrence of the slope failure. Furthermore, we are working with PWD, Malaysia to set the threshold value for the landslide prediction system which will alert the officer if there is a risk of the slope failure in the monitoring sites by calculating rainfall intensity. Although the IT plays a significant role in information dissemination, education is also important in disaster prevention by educating school students to be more alert in natural hazard, and there will be bottom up approach to alert parents on what is natural hazard, by conversion among family members, as most of the parents are busy and may not have time to attend natural hazard workshop. There are many races living in Malaysia as well in most of South East Asia countries. It is not easy to educate them in single education method as the level of living and education are different. We started landslides education workshops in primary schools in rural and urban area, in Malaysia. We found out that we have to use their mother tongue language while conducting natural hazard education for better understanding. We took questionnaires from the students before and after the education workshop. Learning from the questionnaire result, the students are

  3. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  4. Negative emissions—interactions with other mitigation options: a case study for South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowargana, Ping; Leduc, Sylvain; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Fuss, Sabine; Patrizio, Piera; Mesfun, Sennai; Kraxner, Florian

    2017-04-01

    BECCS (here the combination of forest-based bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) is seen as a promising tool to deliver large quantities of negative emissions needed to comply with ambitious climate stabilization targets. In many IPCC AR5 scenarios to stabilize GHG concentration at levels consistent with 2°C above pre-industrial levels, BECCS is an important feature contributing to more than 5% of global energy supply. However, a land-based mitigation option such as large-scale bioenergy production (w/o CCS) might interfere with other land-based mitigation options popular for their large co-benefits such as reforestation and reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+). We develop a systems approach to identify and quantify possible tradeoffs between REDD+ and BECCS with the help of remote sensing and engineering modeling and apply this for illustration to South East Asia. First results indicate that prioritizing REDD+ does imply that the BECCS potential remains limited. However, reforestation has the chance to be developed into a larger portfolio of land-based mitigation options such as bioenergy and BECCS, which still have a very good mitigation potential in terms of emissions, but at the same time help to conserve and restore ecosystems.

  5. The impact of residential, commercial, and transport energy demand uncertainties in Asia on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koljonen, Tiina; Lehtilä, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in residential, commercial and transport sectors have been growing rapidly in the non-OECD Asian countries over the last decades, and the trend is expected to continue over the coming decades as well. However, the per capita projections for energy demand in these particular sectors often seem to be very low compared to the OECD average until 2050, and it is clear that the scenario assessments of final energy demands in these sectors include large uncertainties. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis have been carried out to study the impact of higher rates of energy demand growths in the non-OECD Asia on global mitigation costs. The long term energy and emission scenarios for China, India and South-East Asia have been contributed as a part of Asian Modeling Exercise (AME). The scenarios presented have been modeled by using a global TIMES-VTT energy system model, which is based on the IEA-ETSAP TIMES energy system modeling framework and the global ETSAP-TIAM model. Our scenario results indicate that the impacts of accelerated energy demand in the non-OECD Asia has a relatively small impact on the global marginal costs of greenhouse gas abatement. However, with the accelerated demand projections, the average per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the OECD were decreased while China, India, and South-East Asia increased their per capita greenhouse gas emissions. This indicates that the costs of the greenhouse gas abatement would especially increase in the OECD region, if developing Asian countries increase their final energy consumption more rapidly than expected. - Highlights: ► Scenarios of final energy demands in developing Asia include large uncertainties. ► Impact of accelerated Asian energy demand on global mitigation costs is quite low. ► Accelerated Asian energy consumption increases GHG abatement costs in the OECD. ► 3.7 W/m 3 target is feasible in costs even with accelerated Asian energy demands. ► 2.6 W/m 2 target is beyond

  6. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P.R.; Deo, P. [eds.

    1998-12-01

    The three primary objectives of the conference, which was organized by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Environment Department of the World Bank, at Goa in India from May 4 to 6, 1998, were: 1) to share the GHG mitigation experiences from Asian developing countries; 2) to disseminate the standard methodological approach for mitigation analysis developed by UNEP and its applications in different countries; and 3) assess the role and efficacy of financial mechanisms and to, specifically, seek feedback on the Prototype Carbon Fund proposed by the World Bank. Follwing these objectives, the workshop presentations and discussions were structured in three parts. In the first part, participants from eleven Asian developing countries made presentations that were followed by discussions. The second part included the presentations by the experts from UCCEE, UNFCCC and other invited experts who presented the mitigation methodology and the issues and experiences relating to various co-operative implementation mechanisms. The third part included the presentations by the World Bank representatives on the Prototype Carbon Fund and the discussions on financial mechanisms. (EG)

  7. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  8. Policy trade-offs between climate mitigation and clean cook-stove access in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Colin; Pachauri, Shonali; Rao, Narasimha D.; McCollum, David; Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from traditional cook stoves presents a greater health hazard than any other environmental factor. Despite government efforts to support clean-burning cooking fuels, over 700 million people in South Asia could still rely on traditional stoves in 2030. This number could rise if climate change mitigation efforts increase energy costs. Here we quantify the costs of support policies to make clean cooking affordable to all South Asians under four increasingly stringent climate policy scenarios. Our most stringent mitigation scenario increases clean fuel costs 38% in 2030 relative to the baseline, keeping 21% more South Asians on traditional stoves or increasing the minimum support policy cost to achieve universal clean cooking by up to 44%. The extent of this increase depends on how policymakers allocate subsidies between clean fuels and stoves. These additional costs are within the range of financial transfers to South Asia estimated in efforts-sharing scenarios of international climate agreements.

  9. Asia's role in mitigating climate change: A technology and sector specific analysis with ReMIND-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luderer, Gunnar; Pietzcker, Robert C.; Kriegler, Elmar; Haller, Markus; Bauer, Nico

    2012-01-01

    We use the ReMIND-R model to analyze the role of Asia in the context of a global effort to mitigate climate change. We introduce a novel method of secondary energy based mitigation shares, which allows us to quantify the economic mitigation potential of technologies in different regions and final energy carriers. The 2005 share of Asia in global CO 2 emissions amounts to 38%, and is projected to grow to 53% under business-as-usual until the end of the century. Asia also holds a large fraction of the global mitigation potential. A broad portfolio of technologies is deployed in the climate policy scenarios. We find that biomass in combination with CCS, other renewables, and end-use efficiency each make up a large fraction of the global mitigation potential, followed by nuclear and fossil CCS. We find considerable differences in decarbonization patterns across the final energy types electricity, heat and transport fuels. Regional differences in technology use are a function of differences in resource endowments, and structural differences in energy end use. Under climate policy, a substantial mitigation potential of non-biomass renewables emerges for China and other developing countries of Asia (OAS). Asia also accounts for the dominant share of the global mitigation potential of nuclear energy. In view of the substantial near term investments into new energy infrastructure in China and India, early adoption of climate policy prevents lock-in into carbon intensive infrastructure and thus leads to a much higher long-term mitigation potential. - Highlights: ► We develop a novel methodology for the attribution of emission reductions to technologies. ► Asia accounts for a substantial and increasing share of global CO 2 emissions. ► A broad portfolio of technologies contributes to emission reductions. ► Early action increases the long term mitigation potential of China and India.

  10. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  11. Mitigation potential of carbon dioxide emissions by management of forests in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Substantial areas of available forest lands in Asia could be managed for conservation and sequestration of carbon. These include 133 Mha for establishment of plantations and agroforests, 33.5 Mha for slowed tropical deforestation, and 48 Mha for natural and assisted regeneration of tropical forests. The potential quantity of C conserved and sequestered on these lands was conservatively estimated to be 24 Pg C (1 Pg = 10 15 g) by 2050. Establishment of plantations and agroforests could account for 58% of the total mitigation potential on Asian forest lands. The amount of C that could be conserved and sequestered by all forest sector practices by 2050 under baseline conditions is equivalent to about 4% of the global fossil fuel emissions over the same time period. The uncertainties in estimates of mitigation potential presented in this paper are likely to be high, particularly with respect to the land area available for forestation projects and the rate at which deforestation could be slowed. The uncertainty terms are compounded in making global estimates of the mitigation potential, perhaps to large proportions, but to what extent is presently unknown. An example of a forestry project in China whose main goal was to rehabilitate degraded lands and at the same time provide biomass fuel for the local rural inhabitants is presented to demonstrate that C sequestration, and thus mitigation, is an added benefit to more traditional uses of forests. This forestry project is currently mitigating CO 2 emissions (up to 1.4 Mg C ha -1 yr -1 ) and, with a change in management, an almost two-fold increase in the current reduction of net C emissions would occur. 33 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Integrated analysis considered mitigation cost, damage cost and adaptation cost in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. G.; Sung, S.; Jung, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various studies show that raising the temperature as well as storms, cold snap, raining and drought caused by climate change. And variety disasters have had a damage to mankind. The world risk report(2012, The Nature Conservancy) and UNU-EHS (the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security) reported that more and more people are exposed to abnormal weather such as floods, drought, earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes over the world. In particular, the case of Korea, we influenced by various pollutants which are occurred in Northeast Asian countries, China and Japan, due to geographical meteorological characteristics. These contaminants have had a significant impact on air quality with the pollutants generated in Korea. Recently, around the world continued their effort to reduce greenhouse gas and to improve air quality in conjunction with the national or regional development goals priority. China is also working on various efforts in accordance with the international flows to cope with climate change and air pollution. In the future, effect of climate change and air quality in Korea and Northeast Asia will be change greatly according to China's growth and mitigation policies. The purpose of this study is to minimize the damage caused by climate change on the Korean peninsula through an integrated approach taking into account the mitigation and adaptation plan. This study will suggest a climate change strategy at the national level by means of a comprehensive economic analysis of the impacts and mitigation of climate change. In order to quantify the impact and damage cost caused by climate change scenarios in a regional scale, it should be priority variables selected in accordance with impact assessment of climate change. The sectoral impact assessment was carried out on the basis of selected variables and through this, to derive the methodology how to estimate damage cost and adaptation cost. And then, the methodology was applied in Korea

  13. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  14. Asia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    boys in her family, and. ASIA. Shazia Anjum. Asia, with its kaleidoscope of different cultures, is seeing significant changes in the prospects for women scientists. Tradition haking s up more publications than any other assistant professor at her research center. “There has been great social change in the past 10 to 15 years.

  15. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also

  16. Primary system temperature limits and transient mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, G.S.; Bost, D.S.

    1978-10-03

    Results of a study to determine the limiting temperature conditions in a large reactor system are presented. The study considers a sodium-cooled breeder reactor system having a loop-type primary system configuration. A temperature range of 930 to 1050/sup 0/F in reactor outlet temperature is covered. Significant findings were that the use of the materials for the 930/sup 0/F reference design, i.e., a core material of 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel, a primary piping material of 316SS, and a steam generator material of unstabilized 2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo resulted in limiting conditions in component performance at the higher temperatures. Means to circumvent these limits through the use of alternate materials, mitigation of thermal transients, and/or design changes are presented. The economic incentive to make some materials changes is also presented.

  17. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  18. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, Patrik L; Stocker, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO 2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max ) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3–7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7–25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%–80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%–18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015–2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes. (letter)

  19. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  20. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  1. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  2. Asia least-cost greenhouse gas abatement strategy identification and assessment of mitigation options for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sujata; Bhandari, Preety

    1998-01-01

    The focus of the presentation was on greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy sector for India. Results from the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (ALGAS) project were presented. The presentation comprised of a review of the sources of greenhouse gases, the optimisation model, ie the Markal model, used for determining the least-cost options, discussion of the results from the baseline and the abatement scenarios. The second half of the presentation focussed on a multi-criteria assessment of the abatement options using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model. The emissions of all greenhouse gases, for India, are estimated to be 986.3 Tg of carbon dioxide equivalent for 1990. The energy sector accounted for 58 percent of the total emissions and over 90 percent of the CO2 emissions. Net emissions form land use change and forestry were zero. (au)

  3. Surface System Dust Mitigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  4. Assessment of renewables for energy security and carbon mitigation in Southeast Asia: The case of Indonesia and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy sector of Southeast Asia (Indonesia and Thailand) is modeled. • LEAP energy model is used. • Least cost optimization method is used to estimate the future electric supply. • CO 2 mitigation and electricity production costs are also estimated. - Abstract: Due to fast rising energy demand, Southeast Asia has become a larger energy consumer and bigger player in global energy markets. Energy security and environmental emissions reduction have become higher priorities to ensure energy supply at affordable costs, for continued economic growth and development. To address these issues renewable energy plays a vital role in the long-term future for sustainable development. This paper estimates and analyzes the renewable energy potential in the energy mix in two Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia and Thailand. The LEAP energy model is used to develop different renewable energy policy scenarios from base year 2010 to 2050. The results of the simulation show that a large proportion of electricity must be produced by renewables by 2050 if full potential of renewables is to be exploited. In this case, 81% and 88% of CO 2 emissions are reduced in Indonesia and Thailand respectively. In implementing renewables at large scale in both these countries the cost of production increases substantially.

  5. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  6. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing Mechanisms.Proceedings of a Regional Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.R.; Deo, P.

    1998-12-01

    The three primary objectives of the conference, which was organized by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Environment Department of the World Bank, at Goa in India from May 4 to 6, 1998, were: 1) to share the GHG mitigation experiences from Asian developing countries; 2) to disseminate the standard methodological approach for mitigation analysis developed by UNEP and its applications in different countries; and 3) assess the role and efficacy of financial mechanisms and to, specifically, seek feedback on the Prototype Carbon Fund proposed by the World Bank. Follwing these objectives, the workshop presentations and discussions were structured in three parts. In the first part, participants from eleven Asian developing countries made presentations that were followed by discussions. The second part included the presentations by the experts from UCCEE, UNFCCC and other invited experts who presented the mitigation methodology and the issues and experiences relating to various co-operative implementation mechanisms. The third part included the presentations by the World Bank representatives on the Prototype Carbon Fund and the discussions on financial mechanisms. (EG)

  7. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  8. Moving Toward a Regional Safeguards System in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Griggs, James R.

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the nuclear nonproliferation challenges of South Asia, it is useful to examine the similar past nonproliferation problems in South America. The nuclear rapprochement between Argentina and Brazil involved several developments in progression. We conclude that two developments are particularly applicable to the India/Pakistan problem: technical cooperation and a regional safeguards system. This paper reviews the history of Argentina/Brazil rapprochement, discusses application to India/Pakistan, and proposes specific actions to move South Asia toward regional stability.

  9. Impact of vegetation on land-atmosphere coupling strength and its implication for desertification mitigation over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Boksoon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Seon Ki

    2012-06-01

    Desertification of the East Asian drylands and the consequent dust transport have been serious concerns for adjacent Asian countries as well as the western United States. Tree planting has been considered one applicable strategy to mitigate the desertification. However, the desired effect of the tree planting would not be brought to fruition unless the newly planted trees change the coupling characteristics between the land and the atmosphere. Based on this perception, we attempt to clarify the effects of vegetation on the coupling strength between the atmosphere and land surface, and we suggest the most efficient areas of tree planting for desertification mitigation in East Asia. Using regional vegetation-atmosphere coupled model simulations, coupling strength with and without vegetation was computed and compared with each other. An increased vegetation fraction reduces the coupling strength in June, July, and August (JJA), primarily due to decreased evapotranspiration variability. This effect is pronounced over the Manchurian Plains and the highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The reduced coupling strength tends to weaken feedback between soil moisture and precipitation as a maintenance mechanism of warm season droughts in the midlatitudes and subsequently decrease the probability of droughts, a finding that is reflected in the enhanced JJA mean soil moisture. However, some drylands like the eastern edges of the Gobi desert present marginal or even opposite changes in coupling strength, meaning a limited effect of vegetation on relieving droughts. Therefore, given limited financial and human resources, acupuncture-like afforestation, i.e., concentrated tree planting in a particular region where the coupling strength can be substantially reduced by vegetation, is an effective strategy to secure long-standing desertification mitigation.

  10. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  11. Climate change mitigation in Asia and financing mechanism (contributions from Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahhab, Abdul

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Environment (DOE), Ministlry of Environment and forest, Government of the people's Republic of Bangladesh made a request for a grant to the U.S. Government for studying various aspects of climate change and its implications for Bangladesh. Upon its subsequent approval, a country Study on Climate Change (Bangladesh Climate Change study) was launched in October 1994 to address the following major issues: Preparation of a country-specific inventory of greenhouse gases (GHGs); Assessment of vulnerability of the country, with special respect to climate change; Assessment of mitigation options to develop appropriate strategies and policies for reducing GHG emission into the atmosphere; Recommendations for an appropriate awareness and dissemination programme based on findings of the above components. (au)

  12. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-Y.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems. A numerical algorithm for analyzing system response of base-isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings is briefly described. Seismic response analyses of both base- isolated and unisolated buildings under earthquakes {number_sign}42 and {number_sign}44 are performed and the results are compared to illustrate the mitigating effect of base-isolated systems.

  13. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1994-06-01

    This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

  14. Mitigating the impact of oil-palm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  16. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  17. The comparison of petroleum contractual systems in Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partowidagdo, W.

    1993-01-01

    The earnings from oil and gas sales are a very important source of income for some countries in Asia Pacific Region. The hydrocarbons are also important source of energy for almost all of the countries in the region. Most governments in this region invite foreign companies to their countries to supply the risk capital for petroleum exploration and development in exchange for a direct share in the potential profit. In this study, a comparison of different hydrocarbon fiscal systems and profitability in Asia Pacific Region is presented

  18. Where Will Demographics Take the Asia-Pacific Food System?

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.; Gilmour, Brad

    2004-01-01

    Demographic changes in the Asia-Pacific region - expanded urban concentration, variability in population growth within the region, and an aging population base - will drive significant food system change. Costs associated with urban congestion will test the capacity of the region's food system to deliver a continuous flow of safe, reasonably priced, fresh and processed foods. Pressure to better connect urban areas to rural hinterlands and for trade liberalization will intensify to meet food n...

  19. A Novel Electromotance Noise Mitigation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket propulsion environments generate electromotance effects that often introduce undesirable noise within the instrumentation systems. These effects are also...

  20. A Novel Electromotance Noise Mitigation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electromotance energy has historically produced problems for electrical systems. This project will innovatively employ high electron density fields that have the...

  1. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  2. Radiation Risks and Mitigation in Electronic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B

    2015-01-01

    Electrical and electronic systems can be disturbed by radiation-induced effects. In some cases, radiation-induced effects are of a low probability and can be ignored; however, radiation effects must be considered when designing systems that have a high mean time to failure requirement, an impact on protection, and/or higher exposure to radiat ion. High-energy physics power systems suffer from a combination of these effects: a high mean time to failure is required, failure can impact on protection, and the proximity of systems to accelerators increases the likelihood of radiation-induced events. This paper presents the principal radiation-induced effects, and radiation environments typical to high-energy physics. It outlines a procedure for designing and validating radiation-tolerant systems using commercial off-the-shelf components. The paper ends with a worked example of radiation-tolerant power converter controls that are being developed for the Large Hadron Collider and High Luminosity-Large Hadron Colli...

  3. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  4. A radioactive aerosols in air monitoring system - 'ASIA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaish, I.; Levinson, S.; Pelled, O.; German, U.; Laichter, Y.; Gonen, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous air monitoring system called 'ASIA' (Aerosols Sampler In Air) was developed at the NRCN for monitoring and measuring the concentration of airborne alpha emitting radionuclides such as Radon or natural Uranium. The 'ASIA' is a stationary multi-channel analyzer based system. The air passes through a 2.5 cm diameter filter and the radioactivity accumulated on it is monitored by a Silicon solid state detector. The sampling unit can be separated from the display and control unit to enable environment sampling close to the workers. The ASIA uses modern hardware and software in order to improve noise and background reduction and to allow friendly and flexible use. Remote communication is also available. The spectrum and additional data are displayed on line. The system was checked according to ANSI N42.17B -1989. The linearity and efficiency were evaluated by using various alpha sources. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Decision Limit (Lc) were calculated according to ANSI N13.30. Long time stability measurements were performed using a natural Uranium source. (authors)

  5. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  6. Chemistry and Climate in Asia - An Earth System Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Massie, S. T.; Pfister, G.; Romero Lankao, P.; Lamarque, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Asia is one of the most highly populated and economically dynamic regions in the world, with much of the population located in growing mega-cities. It is a region with significant emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and other pollutants, which pose high health risks to urban populations. Emissions of these aerosols and gases increased drastically over the last decade due to economic growth and urbanization and are expected to rise further in the near future. As such, the continent plays a role in influencing climate change via its effluent of aerosols and gaseous pollutants. Asia is also susceptible to adverse climate change through interactions between aerosols and clouds, which potentially can have serious implications for freshwater resources. We are developing an integrated inter-disciplinary program to focus on Asia, its climate, air quality, and impact on humans that will include connections with hydrology, ecosystems, extreme weather events, and human health. The primary goal of this project is to create a team to identify key scientific questions and establish networks of specialists to create a plan for future studies to address these questions. A second goal is to establish research facilities and a framework for investigating chemistry and climate over Asia. These facilities include producing high resolution Earth System Model simulations that have been evaluated with meteorological and chemical measurements, producing high-resolution emission inventories, analyzing satellite data, and analyzing the vulnerability of humans to air quality and extreme natural events. In this presentation we will describe in more detail these activities and discuss a future workshop on the impact of chemistry in climate on air quality and human health.

  7. Mitigations for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent D. Nelson

    2006-05-01

    Industry is aware of the need for Control System (CS) security, but in on-site assessments, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has observed that security procedures and devices are not consistently and effectively implemented. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), established the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at INL to help industry and government improve the security of the CSs used in the nation's critical infrastructures. One of the main CSSC objectives is to identify control system vulnerabilities and develop effective mitigations for them. This paper discusses common problems and vulnerabilities seen in on-site CS assessments and suggests mitigation strategies to provide asset owners with the information they need to better protect their systems from common security flows.

  8. Energy outlook to 2035 in Asia and its pathways towards a low carbon energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-09-15

    This report analyzes energy outlook in Asia and the world to 2035. In Technologically Advanced Scenario, advanced low-carbon technology yields, in 2035, 2,305 Mtoe or 14% of the saving in world primary energy demand and 12.3 Gt or 30% of the reduction in global CO2 emissions compared with the Reference Scenario. In these savings, Asia will account for 58% in the world primary energy reduction and 55% of the world CO2 mitigation, emphasizing immense potential of energy and CO2 saving in Asia and the importance of the deployment of clean energy technology through technology transfer to Asian region.

  9. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work

  10. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes, and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work

  11. The Aerosol-Monsoon Climate System of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kyu-Myong, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In Asian monsoon countries such as China and India, human health and safety problems caused by air-pollution are worsening due to the increased loading of atmospheric pollutants stemming from rising energy demand associated with the rapid pace of industrialization and modernization. Meanwhile, uneven distribution of monsoon rain associated with flash flood or prolonged drought, has caused major loss of human lives, and damages in crop and properties with devastating societal impacts on Asian countries. Historically, air-pollution and monsoon research are treated as separate problems. However a growing number of recent studies have suggested that the two problems may be intrinsically intertwined and need to be studied jointly. Because of complexity of the dynamics of the monsoon systems, aerosol impacts on monsoons and vice versa must be studied and understood in the context of aerosol forcing in relationship to changes in fundamental driving forces of the monsoon climate system (e.g. sea surface temperature, land-sea contrast etc.) on time scales from intraseasonal variability (weeks) to climate change ( multi-decades). Indeed, because of the large contributions of aerosols to the global and regional energy balance of the atmosphere and earth surface, and possible effects of the microphysics of clouds and precipitation, a better understanding of the response to climate change in Asian monsoon regions requires that aerosols be considered as an integral component of a fully coupled aerosol-monsoon system on all time scales. In this paper, using observations and results from climate modeling, we will discuss the coherent variability of the coupled aerosol-monsoon climate system in South Asia and East Asia, including aerosol distribution and types, with respect to rainfall, moisture, winds, land-sea thermal contrast, heat sources and sink distributions in the atmosphere in seasonal, interannual to climate change time scales. We will show examples of how elevated

  12. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  13. The Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Wu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the World Bank, the Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation (ISNDM, including the operational service system and network telecommunication system, has been in development for three years in the Center of Disaster Reduction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the platform of the GIS software Arcview. It has five main modules: disaster background information, socio- economic information, disaster-induced factors database, disaster scenarios database, and disaster assessment. ISNDM has several significant functions, which include information collection, information processing, data storage, and information distribution. It is a simple but comprehensive demonstration system for our national center for natural disaster reduction.

  14. SCHISTOSOMIASIS: GEOSPATIAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  15. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  16. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  17. Modelling of Substrate Noise and Mitigation Schemes for UWB Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    -mode designs, digital switching noise is an ever-present problem that needs to be taken into consideration. This is of particular importance when low cost implementation technologies, e.g. lightly doped substrates, are aimed for. For traditional narrow-band designs much of the issue can be mitigated using...... tuned elements in the signal paths. However, for UWB designs this is not a viable option and other means are therefore required. Moreover, owing to the ultra-wideband nature and low power spectral density of the signal, UWB mixed-signal integrated circuits are more sensitive to substrate noise compared...... with narrow-band circuits. This chapter presents a study on the modeling and mitigation of substrate noise in mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs), focusing on UWB system/circuit designs. Experimental impact evaluation of substrate noise on UWB circuits is presented. It shows how a wide-band circuit can...

  18. 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University (Denmark); Karlsson, Kenneth [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2011-02-15

    Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100% renewable energy system by the year 2050 are presented for a complete energy system including transport. Two short-term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The energy systems are analysed and designed with hour-by-hour energy system analyses. The analyses reveal that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socio-economic effects, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100% Renewable energy systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared to the business-as-usual energy system. Hence, the current debate between leaders should reflect a combination of these two main challenges. (author)

  19. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...... oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show...

  20. Interference mitigation techniques for clustered multicell joint decoding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzinotas Symeon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multicell joint processing has originated from information-theoretic principles as a means of reaching the fundamental capacity limits of cellular networks. However, global multicell joint decoding is highly complex and in practice clusters of cooperating Base Stations constitute a more realistic scenario. In this direction, the mitigation of intercluster interference rises as a critical factor towards achieving the promised throughput gains. In this paper, two intercluster interference mitigation techniques are investigated and compared, namely interference alignment and resource division multiple access. The cases of global multicell joint processing and cochannel interference allowance are also considered as an upper and lower bound to the interference alignment scheme, respectively. Each case is modelled and analyzed using the per-cell ergodic sum-rate throughput as a figure of merit. In this process, the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution of the channel covariance matrices is analytically derived based on free-probabilistic arguments in order to quantify the sum-rate throughput. Using numerical results, it is established that resource division multiple access is preferable for dense cellular systems, while cochannel interference allowance is advantageous for highly sparse cellular systems. Interference alignment provides superior performance for average to sparse cellular systems on the expense of higher complexity.

  1. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested.

  2. 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Saik; Krob, Daniel; Lui, Pao; Tan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the second edition of the Asia-Pacific conference on « Complex Systems Design & Management Asia» (CSD&M Asia 2016) that took place in Singapore from February 24 to February 26, 2016 (Website: http://www.2016.csdm-asia.net/). These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Complex Systems, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on Smart Nations: Designing and Sustaining. The CSD&M Asia 2016 conference is organized under the guidance of the Singapore division of the Center of Excellence on Systems Architecture, Management, Economy and Strategy (CESAMES) – Legal address: C.E.S.A.M.E.S. Singapore – 16 Raffles Quay – #38-03 Hong Leong Building – Singapore 048581 (website : http://www.cesames.net/en – email: contact@cesames.net).

  3. Design of Deformation Monitoring System for Volcano Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamy, M R F; Salam, R A; Khairurrijal; Munir, M M; Irsyam, M

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has many active volcanoes that are potentially disastrous. It needs good mitigation systems to prevent victims and to reduce casualties from potential disaster caused by volcanoes eruption. Therefore, the system to monitor the deformation of volcano was built. This system employed telemetry with the combination of Radio Frequency (RF) communications of XBEE and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) communication of SIM900. There are two types of modules in this system, first is the coordinator as a parent and second is the node as a child. Each node was connected to coordinator forming a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with a star topology and it has an inclinometer based sensor, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and an XBEE module. The coordinator collects data to each node, one a time, to prevent collision data between nodes, save data to SD Card and transmit data to web server via GPRS. Inclinometer was calibrated with self-built in calibrator and tested in high temperature environment to check the durability. The GPS was tested by displaying its position in web server via Google Map Application Protocol Interface (API v.3). It was shown that the coordinator can receive and transmit data from every node to web server very well and the system works well in a high temperature environment. (paper)

  4. Design of Deformation Monitoring System for Volcano Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamy, M. R. F.; Salam, R. A.; Munir, M. M.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Indonesia has many active volcanoes that are potentially disastrous. It needs good mitigation systems to prevent victims and to reduce casualties from potential disaster caused by volcanoes eruption. Therefore, the system to monitor the deformation of volcano was built. This system employed telemetry with the combination of Radio Frequency (RF) communications of XBEE and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) communication of SIM900. There are two types of modules in this system, first is the coordinator as a parent and second is the node as a child. Each node was connected to coordinator forming a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with a star topology and it has an inclinometer based sensor, a Global Positioning System (GPS), and an XBEE module. The coordinator collects data to each node, one a time, to prevent collision data between nodes, save data to SD Card and transmit data to web server via GPRS. Inclinometer was calibrated with self-built in calibrator and tested in high temperature environment to check the durability. The GPS was tested by displaying its position in web server via Google Map Application Protocol Interface (API v.3). It was shown that the coordinator can receive and transmit data from every node to web server very well and the system works well in a high temperature environment.

  5. Transitivity System on Air Asia News in the Jakarta Post

    OpenAIRE

    Rini, Rizka Novita

    2015-01-01

    Transitivitas adalah alat yang digunakan untuk menemukan makna ideational dalam suatu wacana. Saat awal penulisan makalah ini, berita mengenai kecelakaan pesawat AirAsia QZ8501 yang terjadi pada tanggal 28 Desember 2014, menjadi topik hangat yang sering dibicarakan. Hal ini disebabkan karena kecelakaan tersebut adalah kecelakaan pertama yang terjadi dalam penerbangan AirAsia sejak 2001. Hal itulah yang menjadi penyebab kenapa berita ini dipilih untuk dianalisis. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan unt...

  6. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W.; Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ''blink'' approach rather than the typical ''operate through'' approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE)

  7. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E. [JAYCOR, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ``blink`` approach rather than the typical ``operate through`` approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE).

  8. Disruption Mitigation System Developments and Design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Barbier, Charlotte N. [ORNL; Bull, Nora D. [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fisher, Paul W. [ORNL; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Wilgen, John B. [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S. [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A. [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R. [ORNL; Smith, Stephen Fulton [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    A disruption mitigation system (DMS) is under design for ITER to inject sufficient material deeply into the plasma for rapid plasma thermal shutdown and collisional suppression of any resulting runaway electrons. Progress on the development and design of both a shattered pellet injector (SPI) that produces large solid cryogenic pellets to provide reliable deep penetration of material and a fast opening high flow rate gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) is presented. Cryogenic pellets of deuterium and neon up to 25 mm in size have been formed and accelerated with a prototype injector and a full scale prototype MGI valve is now in testing. Implications of the design with respect to response time and reliability at the proposed injector locations on ITER are discussed.

  9. Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R L M; Eriksen, Jørgen; Ledgard, S F

    2013-01-01

    options in this paper have been structured along these N pathways. Mitigation technologies involving diet-based intervention include lowering the CP content or increasing the condensed tannin content of the diet. Animal-related mitigation options also include breeding for improved N conversion and high...

  10. Interference Mitigation for Coexistence of Heterogeneous Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haitao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ultra-wideband (UWB specifications, that is, direct-sequence (DS UWB and multiband-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM UWB, have been proposed as the candidates of the IEEE 802.15.3a, competing for the standard of high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPAN. Due to the withdrawal of the standardization process, the two heterogeneous UWB technologies will coexist in the future commercial market. In this paper, we investigate the mutual interference of such coexistence scenarios by physical layer Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal that the coexistence severely degrades the performance of both UWB systems. Moreover, such interference is asymmetric due to the heterogeneity of the two systems. Therefore, we propose the goodput-oriented utility-based transmit power control (GUTPC algorithm for interference mitigation. The feasible condition and the convergence property of GUTPC are investigated, and the choice of the coefficients is discussed for fairness and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate that GUTPC improves the goodput of the coexisting systems effectively and fairly with saved power.

  11. Integrated Systems Mitigate Land Degradation and Improve Agricultural System Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Rain-fed agricultural production supported by exogenous inputs is not sustainable because a continuous influx of expensive inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, fossil fuel, labor, tillage, and other) is required. Alternatives to traditional management allow natural occurring dynamic soil processes to provide the necessary microbial activity that supports nutrient cycling in balance with nature. Research designed to investigate the potential for integrated systems to replace expensive inputs has shown that healthy soils rich in soil organic matter (SOM) are the foundation upon which microbial nutrient cycling can reduce and eventually replace expensive fertilizer. No-till seed placement technology effectively replaces multiple-pass cultivation conserving stored soil water in semi-arid farming systems. In multi-crop rotations, cool- and warm-season crops are grown in sequence to meet goals of the integrated farming and ranching system, and each crop in the rotation complements the subsequent crop by supplying a continuous flow of essential SOM for soil nutrient cycling. Grazing animals serve an essential role in the system's sustainability as non-mechanized animal harvesters that reduce fossil fuel consumption and labor, and animal waste contributes soil nutrients to the system. Integrated systems' complementarity has contributed to greater soil nutrient cycling and crop yields, fertilizer reduction or elimination, greater yearling steer grazing net return, reduced cow wintering costs grazing crop residues, increased wildlife sightings, and reduced environmental footprint. Therefore, integrating crop and animal systems can reverse soil quality decline and adopting non-traditional procedures has resulted in a wider array of opportunities for sustainable agriculture and profitability.

  12. Essentials of Endorheic Basins and Lakes: A Review in the Context of Current and Future Water Resource Management and Mitigation Activities in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Yapiyev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Endorheic basins (i.e., land-locked drainage networks and their lakes can be highly sensitive to variations in climate and adverse anthropogenic activities, such as overexploitation of water resources. In this review paper, we provide a brief overview of one major endorheic basin on each continent, plus a number of endorheic basins in Central Asia (CA, a region where a large proportion of the land area is within this type of basin. We summarize the effects of (changing climate drivers and land surface–atmosphere feedbacks on the water balance. For the CA region, we also discuss key anthropogenic activities, related water management approaches and their complex relationship with political and policy issues. In CA a substantial increase in irrigated agriculture coupled with negative climate change impacts have disrupted the fragile water balance for many endorheic basins and their lakes. Transboundary integrated land and water management approaches must be developed to facilitate adequate climate change adaptation and possible mitigation of the adverse anthropogenic influence on endorheic basins in CA. Suitable climate adaptation, mitigation and efficient natural resource management technologies and methods are available, and are developing fast. A number of these are discussed in the paper, but these technologies alone are not sufficient to address pressing water resource issues in CA. Food–water–energy nexus analyses demonstrate that transboundary endorheic basin management requires transformational changes with involvement of all key stakeholders. Regional programs, supported by local governments and international donors, which incorporate advanced adaptation technologies, water resource research and management capacity development, are essential for successful climate change adaptation efforts in CA. However, there is a need for an accelerated uptake of such programs, with an emphasis on unification of approaches, as the pressures

  13. Mitigating clogging and arrest in confined self-propelled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, William; Aguilar, Jeffrey; Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goldman, Daniel

    Ensembles of self-propelling elements, like colloidal surfers, bacterial biofilms, and robot swarms can spontaneously form density heterogeneities. To understand how to prevent potentially catastrophic clogs in task-oriented active matter systems (like soil excavating robots), we present a robophysical study of excavation of granular media in a confined environment. We probe the efficacy of two social strategies observed in our studies of fire ants (S. invicta). The first behavior (denoted as unequal workload) prescribes to each excavator a different probability to enter the digging area. The second behavior (denoted as reversal\\x9D), is characterized by a probability to forfeit excavation when progress is sufficiently obstructed. For equal workload distribution and no reversal behavior, clogs at the digging site prevent excavation for sufficient numbers of robots. Measurements of aggregation relaxation times reveal how the strategies mitigate clogs. The unequal workload behavior reduces the tunnel density, decreasing the probability of clog formation. Reversal behavior, while allowing clogs to form, reduces aggregation relaxation time. We posit that application of social behaviors can be useful for swarm robot systems where global control and organization may not be possible.

  14. Tuberculosis in asia and the pacific: The role of socioeconomic status and health system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation.

  15. Optimizing water management practices for enhancing rice production and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Asia: The food-water-climate nexus approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Yang, J.; Ren, W.

    2015-12-01

    Rice fields, supporting over half of the global population, consumed around 30% of the freshwater used for global crop growth and identified as one of the major methane (CH4) sources. Asia, in where 90% of rice is consumed, took over 90% of the total CH4 emission from the global rice field. With the increasing water scarcity and rapidly growth population, it is urgent to address how to simultaneously maintain or even increase food production, reduce water consumption, and benefit climate. In this study, we used a process-based model (Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model), which has the capability to simultaneously simulate the carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes and storages within the terrestrial ecosystem, and also the exchanges of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, to quantify the magnitude, spatial and temporal variation of rice production and CH4 emissions under different water management practices. Simulated results have been evaluated against field observations, inventory-based and atmospheric inversion estimates. By implementing a set of experimental simulations, the results could provide insights for reasonable implementation of optimum water management practices, which is also crucial for policy maker to make trade-off decisions to increase yield and reduce GHG emissions through effective mitigation strategies.

  16. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  17. 1st Asia-Pacific Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Krob, Daniel; Lui, Pao; Tan, Yang; Wood, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the first edition of the Asia-Pacific conference on « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M Asia 2014) that took place in Singapore from December 10 to December 12, 2014 (Website: http://www.2014.csdm-asia.net/). These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Complex Systems, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on Designing Smart cities. The CSD&M Asia 2014 conference is organized under the guidance of the Center of Excellence on Systems Architecture, Management, Economy and Strategy, CESAMES, non-profit organization, address: CESAMES, 8 rue de Hanovre, 75002 Paris, France ( Website : http://www.cesames.net/en).

  18. Revised Land Use Characteristic Dataset for Asia and Southwest Asia for the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A. L.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) uses the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use characteristic dataset to determine global dust emission areas. The USGS dataset was developed from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer 1-km data from April 1992 to March 1993. In the past decade drastic changes in land and water use in Asia and Southwest Asia have quickly outdated this dataset. In China and Mongolia, age-old practices of farming and animal husbandry have been abandoned. Herders have too many animals in one location allowing the grassland to be eaten away and leaving vast areas of topsoil exposed and primed for removal by the wind. In the case of Southwest Asia, a four-year drought is in progress. Many of the wetlands and marshes in the river deltas are drying up from the lack of water runoff. To compound the problem several new dams were and are being built along the major watersheds. In particular, Iraq's dam building in the 1990's and politically driven draining of the Mesopotamian marshes between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has lead to the near disappearance of this historical marshland. To incorporate these changes we are updating the USGS land use characteristic dataset using GIS-like software named ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images), 1 km National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global topographical data, satellite imagery, and recently released governmental maps and reports. (For example, within the last two years the Chinese and Mongolian governments have released land degradation and desertification maps to satisfy the requirements set forth by United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.) The steps taken to create the new land use characteristic database will be described in detail. Before (non-dust producing areas) and after (dust producing areas) examples will be shown.

  19. 75 FR 14658 - Invitation for Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite Vehicle Number 49 AGENCY... options prior to changing the health status of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite IIR-20M (satellite vehicle number 49--SVN 49) from unhealthy to healthy. The potential mitigations are each designed...

  20. Issues of Mitigation Strategies in Augmented System for Next Generation Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-08-01

    Past research on augmented systems has been predominately concerned with measuring and classifying an operator’s functional states. Only recently has the field begun researching mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to add further conceptual understanding to mitigation strategies. Based upon the decision making literature, we pose three issues that mitigation strategies need to resolve: the types of decision strategies an operator uses, the structure of the information that an operator processes, and finally, the cue or pattern of cues that the operator relies on in making decisions. These issues are important to ensure that mitigation strategies are congruent to operator’s decision-making behaviors.

  1. On Low-Pass Phase Noise Mitigation in OFDM System for mmWave Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Fan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    . It is also shown that the PN spectral shape of the phase-lockedloop (PLL) based oscillator also aects the PN mitigation and that a larger PN may not necessarily degrade the performance of the OFDM system with PN mitigation. Simulations with realistic millimeter-wave (mmWave) PN and channel models...

  2. Tax systems and tax reforms in south and East Asia: Overview of the tax systems and main policy tax issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Fumagalli, Laura; Gandullia, Luca

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the main aspects of taxation in South and East Asia. Particolar attention is given to the main issues which emerge from the tax systems of China, India, Japan, Malysia, South Korea and Thailand

  3. Spacesuit Integrated Carbon Nanotube Dust Mitigation System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyapu, Kavya Kamal

    Lunar dust proved to be troublesome during the Apollo missions. The lunar dust comprises of fine particles, with electric charges imparted by solar winds and ultraviolet radiation. As such, it adheres readily, and easily penetrates through smallest crevices into mechanisms. During Apollo missions, the powdery dust substantially degraded the performance of spacesuits by abrading suit fabric and clogging seals. Dust also degraded other critical equipment such as rovers, thermal control and optical surfaces, solar arrays, and was thus shown to be a major issue for surface operations. Even inside the lunar module, Apollo astronauts were exposed to this dust when they removed their dust coated spacesuits. This historical evidence from the Apollo missions has compelled NASA to identify dust mitigation as a critical path. This important environmental challenge must be overcome prior to sending humans back to the lunar surface and potentially to other surfaces such as Mars and asteroids with dusty environments. Several concepts were successfully investigated by the international research community for preventing deposition of lunar dust on rigid surfaces (ex: solar cells, thermal radiators). However, applying these technologies for flexible surfaces and specifically to spacesuits has remained an open challenge, due to the complexity of the suit design, geometry, and dynamics. The research presented in this dissertation brings original contribution through the development and demonstration of the SPacesuit Integrated Carbon nanotube Dust Ejection/Removal (SPIcDER) system to protect spacesuits and other flexible surfaces from lunar dust. SPIcDER leverages the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) concept developed at NASA for use on solar cells. For the SPIcDER research, the EDS concept is customized for application on spacesuits and flexible surfaces utilizing novel materials and specialized design techniques. Furthermore, the performance of the active SPIcDER system is enhanced

  4. Mental health system development in Asia: Does Australia have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelovic, Katarina; Eyre, Harris A; Forbes, Malcolm P; Bauer, Renee; Aggarwal, Shilpa; Singh, Ajeet B; Baune, Bernhard T; Everall, Ian; Berk, Michael; Ng, Chee

    2016-09-01

    Socioeconomic trends herald what many describe as the Asian Century, whereby Asian economic, political and cultural influence is in global ascendency. Broadening relevant ties between Australia and Asia is evident and logical and may include strengthening alliances in mental health systems. We argue the importance of strengthening Asian mental health systems and some of the roles Australian mental health workers could have in promoting strengthening the Asian mental health system. This paper is a narrative review which sources data from reputable search databases. A well-articulated Australian strategy to support strengthening the mental health system in Asia is lacking. While there are active initiatives operating in this space, these remain fragmented and underdeveloped. Coordinated, collaborative and culturally respectful efforts to enhance health education, research, policy, leadership and development assistance are key opportunities. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals have a unique opportunity to contribute to improved mental health outcomes in Asia. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  5. Market Power Assessment and Mitigation in Hydrothermal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Kelman; Luiz Barroso; Mario Pereira

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate market power issues in bid- based hydrothermal scheduling. Initially, market power is simulated with a single stage Nash-Cournot equilibrium model. Market power assessment for multiple stages is then carried through a stochastic dynamic programming scheme. The decision in each stage and state is the equilibrium of a multi-agent game. Thereafter, mitigation measures, specially bilateral contracts, are investigated. Case studies with data taken from ...

  6. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  7. Objective tests for forward looking pedestrian crash avoidance/mitigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) Crash Imminent Braking : (CIB) Consortium during the project titled Objective Tests for Forward Looking Pedestrian Crash Avoidance/Mitigation : Systems. ...

  8. Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

    1990-07-01

    Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs

  9. Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

    1990-07-01

    Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  11. Sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer using the ECCC monthly forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ping; Lin, Hai

    2018-02-01

    A useful sub-seasonal forecast is of great societal and economical value in the highly populated East Asian region, especially during boreal summer when frequent extreme events such as heat waves and persistent heavy rainfalls occur. Despite recent interest and development in sub-seasonal prediction, it is still unclear how skillful dynamical forecasting systems are in East Asia beyond 2 weeks. In this study we evaluate the sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer in the operational monthly forecasting system of Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).Results show that the climatological intra-seasonal oscillation (CISO) of East Asian summer monsoonis reasonably well captured. Statistically significant forecast skill of 2-meter air temperature (T2m) is achieved for all lead times up to week 4 (days 26-32) over East China and Northeast Asia, which is consistent with the skill in 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500). Significant forecast skill of precipitation, however, is limited to the week of days 5-11. Possible sources of predictability on the sub-seasonal time scale are analyzed. The weekly mean T2m anomaly over East China is found to be linked to an eastward propagating extratropical Rossby wave from the North Atlantic across Europe to East Asia. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are also likely to influence the forecast skill of T2m at the sub-seasonal timescale over East Asia.

  12. Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...

  13. Alternatives of Cross-Border Securities Settlement System in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Yul Chai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cross-border securities settlement system is a very important element of regional capital market integration. Despite its importance, relatively few arguments, both theoretical and practical, have been advanced on the subject. This paper aims to examine the alternatives of cross-border securities settlement system in East Asia, and analyse the feasibility and the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The paper underlines the need to develop a multi-currency DVP securities settlement system. The conceivable alternatives of East Asia's cross-border securities settlement system can be divided into decentralized system and centralized system. It is possible to consider a large array of institutional settings according to the depository/settlement methods. The comparison of the alternatives is based on economic efficiency, feasibility and institutional location of settlement system. In view of these criteria, it is argued that a 'big-bang' approach toward imperfectly cenralized system is the most desirable alternative.

  14. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Moon, H.J.; Kim, T.I.; Kim, H.W.; Han, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. -- Highlights: •Urban extensive green roof systems have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff. •These systems are improve runoff mitigation and decentralized urban water management. •These systems have a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. •The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52. -- Extensive green-roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to mitigate urban runoff

  15. On Low-Pass Phase Noise Mitigation in OFDM System for mmWave Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Anxue

    2017-01-01

    A phase noise (PN) mitigation scheme was proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in a previous work. The proposed scheme does not require detailed knowledge of PN statistics and can eectively compensate the PN with sucient number of unknowns. In this paper, we analyze....... It is also shown that the PN spectral shape of the phase-lockedloop (PLL) based oscillator also aects the PN mitigation and that a larger PN may not necessarily degrade the performance of the OFDM system with PN mitigation. Simulations with realistic millimeter-wave (mmWave) PN and channel models...

  16. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-25

    JPRS-SEA-90-022 25 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 141 REPRODUCED BY U.S...Uxitaaitod DTIC QUALITY arsPBCTESD, East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-022 CONTENTS 25 JULY 1990 BURMA Karen Guerrillas Threaten To Kill Foreign...Crossborder Smuggling in Minh Hai Continues [KINH TE DOI NGOAI 5 May] 18 Report on Timber Export Corruption Case, Vice Minister’s Involvement [NHAN

  17. Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice–Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    The rice-wheat system is a predominant cropping system in Asia providing food, employment and income, ensuring the livelihoods of about 1 billion of resource poor rural and urban people. However, the productivity of the current rice-wheat systems is seriously threatened by increasing land degradation and scarcity of water and labour, inefficient cropping practices and other emerging socio economic and environmental drivers. Responding to the need to develop alternate crop establishment methods and improved cropping practices, this publication summarizes the results from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on optimizing productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems. It provides relevant information on how to modify existing water and nutrient management systems and improve soil management in both traditional and emerging crop establishment methods for sustainable intensification of cereal production in Asia

  18. Towards a South Asia Land Data Assimilation System: first results for transboundary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Limaye, A. S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Bajracharya, B.; Shrestha, B. R.; Iceland, C.; Narula, K.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Doorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia faces a remarkably complex and diverse set of hydrologic stresses, including melting glaciers, variable snowpack, intensively utilized transboundary rivers, rapid groundwater depletion due to irrigation, flood and drought hazard, and rapidly changing land use/cover and climate conditions. The management and prediction challenges posed by these conditions are compounded by the sparseness of in situ monitoring sites, particularly in headwaters regions, and a lack of open sharing of hydrometeorological data across national boundaries. As a result, uncertainties in availability in a situation of rising demands are leading to increasing competing and exploitive use of a limited resource, being experienced at various scales. An open water information system for decision support is an absolute necessity. In order to provide an open and spatially complete water information system for decision support across the region, we are implementing a customized Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) designed to provide best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes across South Asia, both retrospectively and in near-real time. The LDAS merges advanced land surface models with satellite-derived and in situ observations. In the case of South Asia, multiple satellite-derived hydrological fields are relevant to complete water balance analysis, including precipitation from multiple sources (e.g., TRMM, CHIRPS, GPM), water storage anomalies from GRACE, thermal infrared evapotranspiration estimates, and snowpack characteristics from visible and microwave sensors. Each of these observation types can either be ingested to South Asia LDAS or used as an independent observation for comparison. Here we present the first results of this South Asian Land Data Assimilation System, with a focus on complete water balance analysis for selected river basins in South Asia.

  19. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau’s climate system and its impact on East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the “Third Pole” of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on “water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology” multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored. PMID:28287648

  20. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau's climate system and its impact on East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-03-13

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the "Third Pole" of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on "water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology" multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored.

  1. System 80+TM PRA insights on severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Jacob, M.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Weston, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The System 80 + design is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the System 80 + design are described. The results of the System 80 + PRA are presented and the insights gained from the PRA sensitivity analyses are discussed. ABB-CE considered defense-in-depth for accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process and used robust design features to ensure that the System 80 + design achieved a low core damage frequency, low containment conditional failure probability, and excellent deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions and to ensure that the risk was properly allocated among design features and between prevention and mitigation. (author)

  2. Overview of Risk Mitigation for Safety-Critical Computer-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a high-level overview of a general strategy to mitigate the risks from threats to safety-critical computer-based systems. In this context, a safety threat is a process or phenomenon that can cause operational safety hazards in the form of computational system failures. This report is intended to provide insight into the safety-risk mitigation problem and the characteristics of potential solutions. The limitations of the general risk mitigation strategy are discussed and some options to overcome these limitations are provided. This work is part of an ongoing effort to enable well-founded assurance of safety-related properties of complex safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems by developing an effective capability to model and reason about the safety implications of system requirements and design.

  3. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-24

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

  4. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putthasri Weerasak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission

  5. Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems : the 20th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hemant; Elsayed, Saber

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades the field of Intelligent Systems delivered to human kind significant achievements, while also facing major transformations. 20 years ago, automation and knowledge-based AI were still the dominant paradigms fueling the efforts of both researchers and practitioners. Later, 10 years ago, statistical machine intelligence was on the rise, heavily supported by the digital computing, and led to the unprecedented advances in and dependence on digital technology. However, the resultant intelligent systems remained designer-based endeavors and thus, were limited in their true learning and development abilities. Today, the challenge is to have in place intelligent systems that can develop themselves on behalf of their creators, and gain abilities with no or limited supervision in the tasks they are meant to perform. Cognitive development systems, and the supporting cognitive computing are on the rise today, promising yet other significant achievements for the future of human kind. This book cap...

  6. Mitigation of Open Phase Conditions (OPC) in Electrical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler, W.; Lorange, J.

    2015-07-01

    In NPPs the Electrical System is an auxiliary system, which has to supply other systems important for safety and/or operation like fluid systems, HVAC etc. A few events referring the interruption of phases (Open Phase Conditions) during the last years have nevertheless pointed out the crucial importance of the “health” of this auxiliary “Electrical System” for the safety of the plant [1],[2]. Indeed undetected Open Phase Conditions (OPC) leading to unavailability of the plant power supply occurred worldwide in different power plants. (Author)

  7. Climate change adaptation and mitigation in smallholder crop–livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Oosting, Simon J.; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine; Masikati, Patricia; Falconnier, Gatien N.; Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    African mixed crop–livestock systems are vulnerable to climate change and need to adapt in order to improve productivity and sustain people’s livelihoods. These smallholder systems are characterized by high greenhouse gas emission rates, but could play a role in their mitigation. Although the

  8. A Super Energy Mitigation Nanostructure at High Impact Speed Based on Buckyball System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Yibing; Xiang, Yong; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The energy mitigation properties of buckyballs are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A one dimensional buckyball long chain is employed as a unit cell of granular fullerene particles. Two types of buckyballs i.e. C60 and C720 with recoverable and non-recoverable behaviors are chosen respectively. For C60 whose deformation is relatively small, a dissipative contact model is proposed. Over 90% of the total impact energy is proven to be mitigated through interfacial reflection of wave propagation, the van der Waals interaction, covalent potential energy and atomistic kinetic energy evidenced by the decent force attenuation and elongation of transmitted impact. Further, the C720 system is found to outperform its C60 counterpart and is able to mitigate over 99% of the total kinetic energy by using a much shorter chain thanks to its non-recoverable deformation which enhances the four energy dissipation terms. Systematic studies are carried out to elucidate the effects of impactor speed and mass, as well as buckyball size and number on the system energy mitigation performance. This one dimensional buckyball system is especially helpful to deal with the impactor of high impact speed but small mass. The results may shed some lights on the research of high-efficiency energy mitigation material selections and structure designs. PMID:23724082

  9. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-03

    JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...percent thought the cadres were taking bribes from the men; and 19.5 percent thought the cadres were decadent in quality and life style. Clearly, the

  10. 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Lund, Henrik; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2011-01-01

    that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socio-economic effects, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100% Renewable energy...... systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared to the business-as-usual energy system. Hence, the current debate between leaders should reflect a combination of these two main challenges....

  11. Informing Drought Preparedness and Response with the South Asia Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Matin, M. A.; Qamer, F. M.; Adhikary, B.; Bajracharya, B.; Nelson, J.; Pulla, S. T.; Ellenburg, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    Decision-relevant drought monitoring in South Asia is a challenge from both a scientific and an institutional perspective. Scientifically, climatic diversity, inconsistent in situ monitoring, complex hydrology, and incomplete knowledge of atmospheric processes mean that monitoring and prediction are fraught with uncertainty. Institutionally, drought monitoring efforts need to align with the information needs and decision-making processes of relevant agencies at national and subnational levels. Here we present first results from an emerging operational drought monitoring and forecast system developed and supported by the NASA SERVIR Hindu-Kush Himalaya hub. The system has been designed in consultation with end users from multiple sectors in South Asian countries to maximize decision-relevant information content in the monitoring and forecast products. Monitoring of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought is accomplished using the South Asia Land Data Assimilation System, a platform that supports multiple land surface models and meteorological forcing datasets to characterize uncertainty, and subseasonal to seasonal hydrological forecasts are produced by driving South Asia LDAS with downscaled meteorological fields drawn from an ensemble of global dynamically-based forecast systems. Results are disseminated to end users through a Tethys online visualization platform and custom communications that provide user oriented, easily accessible, timely, and decision-relevant scientific information.

  12. A decision support system for the promotion of Employee in Plaza Asia Method Using Weighted Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egi Badar Sambani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in a company is important because decisions taken by managers is the result of a final thought to be carried out by employees. Asia is the largest mall Plaza sepriangan east, where the assessment process includes the promotion employee attendance, productivity (work, integrity (nature, skill (ability and loyalty (faithfulness. Method Using Weighted Product (WP can help in decision-making to determine the promotion of employees in the company, as well as the appraisal process more efficient so the store manager can determine employee promotions quickly. By using decision support system that has a database, employee data can be stored in the database. So that in case of errors in inputting can be corrected without having to re-enter the data. With the Decision Support System will address the issues raised in the Plaza Asia, so the promotion process will be faster.

  13. Mitigation of ground motion effects via feedback systems in the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen; Schmickler, Hermann; Schulte, Daniel

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a future multi-TeV electron positron collider, which is currently being designed at CERN. To achieve its ambitious goals, CLIC has to produce particle beams of the highest quality, which makes the accelerator very sensitive to ground motion. Four mitigation methods have been foreseen by the CLIC design group to cope with the feasibility issue of ground motion. This thesis is concerned with the design of one of these mitigation methods, named linac feedback (L-FB), but also with the simultaneous simulation and validation of all mitigation methods. Additionally, a technique to improve the quality of the indispensable system knowledge has been developed. The L-FB suppresses beam oscillations along the accelerator. Its design is based on the decoupling of the overall accelerator system into independent channels. For each channel an individual compensator is found with the help of a semi- automatic control synthesis procedure. This technique allows the designer to incorporate ...

  14. Troublesome transportation concerns can be mitigated - RADMAT tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    There are three troublesome institutional concerns which face every large-quantity radioactive materials shipment - routing, pre-notification, and emergency response. People want to know: where's the shipment going and how's it getting there? States want to know what's being shipped and when? What kind of response to accidents is needed for this shipment and who'll respond? DOE is developing a transportation tracking system, based on a rapidly developing technology to determine geographical location using geo-positioning satellite systems. This technology will be used to track unclassified radioactive materials shipments in real-time. It puts those charged with monitoring transportation status on top of every shipment. Besides its practical benefits in the areas of logistics planning and execution, it demonstrates emergency preparedness has indeed been considered and close monitoring is possible. This paper will describe the system's technical detail, DOE plans and policy for its implementation, and the state of satellite positioning technology

  15. Mitigating the Cost of Anarchy in Supply Chain Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); W.J. van den Heuvel (Wim); J. Geunes (Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn a decentralized two-stage supply chain where a supplier serves a retailer who, in turn, serves end customers, operations decisions based on local incentives often lead to suboptimal system performance. Operating decisions based on local incentives may in such cases lead to a degree of

  16. Multi-species and multifunctional smallholder tree farming systems in Southeast Asia: timber, NTFPs, plus environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Roshetko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in human population, and the corresponding worldwide enhancement of social and economical conditions, are exerting a considerable pressure to convert forests to other uses. Moreover, these phenomena raise  the demand for food, fuel, wood fibers and other non-wood products, contributing to a further boost of the production pressure in the surviving forests. Simultaneously, these forests are expected to provide a diverse array of environmental services.Furthermore, smallholder forestry systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’ in Southeast Asia and they are primarily ‘planted’ systems that rehabilitate or reforest marginal lands, in order to produce tree products and services. As they traditionally are a means of producing goods for home consumption, they have become significant suppliers of products for local, national and international markets.The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that smallholder forestry systems are a viable management system  which is significantly contributing to global environmental goals and local economic objectives. This paper reviews global and Asian trends of human population growth, deforestation, and demand for forest and tree products.The origin, the diversity, the adaptable management and the importance of smallholder tree-based systems are here discussed and significant details are provided on the role of smallholder tree-based systems in the mitigation of deforestation, which could be obtained by expanding regional forest resources; in supplying alternative sources of forest products and environmental benefits; and in making significant contributions to local livelihoods for rural communities.

  17. Mitigating project development and facility operation risks with systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.

    2004-09-01

    The presentation illustrates the standard life cycles and project phases of a typical large scale astronomical facility acqui-sition and development project and explains the role of Systems Engineering (SE) during the entire project life cycle. The basic SE philosophy and systematic SE approach are described and a road map identifying the main activities of SE during the individual project phases - from the requirement definition to the eventual validation of the erected system- is developed. In addition the presentation describes the methodologies and processes SE can offer to analyse the risks asso-ciated with the definition, development and implementation of large complex scientific infrastructure projects. Risk control methods and approaches which are necessary to systematically reduce the technical, financial and schedule risks to a level acceptable to the scientific / technical project management and to the funding agencies are explained.

  18. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze

    2015-01-01

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  19. Space Shuttle Systems Engineering Processes for Liftoff Debris Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the systems engineering process designed to reduce the risk from debris during Space Shuttle Launching. This process begins the day of launch from the tanking to the vehicle tower clearance. Other debris risks (i.e., Ascent, and micrometeoroid orbital debit) are mentioned) but are not the subject of this presentation. The Liftoff debris systems engineering process and an example of how it works are reviewed (i.e.,STS-119 revealed a bolt liberation trend on the Fixed Service Structure (FSS) 275 level elevator room). The process includes preparation of a Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) that includes (1) Lift-off debris from previous mission dispositioned, (2) Flight acceptance rationale has been provided for Lift-off debris sources/causes (3) Lift-off debris mission support documentation, processes and tools are in place for the up-coming mission. The process includes a liftoff debris data collection that occurs after each launch. This includes a post launch walkdown, that records each liftoff debris, and the entry of the debris into a database, it also includes a review of the imagery from the launch, and a review of the instrumentation data. There is also a review of the debris transport analysis process, that includes temporal and spatial framework and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. which incorporates a debris transport analyses (DTA), debris materials and impact tests, and impact analyses.

  20. Scalable DDoS Mitigation System for Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS have been used by attackers for over two decades because of their effectiveness. This type of the cyber-attack is one of the most destructive attacks in the Internet. In recent years, the intensity of DDoS attacks has been rapidly increasing and the attackers combine more often different techniques of DDoS to bypass the protection. Therefore, the main goal of our research is to propose a DDoS solution that allows to increase the filtering capacity linearly and allows to protect against the combination of attacks. The main idea is to develop the DDoS defense system in the form of a portable software image that can be installed on the reserve hardware capacities. During a DDoS attack, these servers will be used as filters of this DDoS attack. Our solution is suitable for data centers and eliminates some lacks of commercial solutions. The system employs modular DDoS filters in the form of special grids containing specific protocol parameters and conditions.

  1. How to Control Active Power Filters for Harmonic Voltage Mitigation in Multibus Industrial Power Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valouch, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2005), s. 107-130 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2057301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : active power filter * industrial power system * harmonic voltage mitigation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. GMD Coupling to Power Systems and Disturbance Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Presentation includes slides on Geomagnetic Disturbance: Ground Fields; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Coupling to Bulk Electric System; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Transformers; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); FERC order 830; Goals; SuperMag (1 min data) Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); Spherical Harmonics; Spherical Harmonics Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); DST vs HN0,0; Fluctuations vs. DST; Fluctuations; Conclusions and Next Steps; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); EMP E3 Coupling to Texas 2000 Bus Model; E3 Coupling Comparison (total GIC) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (total MVAR) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) at Peak Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) at Peak Ground Zero; and Conclusion.

  3. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  4. Essentials of Endorheic Basins and Lakes: A Review in the Context of Current and Future Water Resource Management and Mitigation Activities in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Yapiyev; Zhanay Sagintayev; Vassilis J. Inglezakis; Kanat Samarkhanov; Anne Verhoef

    2017-01-01

    Endorheic basins (i.e., land-locked drainage networks) and their lakes can be highly sensitive to variations in climate and adverse anthropogenic activities, such as overexploitation of water resources. In this review paper, we provide a brief overview of one major endorheic basin on each continent, plus a number of endorheic basins in Central Asia (CA), a region where a large proportion of the land area is within this type of basin. We summarize the effects of (changing) climate drivers and ...

  5. Reduction of methane emission from landfills using bio-mitigation systems – from lab tests to full scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to mitigation by gas utilization systems, bio-mitigation systems may be implemented. Such systems are based on microbial methane oxidation in full surface biological covers, so-called biocovers......, or open or closed bed biofilter systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the relationship between research on process understanding of the oxidation of landfill gas contained methane and the up-scale to full bio-mitigation systems implemented at landfills. The oxidation of methane is controlled...... due to self-heating processes. Bio-mitigation can be used as a stand-alone technology or combined with active or passive gas collection. When implementing bio-mitigation systems focus should be on additional fugitive methane emissions or the presence of uncontrolled point releases. A protocol...

  6. Phase noise estimation and mitigation for DCT-based coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Wang, Ziyu

    2009-09-14

    In this paper, as an attractive alternative to the conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), discrete cosine transform (DCT) based OFDM which has certain advantages over its counterpart is studied for optical fiber communications. As is known, laser phase noise is a major impairment to the performance of coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) systems. However, to our knowledge, detailed analysis of phase noise and the corresponding mitigation methods for DCT-based CO-OFDM systems have not been reported yet. To address these issues, we analyze the laser phase noise in the DCT-based CO-OFDM systems, and propose phase noise estimation and mitigation schemes. Numerical results show that the proposal is very effective in suppressing phase noise and could significantly improve the performance of DCT-based CO-OFDM systems.

  7. Challenges for drought mitigation in Africa: The potential use of geospatial data and drought information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Beguería, Santiago; Gimeno, Luis; Eklundh, Lars; Giuliani, Gregory; Weston, Derek; El Kenawy, Ahmed; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Nieto, Raquel; Ayenew, Tenalem; Konte, Diawoye; Ardö, Jonas; Pegram, Geoffrey G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding, monitoring and mitigating drought is a very difficult task as a consequence of the intrinsic nature of the phenomenon. In addition, assessing the impact of drought on ecosystems and societies is also a complex task, because the same drought severity may have different consequences in different regions and systems due to the underlying vulnerabilities. New technologies based on geospatial information are available to determine the risk and vulnerability of a system to a drought ...

  8. Development and demonstration of sodium fire mitigation system in the SAPFIRE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Y.; Miyahara, S.; Morii, T.; Sasaki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Flow pattern of a realistic sodium leak from the sodium piping equipped with jackets and thermal insulator was experimentally investigated. Then, based on this result, the fire mitigation system consisting of an inclined liner, a drain piping, and a smothering tank has been developed. The performance of the system was, in final, validated in the large-scale sodium leak and fire test in the SAPFIRE facility. (author)

  9. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China: A Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural household biogas (RHB systems are at a crossroads in China, yet there has been a lack of holistic evaluation of their energy and climate (greenhouse gas mitigation efficiency under typical operating conditions. We combined data from monitoring projects and questionnaire surveys across hundreds of households from two typical Chinese villages within a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA framework to assess net GHG (greenhouse gas mitigation by RHB systems operated in different contexts. We modelled biogas production, measured biogas losses and used survey data from biogas and non-biogas households to derive empirical RHB system substitution rates for energy and fertilizers. Our results indicate that poorly designed and operated RHB systems in northern regions of China may in fact increase farm household GHG emissions by an average of 2668 kg CO2-eq· year−1, compared with a net mitigation effect of 6336 kg CO2-eq per household and year in southern regions. Manure treatment (104 and 8513 kg CO2-eq mitigation and biogas leakage (-533 and -2489 kg CO2-eq emission are the two most important factors affecting net GHG mitigation by RHB systems in northern and southern China, respectively. In contrast, construction (−173 and −305 kg CO2-eq emission, energy substitution (−522 emission and 653 kg·CO2-eq mitigation and nutrient substitution (−1544 and −37 kg CO2-eq emission made small contributions across the studied systems. In fact, survey data indicated that biogas households had higher energy and fertilizer use, implying no net substitution effect. Low biogas yields in the cold northern climate and poor maintenance services were cited as major reasons for RHB abandonment by farmers. We conclude that the design and management of RHB systems needs to be revised and better adapted to local climate (e.g., digester insulation and household energy demand (biogas storage and micro power generators to avoid discharge of unburned biogas

  10. Detection and mitigating rod drive control system degradation in Westinghouse PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of aging on the Westinghouse Control Rod Drive (CRD) System was performed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant aging Research (NPAR) Program. For the study, the CRD system boundary includes the power and logic cabinets associated with the manual control rod movement, and the control rod mechanism itself. The aging-related degradation of the interconnecting cables and connectors and the rod position indicating system also were considered. This paper presents the results of that study pertaining to the electrical and instrumentation portions of the CRD system including ways to detect and mitigate system degradation

  11. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m −3 . This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m −3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m −3

  12. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ˜0.2 Bq m-3. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m-3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m-3.

  13. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J., E-mail: joseph.street@mines.sdsmt.edu; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D. [Department of Physics, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  14. CUACE/Dust ─ an integrated system of observation and modeling systems for operational dust forecasting in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Zhang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated sand and dust storm (SDS forecasting system – CUACE/Dust (Chinese Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment for Dust has been developed, which consists of a comprehensive dust aerosol module with emission, dry/wet depositions and other atmospheric dynamic processes, and a data assimilation system (DAS using observational data from the CMA (China Meteorological Administration ground dust monitoring network and retrieved dust information from a Chinese geostationary satellite – FY-2C. This is the first time that a combination of surface network observations and satellite retrievals of the dust aerosol has been successfully used in the real time operational forecasts in East Asia through a DAS. During its application for the operational SDS forecasts in East Asia for spring 2006, this system captured the major 31 SDS episodes observed by both surface and satellite observations. Analysis shows that the seasonal mean threat score (TS for 0–24 h forecast over the East Asia in spring 2006 increased from 0.22 to 0.31 by using the DAS, a 41% enhancement. The time series of the forecasted dust concentrations for a number of representative stations for the whole spring 2006 were also evaluated against the surface PM10 monitoring data, showing a very good agreement in terms of the SDS timing and magnitudes near source regions where dust aerosols dominate. This is a summary paper for a special issue of ACP featuring the development and results of the forecasting system.

  15. Tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Dalal, Koustuv

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the relationship between socioeconomic status, health system development and the incidence, prevalence and mortality of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific. Methods: Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of tuberculosis and 20 variables of socioeconomic, health system and biological–behavioral issues were included in the study involving all 46 countries of the Asian Development Bank region (2007 data). Both univariate and multivariate linear regressions were used. Results: The worst three tuberculosis affected countries were Cambodia, India and Indonesia, while the least affected was Australia. Tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality rate were higher in countries with lower human development index, corruption perception index, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and countries with more people under minimum food supplements. Among the health system variables, total health expenditure per capita, governmental health expenditure per capita, hospital beds, and access to improved water and sanitation were strongly associated with tuberculosis. Conclusions: Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation. PMID:22355472

  16. Tuberculosis in Asia and the pacific: the role of socioeconomic status and health system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Dalal, Koustuv

    2012-01-01

    To identify the relationship between socioeconomic status, health system development and the incidence, prevalence and mortality of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific. Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of tuberculosis and 20 variables of socioeconomic, health system and biological-behavioral issues were included in the study involving all 46 countries of the Asian Development Bank region (2007 data). Both univariate and multivariate linear regressions were used. The worst three tuberculosis affected countries were Cambodia, India and Indonesia, while the least affected was Australia. Tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality rate were higher in countries with lower human development index, corruption perception index, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and countries with more people under minimum food supplements. Among the health system variables, total health expenditure per capita, governmental health expenditure per capita, hospital beds, and access to improved water and sanitation were strongly associated with tuberculosis. Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation.

  17. Second Asia-Pacific Conference on the Computer Aided System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chaczko, Zenon; Jacak, Witold; Łuba, Tadeusz; Computational Intelligence and Efficiency in Engineering Systems

    2015-01-01

    This carefully edited and reviewed volume addresses the increasingly popular demand for seeking more clarity in the data that we are immersed in. It offers excellent examples of the intelligent ubiquitous computation, as well as recent advances in systems engineering and informatics. The content represents state-of-the-art foundations for researchers in the domain of modern computation, computer science, system engineering and networking, with many examples that are set in industrial application context. The book includes the carefully selected best contributions to APCASE 2014, the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on  Computer Aided System Engineering, held February 10-12, 2014 in South Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. The book consists of four main parts that cover data-oriented engineering science research in a wide range of applications: computational models and knowledge discovery; communications networks and cloud computing; computer-based systems; and data-oriented and software-intensive systems.

  18. System design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.; Pounds, T.S.; Smith, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the hardware subsystems of the data acquisition and control system (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste tank, directed at certain angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. The SY-101 tank has experienced recurrent periodic gas releases of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and (recently discovered) methane. The hydrogen gas represents a danger, as some of the releases are in amounts above the lower flammability limit (LFL). These large gas releases must be mitigated. Several instruments have been added to the tank to monitor the gas compositions, the tank level, the tank temperature, and other parameters. A mixer pump has been developed to stir the tank waste to cause the gases to be released at a slow rate. It is the function of the DACS to monitor those instruments and to control the mixer pump in a safe manner. During FY93 and FY94 the mixer pump was installed with associated testing operations support equipment and a mitigation test project plan was implemented. These activities successfully demonstrated the mixer pump's ability to mitigate the SY-101 tank hydrogen gas hazard

  19. Cyber security with radio frequency interferences mitigation study for satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Genshe; Tian, Xin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Nguyen, Tien M.; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite systems including the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the satellite communications (SATCOM) system provide great convenience and utility to human life including emergency response, wide area efficient communications, and effective transportation. Elements of satellite systems incorporate technologies such as navigation with the global positioning system (GPS), satellite digital video broadcasting, and information transmission with a very small aperture terminal (VSAT), etc. The satellite systems importance is growing in prominence with end users' requirement for globally high data rate transmissions; the cost reduction of launching satellites; development of smaller sized satellites including cubesat, nanosat, picosat, and femtosat; and integrating internet services with satellite networks. However, with the promising benefits, challenges remain to fully develop secure and robust satellite systems with pervasive computing and communications. In this paper, we investigate both cyber security and radio frequency (RF) interferences mitigation for satellite systems, and demonstrate that they are not isolated. The action space for both cyber security and RF interferences are firstly summarized for satellite systems, based on which the mitigation schemes for both cyber security and RF interferences are given. A multi-layered satellite systems structure is provided with cross-layer design considering multi-path routing and channel coding, to provide great security and diversity gains for secure and robust satellite systems.

  20. Modelling the impacts of challenging 2050 European climate mitigation targets on Ireland’s energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Rogan, Fionn; Deane, J.P.; Lavigne, Denis; Rout, Ullash K.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    The Copenhagen Accord established political consensus on the 2 °C limit (in global temperature increase) and for deep cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels to achieve this goal. The European Union has set ambitious GHG targets for the year 2050 (80–95% below 1990 levels), with each Member State developing strategies to contribute to these targets. This paper focuses on mitigation targets for one Member State, Ireland, an interesting case study due to the growth in GHG emissions (24% increase between 1990 and 2005) and the high share of emissions from agriculture (30% of total GHG emissions). We use the Irish TIMES energy systems modelling tool to build a number of scenarios delivering an 80% emissions reduction target by 2050, including accounting for the limited options for agriculture GHG abatement by increasing the emissions reduction target for the energy system. We then compare the scenario results in terms of changes in energy technology, the role of energy efficiency and renewable energy. We also quantify the economic impacts of the mitigation scenarios in terms of marginal CO 2 abatement costs and energy system costs. The paper also sheds light on the impacts of short term targets and policies on long term mitigation pathways. - Highlights: ► We developed a techno-economic energy model of Ireland to the year 2050. ► Reductions between 80% and 95% of GHG emissions can be technically achieved. ► A 50% emissions cut in agriculture requires a 95% reductions from the energy system. ► Extending current policies implies greater electrification and efficiency measures. ► The additional cost to achieve mitigation remain less than 2% of GDP levels in 2050.

  1. Long-range Transport Modeling System and its Application over the Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Soo Park

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Comprehensive Acid Deposition Modeling (CADM was developed at the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER and Yonsei University in South Korea in order to simulate the long-range transboundary air pollutants and regional acid deposition processes over the Northeast Asia. The modeling system CADM is composed of a real-time numerical weather forecasting model (RAMS and an Eulerian air pollution transport/dispersion/deposition model including gas- and aqueous-phase atmospheric chemical processes for the real-time acquisition of model results and prediction of acidic pollutants. The main objective of CADM is to facilitate an efficient assessment tools by providing the explicit information on the acidic deposition processes. This paper introduces the components of CADM, and describes the comprehensive atmospheric modeling system including atmospheric chemistry for the simulation of acidic processes over the Eastern Asia. The presently developed modeling system CADM has been used to simulate long-range transport over the Northeast Asian region during the spring season from March 5 to 15 2002. For the model validation, the simulated results are compared with both aircraft measurements and surface monitoring observations, and discussed for its operational consideration in Korea

  2. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  3. Evaluation of the wind pumped hydropower storage integrated flood mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Aishah; Basrawi, Firdaus

    2018-04-01

    As Wind Pumped Hydropower Storage (WPHS) need high cost to construct, it is important to study their impacts on economic and environmental aspects. Thus, this research aims to evaluate their economic and environmental performances. First, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) was used to simulate power generation system with and without the flood reservoir. Next, the total amount of emitted air pollutant was used to evaluate the environmental impacts. It was found the wind-diesel with reservoir storage system (A-III) will have much lower NPC than other systems that do not include reservoir for flood mitigation when the cost of flood losses are included in the total Net Present Cost (NPC). The NPC for system A-III was RM 1.52 million and for diesel standalone system (A-I) is RM 10.8 million when the cost of flood losses are included in the total NPC. Between both energy systems, the amount of pollutants emitted by the A-III system was only 408 kg-CO2/year which is much less than the A-I system which is 99, 754 kg of carbon dioxide per year. To conclude, the WPHS integrated with flood mitigation system seems promising in the aspects of economic and environment.

  4. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes in Responses to Conservation Management across Cropping Systems in Asia from a Data-Model Integration Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, W.; Huang, Y.; Tao, B.; Zhu, X.; Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The agriculture sector is estimated to be responsible for 12% of the total greenhouse gas emissions, particularly for 52% of CH4 and 84% of N2O. It has been predicted that the world population would reach 9.7 billion by 2050 and require a 60 percent increase in total agricultural production above the level of 2005-07, which would potentially further boost greenhouse gas emissions from agroecosystems. The growing concerns over food security and rapid rate of global warming necessitates the development of conservation management (or climate-smart soil management) that can ensure high crop yield and meanwhile markedly enhance soil sequestration and reduce GHG emissions. In this study, we synthesize multi-source datasets and apply an improved agroecosystem model to quantitatively investigate the dynamics of CH4 and N2O fluxes as influenced by conservation management practices in cropping systems of Asia (such as wheat, corn, and rice) for exploring the potential of those practices to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Our preliminary results suggest that the conservation tillage (e.g., reduced and no tillage) can largely suppress CH4 emissions from Asia's rice paddies, although they, to some extent, may stimulate NO2 emissions, comparing with the conventional tillage.

  5. Mitigation of Beat Noise in Time Wavelength Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Taher M.; Harle, David; Andonovic, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of two methods for enhancing the performance of two-dimensional time wavelength Optical code-division multiple-access systems by mitigating the effects of beat noise. The first methodology makes use of an optical hard limiter (OHL) in the receiver prior to the optical correlator; a general formula for the error probability as a function of crosstalk level for systems adopting OHLs is given, and the implications of the OHL's nonideal transfer characteristics are then examined. The second approach adopts pulse position modulation, and system performance is estimated and compared to that associated with on off keying.

  6. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, The original system was designed and implemented by LANL, supplied to WHC, and turned over to LMHC for operation. In 1999, the hardware and software were upgraded to provide a state-of-the-art, Year-2000 compliant system.

  7. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. Objective: To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. Design: From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992–2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006–2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. Results: Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years. Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. Conclusions: The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the

  8. Radon mitigation in schools utilising heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G.; Ligman, B.; Brennan, T.; Shaughnessy, R.; Turk, B.H.; Snead, B.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a continuing radon in schools technology development effort, EPA's School Evaluation Team has performed radon mitigation in schools by the method of ventilation/pressurisation control technology. Ventilation rates were increased, at a minimum, to meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (ASHRAE 62-1989). This paper presents the results and the preliminary evaluations which led to the team's decision to implement this technology. Factors considered include energy penalties, comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), building shell tightness, and equipment costs. Cost benefit of heat recovery ventilation was also considered. Earlier results of the SEP team's efforts have indicated a severe ventilation problem within the schools of the United States. Two case studies are presented where HVAC technology was implemented for controlling radon concentrations. One involved the installation of a heat recovery ventilator to depressurise a crawl space and provide ventilation to the classrooms which previously had no mechanical ventilation. The other involved the restoration of a variable air volume system in a two-storey building. The HVAC system's controls were restored and modified to provide a constant building pressure differential to control the entry of radon. Pre-mitigation and post-mitigation indoor air pollutant measurements were taken, including radon, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), particulates, and bio-aerosols. Long-term monitoring of radon, CO 2 , building pressure differentials, and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity is presented. (author)

  9. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Conceptual Model for Mitigating Human – Wildlife Conflict based on System Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patana, Pindi; Mawengkang, Herman; Silvi Lydia, Maya

    2018-01-01

    In conservation process it is unavoidably that conflict incidents may occur among the people and wild-life in the surrounding of the conservation area. Mitigating conflict between wildlife and people is considered a top conservation priority, particularly in landscapes where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur. This conflict is also happened in Leuser conservation area located in the border of North Sumatra and Aceh province, Indonesia. Easing the conflict problem is very difficult. This paper proposes a conceptual model based on system thinking to explore factors that may have great influence on the conflict and to figure out mitigating the conflict. We show how this conceptual framework can be utilized to analyze the conflict occur and further how it could used to develop a multi- criteria decision model.

  11. Snapping shrimp noise mitigation based on statistical detection in underwater acoustic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonsu; Seo, Jongpil; Ahn, Jongmin; Chung, Jaehak

    2017-07-01

    We propose a mitigation scheme for snapping shrimp noise when it corrupts an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in underwater acoustic communication systems. The OFDM signal distorted by the snapping shrimp noise is filtered by a band-stop filter. The snapping shrimp noises in the filtered signal are detected by a detector with a constant false alarm rate whose threshold is derived theoretically from the statistics of the background noise. The detected signals are reconstructed by a simple reconstruction method. The proposed scheme has a higher detection capability and a lower mean square error of the channel estimation for simulated data and a lower bit error rate for practical ocean OFDM data collected in northern East China Sea than the conventional noise-mitigating methods.

  12. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gulagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63.5 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An integrated scenario was simulated to show the benefit of integrating additional demand of industrial gas and desalinated water which provided the system the required flexibility and increased the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. This was reflected in the decrease of system cost by 9.5% and the total electricity generation by 5.1%. According to the results, grid integration on a larger scale decreases the total system cost and levelized cost of electricity by reducing the need for storage technologies due to seasonal variations in weather and demand profiles. The intermittency of renewable technologies can be effectively stabilized to satisfy hourly demand at a low cost level. A 100% renewable energy based system could be a reality economically and technically in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than the nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS alternatives.

  13. Albedo impact on the suitability of biochar systems to mitigate global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sebastian; Bright, Ryan M; Fischer, Daniel; Schulz, Hardy; Glaser, Bruno

    2012-11-20

    Biochar application to agricultural soils can change the surface albedo which could counteract the climate mitigation benefit of biochar systems. However, the size of this impact has not yet been quantified. Based on empirical albedo measurements and literature data of arable soils mixed with biochar, a model for annual vegetation cover development based on satellite data and an assessment of the annual development of surface humidity, an average mean annual albedo reduction of 0.05 has been calculated for applying 30-32 Mg ha(-1) biochar on a test field near Bayreuth, Germany. The impact of biochar production and application on the carbon cycle and on the soil albedo was integrated into the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of a modeled pyrolysis based biochar system via the computation of global warming potential (GWP) characterization factors. The analysis resulted in a reduction of the overall climate mitigation benefit of biochar systems by 13-22% due to the albedo change as compared to an analysis which disregards the albedo effect. Comparing the use of the same quantity of biomass in a biochar system to a bioenergy district heating system which replaces natural gas combustion, bioenergy heating systems achieve 99-119% of the climate benefit of biochar systems according to the model calculation.

  14. Analysis Method for Licensing Application of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner System as a Hydrogen Mitigation System of OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changhyun; Sung, Jejoong; Ha, Sangjun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Inseon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    As a result, for some plants, dual hydrogen mitigation systems are prepared with a combination of PARs and igniters that each system has a 100% of full capacity for hydrogen control for postulated severe accident conditions. In the original design of OPR-1000, hydrogen mitigation systems consist of a thermal recombiner and twenty glow-type igniters, which are used for design basis accident and severe accident, respectively. This paper presents an analysis method for licensing application in Korea to determine the capacity and locations of PARs for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A licensed analysis method of OPR-1000 has been presented to determine the capacity and locations of PAR for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A lumped parameter code of MAAP 4.0.6+ has been adopted to simulate various severe accident scenarios with a 26 multi-compartment containment model. Hydrogen generations were analysed and required capacity and locations of PAR were determined for six accident scenarios selected from a combination of probabilistic and deterministic considerations. A total of twenty-four PARs in the containment dome, steam generator rooms, annulus and adjacent areas was designed and the adequacy of this system has been confirmed through detailed analyses including sensitivity analyses with/without operations of safety systems such as containment heat removal systems, reactor coolant depressurization system and safety injection by accumulator, etc. Through the assessment on the possibility of global FA and DDT, it has been concluded that new PAR system with twenty-four recombiners can remove hydrogen effectively in the containment atmosphere and prevent from global FA and DDT. Further works are required in the future to develop a well-balanced analysis methodology with a combination of lumped and CFD tools focusing on the optimum locations of recombiners and local hydrogen behaviour in containment compartments.

  15. [Socio-psychological and ecological aspects within the system of nuclear radiation risk mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, B I; Ushakov, I B; Zuev, V G

    2004-01-01

    The authors bring into light several aspects of nuclear radiation risks, i.e. physical safety of nuclear technologies and ecology, place of operator within the nuclear radiation safety system (proficiency, protective culture, safety guides) and consider approaches to the human factor quantification within the system of mitigation of risks from nuclear technologies, and IAEA recommendations on probable risk estimation. Future investigations should be aimed at extension of the radiation sensitivity threshold, personnel selection as by psychological so genetic testing for immunity to ionizing radiation, development of pharmachemical and physical protectors and methods of enhancing nonspecific resistance to extreme, including radiation, environments, and building of radiation event simulators for training.

  16. Mitigation of Radiation and EMI Effects on the Vacuum Control System of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pigny, G; Krakowski, P; Rio, B

    2014-01-01

    The 26 km of vacuum chambers where circulates the beam of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be maintained under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) to minimize the beam interactions with residual gases, and allow the operation of specific systems. The vacuum level is measured by several thousands of gauges along the accelerator. Bad vacuum quality may trigger a beam dump and close the associated sector valves. The effects of radiation or Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI) on components that may stop the machine must be evaluated and minimized. We report on the actions implemented to mitigate their impact on the vacuum control system.

  17. Proceedings of the international symposium on acceleration-driven transmutation systems and Asia ADS network initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-09-01

    An International Symposium on 'Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative' was held on March 24 and 25, 2003 at Gakushi-Kaikan, Tokyo, hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka University, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Tokyo Institute of Technology. The objectives of this symposium are to make participants acquainted with the current status and future plans for research and development (R and D) of ADS in the world and to enhance the initiation of an international collaborative network for ADS in Asia. This report records the papers and the materials of 15 presentations in the symposium. On the first day of the symposium, current activities for R and D of ADS were presented from United States, Europe, Japan, Korea, and China. On the second day, R and D activities in the fields of accelerator and nuclear physics were presented. After these presentations, a panel discussion was organized with regard to the prospective international collaboration and multidisciplinary synergy effect, which are essential to manage various technological issues encountered in R and D stage of ADS. Through the discussion, common understanding was promoted concerning the importance of establishing international network. It was agreed to establish the international network for scientific information exchange among Asian countries including Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam in view of the future international collaboration in R and D of ADS. (author)

  18. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  19. Health and health-care systems in southeast Asia: diversity and transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Phua, Kai Hong; Yap, Mui Teng; Pocock, Nicola S; Hashim, Jamal H; Chhem, Rethy; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Lopez, Alan D

    2011-01-29

    Southeast Asia is a region of enormous social, economic, and political diversity, both across and within countries, shaped by its history, geography, and position as a major crossroad of trade and the movement of goods and services. These factors have not only contributed to the disparate health status of the region's diverse populations, but also to the diverse nature of its health systems, which are at varying stages of evolution. Rapid but inequitable socioeconomic development, coupled with differing rates of demographic and epidemiological transitions, have accentuated health disparities and posed great public health challenges for national health systems, particularly the control of emerging infectious diseases and the rise of non-communicable diseases within ageing populations. While novel forms of health care are evolving in the region, such as corporatised public health-care systems (government owned, but operating according to corporate principles and with private-sector participation) and financing mechanisms to achieve universal coverage, there are key lessons for health reforms and decentralisation. New challenges have emerged with rising trade in health services, migration of the health workforce, and medical tourism. Juxtaposed between the emerging giant economies of China and India, countries of the region are attempting to forge a common regional identity, despite their diversity, to seek mutually acceptable and effective solutions to key regional health challenges. In this first paper in the Lancet Series on health in southeast Asia, we present an overview of key demographic and epidemiological changes in the region, explore challenges facing health systems, and draw attention to the potential for regional collaboration in health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative Impact of Emissions Controls and Meteorology on Air Pollution Mitigation Associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schauer, J. J.; de Foy, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22nd Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10th - 11th, 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11th - November 2nd, 2014), during (November 3rd - 12th, 2014) and after (November 13th, 2014 - January 31st, 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, mobile source, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The Industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, follows by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and mobile source reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for Xilingele League.

  1. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  2. A new Disruption Mitigation System for deuterium–tritium operation at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruezi, Uron, E-mail: uron.kruezi@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Jachmich, Stefan [Laboratory for Plasma Physic, ERM/KMS, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Koslowski, Hans Rudolf [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-4, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Lehnen, Michael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS90046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Brezinsek, Sebastijan [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-4, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Matthews, Guy [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Disruption Mitigation System based on massive gas injections has been designed. • The DMS has been installed at the JET-tokamak for routine machine protection. • The DMS is capable of a throughput of up to 4.6 kPa m{sup 3}. • The new DMS is compatible with the deuterium–tritium operation at JET. - Abstract: Disruptions, the fast accidental losses of plasma current and stored energy in tokamaks, represent a significant risk to the mechanical structure as well as the plasma facing components of reactor-scale fusion facilities like ITER. At JET, the tokamak experiment closest to ITER in terms of operating parameters and size, massive gas injection has been established as a disruption mitigation method. As a “last resort” measure it reduces thermal and electromagnetic loads during disruptions which can potentially have a serious impact on the beryllium and tungsten plasma-facing materials of the main chamber and divertor. For the planned deuterium–tritium experiments, a new Disruption Mitigation System (DMS) has been designed and installed and is presented in this article. The new DMS at JET consists of an all metal gate valve compatible with gas injections, a fast high pressure eddy current driven valve, a high voltage power supply and a gas handling system providing six supply lines for pure and mixed noble and flammable gases (Ar, Ne, Kr, D{sub 2}, etc.). The valve throughput varies with the injection pressure and gas type (efficiency – injected/charged gas 50–97%); the maximum injected amount of gas is approximately 4.6 kPa m{sup 3} (at maximum system pressure of 5.0 MPa).

  3. HPNAIDM: The High-Performance Network Anomaly/Intrusion Detection and Mitigation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan [Northwesten University

    2013-12-05

    Identifying traffic anomalies and attacks rapidly and accurately is critical for large network operators. With the rapid growth of network bandwidth, such as the next generation DOE UltraScience Network, and fast emergence of new attacks/virus/worms, existing network intrusion detection systems (IDS) are insufficient because they: • Are mostly host-based and not scalable to high-performance networks; • Are mostly signature-based and unable to adaptively recognize flow-level unknown attacks; • Cannot differentiate malicious events from the unintentional anomalies. To address these challenges, we proposed and developed a new paradigm called high-performance network anomaly/intrustion detection and mitigation (HPNAIDM) system. The new paradigm is significantly different from existing IDSes with the following features (research thrusts). • Online traffic recording and analysis on high-speed networks; • Online adaptive flow-level anomaly/intrusion detection and mitigation; • Integrated approach for false positive reduction. Our research prototype and evaluation demonstrate that the HPNAIDM system is highly effective and economically feasible. Beyond satisfying the pre-set goals, we even exceed that significantly (see more details in the next section). Overall, our project harvested 23 publications (2 book chapters, 6 journal papers and 15 peer-reviewed conference/workshop papers). Besides, we built a website for technique dissemination, which hosts two system prototype release to the research community. We also filed a patent application and developed strong international and domestic collaborations which span both academia and industry.

  4. LOD BIM Element specification for Railway Turnout Systems Risk Mitigation using the Information Delivery Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante-Barrera, Ángel; Dindar, Serdar; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Ruikar, Darshan

    2017-10-01

    Railway turnouts are complex systems designed using complex geometries and grades which makes them difficult to be managed in terms of risk prevention. This feature poses a substantial peril to rail users as it is considered a cause of derailment. In addition, derailment deals to financial losses due to operational downtimes and monetary compensations in case of death or injure. These are fundamental drivers to consider mitigating risks arising from poor risk management during design. Prevention through design (PtD) is a process that introduces tacit knowledge from industry professionals during the design process. There is evidence that Building Information Modelling (BIM) can help to mitigate risk since the inception of the project. BIM is considered an Information System (IS) were tacit knowledge can be stored and retrieved from a digital database making easy to take promptly decisions as information is ready to be analysed. BIM at the model element level entails working with 3D elements and embedded data, therefore adding a layer of complexity to the management of information along the different stages of the project and across different disciplines. In order to overcome this problem, the industry has created a framework for model progression specification named Level of Development (LOD). The paper presents an IDM based framework for design risk mitigation through code validation using the LOD. This effort resulted on risk datasets which describe graphically and non-graphically a rail turnout as the model progresses. Thus, permitting its inclusion within risk information systems. The assignment of an LOD construct to a set of data, requires specialised management and process related expertise. Furthermore, the selection of a set of LOD constructs requires a purpose based analysis. Therefore, a framework for LOD constructs implementation within the IDM for code checking is required for the industry to progress in this particular field.

  5. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  6. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1). Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, R.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-24

    This document provides descriptions of components and tasks that are involved in the computer system for the data acquisition and control of the mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company. The computers (both personal computers and specialized data-taking computers) and the software programs of the system will hereafter collectively be referred to as the DACS (Data Acquisition and Control System).

  7. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides descriptions of components and tasks that are involved in the computer system for the data acquisition and control of the mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company. The computers (both personal computers and specialized data-taking computers) and the software programs of the system will hereafter collectively be referred to as the DACS (Data Acquisition and Control System)

  8. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  9. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Daniel J.; Schrader, Kenneth J.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  10. Measurement and mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from a high nitrogen input vegetable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shu Kee; Suter, Helen; Davies, Rohan; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Chen, Deli

    2015-02-03

    The emission and mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2O) from high nitrogen (N) vegetable systems is not well understood. Nitrification inhibitors are widely used to decrease N2O emissions in many cropping systems. However, most N2O flux measurements and inhibitor impacts have been made with small chambers and have not been investigated at a paddock-scale using micrometeorological techniques. We quantified N2O fluxes over a four ha celery paddock using open-path Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with a backward Lagrangian stochastic model, in addition to using a closed chamber technique. The celery crop was grown on a sandy soil in southern Victoria, Australia. The emission of N2O was measured following the application of chicken manure and N fertilizer with and without the application of a nitrification inhibitor 3, 4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate (DMPP). The two techniques consistently demonstrated that DMPP application reduced N2O emission by 37-44%, even though the N2O fluxes measured by a micrometeorological technique were more than 10 times higher than the small chamber measurements. The results suggest that nitrification inhibitors have the potential to mitigate N2O emission from intensive vegetable production systems, and that the national soil N2O emission inventory assessments and modelling predictions may vary with gas measurement techniques.

  11. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslin, S I; Wahap, N A; Han, O W

    2014-01-01

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA

  12. Urbanization, Extreme Events, and Health: The Case for Systems Approaches in Mitigation, Management, and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, José Gabriel; Newell, Barry; Proust, Katrina; Capon, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Extreme events, both natural and anthropogenic, increasingly affect cities in terms of economic losses and impacts on health and well-being. Most people now live in cities, and Asian cities, in particular, are experiencing growth on unprecedented scales. Meanwhile, the economic and health consequences of climate-related events are worsening, a trend projected to continue. Urbanization, climate change and other geophysical and social forces interact with urban systems in ways that give rise to complex and in many cases synergistic relationships. Such effects may be mediated by location, scale, density, or connectivity, and also involve feedbacks and cascading outcomes. In this context, traditional, siloed, reductionist approaches to understanding and dealing with extreme events are unlikely to be adequate. Systems approaches to mitigation, management and response for extreme events offer a more effective way forward. Well-managed urban systems can decrease risk and increase resilience in the face of such events. © 2015 APJPH.

  13. Public and Private Sectors in Asian Higher Education Systems: Issues and Prospects. Reports from the International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia (3rd, Hiroshima, Japan, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The roles of public and private sectors of higher education in Asia and relationships to national systems are explored in reports from the Third International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia. The focus was China, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Japan, and Thailand. Patterns by which national systems of higher education are differentiated…

  14. Imagining School Autonomy in High-Performing Education Systems: East Asia as a Source of Policy Referencing in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yun; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Education reform is increasingly based on emulating the features of "world-class" systems that top international attainment surveys and, in England specifically, East Asia is referenced as the "inspiration" for their education reforms. However, the extent to which the features identified by the UK Government accord with the…

  15. Applying a Systems Approach to Monitoring and Assessing Climate Change Mitigation Potential in Mexico's Forest Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin-Alvarez, M. I.; Wayson, C.; Fellows, M.; Birdsey, R.; Smyth, C.; Magnan, M.; Dugan, A.; Mascorro, V.; Alanís, A.; Serrano, E.; Kurz, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2012, the Mexican government through its National Forestry Commission, with support from the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the Forest Services of Canada and USA, the SilvaCarbon Program and research institutes in Mexico, has made important progress towards the use of carbon dynamics models ("gain-loss" approach) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions monitoring and projections into the future. Here we assess the biophysical mitigation potential of policy alternatives identified by the Mexican Government (e.g. net zero deforestation rate, sustainable forest management) based on a systems approach that models carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems, harvested wood products and substitution benefits in two contrasting states of Mexico. We provide key messages and results derived from the use of the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector and a harvested wood products model, parameterized with input data from Mexicós National Forest Monitoring System (e.g. forest inventories, remote sensing, disturbance data). The ultimate goal of this tri-national effort is to develop data and tools for carbon assessment in strategic landscapes in North America, emphasizing the need to include multiple sectors and types of collaborators (scientific and policy-maker communities) to design more comprehensive portfolios for climate change mitigation in accordance with the Paris Agreement of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (e.g. Mid-Century Strategy, NDC goals).

  16. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  17. Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study the impact of EMI generated by power devices on radiated emission of AC cables. Parallel resonances within the circuit can cause peaks in the S21 (transmission coefficient between the phase-node-to-chassis voltage and the center-conductor-to-shield voltage of the AC cable connecting to the motor and Z11 (input impedance at Port 1 between the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT phase node and chassis at those resonance frequencies and result in enlarged noise voltage peaks at Port 1. The magnitude of S21 between two ports was reduced to decrease the amount of energy coupled from the noise source between the phase node and chassis to the end of the AC cable by lowering the corresponding quality factor. The equivalent circuits were built by analyzing current-following paths at three critical resonance frequencies. Interference voltage peaks can be suppressed by mitigating the resonances. The capacitances and inductances generating the parallel resonances and

  18. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  19. Economic and CO2 mitigation impacts of promoting biomass heating systems: An input-output study for Vorarlberg, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Koller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical investigation about the economic and CO 2 mitigation impacts of bioenergy promotion in the Austrian federal province of Vorarlberg. We study domestic value-added, employment, and fiscal effects by means of a static input-output analysis. The bioenergy systems analysed comprise biomass district heating, pellet heating, and automated wood chip heating systems, as well as logwood stoves and boilers, ceramic stoves, and buffer storage systems. The results indicate that gross economic effects are significant, regarding both investment and operation of the systems, and that the negative economic effects caused by the displacement of conventional decentralised heating systems might be in the order of 20-40%. Finally, CO 2 mitigation effects are substantial, contributing already in 2004 around 35% of the 2010 CO 2 mitigation target of the Land Vorarlberg for all renewable energy sources

  20. Mitigation of commutation failures in LCC–HVDC systems based on superconducting fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Geon; Khan, Umer Amir; Lee, Ho-Yun; Lim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Commutation failure in line commutated converter based HVDC systems cause severe damages on the entire power grid system. For LCC–HVDC, thyristor valves are turned on by a firing signal but turn off control is governed by the external applied AC voltage from surrounding network. When the fault occurs in AC system, turn-off control of thyristor valves is unavailable due to the voltage collapse of point of common coupling (PCC), which causes the commutation failure in LCC–HVDC link. Due to the commutation failure, the power transfer interruption, dc voltage drop and severe voltage fluctuation in the AC system could be occurred. In a severe situation, it might cause the protection system to block the valves. In this paper, as a solution to prevent the voltage collapse on PCC and to limit the fault current, the application study of resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) on LCC–HVDC grid system was performed with mathematical and simulation analyses. The simulation model was designed by Matlab/Simulink considering Haenam-Jeju HVDC power grid in Korea which includes conventional AC system and onshore wind farm and resistive SFCL model. From the result, it was observed that the application of SFCL on LCC–HVDC system is an effective solution to mitigate the commutation failure. And then the process to determine optimum quench resistance of SFCL which enables the recovery of commutation failure was deeply investigated.

  1. Progress on Protection Strategies to Mitigate the Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Norshahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of distributed generation (DG based on renewable energy sources leads to its high integration in the distribution network (DN. Despite its well-known benefits, mainly in improving the distribution system reliability and security, there are challenges encountered from a protection system perspective. Traditionally, the design and operation of the protection system are based on a unidirectional power flow in the distribution network. However, the integration of distributed generation causes multidirectional power flows in the system. Therefore, the existing protection systems require some improvement or modification to address this new feature. Various protection strategies for distribution system have been proposed so that the benefits of distributed generation can be fully utilized. This paper reviews the current progress in protection strategies to mitigate the impact of distributed generation in the distribution network. In general, the reviewed strategies in this paper are divided into: (1 conventional protection systems and (2 modifications of the protection systems. A comparative study is presented in terms of the respective benefits, shortcomings and implementation cost. Future directions for research in this area are also presented.

  2. Mitigation of commutation failures in LCC–HVDC systems based on superconducting fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Geon; Khan, Umer Amir; Lee, Ho-Yun; Lim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-11-15

    Commutation failure in line commutated converter based HVDC systems cause severe damages on the entire power grid system. For LCC–HVDC, thyristor valves are turned on by a firing signal but turn off control is governed by the external applied AC voltage from surrounding network. When the fault occurs in AC system, turn-off control of thyristor valves is unavailable due to the voltage collapse of point of common coupling (PCC), which causes the commutation failure in LCC–HVDC link. Due to the commutation failure, the power transfer interruption, dc voltage drop and severe voltage fluctuation in the AC system could be occurred. In a severe situation, it might cause the protection system to block the valves. In this paper, as a solution to prevent the voltage collapse on PCC and to limit the fault current, the application study of resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) on LCC–HVDC grid system was performed with mathematical and simulation analyses. The simulation model was designed by Matlab/Simulink considering Haenam-Jeju HVDC power grid in Korea which includes conventional AC system and onshore wind farm and resistive SFCL model. From the result, it was observed that the application of SFCL on LCC–HVDC system is an effective solution to mitigate the commutation failure. And then the process to determine optimum quench resistance of SFCL which enables the recovery of commutation failure was deeply investigated.

  3. Toward a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, T. S.; Rufino, M. C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wollenberg, E.

    2013-06-01

    Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for 14% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries (Vermeulen et al 2012). Agricultural intensification and expansion in these regions is expected to catalyze the most significant relative increases in agricultural GHG emissions over the next decade (Smith et al 2008, Tilman et al 2011). Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares (FAO 2012). One can therefore posit that smallholder farming significantly impacts the GHG balance of these regions today and will continue to do so in the near future. However, our understanding of the effect smallholder farming has on the Earth's climate system is remarkably limited. Data quantifying existing and reduced GHG emissions and removals of smallholder production systems are available for only a handful of crops, livestock, and agroecosystems (Herrero et al 2008, Verchot et al 2008, Palm et al 2010). For example, fewer than fifteen studies of nitrous oxide emissions from soils have taken place in sub-Saharan Africa, leaving the rate of emissions virtually undocumented. Due to a scarcity of data on GHG sources and sinks, most developing countries currently quantify agricultural emissions and reductions using IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors. However, current Tier 1 emissions factors are either calibrated to data primarily derived from developed countries, where agricultural production conditions are dissimilar to that in which the majority of smallholders operate, or from data that are sparse or of mixed quality in developing countries (IPCC 2006). For the most part, there are insufficient emissions data characterizing smallholder agriculture to evaluate the level of accuracy or inaccuracy of current emissions estimates. Consequentially, there is no reliable information on the agricultural

  4. Development of the mitigation method for carbon steel corrosion with ceramics in PWR secondary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Masato; Shibasaki, Osamu; Miyazaki, Toyoaki; Kaneko, Tetsuji

    2012-09-01

    To verify the effect of depositing ceramic (TiO 2 , La 2 O 3 , and Y 2 O 3 ) on carbon steel to mitigate corrosion, corrosion tests were conducted under simulated chemistry conditions in a PWR secondary system. Test specimens (STPT410) were prepared with and without deposited ceramics. The ceramics were deposited on the specimens under high-temperature and high-pressure water conditions. Corrosion tests were conducted under high pH conditions (9.8) with a flow rate of 1.0-4.7 m/s at 185 deg. C for 200 hours. At a flow rate of 1.0 m/s, the amount of corrosion of the specimens with the ceramics was less than half of that of the specimens without the ceramics. As the flow rate increased, the amount of corrosion increased. However, even at a flow rate of 4.7 m/s, the amount of corrosion was reduced by approximately 30% by depositing the ceramics. After the corrosion tests, the surfaces of the specimens were analyzed with SEM and XRD. When the deposited ceramic was TiO 2 , the surface was densely covered with fine particles (less than 1 μm). From XRD analysis, these particles were identified as ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ). We consider that ilmenite may play an important role in mitigating the corrosion of carbon steel. (authors)

  5. Developing an EEG based On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Te eWang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In America, sixty percent of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-realty environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory feedback was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing feedback to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the feedback in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.

  6. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.

  7. Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2015-01-01

    equivalent to 2 °C stabilization. Accounting for heterogeneity of national transport systems, these papers use diverse methods, frameworks and models to assess the response of the transport system to environmental policy, such as a carbon tax, as well as to a cluster of policies aimed at diverse development......Transformation of Asia's transport sector has vital implications for climate change, sustainable development and energy indicators. Papers in this special issue show how transport transitions in Asia may play out in different socio-economic and policy scenarios, including a low carbon scenario...... measures. Authors therefore advocate policies that target multiple dividends vis-à-vis carbon mitigation, energy security and local air quality. Whereas four papers focus on emissions mitigation policies, one paper examines challenges to adapt fast growing transport infrastructures to future climate change...

  8. Water Hammer Mitigation on Postulated Pipe Break of Feed Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ho Je; Woo, Kab Koo; Cho, Keon Taek

    2008-01-01

    The Feed Water (FW) system supplies feedwater from the deaerator storage tank to the Steam Generators(S/G) at the required pressure, temperature, flow rate, and water chemistry. The part of FW system, from the S/G to Main Steam Valve House just outside the containment building wall, is designed as safety grade because of its safety function. According to design code the safety related system shall be designed to protect against dynamic effects that may results from a pipe break on high energy lines such as FW system. And the FW system should be designed to minimize blowdown volume of S/G secondary side during the postulated pipe break. Also the FW system should be designed to prevent the initiation or to minimize the effects of water hammer transients which may be induced by the pipe break. This paper shows the results of the hydrodynamic loads induced by the pipe break and the optimized design parameters to mitigate water hammer loads of FW system for Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and 4 (SKN 3 and 4)

  9. Mapping suitability of rice production systems for mitigation: Strategic approach for prioritizing improved irrigation management across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole

    2016-04-01

    After the successful conclusion of the COP21 in Paris, many developing countries are now embracing the task of reducing emissions with much vigor than previously. In many countries of South and South-East Asia, the agriculture sector constitutes a vast share of the national GHG budget which can mainly be attributed to methane emissions from flooded rice production. Thus, rice growing countries are now looking for tangible and easily accessible information as to how to reduce emissions from rice production in an efficient manner. Given present and future food demand, mitigation options will have to comply with aim of increasing productivity. At the same time, limited financial resources demand for strategic planning of potential mitigation projects based on cost-benefit ratios. At this point, the most promising approach for mitigating methane emissions from rice is an irrigation technique called Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD). AWD was initially developed for saving water and subsequently, represents an adaptation strategy in its own right by coping with less rainfall. Moreover, AWD also reduces methane emissions in a range from 30-70%. However, AWD is not universally suitable. It is attractive to farmers who have to pump water and may save fuel under AWD, but renders limited incentives in situations where there is no real pressing water scarcity. Thus, planning for AWD adoption at larger scale, e.g. for country-wide programs, should be based on a systematic prioritization of target environments. This presentation encompasses a new methodology for mapping suitability of water-saving in rice production - as a means for planning adaptation and mitigation programs - alongside with preliminary results. The latter comprises three new GIS maps on climate-driven suitability of AWD in major rice growing countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Bangladesh). These maps have been derived from high-resolution data of the areal and temporal extent of rice production that are now

  10. A 3-Factor Model Relating Communication to Risk Mitigation of Extended Information System Failover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Podaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the relation between timely and effective communication and risk mitigation of late recovery after an unexpected information system outage in enterprises. An unforeseen information system failure in modern enterprise units, may result to significant operational and financial damage. In such a critical incident, effective communication between the team leaders and the recovery team involved, can minimize or even eliminate this negative impact. An extended information system outage can be perceived as a time deviation from the Maximum Accepted Outage (ΜΑΟ timeframe, proposed by the business continuity management, according to the value of which dependent business functions may be interrupted without any serious effects to the company. The paper examines the relation between 3 basic factors and the efficient communication between team members. The factors are: timely information distribution, staff availability and network availability. Through the current paper, the author proposes a risk analysis model, based on the Composite Risk Index theory of Risk Management, which can significantly diminish the possibility of an extended information system outage, as well as calculate the extended time required to recover a system when the aforementioned factors emerge in their worst form. The precise calculation of recovery time can be achieved via the execution of business continuity tests which include scenarios, according to which an unexpected system outage coexists with delayed information distribution as well as low staff and network availability.

  11. Understanding the systemic nature of cities to improve health and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Capon, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic strain measurement system with fiber Bragg gratings and noise mitigation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, D; Olivero, M; Perrone, G

    2009-01-01

    A low-cost fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibrometer specifically suited for structural monitoring and aimed at the detection of low-amplitude vibrations is presented. The optical system exploits an intensity modulation principle of operation, while signal processing techniques are used to complement the transducer to improve the performances: a recursive least-squares adaptive filter improves the noise power mitigation by 14 dB, and an efficient spectral estimator permits operating spectral analysis even under high noise conditions. With these methods, a strain sensitivity of 5.6 nε has been achieved in the ±60 µε range. Experimental assessment tests carried out in typical structural monitoring contexts have demonstrated that the developed sensor is well suited to measure mechanical perturbations of different structures

  13. Independent Review of Mitigating System Performance Indicator Reporting in the EPIX Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierman, Thomas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report summarizes work done to verify the component, failure mode, and method of detection information provided in the Equipment Performance Information Exchange (EPIX) to support implementation of Mitigating Systems Performance Indices. This task is to select reports from EPIX and determine if their categorization as MSPI or non-MSPI failures is consistent with the development of unreliability baseline failure rates, and whether this significantly affects estimates of plant risk. This review is of all MSPI devices in EPIX that were reported as failures. The components include emergency generators; motor-driven, turbine-driven, and enginedriven pumps; and air and motor-operated valves. The date range for this report includes all MSPI device reported failures from 2003 to the most current EPIX data at the INL (up to the 3rd quarter 2008).

  14. Mitigation of time-varying distortions in Nyquist-WDM systems using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada Torres, Jhon J.; Varughese, Siddharth; Thomas, Varghese A.; Chiuchiarelli, Andrea; Ralph, Stephen E.; Cárdenas Soto, Ana M.; Guerrero González, Neil

    2017-11-01

    We propose a machine learning-based nonsymmetrical demodulation technique relying on clustering to mitigate time-varying distortions derived from several impairments such as IQ imbalance, bias drift, phase noise and interchannel interference. Experimental results show that those impairments cause centroid movements in the received constellations seen in time-windows of 10k symbols in controlled scenarios. In our demodulation technique, the k-means algorithm iteratively identifies the cluster centroids in the constellation of the received symbols in short time windows by means of the optimization of decision thresholds for a minimum BER. We experimentally verified the effectiveness of this computationally efficient technique in multicarrier 16QAM Nyquist-WDM systems over 270 km links. Our nonsymmetrical demodulation technique outperforms the conventional QAM demodulation technique, reducing the OSNR requirement up to ∼0.8 dB at a BER of 1 × 10-2 for signals affected by interchannel interference.

  15. Comparison of PAM Systems for Acoustic Monitoring and Further Risk Mitigation Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Stefan; Kreimeyer, Roman; Knoll, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the SIRENA 2011 research cruises conducted by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and the Universities of Kiel and Pavia. The cruises were carried out in the Ligurian Sea. The main aim of the FWG was to test and evaluate the newly developed towed hydrophone array as a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool for risk mitigation applications. The system was compared with the PAM equipment used by the other participating institutions. Recorded sounds were used to improve an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals, and validated acoustic detections by observers were compared with the results of the classifier.

  16. Mitigation of voltage dip and power system oscillations damping using dual STATCOM for grid connected DFIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.N. Ananth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During grid fault, transmission lines reach its thermal limit and lose its capability to transfer. If this fault current enters generator terminals, it will lead to dip in stator voltage and consequently produces torque and real power oscillations. This further affects in the form of internal heat in rotor windings and finally damages the generator. A new control strategy is proposed to limit fault current using dual STATCOM, which will damp power oscillations and mitigate the voltage dip due to a severe symmetrical fault. It is achieved by diverting the fault current to the capacitor using the dual-STATCOM controller. It is best suitable to maintain power system stability with uninterrupted power supply, effective power transfer capability and rapid reactive power support and to damp inter-area oscillations. The effectiveness of SG and DFIG due to the transmission line short circuit symmetrical fault was studied.

  17. Waveform control method for mitigating harmonics of inverter systems with nonlinear load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Zhu, Guorong; Fu, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    DC power systems connecting to single-phase DC/AC inverters with nonlinear loads will have their DC sources being injected with AC ripple currents containing a low-frequency component at twice the output voltage frequency of the inverter and also other current harmonics. Such a current may create...... ability of the waveform control method on other coexisting harmonics, while the DC source delivers AC power to a nonlinear load. With the application of the waveform control, the average DC output power is supplied by the DC source, while the other harmonics pulsation power can be confined to the AC side...... (between the capacitors and the AC load). Theoretical analyses and experiment results are provided to explain the operation and the inhibiting ability, and to showcase the performance of the approach in tackling the harmonics. Results validate that the proposed solution can achieve significant mitigation...

  18. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manur...... to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found....... on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management...

  19. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    Description of the Proposed Activity/REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE or PIAB: This ECN changes the computer systems design description support document describing the computers system used to control, monitor and archive the processes and outputs associated with the Hydrogen Mitigation Test Pump installed in SY-101. There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this computer system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status.

  20. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Description of the Proposed Activity/REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE or PIAB: This ECN changes the computer systems design description support document describing the computers system used to control, monitor and archive the processes and outputs associated with the Hydrogen Mitigation Test Pump installed in SY-101. There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this computer system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status

  1. The effect of optimization and the nesting domain on carbon flux analyses in Asia using a carbon tracking system based on the ensemble Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Kim, Hyun Mee; Cho, Chun-Ho

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the surface carbon flux in Asia and investigate the effect of the nesting domain on carbon flux analyses in Asia, two experiments with different nesting domains were conducted using the CarbonTracker developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. CarbonTracker is an inverse modeling system that uses an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate surface carbon fluxes from surface CO2 observations. One experiment was conducted with a nesting domain centered in Asia and the other with a nesting domain centered in North America. Both experiments analyzed the surface carbon fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2006. The results showed that prior surface carbon fluxes were underestimated in Asia compared with the optimized fluxes. The optimized biosphere fluxes of the two experiments exhibited roughly similar spatial patterns but different magnitudes. Weekly cumulative optimized fluxes showed more diverse patterns than the prior fluxes, indicating that more detailed flux analyses were conducted during the optimization. The nesting domain in Asia produced a detailed estimate of the surface carbon fluxes in Asia and exhibited better agreement with the CO2 observations. Finally, the simulated background atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the experiment with the nesting domain in Asia were more consistent with the observed CO2 concentrations than those in the experiment with the nesting domain in North America. The results of this study suggest that surface carbon fluxes in Asia can be estimated more accurately using an EnKF when the nesting domain is centered in Asian regions.

  2. Design of a Rail Gun System for Mitigating Disruptions in Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Wei-Siang

    Magnetic fusion devices, such as the tokamak, that carry a large amount of current to generate the plasma confining magnetic fields have the potential to lose magnetic stability control. This can lead to a major plasma disruption, which can cause most of the stored plasma energy to be lost to localized regions on the walls, causing severe damage. This is the most important issue for the $20B ITER device (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) that is under construction in France. By injecting radiative materials deep into the plasma, the plasma energy could be dispersed more evenly on the vessel surface thus mitigating the harmful consequences of a disruption. Methods currently planned for ITER rely on the slow expansion of gases to propel the radiative payloads, and they also need to be located far away from the reactor vessel, which further slows down the response time of the system. Rail guns are being developed for aerospace applications, such as for mass transfer from the surface of the moon and asteroids to low earth orbit. A miniatured version of this aerospace technology seems to be particularly well suited to meet the fast time response needs of an ITER disruption mitigation system. Mounting this device close to the reactor vessel is also possible, which substantially increases its performance because the stray magnetic fields near the vessel walls could be used to augment the rail gun generated magnetic fields. In this thesis, the potential viability on Rail Gun based DMS is studied to investigate its projected fast time response capability by design, fabrication, and experiment of an NSTX-U sized rail gun system. Material and geometry based tests are used to find the most suitable armature design for this system for which the desirable attributes are high specific stiffness and high electrical conductivity. With the best material in these studies being aluminum 7075, the experimental Electromagnetic Particle Injector (EPI) system has propelled

  3. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Raju, K.V.; Rao, K.S.; Kaechele, Harald; Schaldach, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  4. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Raju, K.V. [Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Economics and Natural Resources; Rao, K.S. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Muencheberg (Germany). Inst. of Socioeconomics; Schaldach, Ruediger (ed.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Centre for Environmental System Research

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  5. Hybrid Automaton Based Controller Design for Damage Mitigation of Islanded Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sudipta

    Spurred by increasingly unpredictable weather, high penetration of renewable resources and a period of focused US government policy, it is widely expected that microgrids within the electric distribution system will show exponential growth in the coming decade. Microgrids comprise of power generation, delivery and consumption assets within restricted electrical boundaries and under contiguous control oversight that enables holistic management of these assets. Microgrids can be islanded and operated independent of a larger electric power network, and as such, a primary function of microgrids is to enhance the energy reliability of the underlying loads. In this work, we focus on naval shipboard power systems. Apart from being islanded, in the true sense, resiliency and damage mitigation are key considerations in the design and operation of these power systems. Islanded power systems encompass a rich diversity of discrete and continuous dynamic behavior in multiple time-scales. A high penetration of devices with power electronics interface, low inherent system inertia, and high density of switching devices can lead to rapid disturbance propagation and system failure without advanced damage mitigation strategies. Hybrid systems formalism incorporates continuous dynamics as well as discrete switching behavior into a modeling and control framework, thus allowing a complete system description while crystallizing concepts of safety into system design criteria. We build on existing work to enhance a Dynamic Mixed Integer Programming (DMIP) model of a power system that combines continuous time differential algebraic models with switching dynamics synthesized into mixed integer inequalities. We use this model to derive an optimal system reconfiguration strategy to prevent voltage collapse of a benchmark shipboard power system. However, this methodology is restricted by the computational complexity of dynamic programming and scalability of non-automated processes. To overcome

  6. Fuzzy-driven energy storage system for mitigating voltage unbalance factor on distribution network with photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jianhui; Lim, Yun Seng; Morris, Stella; Morris, Ezra; Chua, Kein Huat

    2017-04-01

    The amount of small-scaled renewable energy sources is anticipated to increase on the low-voltage distribution networks for the improvement of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. The growth of the PV systems on the low-voltage distribution networks can create voltage unbalance, voltage rise, and reverse-power flow. Usually these issues happen with little fluctuation. However, it tends to fluctuate severely as Malaysia is a region with low clear sky index. A large amount of clouds often passes over the country, hence making the solar irradiance to be highly scattered. Therefore, the PV power output fluctuates substantially. These issues can lead to the malfunction of the electronic based equipment, reduction in the network efficiency and improper operation of the power protection system. At the current practice, the amount of PV system installed on the distribution network is constraint by the utility company. As a result, this can limit the reduction of carbon footprint. Therefore, energy storage system is proposed as a solution for these power quality issues. To ensure an effective operation of the distribution network with PV system, a fuzzy control system is developed and implemented to govern the operation of an energy storage system. The fuzzy driven energy storage system is able to mitigate the fluctuating voltage rise and voltage unbalance on the electrical grid by actively manipulates the flow of real power between the grid and the batteries. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy driven energy storage system, an experimental network integrated with 7.2kWp PV system was setup. Several case studies are performed to evaluate the response of the proposed solution to mitigate voltage rises, voltage unbalance and reduce the amount of reverse power flow under highly intermittent PV power output.

  7. Applications of NASA GSFC's Land Information System (LIS) for water resources management in Korea and East-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Hwang, E.; Jung, H. C.; Kim, E. J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Chae, H.; Baeck, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has contributed to resolve global water issues by utilizing their long-term legacy of remote sensing technologies supported by a state of art software engineering. In this context, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a land surface model framework to monitor and predict water hazards such as flood and drought with the Land Information System (hereafter LIS) applied to North America and beyond it to include a global coverage. However, it is still challenging to apply the LIS to East-Asia where a rice-paddy agriculture is prevalent compared to other parts of the world, but retains a high population density in this region. Thus, this paper introduces recent efforts from the Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-water) in S. Korea to establish the LIS in East-Asia including Korea, aiming at producing surface hydrology datasets in Asia. One of the ultimate goals of this project is to manage the water hazards in Korea and to provide the water resources dataset in East-Asia by adapting the LIS with their abundantly available hydrometeorological observations to support the LIS applications. Preliminary results from initiating efforts since the beginning of 2017 between NASA and K-water are addressed in the paper to review the possible outcomes after this ongoing project to benefit both entities. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B079625-04) from Water Management Research Program sponsored by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  8. Mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas emissions from animal production systems: synergy between measuring and modelling at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Schils, R.L.M.; Velthof, G.L.; Kuikman, P.J.; Oudendag, D.A.; Oenema, O.

    2008-01-01

    Animal production systems are large and complex sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Emissions from these systems are expected to rise over the coming decades due to the increasing global population and shifting diets, unless appropriate mitigation

  9. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation.

  10. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  11. A MODIS-based automated flood monitoring system for southeast asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, A.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    Flood disasters in Southeast Asia result in significant loss of life and economic damage. Remote sensing information systems designed to spatially and temporally monitor floods can help governments and international agencies formulate effective disaster response strategies during a flood and ultimately alleviate impacts to population, infrastructure, and agriculture. Recent destructive flood events in the Lower Mekong River Basin occurred in 2000, 2011, 2013, and 2016 (http://ffw.mrcmekong.org/historical_rec.htm, April 24, 2017). The large spatial distribution of flooded areas and lack of proper gauge data in the region makes accurate monitoring and assessment of impacts of floods difficult. Here, we discuss the utility of applying satellite-based Earth observations for improving flood inundation monitoring over the flood-prone Lower Mekong River Basin. We present a methodology for determining near real-time surface water extent associated with current and historic flood events by training surface water classifiers from 8-day, 250-m Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data spanning the length of the MODIS satellite record. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) signature of permanent water bodies (MOD44W; Carroll et al., 2009) is used to train surface water classifiers which are applied to a time period of interest. From this, an operational nowcast flood detection component is produced using twice daily imagery acquired at 3-h latency which performs image compositing routines to minimize cloud cover. Case studies and accuracy assessments against radar-based observations for historic flood events are presented. The customizable system has been transferred to regional organizations and near real-time derived surface water products are made available through a web interface platform. Results highlight the potential of near real-time observation and impact assessment systems to serve as effective decision support tools for governments

  12. Health systems in East Asia: what can developing countries learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2007-05-01

    The health systems of Japan and the Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and the recent reforms to them, provide many potentially valuable lessons to East Asia's developing countries. All five systems have managed to keep a check on health spending despite their different approaches to financing and delivery. These differences are reflected in the progressivity of health finance, but the precise degree of progressivity of individual sources and the extent to which households are vulnerable to catastrophic health payments depend on the design features of the system - the height of any ceilings on social insurance contributions, the fraction of health spending covered by the benefit package, the extent to which the poor face reduced copayments, whether there are caps on copayments, and so on. On the delivery side, too, Japan and the Tigers offer some interesting lessons. Singapore's experience with corporatizing public hospitals - rapid cost and price inflation, a race for the best technology, and so on - illustrates the difficulties of corporatization. Korea's experience with a narrow benefit package illustrates the danger of providers shifting demand from insured services with regulated prices to uninsured services with unregulated prices. Japan, in its approach to rate setting for insured services, has managed to combine careful cost control with fine-tuning of profit margins on different types of care. Experiences with DRGs in Korea and Taiwan point to cost-savings but also to possible knock-on effects on service volume and total health spending. Korea and Taiwan both offer important lessons for the separation of prescribing and dispensing, including the risks of compensation costs outweighing the cost savings caused by more 'rational' prescribing, and cost-savings never being realized because of other concessions to providers, such as allowing them to have onsite pharmacists. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. CO2 emissions mitigation potential of solar home systems under clean development mechanism in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav

    2009-01-01

    The Government of India has taken several initiatives for promotion of solar energy systems in the country during the last two decades. A variety of policy measures have been adopted which include provision of financial and fiscal incentives to the potential users of solar energy systems however, only 0.4 million solar home systems (SHSs) have been installed so far that is far below their respective potential. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized (Annex-I) countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing (non-Annex-I) countries to achieve a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. SHSs could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. In this study an attempt has been made to estimate the CO 2 mitigation potential of SHSs under CDM in India.

  14. Knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty: case from automotive battery supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I. A.; Sugiarto, D.; Surjasa, D.; Witonohadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Automotive battery supply chain include battery manufacturer, sulphuric acid suppliers, polypropylene suppliers, lead suppliers, transportation service providers, warehouses, retailers and even customers. Due to the increasingly dynamic condition of the environment, supply chain actors were required to improve their ability to overcome various uncertainty issues in the environment. This paper aims to describe the process of designing a knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty. The design methodology began with the identification of the knowledge needed to solve the problems associated with uncertainty and analysis of system requirements. The design of the knowledge management system was described in the form of a data flow diagram. The results of the study indicated that key knowledge area that needs to be managed were the knowledge to maintain the stability of process in sulphuric acid process and knowledge to overcome the wastes in battery manufacturing process. The system was expected to be a media acquisition, dissemination and storage of knowledge associated with the uncertainty in the battery supply chain and increase the supply chain performance.

  15. A Prototype Observation System for Water Resources in South-East Asia: Ground and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, Massimo; Jia, Li; Colin, Jerome

    2009-11-01

    The project "Coordinated Asia-European long-term Observing system of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau hydrometeorological processes and the Asian-monsoon systEm with Ground satellite Image data and numerical Simulations (CEOP - AEGIS)" is funded by the European Commission under the FP7 Theme Environment (Menenti et al., 2008).The goal is two-fold: a) to construct out of existing ground measurements and current / future satellites an observing system to determine and monitor the water yield of the Plateau; b) to monitor the evolution of snow, vegetation cover, surface wetness and surface fluxes and analyze the linkage with convective activity, (extreme) precipitation events and the Asian Monsoon. Three main elements are foreseen. A) Observations of the terms of the water balance: precipitation, meltwater from snow and glaciers, changes in soil water content and evaporation for a period of three years will be generated by integrating ground and satellite measurements on weekly and monthly basis. Radiative transfer models and algorithms are being developed for different regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum. B) The water balance of the Plateau will be calculated with a distributed hydrological model. Interactions of land surface hydrology with convective activity and the Asian Monsoon are being investigated by using a meso- scale atmospheric model. C) Time-series of image data are being used to demonstrate a Drought and a Flood Early Warning Systems. The system relies on an existing and expanding network of observatories and on spaceborne observing systems for which data continuity is guaranteed. A Database Management System has been put in place in Lhasa. Snow cover and Snow Water Equivalent. Time series archived in the Chinese Glacier Information System and at the CAREERI - CAS archive have been analyzed to assess trends in snow cover and snow water equivalent over the last 40 years. Gap-free time series of LST, fAPAR and VI have been generated and analyzed to evaluate

  16. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  17. Topical issues on performance categorization of structures, systems and components for natural phenomena hazards mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Q.A.; Nelson, T.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has been providing assistance in the development of criteria, standards, and guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPHs). The NPH design/evaluation guideline document, UCRL-15910 is one of the documents that resulted from this assistance. Even though UCRL-15910 is referred in the General Design Criteria DOE 6430.1A, it is not uniformly applied in the design/evaluation process of DOE facilities. To achieve uniform application of this document, and also to provide a comprehensive NPH mitigation program, an order, DOE 5480.NPH, has recently been developed that requires placing structures, systems, and components (SSCs) comprising DOE facilities into five performance categories (PC) based on importance, mission, cost, and safety considerations. DOE 5480.NPH refers to a standard, DOE-STD-1021-92 (under development) that will provide criteria and guidelines for the selection of SSC performance category. An interim version of this standard has been recently proposed for trial use. The details of the topical issues that were considered in developing this proposed standard, as well as the issues that should be considered before the standard is finalized, are discussed and presented in this report Facilities owned, operated or administered by DOE vary widely in mission, complexity, and hazard potential. NPH mitigation of these facilities involves an array of rules, policies, orders, and standards, which must be considered in the development of performance categorization criteria. The interrelationship among these documents, as these relate to SSC performance categorization, is discussed in Section 2.0 of this report.

  18. A S.M.A.R.T. system for the seismic vulnerability mitigation of Cultural Heritages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, Antonio; Costanzo, Antonio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vecchio, Antonio; Minasi, Mario; Falcone, Sergio; La Piana, Carmelo; Stramondo, Salvatore; Casula, Giuseppe; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Musacchio, Massimo; Doumaz, Fawzi; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Both assessment and mitigation of seismic vulnerability connected to cultural heritages monitoring are non-trivial issues, based on the knowledge of structural and environmental factors potential impacting the cultural heritage. A holistic approach could be suitable to provide an effective monitoring of cultural heritages within their surroundings at different spatial and temporal scales. On the one hand, the analysis about geometrical and structural properties of monuments is important to assess their state of conservation, their response to external stresses as well as anomalies related to natural and/or anthropogenic phenomena (e.g. the aging of materials, seismic stresses, vibrational modes). On the other hand, the investigation of the surrounding area is relevant to assess environmental properties and natural phenomena (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, subsidence, seismic response) as well as their related impacts on the monuments. Within such a framework, a multi-disciplinary system has been developed and here presented for the monitoring of cultural heritages for seismic vulnerability assessment and mitigation purposes*. It merges geophysical investigations and modeling, in situ measurements and multi-platforms remote sensing sensors for the non-destructive and non-invasive multi-scales monitoring of historic buildings in a seismic-prone area. In detail, the system provides: a) the long-term and the regional-scale analysis of buildings' environment through the integration of seismogenic analysis, airborne magnetic surveys, space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and multi-spectral sensors. They allow describing the sub-surface fault systems, the surface deformation processes and the land use mapping of the regional-scale area on an annual temporal span; b) the short-term and the basin-scale analysis of building's neighborhood through geological setting and geotechnical surveys, airborne Light Detection And Radar (LiDAR) and ground-based SAR sensors. They

  19. Mitigating Climate Change by the Development and Deployment of Solar Water Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Wara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is becoming an alternative for the limited fossil fuel resources. One of the simplest and most direct applications of this energy is the conversion of solar radiation into heat, which can be used in Water Heating Systems. Ogun State in Nigeria was used as a case study. The solar radiation for the state was explored with an annual average of 4.775 kWh/m2 recorded. The designed system comprised storage tanks and the collector unit which comprises wooden casing, copper tube, and aluminium foil. Test results for the unlagged and lagged storage tanks for water temperature at various angles of inclination (2.500°–20.000° were on the average 27.800°C and 28.300°C, respectively, for the inlet temperature and 60.100°C and 63.000°C for the outlet temperature, respectively. The efficiency of the Solar Water Heating System was 72.500% and the power saved 2.798 kW. The cost of the unit is put at 1121,400 ($145 as at August 2012. The unit developed can be applied for the purpose of reducing the cost of energy, dealing with environmental challenges, and improving the use of energy, hence serving as a climate mitigation process as this can be extended for water heating for domestic and other industrial purposes.

  20. Semi-active control for vibration mitigation of structural systems incorporating uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Mohammad S; Chatzi, Eleni N; Weber, Felix

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a novel semi-active control scheme, where the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) is combined with an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) observer, for the real-time mitigation of structural vibration. Due to a number of factors, such as environmental effects and ageing processes, the controlled system may be characterized by uncertainties. The UKF, which comprises a nonlinear observer, is employed herein for devising an adaptive semi-active control scheme capable of tackling such a challenge. This is achieved through the real-time realization of joint state and parameter estimation during the structural control process via the proposed LQR-UKF approach. The behavior of the introduced scheme is exemplified through two numerical applications. The efficacy of the devised methodology is firstly compared against the standard LQR-KF approach in a linear benchmark application where the system model is assumed known a priori, and secondly, the method is validated on a joint state and parameter estimation problem where the system model is assumed uncertain, formulated as nonlinear, and updated in real-time. (paper)

  1. The link between UHC reforms and health system governance: lessons from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Krishna; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Dayal, Prarthna

    2017-05-15

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how and to what extent the design and implementation of universal health coverage (UHC) reforms have been influenced by the governance arrangements of health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); and how governments in these countries have or have not responded to the challenges of governance for UHC. Design/methodology/approach Comparative case study analysis of three Asian countries with substantial experience of UHC reforms (Thailand, Vietnam and China) was undertaken using data from published studies and grey literature. Studies included were those which described the modifications and adaptations that occurred during design and implementation of the UHC programme, the actors and institutions involved and how these changes related to the governance of the health system. Findings Each country adapted the design of their UHC programmes to accommodate their specific institutional arrangements, and then made further modifications in response to issues arising during implementation. The authors found that these modifications were often related to the impacts on governance of the institutional changes inherent in UHC reforms. Governments varied in their response to these governance impacts, with Thailand prepared to adopt new governance modes (which the authors termed as an "adaptive" response), while China and Vietnam have tended to persist with traditional hierarchical governance modes ("reactive" responses). Originality/value This study addresses a gap in current knowledge on UHC reform, and finds evidence of a complex interaction between substantive health sector reform and governance reform in the LMIC context in Asia, confirming recent similar observations on health reforms in high-income countries.

  2. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  3. Mitigation of strontium and ruthenium release in the CANDU primary heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, J

    1998-03-01

    In certain severe accident scenarios, low-volatility fission products can appear to contribute significantly to dose, if treated with undue conservatism. Hence a survey was performed, to see if factors that may mitigate release of strontium and ruthenium could be incorporated into safety analyses, to cover parameters such as location in the fuel matrix under normal operating conditions, release from fuel, transport and deposition in the primary heat transport system and chemistry. In addition chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to investigate the volatility of strontium and ruthenium in the presence of uranium and important fission products. Strontium is very soluble in the U0{sub 2} fuel, up to 12 atom %, and hence release is improbable, particularly under oxidizing conditions until volatilization of the fuel matrix itself occurs. Ruthenium, however, can be released at low temperatures, but only under oxidizing conditions. These may occur during a fuel-handling accident or as a result of an end-fitting failure. Under these conditions, the primary heat transport system cannot be credited for retention. The volatile form of ruthenium, RuO{sub 4}(g), is thermally unstable above 381 K and decomposes to RuO{sub 2}(s) and O{sub 2}(g) upon contact with surfaces, a factor that is likely to minimize the release of ruthenium into the environment. (author)

  4. An Approach to Detect and Mitigate Ice Particle Accretion in Aircraft Engine Compression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation sector. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. This work focuses on developing an accurate and reliable algorithm for detecting the accretion of ice in the low pressure compressor of a generic 40,000 lbf thrust class engine. The algorithm uses only the two shaft speed sensors and works regardless of engine age, operating condition, and power level. In a 10,000-case Monte Carlo simulation, the detection approach was found to have excellent capability at determining ice accretion from sensor noise with detection occurring when ice blocks an average of 6.8% of the low pressure compressor area. Finally, an initial study highlights a potential mitigation strategy that uses the existing engine actuators to raise the temperature in the low pressure compressor in an effort to reduce the rate at which ice accretes.

  5. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  6. Electrolysis-assisted mitigation of reverse solute flux in a three-chamber forward osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiqiang; He, Zhen

    2017-05-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has been widely studied for desalination or water recovery from wastewater, and one of its key challenges for practical applications is reverse solute flux (RSF). RSF can cause loss of draw solutes, salinity build-up and undesired contamination at the feed side. In this study, in-situ electrolysis was employed to mitigate RSF in a three-chamber FO system ("e-FO") with Na 2 SO 4 as a draw solute and deionized (DI) water as a feed. Operation parameters including applied voltage, membrane orientation and initial draw concentrations were systematically investigated to optimize the e-FO performance and reduce RSF. Applying a voltage of 1.5 V achieved a RSF of 6.78 ± 0.55 mmol m -2  h -1 and a specific RSF of 0.138 ± 0.011 g L -1 in the FO mode and with 1 M Na 2 SO 4 as the draw, rendering ∼57% reduction of solute leakage compared to the control without the applied voltage. The reduced RSF should be attributed to constrained ion migration induced by the coactions of electric dragging force (≥1.5 V) and high solute rejection of the FO membrane. Reducing the intensity of the solution recirculation from 60 to 10 mL min -1 significantly reduced specific energy consumption of the e-FO system from 0.693 ± 0.127 to 0.022 ± 0.004 kWh m -3 extracted water or from 1.103 ± 0.059 to 0.044 ± 0.002 kWh kg -1 reduced reversed solute. These results have demonstrated that the electrolysis-assisted RSF mitigation could be an energy-efficient method for controlling RSF towards sustainable FO applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  8. Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussana, J F; Tallec, T; Blanfort, V

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (enhanced sinks) is the mechanism responsible for most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in the agriculture sector. Carbon sequestration in grasslands can be determined directly by measuring changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and indirectly by measuring the net balance of C fluxes. A literature search shows that grassland C sequestration reaches on average 5 ± 30 g C/m2 per year according to inventories of SOC stocks and -231 and 77 g C/m2 per year for drained organic and mineral soils, respectively, according to C flux balance. Off-site C sequestration occurs whenever more manure C is produced by than returned to a grassland plot. The sum of on- and off-site C sequestration reaches 129, 98 and 71 g C/m2 per year for grazed, cut and mixed European grasslands on mineral soils, respectively, however with high uncertainty. A range of management practices reduce C losses and increase C sequestration: (i) avoiding soil tillage and the conversion of grasslands to arable use, (ii) moderately intensifying nutrient-poor permanent grasslands, (iii) using light grazing instead of heavy grazing, (iv) increasing the duration of grass leys; (v) converting grass leys to grass-legume mixtures or to permanent grasslands. With nine European sites, direct emissions of N2O from soil and of CH4 from enteric fermentation at grazing, expressed in CO2 equivalents, compensated 10% and 34% of the on-site grassland C sequestration, respectively. Digestion inside the barn of the harvested herbage leads to further emissions of CH4 and N2O by the production systems, which were estimated at 130 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year. The net balance of on- and off-site C sequestration, CH4 and N2O emissions reached 38 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year, indicating a non-significant net sink activity. This net balance was, however, negative for intensively managed cut sites indicating a source to the atmosphere. In conclusion, this review confirms that

  9. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  10. Accuracy Evaluation of 19 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Manufactured in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Fei, Wang; Wei-Ping, Jia; Ming-Hsun, Wu; Miao-O, Chien; Ming-Chang, Hsieh; Chi-Pin, Wang; Ming-Shih, Lee

    2017-09-01

    System accuracy of current blood glucose monitors (BGMs) in the market has already been evaluated extensively, yet mostly focused on European and North American manufacturers. Data on BGMs manufactured in the Asia-Pacific region remain to be established. In this study, we sought to assess the accuracy performance of 19 BGMs manufactured in the Asia-pacific region. A total of 19 BGMs were obtained from local pharmacies in China. The study was conducted at three hospitals located in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurement results of each system were compared with results of the reference instrument (YSI 2300 PLUS Glucose Analyzer), and accuracy evaluation was performed in accordance to the ISO 15197:2003 and updated 2015 guidelines. Radar plots, which is a new method, are described herein to visualize the analytical performance of the 19 BGMs evaluated. Consensus error grid is a tool for evaluating the clinical significance of the results. The 19 BGMs resulted in a satisfaction rate between 83.5% and 100.0% within ISO 15197:2003 error limits, and between 71.3% and 100.0% within EN ISO 15197:2015 (ISO 15197:2013) error limits. Of the 19 BGMs evaluated, 12 met the minimal accuracy requirement of the ISO 15197:2003 standard, whereas only 4 met the tighter EN ISO 15197:2015 (ISO 15197:2013) requirements. Accuracy evaluation of BGMs should be performed regularly to maximize patient safety.

  11. Multivariate Climate-Weather Forecasting System: An Integrated Approach for Mitigating Agricultural Risks in Punjab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, A.; Devineni, N.

    2015-12-01

    While India has a long history of prediction of the All India Monsoon, work on spatially specific attributes of the monsoon, as well as monsoon break periods has only recently emerged. However, from a risk management context, prognostic information of a single variable such as total precipitation or average temperature will be of less utility especially for specific operational purposes. An integrated regional climate-weather forecast system covering precipitation, temperature and humidity etc. over the year will benefit the farmers in the context of a specific decision time table for irrigation scheduling as well as for pre-season crop choices. Hence, contrary to the existing forecasting methods that develop multi time scale information of a single variable at a time, in this paper, we introduce an integrated regional multivariate climate-weather forecasting system that directly relates to agricultural decision making and risk mitigation. These multi-scale risk attributes include mutually dependent, spatially disaggregated statistics such as total rainfall, average temperature, growing degree days, relative humidity, total number of rainfall days/dry spell length, and cumulative water deficits that inform the potential irrigation water requirements for crops. Given that these attributes exhibit mutual dependence across space and time, we propose to explore common ocean-atmospheric conditions from the observations and the state of the art Global Circulation Models (GCMs) that can be utilized as the predictor variables for the forecasting system. Hierarchical Bayesian methods are be used to develop the integrated forecast system. The developed multivariate forecasts will be adapted and disseminated as decision tools for the farmers under the extension projects in Punjab region of India.

  12. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods. This paper describes recent changes in Asian food systems driven by TFBCs in the retail, manufacturing and food service sectors and considers the implications for population nutrition. Market data for each sector was sourced from Euromonitor International for four lower-middle income, three upper-middle income and five high-income Asian countries. Descriptive statistics were used to describe trends in ultra-processed food consumption (2000-2013), packaged food retail distribution channels (1999-2013), 'market transnationalization' defined as the market share held by TFBCs relative to domestic firms (2004-2013), and 'market concentration' defined as the market share and thus market power held by the four leading firms (2004-2013) in each market. Ultra-processed food sales has increased rapidly in most middle-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks was the leading product category, in which Coca-Cola and PepsiCo had a regional oligopoly. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores were becoming increasingly dominant as distribution channels for packaged foods throughout the region. Market concentration was increasing in the grocery retail sector in all countries. Food service sales are increasing in all countries led by McDonalds and Yum! Brands. However, in all three sectors TFBCs face strong competition from Asian firms. Overall, the findings suggest that market forces are likely to be significant but variable drivers of Asia

  13. Institutionalization of Lifelong Learning in Europe and East Asia: From the Complexity Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, SoongHee

    2017-01-01

    East Asia shows newly emerging experiments in lifelong learning that contrast with European experiences. The concepts and ideas share a similar platform, while the trajectories of institutionalization reveal great differences. It is because the idea of lifelong learning was coined by international agencies, like UNESCO, to share, it rather shows…

  14. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Characterizing the hydrological system in Rosia Montana mining area (Romania) for AMD mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Olenici, Adriana; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Roba, Carmen; Popita, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: mining, AMD mitigation, isotopic analyses, Romania Rosia Montana is one of the most important European gold fields, with a long history of mining. The extraction of gold started on site during the Roman age, and the mining operations that spanned over almost two millennia have produced a visible environmental footprint. More than 140 km of mining galleries are documented by historical sources and recent surveys. Water streams are the main vectors spreading the pollution outside the mining area. The main streams, Rosia, Corna, and Saliste, tributaries of Abruzel River are significantly impacted by the acid waters issued by adits, exposed rock surfaces, or rock waste heaps, and tailings depots. Low contamination has been observed in the streams outside the mining area, artificial ponds, and shallow groundwater. Excepting the shallow groundwater system that can be sampled in domestic wells and some springs, the circulation of groundwater is largely unknown. An important amount of the infiltration water is channelled through galleries. The waters sampled at the galleries outlets have low pH, generally between 2 and 3, and very high content of heavy metals. A systematic approach based on monthly sampling and chemical analyses, and isotopic measurements, has been initiated, in order to better understand the underground itinerary of water and the chemical transformations that occur. A sampling network of 28 water points, including streams, ponds, dug wells, springs, and gallery outlets has been setup. Beyond producing a water circulation model in the mining area, the main purpose of the research is to identify ways of decreasing the acid water production and to design low cost techniques for the AMD mitigation. The deposit still hosts about 300 tonnes of gold, and 1600 tonnes of silver. A new large scale mining project is currently under permitting. Cost-effective solutions for the water treatment would be beneficial, especially for the post-mining stage of any

  16. Soil management system for water conservation and mitigation of global change effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, A.; Florentino, A.; Lorenzo, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main constraints in rained agriculture is the water availability for plant growth which depends largely on the ability of the soil to allow water flow, infiltration and its storage. In Venezuela, the interaction between aggressive climatic conditions, highly susceptible soils and inadequate management systems have caused soil degradation which together with global change threatened the food production sustainability. To address this problem, we need to implement conservationist management strategies that improve infiltration rate, permeability and water holding capacity in soil and reduce water loss by protecting the soil surface. In order to study the impact of different management systems on soil water balance in a Fluventic Haplustept, the effects of 11 years of tillage and crops rotation management were evaluated in a long term field experiment located in Turén (Portuguesa state). The evaluated tillage systems were no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotation treatments were maize (Zea mays)-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and maize-bean (Vigna unguiculata). Treatments were established in plots arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The gravimetric moisture content was determined in the upper 20 cm of soil, at eight different sampling dates. Results showed increased in time of the water availability with the use of tillage and corn-cotton rotation and, better protection of the soil against raindrop impact with crop residues. Water retention capacity also increased and improved structural condition on soil surface such as infiltration, storage and water flow distribution in the rooting zone. We conclude that these strategies of land use and management would contribute to mitigate the climate change effects on food production in this region of Venezuela. Key words: Soil quality; rained agriculture; plant water availability

  17. Mitigating the Detrimental Impacts of Solar PV Penetration on Electric Power Transmission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Nitin

    At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO 2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.

  18. Optimal Spatial Design of Capacity and Quantity of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Urban Flood Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS into a stormwater runoff management model (SWMM for the spatial design of capacities and quantities of rain barrel for urban flood mitigation. A simulation-optimization model is proposed for effectively identifying the optimal design. First of all, we particularly classified the characteristic zonal subregions for spatial design by using fuzzy C-means clustering with the investigated data of urban roof, land use and drainage system. In the simulation method, a series of regular spatial arrangements specification are designed by using statistical quartiles analysis for rooftop area and rainfall frequency analysis; accordingly, the corresponding reduced flooding circumstances can be simulated by SWMM. Moreover, the most effective solution for the simulation method is identified from the calculated net benefit, which is equivalent to the subtraction of the facility cost from the decreased inundation loss. It serves as the initially identified solution for the optimization model. In the optimization method, backpropagation neural network (BPNN are first applied for developing a water level simulation model of urban drainage systems to substitute for SWMM to conform to newly considered interdisciplinary multi-objective optimization model, and a tabu search-based algorithm is used with the embedded BPNN-based SWMM to optimize the planning solution. The developed method is applied to the Zhong-He District, Taiwan. Results demonstrate that the application of tabu search and the BPNN-based simulation model into the optimization model can effectively, accurately and fast search optimal design considering economic net benefit. Furthermore, the optimized spatial rain barrel design could reduce 72% of inundation losses according to the simulated flood events.

  19. Future Heat Waves In Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2017-12-01

    I will review recent work from my group on the impact of climate change on the intensity and frequency of heat waves in Asia. Our studies covered Southwest Asia, South Asia, East China, and the Maritime continent. In any of these regions, the risk associated with climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that the wet-bulb temperature is a useful variable to consider in describing the natural hazard from heat waves since it can be easily compared to the natural threshold that defines the upper limit on human survivability. Based on an ensemble of high resolution climate change simulations, we project extremes of wet-bulb temperature conditions in each of these four regions of Asia. We consider the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a moderate mitigation scenario. The results from these regions will be compared and lessons learned summarized.

  20. Minding the Cyber-Physical Gap: Model-Based Analysis and Mitigation of Systemic Perception-Induced Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Mordecai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyber-physical gap (CPG is the difference between the ‘real’ state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is inevitable at some degree in any cyber-physical system (CPS. Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment. We propose CPG-Aware Modeling & Engineering (CPGAME, a conceptual model-based approach to capturing, explaining, and mitigating the CPG. CPGAME enhances the systems engineer’s ability to cope with CPGs, mitigate them by design, and prevent erroneous decisions and actions. We demonstrate CPGAME by applying it for modeling and analysis of the 1979 Three Miles Island 2 nuclear accident, and show how its meltdown could be mitigated. We use ISO-19450:2015—Object Process Methodology as our conceptual modeling framework.

  1. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  2. An assessment of national surveillance systems for malaria elimination in the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Chris Erwin G; Ekapirat, Nattwut; Dondorp, Arjen M; Maude, Richard J

    2017-03-21

    Heads of Government from Asia and the Pacific have committed to a malaria-free region by 2030. In 2015, the total number of confirmed cases reported to the World Health Organization by 22 Asia Pacific countries was 2,461,025. However, this was likely a gross underestimate due in part to incidence data not being available from the wide variety of known sources. There is a recognized need for an accurate picture of malaria over time and space to support the goal of elimination. A survey was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the collection of malaria incidence data for surveillance by National Malaria Control Programmes in 22 countries identified by the Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance. In 2015-2016, a short questionnaire on malaria surveillance was distributed to 22 country National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCP) in the Asia Pacific. It collected country-specific information about the extent of inclusion of the range of possible sources of malaria incidence data and the role of the private sector in malaria treatment. The findings were used to produce recommendations for the regional heads of government on improving malaria surveillance to inform regional efforts towards malaria elimination. A survey response was received from all 22 target countries. Most of the malaria incidence data collected by NMCPs originated from government health facilities, while many did not collect comprehensive data from mobile and migrant populations, the private sector or the military. All data from village health workers were included by 10/20 countries and some by 5/20. Other sources of data included by some countries were plantations, police and other security forces, sentinel surveillance sites, research or academic institutions, private laboratories and other government ministries. Malaria was treated in private health facilities in 19/21 countries, while anti-malarials were available in private pharmacies in 16/21 and private shops in 6/21. Most countries use

  3. Wastewater reuse in central Asia: implications for the design of pond systems

    OpenAIRE

    Heaven, S.; Banks, C.J.; Pak, L.N.; Rspaev, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the potential of waste stabilisation ponds to provide water for reuse in extreme continental climates such as those of central Asia, where precipitation is low and summer evaporation rates are high. A simple model is used to predict water availability, BOD and faecal coliform removal for different configurations and operating regimes. The results show a significant proportion of flows could be saved for irrigation or river and aquifer replenishment: if current standard desi...

  4. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  5. The energy sector in Northeast Asia : new projects, delivery systems and prospects for co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the needs and opportunities for energy co-operation in Northeast Asia, with particular reference to development of resources in eastern Russia, Siberia and the Far East to supply energy to consumers in Northeast Asia. Given the high projected demand for energy resources, Japan, South Korea and China are compelled to consider diversifying their energy supplies and developing new links with eastern Russia. The environmental degradation caused by coal burning in China is another incentive for looking for sources of natural gas in Eurasia. Russia and Japan are concentrating on the Sakhalin oil and gas projects. China and Russia have agreed to work closely in the energy sector, focusing on a pipeline from the natural gas field near Irkutsk. The challenges lies in developing a co-ordinated approach to energy resource development and use, by modifying energy policies and long-term supply outlooks. Another challenge lies in the fact that private investors and intergovernmental co-operation are required to build an expensive cross-border infrastructure to transport natural gas, electricity and oil. Co-operation is also required to improve energy efficiency, modernize existing facilities and promote cleaner sources of energy, energy conservation and environmental protection. This report examined forecasted energy demand and imports in Northeast Asia and identified opportunities for co-operation. refs., tabs

  6. Voltage Sag Mitigation Strategies for an Indian Power Systems: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A. K.; Gupta, C. P.; Singh, G. K.

    2014-08-01

    Under modern deregulated environment, both utilities and customers are concerned with the power quality improvement but with different objectives/interests. The utility reconfigure its power network and install mitigation devices, if needed, to improve power quality. The paper presents a strategy for selecting cost-effective solutions to mitigate voltage sags, the most frequent power quality disturbance. In this paper, mitigation device(s) is/are inducted in the optimal network topology at suitable places for their better effectiveness for further improvement in power quality. The optimal placement is looked from utility perspectives for overall benefit. Finally, their performance is evaluated on the basis of reduction in total number of voltage sags, reduction in total number of process trips and reduction in total financial losses due to voltage sags.

  7. Noise and LPI radar as part of counter-drone mitigation system measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Huang, Yih-Ru; Thumann, Charles

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid proliferation of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace, small operational drones are being sometimes considered as a security threat for critical infrastructures, such as sports stadiums, military facilities, and airports. There have been many civilian counter-drone solutions and products reported, including radar and electromagnetic counter measures. For the current electromagnetic solutions, they are usually limited to particular type of detection and counter-measure scheme, which is usually effective for the specific type of drones. Also, control and communication link technologies used in even RC drones nowadays are more sophisticated, making them more difficult to detect, decode and counter. Facing these challenges, our team proposes a "software-defined" solution based on noise and LPI radar. For the detection, wideband-noise radar has the resolution performance to discriminate possible micro-Doppler features of the drone versus biological scatterers. It also has the benefit of more adaptive to different types of drones, and covertly detecting for security application. For counter-measures, random noise can be combined with "random sweeping" jamming scheme, to achieve the optimal balance between peak power allowed and the effective jamming probabilities. Some theoretical analysis of the proposed solution is provided in this study, a design case study is developed, and initial laboratory experiments, as well as outdoor tests are conducted to validate the basic concepts and theories. The study demonstrates the basic feasibilities of the Drone Detection and Mitigation Radar (DDMR) concept, while there are still much work needs to be done for a complete and field-worthy technology development.

  8. Alternative rapamycin treatment regimens mitigate the impact of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Neuman, Joshua C; Baar, Emma L; Syed, Faizan A; Cummings, Nicole E; Brar, Harpreet K; Pumper, Cassidy P; Kimple, Michelle E; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by the FDA-approved drug rapamycin has been shown to promote lifespan and delay age-related diseases in model organisms including mice. Unfortunately, rapamycin has potentially serious side effects in humans, including glucose intolerance and immunosuppression, which may preclude the long-term prophylactic use of rapamycin as a therapy for age-related diseases. While the beneficial effects of rapamycin are largely mediated by the inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), which is acutely sensitive to rapamycin, many of the negative side effects are mediated by the inhibition of a second mTOR-containing complex, mTORC2, which is much less sensitive to rapamycin. We hypothesized that different rapamycin dosing schedules or the use of FDA-approved rapamycin analogs with different pharmacokinetics might expand the therapeutic window of rapamycin by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Here, we identified an intermittent rapamycin dosing schedule with minimal effects on glucose tolerance, and we find that this schedule has a reduced impact on pyruvate tolerance, fasting glucose and insulin levels, beta cell function, and the immune system compared to daily rapamycin treatment. Further, we find that the FDA-approved rapamycin analogs everolimus and temsirolimus efficiently inhibit mTORC1 while having a reduced impact on glucose and pyruvate tolerance. Our results suggest that many of the negative side effects of rapamycin treatment can be mitigated through intermittent dosing or the use of rapamycin analogs. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Livestock system as a mitigation measure of a wind farm in a mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns a mountain territory, bordering Liguria, Piemonte, Lombardia and Emilia, where a high power 151 MW wind farm, with 42 tower of 3.6 MW power, has been proposed. As a measure of environmental mitigation, the realization of a livestock system of a herd of sucker cows pasturing in the wind farm areas is proposed. This has implications for environmental maintenance, employment in a territory gradually losing its population, and for tourism. The study, having focused on those aspects that reduce landscape impact and carrying out an analysis of the individual areas to evaluate forage resources and the different pastoral indexes, identifies the maximum sustainable load of animals (335 UBA/ha in the current conditions of neglect. So, some measures to improve and increase sustainable herds have been proposed and examined. The operations include: stone removal; light harrowing; overseeding; creation of fodder reserves for periods of shortage; and grazing will be managed by taking turns. Based on the results of two other studies, both previous tests carried out on site, encourage us to think that we will be able to increase the maximum sustainable seasonal load for the current situation by more than 50%. This means a herd of 500 UBA equal to a gross PLV, for the grazing period of 180 days, of 400,000 and so guarantee an adequate income to 3-4 UL (labor unit, and of 650,000/year in case the chain is completed during the winter months in structures located in the valley. In this case, the PLV obtained could assure income to 6-7 employees, which would be extremely important for the socio-economic conditions of the valley; in consideration of the induced activities- meat processing, marketing and tourism facilities- which could be made available. Experimental tests of the technical improvements described will be carried out in the next season.

  10. POWER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DESIGN ON NODE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR PEATLANDS FIRE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Muammar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Early warning system is one of the technology to detect land fires by utilizing a network of wireless sensors. Constant data transmission by the sensor nodes consumes a large amount of energy on the nodes’ sides that could affect the battery’s longevity. This research is done to discover the amount of power consumption and battery longevity during fire emergencies, and during non-emergency situation on peatlands. Power saving on the fire detecting system uses an LM35 temperature sensor, ATmega8 micro-controller and HC-12 transmission module. The overall result of powered by a 9 volt battery during fire emergencies, and during non-emergency, the power consumption reaches up to 1 Wh, with various longevity levels of the battery. The implementation of sleep/wake up mode scheduling during fire emergencies and non-emergencies could save battery for 2 hours compared to those without the power saving mode implementation. Power saving during fire emergency could be minimalized by activating the sleep mode activation power-down on the micro controller and it can also set the data transmission schedule to minimalize data usage during fire emergency, so that the usage of sleep/wake up mode interval scheduling during transmission could minimalize energy consumption and elongate the power supply active period.

  11. Overview of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Initiatives in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ankur; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Suri, Kunal; Mishra, Sundeep; Iqbal, Romaina; Virani, Salim S

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Industrialization and economic growth have led to an unprecedented increment in the burden of CVD and their risk factors in less industrialized regions of the world. While there are abundant data on CVD and their risk factors from longitudinal cohort studies done in the West, good-quality data from South Asia are lacking. Several multi-institutional, observational, prospective registries, and epidemiologic cohorts in South Asia have been established to systematically evaluate the burden of CVD and their risk factors. The PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP), the Kerala Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), and Trivandrum Heart Failure registries have focused on secondary prevention of CVD and performance measurement in both outpatient and inpatient settings, respectively. The Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE), Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS), and other epidemiologic and genetic studies have focused on primary prevention of CVD and evaluated variables such as environment, smoking, physical activity, health systems, food and nutrition policy, dietary consumption patterns, socioeconomic factors, and healthy neighborhoods. The international cardiovascular community has been responsive to a burgeoning cardiovascular disease burden in South Asia. Several collaborations have formed between the West (North America in particular) and South Asia to catalyze evidence-based and data-driven changes in the federal health policy in this part of the world to promote cardiovascular health and mitigate cardiovascular risk.

  12. Challenges and opportunities for improving eco-efficiency of tropical forage-based systems to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peters

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage-based livestock production plays a key role in national and regional economies, for food security and poverty alleviation, but is considered a major contributor to agricultural GHG emissions. While demand for livestock products is predicted to increase, there is political and societal pressure both to reduce environmental impacts and to convert some of the pasture area to alternative uses, such as crop production and environmental conservation. Thus, it is essential to develop approaches for sustainable intensification of livestock systems to mitigate GHG emissions, addressing biophysical, socio-economic and policy challenges. This paper highlights the potential of improved tropical forages, linked with policy incentives, to enhance livestock production, while reducing its environmental footprint. Emphasis is on crop-livestock systems. We give examples for sustainable intensification to mitigate GHG emissions, based on improved forages in Brazil and Colombia, and suggest future perspectives.

  13. Messages, limitations and future needs of research into environmental impacts and mitigating and remediation measures of oil palm and forest land-use and land management in SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Nurhidayu, Siti; Nainar, Anand; Annammala, Kogilavani; Blake, William; Higton, Sam; Wall, Katy; Darling, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm and forest logging land-uses have expanded immensely in recent decades in SE Asia and other parts of the humid tropics - and increasingly into steeplands where adverse biophysical in situ and downstream impacts are particularly severe. With a focus on recent and current projects in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) and Peninsular Malaysia, this paper examines the changing nature of research foci and approaches of research projects to assess impacts and develop and test mitigation strategies. Early projects focussed on comparing slope- and catchment-scale hydrology and erosion of selectively logged forest and primary forest and on ways of reducing logging impacts. The second phase of research focussed increasingly on (1) longer-term recovery from logging and (2) the likely impacts of climate change. With repeat logging and conversion of areas of forest to oil palm (and conservation of remaining primary forest was secured), the focus of attention has moved to (1) assessing impacts of oil palm conversion and land management practices, (2) testing existing (and potentially more effective) Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) guidelines and Government Regulations aimed at reducing impacts and (3) developing and testing ways of restoring and rehabilitating forest within both badly degraded logged forest areas and largely oil palm landscapes - with attention focussed on the landscape scale, the long-term, downstream as well as in situ impacts and the more vulnerable steepland areas. Two multidisciplinary umbrella projects - the SAFE (Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems) Project and the SEnSOR Programme - have formed the backbone of this latest phase. The SAFE Project is a ten-year programme assessing the effectiveness of retention of differing widths of riparian forest buffers and different- sized forest 'islands' within converted oil palm landscapes in reducing their adverse ecological, emissions, hydrological, erosional and water pollution impacts. The SEn

  14. Multidimensional Signal Processing Techniques for Disturbance Mitigation in Synthetic Aperture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edussooriya, Chamira Udaya Shantha

    In this thesis, multidimensional signal processing techniques to mitigate disturbances in synthetic aperture systems such as radio telescopes are investigated. Here, two computationally efficient three-dimensional (3D) spatio-temporal (ST) finite impulse response (FIR) cone filter bank structures are proposed. Furthermore, a strategy is proposed to design 3D ST FIR frustum filter banks, having double-frustum-shaped passbands oriented along the temporal axis, derived from appropriate 3D ST FIR cone filter banks. Both types of cone and frustum filter banks are almost alias free and provide near-perfect reconstruction. In the proposed cone and frustum filter banks, both temporal and spatial filtering operations can be carried out at a significantly lower rate compared to previously reported 3D ST FIR cone filter banks implying lower power consumption. Furthermore, the proposed cone and frustum filter banks require a significantly lower computational complexity than previously reported 3D ST FIR cone and frustum filter banks. Importantly, this is achieved without deteriorating the improvement in signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. A theoretical analysis of brightness distribution (BD) errors caused by parameter perturbations and mismatches among the transfer functions of receivers employed in synthetic aperture systems is presented. First, the BD errors caused by perturbations in the transfer functions of low noise amplifiers (LNAs) and anti-aliasing filters (AAFs) are considered, and the characteristics of the additive BD error and its effects on synthesized BDs are thoroughly analyzed. Second, the conditions that should be satisfied by the transfer functions of digital beamformers to eliminate the BD errors caused by their phase responses are examined. The sufficient condition to eliminate the BD errors is that the transfer functions are matched, and, interestingly, the phase responses are not necessary to be linear. Furthermore, the BD errors caused by typical

  15. Pileup Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Roloff, Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous proton-proton collisions, or pileup, at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction, requiring the use of advanced pileup mitigation techniques. Pileup mitigation may occur at several stages of the reconstruction process, and ATLAS uses a combination of schemes, including constituent reconstruction methods, constituent-level pileup-mitigation techniques, and jet-level pileup-mitigation algorithms. This talk describes the two constituent-reconstruction methods for jets used on ATLAS: TopoClustering and Particle Flow. This talk also has a first look at the performance of several constituent-level pileup mitigation techniques on ATLAS, including Constituent Subtraction, Voronoi Subtraction, SoftKiller, and the Cluster Vertex Fraction. Finally, other developments in tagging pileup jets is discussed, such as the forward jet vertex tagger (fJVT), which uses jet shapes and topological information to tag jets.

  16. Applying a systems approach to assess carbon emission reductions from climate change mitigation in Mexico’s forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Marcela; Wayson, Craig; Fellows, Max; Birdsey, Richard; Smyth, Carolyn E.; Magnan, Michael; Dugan, Alexa J.; Mascorro, Vanessa S.; Alanís, Armando; Serrano, Enrique; Kurz, Werner A.

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for a balance of anthropogenic greenhouse emissions and removals in the latter part of this century. Mexico indicated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution and its Climate Change Mid-Century Strategy that the land sector will contribute to meeting GHG emission reduction goals. Since 2012, the Mexican government through its National Forestry Commission, with international financial and technical support, has been developing carbon dynamics models to explore climate change mitigation options in the forest sector. Following a systems approach, here we assess the biophysical mitigation potential of forest ecosystems, harvested wood products and their substitution benefits (i.e. the change in emissions resulting from substitution of wood for more emissions-intensive products and fossil fuels), for policy alternatives considered by the Mexican government, such as a net zero deforestation rate and sustainable forest management. We used available analytical frameworks (Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector and a harvested wood products model), parameterized with local input data in two contrasting Mexican states. Using information from the National Forest Monitoring System (e.g. forest inventories, remote sensing, disturbance data), we demonstrate that activities aimed at reaching a net-zero deforestation rate can yield significant CO2e mitigation benefits by 2030 and 2050 relative to a baseline scenario (‘business as usual’), but if combined with increasing forest harvest to produce long-lived products and substitute more energy-intensive materials, emissions reductions could also provide other co-benefits (e.g. jobs, illegal logging reduction). We concluded that the relative impact of mitigation activities is locally dependent, suggesting that mitigation strategies should be designed and implemented at sub-national scales. We were also encouraged about the

  17. Mitigation of GPS code and carrier phase multipath effects using a multi-antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jayanta Kumar

    Multipath is a major source of error in GPS code and carrier phase measurements in the differential mode of operation, which can prevent the achievement of the highest levels of accuracy. This is especially prevalent in a static receiver where multipath introduces slow varying errors in the measurements due to satellite dynamics, and which cannot be averaged out. Multipath is spatially correlated within a small area. This relationship can be exploited to mitigate multipath errors. The research aims at reducing the effect of multipath in code and carrier phase measurements in a stationary receiver using a multiple antenna/receiver approach. A method is developed, which uses five or more antennas, spaced about 5--10 cm apart. The response of the GPS receiver code and carrier discriminator functions in the presence of a multipath signal is analyzed, and multipath errors within a small area are related to the antenna-satellite and antenna-reflector geometry using multipath and geometric parameters, such as, the reflection coefficient, multipath delay, multipath phase, as well as multipath signal azimuth and elevation. A Kalman filter is developed to use multipath-corrupted measurements from multiple closely-spaced antennas to estimate the multipath and geometric parameters, from which the multipath errors in the code and carrier measurements at each antenna can be computed. Field tests in a moderate multipath environment show a reduction in multipath errors up to 73% (average 22%) in the code and up to 52% (average 15%) in the carrier residuals. Improvements are also observed in the position domain, whereby the differential position accuracy is improved by up to 51% (average 21%) and up to 37% (average 24%) for the non-smoothed code and carrier cases respectively. A desirable characteristic of this technique is that it is more effective in a high multipath environment. This technique has potential to be used in real time in reference stations generating corrections for

  18. Stochastic optimized life cycle models for risk mitigation in power system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sageder, A.

    1998-01-01

    This ork shows the relevance of stochastic optimization in complex power system applications. It was proven that usual deterministic mean value models not only predict inaccurate results but are also most often on the risky side. The change in the market effects all kind of evaluation processes (e.g. fuel type and technology but especially financial engineering evaluations) in the endeavor of a strict risk mitigation comparison. But not only IPPs also traditional Utilities dash for risk/return optimized investment opportunities. In this study I developed a 2-phase model which can support a decision-maker in finding optimal solutions on investment and profitability. It has to be stated, that in this study no objective function will be optimized in an algorithmically way. On the one hand focus is laid on finding optimal solutions out of different choices (highest return at lowest possible risk); on the other hand the endeavor was to provide a decision makers with a better assessment of the likelihood of outcomes on investment considerations. The first (deterministic) phase computes in a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) approach (Life cycle Calculation; DCF method). Most of the causal relations (day of operation, escalation of personal expanses, inflation, depreciation period, etc.) are defined within this phase. The second (stochastic) phase is a total new way in optimizing risk/return relations. With the some decision theory mathematics an expected value of stochastic solutions can be calculated. Furthermore probability function have to be defined out of historical data. The model not only supports profitability analysis (including regress and sensitivity analysis) but also supports a decision-maker in a decision process. Emphasis was laid on risk-return analysis, which can give the decision-maker first hand informations of the type of risk return problem (risk concave, averse or linear). Five important parameters were chosen which have the characteristics of typical

  19. Understanding the coupled natural and human systems in Dryland East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jiaguo; Chen Jiquan; Wan Shiqian; Ai Likun

    2012-01-01

    Stressors including regional climate change, economic development effects upon land use and an increasing demand for food production have resulted in significant impacts on the dryland ecosystems in the East Asia (DEA) region. Ecosystem services, such as its provisional services in providing forage for grazing as well as its functional services in regulating water and carbon fluxes, have been significantly altered over the past three decades. Conversely, changes in the landscape, particularly land cover types, have also been blamed for intensified climatic events such as dust storms and severe and frequent droughts within the region. The interactive nature of climate, ecosystems and society is complex and not fully understood, making it difficult, if not impossible, to develop effective adaptation strategies for the region. A special synthesis workshop on ‘Dryland Ecosystems in East Asia: State, Changes, Knowledge Gaps, and Future’ was held from 18–20 July 2011 in Kaifeng, Henan Province, China, with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps, quantifying impacts and developing a future research agenda for the region. The specific objectives of this workshop were to answer some key socio-environmental questions, including the following. (1) What do we know about the drylands in DEA? (2) What are the knowledge gaps? (3) What are the solutions to these issues? This paper provides a synthesis of the workshop consensus and findings on the state of knowledge and challenges in addressing these science issues for the DEA region. (letter)

  20. Sustainable and non-conventional monitoring systems to mitigate natural hazards in low income economies: the 4onse project approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ratnayake, Rangajeewa; Antonovic, Milan; Strigaro, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Environmental monitoring systems in low economies countries are often in decline, outdated or missing with the consequence that there is a very scarce availability and accessibility to these information that are vital for coping and mitigating natural hazards. Non-conventional monitoring systems based on open technologies may constitute a viable solution to create low cost and sustainable monitoring systems that may be fully developed, deployed and maintained at local level without lock-in dependances on copyrights or patents or high costs of replacements. The 4onse research project , funded under the Research for Development program of the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss Office for Development and Cooperation, propose a complete monitoring system that integrates Free & Open Source Software, Open Hardware, Open Data, and Open Standards. After its engineering, it will be tested in the Deduru Oya catchment (Sri Lanka) to evaluate the system and develop a water management information system to optimize the regulation of artificial basins levels and mitigate flash floods. One of the objective is to better scientifically understand strengths, criticalities and applicabilities in terms of data quality; system durability; management costs; performances; sustainability. Results, challenges and experiences from the first six months of the projects will be presented with particular focus on the activities of synergies building and data collection and dissemination system advances.

  1. Postoperative Central Nervous System Infection After Neurosurgery in a Modernized, Resource-Limited Tertiary Neurosurgical Center in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Swathi; Nair, M Nathan; Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Cai, Ling; Gu, Weiling; Vasudevan, Madabushi Chakravarthy

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are rare but serious complications after neurosurgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a modernized, resource-limited neurosurgical center in South Asia. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the medical records of all 363 neurosurgical cases performed between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, at a neurosurgical center in South Asia. Data from all operative neurosurgical cases during the 13-month period were included. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated that 71 of the 363 surgical cases had low CSF glucose or CSF leukocytosis. These 71 cases were categorized as PCNSIs. The PCNSIs with positive CSF cultures (9.86%) all had gram-negative bacteria with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Escherichia coli (n = 1), or Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). The data suggest a higher rate of death (P = 0.031), a higher rate of CSF leak (P < 0.001), and a higher rate of cranial procedures (P < 0.001) among the infected patients and a higher rate of CSF leak among the patients with culture-positive infections (P = 0.038). This study summarizes the prevalence, causative organism of PCNSI, and antibiotic usage for all of the neurosurgical cases over a 13-month period in a modernized yet resource-limited neurosurgical center located in South Asia. The results from this study highlight the PCNSI landscape in an area of the world that is often underreported in the neurosurgical literature because of the paucity of clinical neurosurgical research undertaken there. This study shows an increasing prevalence of gram-negative organisms in CSF cultures from PCNSIs, which supports a trend in the recent literature of increasing gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of spray on performance of the hydrogen mitigation system during LB-LOCA for CPR1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.G.; Yang, Y.H.; Cheng, X.; Al-Hawshabi, N.H.A.; Casey, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper presents the spray effect on HMS during LB-LOCA by using GASFLOW. → The positive and negative effects of spray are summarized. → And the combination of DIS and PAR system is suggested as reasonable countermeasures. → This research is an important work aimed at the study of spray and hydrogen mitigation. → The contents of this paper should become a required part of the safety analysis of Chinese NPPs. - Abstract: During the course of the hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP), hydrogen is generated by a reaction between steam and the fuel-cladding inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is then ejected from the break into the containment along with a large amount of steam. Management of hydrogen safety and prevention of over-pressurization could be implemented through a hydrogen mitigation system (HMS) and spray system in CPR1000 NPP. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code GASFLOW is utilized in this study to analyze the spray effect on the performance of HMS during LB-LOCA. Results show that as a kind of HMS, deliberate igniter system (DIS) could initiate hydrogen combustion immediately after the flammability limit of the gas mixture has been reached. However, it will increase the temperature and pressure drastically. Operating the DIS under spray condition could result in hydrogen combustion being suppressed by suspended droplets inside the containment. Furthermore, the droplets could also mitigate local the temperature rise. Operation of a PAR system, another kind of HMS, consumes hydrogen steadily with a lower recombination rate which is not affected noticeably by the spray system. Numerical results indicate that the dual concept, namely the integrated application of DIS and PAR systems, is a constructive improvement for hydrogen safety under spray condition during LB-LOCA.

  3. Voltage unbalance mitigation in LV networks using three-phase PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Bajo, Cristina; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Bækhøj Kjær, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to mitigate voltage unbalance caused by single-phase solar inverters in low voltage (LV) networks. The method is based on uneven reactive power absorption and injection by three-phase solar inverters. Independent control of each phase is performed to achieve......-phase inverters penetration in a realistic LV grid. In addition, the overvoltage is reduced by using this method....

  4. Risk-based cost-benefit analysis for evaluating microbial risk mitigation in a drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergion, Viktor; Lindhe, Andreas; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Rosén, Lars

    2018-04-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases can cause large costs to society. Risk management needs to be holistic and transparent in order to reduce these risks in an effective manner. Microbial risk mitigation measures in a drinking water system were investigated using a novel approach combining probabilistic risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. Lake Vomb in Sweden was used to exemplify and illustrate the risk-based decision model. Four mitigation alternatives were compared, where the first three alternatives, A1-A3, represented connecting 25, 50 and 75%, respectively, of on-site wastewater treatment systems in the catchment to the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The fourth alternative, A4, represented installing a UV-disinfection unit in the drinking water treatment plant. Quantitative microbial risk assessment was used to estimate the positive health effects in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs), resulting from the four mitigation alternatives. The health benefits were monetised using a unit cost per QALY. For each mitigation alternative, the net present value of health and environmental benefits and investment, maintenance and running costs was calculated. The results showed that only A4 can reduce the risk (probability of infection) below the World Health Organization guidelines of 10 -4 infections per person per year (looking at the 95th percentile). Furthermore, all alternatives resulted in a negative net present value. However, the net present value would be positive (looking at the 50 th percentile using a 1% discount rate) if non-monetised benefits (e.g. increased property value divided evenly over the studied time horizon and reduced microbial risks posed to animals), estimated at 800-1200 SEK (€100-150) per connected on-site wastewater treatment system per year, were included. This risk-based decision model creates a robust and transparent decision support tool. It is flexible enough to be tailored and applied to local

  5. Nanoscale Protection Layers To Mitigate Degradation in High-Energy Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Fu; Qi, Yue; Gregorczyk, Keith; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2018-01-16

    In the pursuit of energy storage devices with higher energy and power, new ion storage materials and high-voltage battery chemistries are of paramount importance. However, they invite-and often enhance-degradation mechanisms, which are reflected in capacity loss with charge/discharge cycling and sometimes in safety problems. Degradation mechanisms are often driven by fundamentals such as chemical and electrochemical reactions at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, volume expansion and stress associated with ion insertion and extraction, and profound inhomogeneity of electrochemical behavior. While it is important to identify and understand these mechanisms at some reasonable level, it is even more critical to design strategies to mitigate these degradation pathways and to develop means to implement and validate the strategies. A growing set of research highlights the mitigation benefits achievable by forming thin protection layers (PLs) intentionally created as artificial interphase regions at the electrode-electrolyte interface. These advances illustrate a promising-perhaps even generic-pathway for enabling higher-energy and higher-voltage battery configurations. In this Account, we summarize examples of such PLs that serve as mitigation strategies to avoid degradation in lithium metal anodes, conversion-type electrode materials, and alloy-type electrodes. Examples are chosen from a larger body of electrochemical degradation research carried out in Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES), our DOE Energy Frontier Research Center. Overall, we argue on the basis of experimental and theoretical evidence that PLs effectively stabilize the electrochemical interfaces to prevent parasitic chemical and electrochemical reactions and mitigate the structural, mechanical, and compositional degradation of the electrode materials at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The evidenced improvement in performance metrics is accomplished by (1) establishing a homogeneous

  6. Load-Independent Harmonic Mitigation in SCR-Fed Three-Phase Multiple ASD Systems with Deliberately Dispatched Firing Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) are widely used in three-phase multi-drive applications in industry for energy savings, where low-cost rectifiers (mainly Diode Rectifiers - DRs) are still employed as the front-ends in practice, also for simplicity in control and reliability in operation. However...... not of much cost-effectiveness, and hence, the use of communication in multiple parallel motordrive systems for harmonic control is rarely witnessed in industry. In this sense, this paper proposes a harmonic mitigation strategy for multiple parallel ASD systems, where another type of low-cost rectifiers (i...

  7. Accounting for CO2 variability over East Asia with a regional joint inversion system and its preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xingxia; Tian, Xiangjun; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-10-01

    A regional surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux inversion system, the Tan-Tracker-Region, was developed by incorporating an assimilation scheme into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional chemical transport model to resolve fine-scale CO2 variability over East Asia. The proper orthogonal decomposition-based ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation approach (POD-4DVar) is the core algorithm for the joint assimilation framework, and simultaneous assimilations of CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 fluxes are applied to help reduce the uncertainty in initial CO2 concentrations. A persistence dynamical model was developed to describe the evolution of the surface CO2 fluxes and help avoid the "signal-to-noise" problem; thus, CO2 fluxes could be estimated as a whole at the model grid scale, with better use of observation information. The performance of the regional inversion system was evaluated through a group of single-observation-based observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). The results of the experiments suggest that a reliable performance of Tan-Tracker-Region is dependent on certain assimilation parameter choices, for example, an optimized window length of approximately 3 h, an ensemble size of approximately 100, and a covariance localization radius of approximately 320 km. This is probably due to the strong diurnal variation and spatial heterogeneity in the fine-scale CMAQ simulation, which could affect the performance of the regional inversion system. In addition, because all observations can be artificially obtained in OSSEs, the performance of Tan-Tracker-Region was further evaluated through different densities of the artificial observation network in different CO2 flux situations. The results indicate that more observation sites would be useful to systematically improve the estimation of CO2 concentration and flux in large areas over the model domain. The work presented here forms a foundation for future research in which a

  8. The use of geographic information systems and remote sensing in a study of the protohistory of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Phil

    The proto-histories of Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand previously have been considered in isolation, and have been written predominantly by European researchers. This thesis shows that the history of the Hindu religions, adopted by at least the ruling classes in Southeast Asian countries, had been developed far earlier than previous researchers had acknowledged. By taking a regional view, by considering the religion upon which the 'Indianisation' process rested, by using Geographic Information Systems and by not pre-judging possible outcomes, this thesis shows that the 'Brahmanic' temples of Southeast Asia were originally established to a pattern which represented the Brahmanic priests' views of their place in both space and time, which in turn related to the greater astronomical cosmos as well as to their inner cosmos. This thesis demonstrates a need for the re-consideration of the proto-history of Southeast Asia, in particular that of Viet Nam, to better reflect the basis on which the 'Indianisation' process was adopted by the indigenous peoples and to better collate the data from the various parts of the central to south Vietnamese coast before providing an alternative meta-narrative to that which has been accepted for over 100 years by much of the archaeological community.

  9. Feasibility Study on Nano-structured Coatings to Mitigate Flow-accelerated Corrosion in Secondary System of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Jeong Won; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-01-01

    There have been many efforts to mitigate FAC through the adoption of the advanced and modified water chemistries such as optimized dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and temperature. However, these mitigation techniques pose certain challenges relating to the compatibility of new water chemistries with the steam generator, the thermal efficiency of the secondary side, etc. In this context, nano-particle reinforced electroless nickel plating (NP ENP) could help solve the FAC issues in secondary pipe systems. This does not require modification of water chemistry or structural materials, and hence, its application is reasonable and time-saving compared to previous FAC mitigation techniques. The main parameters of FAC are known as electrochemical reaction at the interface, dissolution of magnetite and ferrous ions due to concentration gradient between carbon steels and water and wear due to a fast-flowing fluid. High-temperature corrosion characteristics of the both coatings have potential as FAC barrier for carbon steel. Feasibility study will be carried out with FAC simulation experiments

  10. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (pbicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility Study on Nano-structured Coatings to Mitigate Flow-accelerated Corrosion in Secondary System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Jeong Won; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There have been many efforts to mitigate FAC through the adoption of the advanced and modified water chemistries such as optimized dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and temperature. However, these mitigation techniques pose certain challenges relating to the compatibility of new water chemistries with the steam generator, the thermal efficiency of the secondary side, etc. In this context, nano-particle reinforced electroless nickel plating (NP ENP) could help solve the FAC issues in secondary pipe systems. This does not require modification of water chemistry or structural materials, and hence, its application is reasonable and time-saving compared to previous FAC mitigation techniques. The main parameters of FAC are known as electrochemical reaction at the interface, dissolution of magnetite and ferrous ions due to concentration gradient between carbon steels and water and wear due to a fast-flowing fluid. High-temperature corrosion characteristics of the both coatings have potential as FAC barrier for carbon steel. Feasibility study will be carried out with FAC simulation experiments.

  12. A Mitigation Technique of High-Power MAI in the Multimedia Optical CDMA System with the Optical Power Selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Kohki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Sasase, Iwao

    In this paper, we propose a mitigation system of high-level multiple access interference (MAI) for multimedia optical Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA) systems using the optical power selector (OPS). The proposed system can eliminate high-intensity MAI at the receiver for low-priority users. Moreover, the proposed system can reduce by half the required number of code sequences compared to the conventional scheme. As a result, the proposed system can increase the number of weights at the same code-length and, thus, obtain higher code spreading gain. We analyze performances of the proposed system and show that both high-priority users and low-priority users achieve lower bit error rates in comparison to the conventional scheme.

  13. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    Non-treated wastewater is used for irrigation of aquatic food production systems in the peri-urban areas of the major cities in Southeast Asia. Therefore concern is that potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may accumulate in foods produced. Hanoi and Phnom Penh, the capitals of Vietnam and Cambodia......, fish, soil and sediment from wastewater-fed production systems in Hanoi and Phnom Penh. Another aim was to assess the food safety risks of water spinach and fish with respect to PTEs. The third aim was to assess PTE retention capacity of river sediment in Hanoi and the governing retention mechanisms...... the concentration range observed for water spinach grown at agricultural soil not exposed to wastewater in Malaysia. Water spinach grown at sites of high and low wastewater exposure did not show a significantly higher accumulation of PTEs compared to sites without wastewater exposure. In Phnom Penh, water spinach...

  14. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  15. Game Theory for Proactive Dynamic Defense and Attack Mitigation in Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letchford, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    While there has been a great deal of security research focused on preventing attacks, there has been less work on how one should balance security and resilience investments. In this work we developed and evaluated models that captured both explicit defenses and other mitigations that reduce the impact of attacks. We examined these issues both in more broadly applicable general Stackelberg models and in more specific network and power grid settings. Finally, we compared these solutions to existing work in terms of both solution quality and computational overhead.

  16. Setting-up a cost recovery system for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønholdt, J; Elberg Jørgensen, P; O'Hearn, D

    2005-01-01

    A tariff system has been set up for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia, the Samut Prakarn Wastewater Treatment Plant south of Bangkok, which is currently under completion. Fully functional the plant will have a design capacity for 500,000 m3 per day and will service a combined residential and industrial area with approximately 600,000 residents and 2,300 factories. The tariff system, which includes a tariff model, is based on water consumption and BOD load. As background for setting the tariffs a comprehensive monitoring system including an industrial permitting system has been developed. The paper presents the background and rationale for setting up the system as well as the objective, scope and content of the tariff system and the industrial permit system. Further, the feasibility of introducing cost recovery systems, which is widely accepted in developing economies on the conceptual level and to some extent implemented at the legal and regulatory level, but has yet to be implemented at large, is discussed.

  17. Tax Systems and Tax Reforms in South and East Asia: Overview of Tax Systems and main policy issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Gandullia, Luca; Fumagalli, Laura

    2005-01-01

    South and East Asia are a particularly fast developing world economic areas, and are becoming increasingly more economically integrated. These countries, however, are not homogenous, and are lacking in any supra - national Authority. The total fiscal pressure of South and East Asian countries looks somewhat low when compared to that of countries with a similar per-capita income, pertaining to other economic world areas. However, a smooth Wagner law is confirmed by the data so that fiscal pres...

  18. Towards an Operational SAR-Based Rice Monitoring System in Asia: Examples from 13 Demonstration Sites across Asia in the RIICE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the most important food security crop in Asia. Information on its seasonal extent forms part of the national accounting of many Asian countries. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery is highly suitable for detecting lowland rice, especially in tropical and subtropical regions, where pervasive cloud cover in the rainy seasons precludes the use of optical imagery. Here, we present a simple, robust, rule-based classification for mapping rice area with regularly acquired, multi-temporal, X-band, HH-polarized SAR imagery and site-specific parameters for classification. The rules for rice detection are based on the well-studied temporal signature of rice from SAR backscatter and its relationship with crop stages. We also present a procedure for estimating the parameters based on “temporal feature descriptors” that concisely characterize the key information in the rice signatures in monitored field locations within each site. We demonstrate the robustness of the approach on a very large dataset. A total of 127 images across 13 footprints in six countries in Asia were obtained between October 2012, and April 2014, covering 4.78 m ha. More than 1900 in-season site visits were conducted across 228 monitoring locations in the footprints for classification purposes, and more than 1300 field observations were made for accuracy assessment. Some 1.6 m ha of rice were mapped with classification accuracies from 85% to 95% based on the parameters that were closely related to the observed temporal feature descriptors derived for each site. The 13 sites capture much of the diversity in water management, crop establishment and maturity in South and Southeast Asia. The study demonstrates the feasibility of rice detection at the national scale using multi-temporal SAR imagery with robust classification methods and parameters that are based on the knowledge of the temporal dynamics of the rice crop. We highlight the need for the development of an

  19. Work plan for transition of SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to transfer operating and maintenance responsibility for the 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Westinghouse Hanford Company. This work plan defines the tasks required for a successful turnover. It identifies DACS-1 transition, deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, cost, and schedule. The transition plan will discuss all required hardware, software, documentation, maintenance, operations, and training for use at Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The transfer of responsibilities for DACS-1 to WHC is contingent on final approval of applicable Acceptance for Beneficial Use documentation by Waste Tank Operations. The DACS-1 was designed to provide data monitoring, display, and storage for Tank 241-SY-101. The DACS-1 also provides alarm and control of all the hydrogen mitigation testing systems, as well as ancillary systems and equipment (HVAC, UPS, etc.) required to achieve safe and reliable operation of the testing systems in the tank

  20. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  1. Plant protection system optimization studies to mitigate consequences of large breaks in the advanced neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayat, M.I.; March-Leuba, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents some of the optimization studies performed to maximize the performance of the engineered safety features and scram systems to mitigate the consequences of large breaks in the primary cooling system of the advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor. The ANS is a new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides beams of neutrons for measurements and experiments in the field of material science and engineering, biology, chemistry, material analysis, and nuclear science. To achieve the high neutron fluxes for these state-of-the-art experiments, the ANS design has a very high power density core (330 MW fission with an active volume of 67.6 ell) surrounded by a large heavy-water reflector, where most neutrons are moderated. This design maximizes the number of neutrons available for experiments but results in a low heat capacity core that creates unique challenges to the design of the plant protection system

  2. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitigation Conducted Emission Strategy Based on Transfer Function from a DC-Fed Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in wireless charging system (WCS in electric vehicles (EVs always introduce conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI emissions. This paper proposes a mitigation conducted emission strategy based on transfer function from a direct current fed (DC-fed WCS for EVs. A complete test for the DC-fed WCS is set up to measure the conducted emission of DC power cables in a frequency range of 150 kHz–108 MHz. An equivalent circuit with high-frequency parasitic parameters for WCS for EV is built based on measurement results to obtain the characteristics of conducted emission from WCS. The transfer functions of differential mode (DM interference and common mode (CM interference were established. A judgment method of using transfer functions to determine the dominated interference mode responsible for EMI is proposed. From the comparison of simulation results between CM or DM and CM+DM interference, it can be seen that the CM interference is the dominated interference mode which causes the conducted EMI in WCS in EVs. A strategy of giving priority to the dominated interference mode is proposed for designing the CM interference filter. Finally, the conducted voltage experiment is performed to verify the mitigation conducted emission strategy. The conducted voltage of simulation and experiment is decreased respectively by 21.17 and 21.4 dBμV at resonance frequency 30 MHz. The conduced voltage at frequency range of 150 kHz–108 MHz can be mitigated to below the limit level-3 of CISPR25 standard (GB/T 18655-2010 by adding the CM interference filters.

  4. Targeting the Renin–Angiotensin System Combined With an Antioxidant Is Highly Effective in Mitigating Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Javed [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jelveh, Salomeh [Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zaidi, Asif [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Doctrow, Susan R. [Pulmonary Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Medhora, Meetha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Hill, Richard P., E-mail: hill@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of suppression of the renin angiotensin system using captopril combined with an antioxidant (Eukarion [EUK]-207) for mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage in rats. Methods and Materials: The thoracic cavity of female Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated with a single dose of 11 Gy. Treatment with captopril at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d in drinking water and EUK-207 given by subcutaneous injection (8 mg/kg daily) was started 1 week after irradiation (PI) and continuing until 14 weeks PI. Breathing rate was monitored until the rats were killed at 32 weeks PI, when lung fibrosis was assessed by lung hydroxyproline content. Lung levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 and macrophage activation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, and lipid peroxidation was measured by a T-BARS assay. Results: The increase in breathing rate in the irradiated rats was significantly reduced by the drug treatments. The drug treatment also significantly decreased the hydroxyproline content, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels, and levels of activated macrophages and the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 at 32 weeks. Almost complete mitigation of these radiation effects was observed by combining captopril and EUK-207. Conclusion: Captopril and EUK-207 can provide mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage out to at least 32 weeks PI after treatment given 1-14 weeks PI. Overall the combination of captopril and EUK-207 was more effective than the individual drugs used alone.

  5. Dependability in electronic systems mitigation of hardware failures, soft errors, and electro-magnetic disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Kanekawa, Nobuyasu; Suga, Takashi; Uematsu, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Dependability in Electronic Systems presents practical applications for dependable electronic systems, such as train control, automotive control systems and network servers/routers. Readers will find an overview of dependability, enabling them to select the best choice for maximum results.

  6. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification.

  7. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  8. Conducted noise from 48 volt DC-DC converters used in telecommunications systems and its mitigation for EMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, C. [Lucent Technologies, Inc., Naperville, IL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Telecommunications switching equipment has been moving toward a distributed DC power concept where 48 volts (or other telephone office voltage) is routed directly onto circuit boards via backplanes. This higher DC voltage is then converted on the circuit board to 5 volts, 3 volts or other logic voltage. One problem with this approach is the generation of a considerable amount of conducted noise current on 48 volt supply leads. Unless some mitigation is used, this noise current, when added to such currents from other boards in the system, can cause failure of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests required by international standards such as EN 300-386-2 [1], or EN 55022 [2], and hence, hurt the ability of the equipment to be marketed. This paper describes in detail the type and frequency range of noise generated by typical 48 volt DC-DC converters as measured in EMC tests on power feeder leads. It provides an analysis of the nature of this noise, a comparison with the requirements of the international standards, and a set of mitigation techniques that not only remove the noise, but satisfy various lightning and grounding requirements, including those of the USA and Europe. (orig.)

  9. The Delivery System of Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the delivery system of environmental education at the tertiary level in relation to higher education attendance rate. Describes the characteristics of the delivery system in countries such as China, India, Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Indonesia. (Author/MM)

  10. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services.......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...

  11. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, J E; Rotz, C A

    2013-06-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services.

  12. Chinese Milk Vetch as Green Manure Mitigates Nitrous Oxide Emission from Monocropped Rice System in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Xie

    Full Text Available Monocropped rice system is an important intensive cropping system for food security in China. Green manure (GM as an alternative to fertilizer N (FN is useful for improving soil quality. However, few studies have examined the effect of Chinese milk vetch (CMV as GM on nitrous oxide (N2O emission from monocropped rice field in south China. Therefore, a pot-culture experiment with four treatments (control, no FN and CMV; CMV as GM alone, M; fertilizer N alone, FN; integrating fertilizer N with CMV, NM was performed to investigate the effect of incorporating CMV as GM on N2O emission using a closed chamber-gas chromatography (GC technique during the rice growing periods. Under the same N rate, incorporating CMV as GM (the treatments of M and NM mitigated N2O emission during the growing periods of rice plant, reduced the NO3- content and activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase as well as the population of nitrifying bacteria in top soil at maturity stage of rice plant versus FN pots. The global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI of N2O from monocropped rice field was ranked as Mmitigation in the monocropped rice based system.

  13. Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs: Junction and Position in the System of Mobile Belts of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, M. G.; Rybin, A. K.; Batalev, V. Yu.; Matyukov, V. E.; Shchelochkov, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The position of the Pamirs and the Hissar-Alai mountainous system in the structure of Central Asia and features of their junction are considered. It is shown that their outer contours and tectonic infrastructure are significantly distinct in the planar pattern: latitudinally linear and arched for the Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs, respectively. These structures logically match those of the Central Asian and Alpine-Himalayan belts, respectively. The Pamir orogen is a relatively autonomous structural element of the crust, which is located discordantly relative to the country lithospheric blocks. Most of the Pamirs (at least, the Northern and Central) probably form a giant allochthon on the ancient basement of the Tarim and Afghan-Tajik blocks. The junction zone of these two "hard" crustal segments is reflected in the transverse Transpamir threshold, which is expressed in the relief, deep structure, and seismicity. The specific geological structure of the junction zone of the Pamirs and Hissar-Alai (systems of the Tarim, Alai, and Afghan-Tajik troughs) is shown. It suggested that this zone is a damper, which significantly neutralizes the dynamic influence of the Pamir and the southernmost elements of the Pamir-Punjab syntax on Hissar-Alai structures.

  14. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  15. Liquid Crystal Membrane Dust Mitigation System for Lunar or Martian Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust creates a number of hazards to lunar operations including, effect on human health, degradation of life support systems, wear to mechanical systems and...

  16. A Framework For Analyzing And Mitigating The Vulnerabilities Of Complex Systems Via Attack And Protection Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edge, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    .... Attack trees by themselves do not provide enough decision support to system defenders. This research develops the concept of using protection trees to offer a detailed risk analysis of a system...

  17. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  18. Indian real time online decision support system (IRODOS): a mitigation tool for handling offsite nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod Kumar, A.; Oza, R.B.; Chaudhury, P.; Suri, M.; Saindane, S.; Singh, K.D.; Bhargava, P.; Sharma, V.K.

    2007-01-01

    A real time online decision support system as a nuclear emergency response system for handling offsite nuclear emergency at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPPs) has been developed by Health Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) under the frame work of 'Indian Real time Online Decision Support System 'IRODOS'. (author)

  19. JPRS Report, East Asia Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-08

    JPRS-SEA-91-012 8 MAY 1991 ANNIVERSARY 1941 - 1991 JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia DXIC QUALITY IKSPEÜIW 19980515 124...NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-91-012 CONTENTS 8 May 1991 INTER-ASIAN Khun Sa To...5 INDONESIA POLITICAL Rudini Discusses Political Deregulation Issue [SUARA PEMBARUAN16 Mar] 7 Editorial Decries Corruption Problem [SUARA

  20. A Competitive Evaluation of Urban Energy Systems from viewpoints of Energy Conservation and Mitigating Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Hideharu; Tomioka, Hajime; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Although various energy system alternatives for business, commercial and residential customers have been recently developed in order to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission, it is important to evaluate competitive characteristics among such new energy system alternatives quantitatively, in consideration of tradeoff relation among economic cost, energy consumption and CO2 emission. In this paper, using multi-objective optimization model for urban energy system planning, two competitive evaluations are performed. One is the break-even cost analysis for introducing more efficient, but more expensive energy equipment, such as photovoltaic system and fuel cell system. The other is that we evaluate the competitiveness of a certain energy system from a viewpoint of whole urban area because there are multiple alternatives for attaining same target of reducing CO2 emission or energy consumption.

  1. HAMS (Hypoxia, Monitoring, and Mitigation System) II Quarterly Progress Report (Technical and Financial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-10

    cerebellum, medulla, and spinal cord . Higher-level brain functions involving cognition, decision- making, and reasoning are most sensitive to the effects of... internal processor clock. Figure 5 shows the overall system ear, arm, and wrist receiver unit. Each device will use a low power K21 processor from...Three TWR-K21D50M tower systems were purchased (See Figure 7). These were configured to simulate the overall system setup and sensor interfaces. This

  2. System-Level Mitigation of SEFIs in Data Handling Architectures, A Solution for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Maqbool, Shazia

    2005-01-01

    We describe a fault-tolerant architecture designed to enhance commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) device-based space-system reliability, and to provide automated system recovery, in the presence of radiation-induced functional errors. The architecture is primarily aimed at cost-effective “small satellite” systems, where very limited mass, volume and power resources preclude the use of multiple-redundant system-based architectures. Our architecture is based on the concept of a fast data network in...

  3. Run-time anomaly detection and mitigation in information-rich cyber-physical systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation space missions require autonomous systems to operate without human intervention for long periods of times in highly dynamic environments. Such...

  4. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Real-time distributed fiber optic sensor for security systems: Performance, event classification and nuisance mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The success of any perimeter intrusion detection system depends on three important performance parameters: the probability of detection (POD), the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and the false alarm rate (FAR). The most fundamental parameter, POD, is normally related to a number of factors such as the event of interest, the sensitivity of the sensor, the installation quality of the system, and the reliability of the sensing equipment. The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fiber optic intrusion detection systems is key to maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and eliminate nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. In this paper, a robust event classification system using supervised neural networks together with a level crossings (LCs) based feature extraction algorithm is presented for the detection and recognition of intrusion and non-intrusion events in a fence-based fiber-optic intrusion detection system. A level crossings algorithm is also used with a dynamic threshold to suppress torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fence system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr with the simultaneous detection of intrusion events. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented for a buried pipeline fiber optic intrusion detection system for the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of intrusion events. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer.

  6. Landfill methane emission mitigation – How to construct and document a full‐scale biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Landfills receiving organic wastes produce biogas (landfill gas – LFG) containing methane (CH4). Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to gas utilization systems or as a follow‐on technology when a gas utilization system gets non‐cost...

  7. Constant Power Load Instability Mitigation in DC Shipboard Power Systems Using Negative Series Virtual Inductor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    DC distribution technology has become the new choice and the trending technology of shipboard power systems for its advancement over its AC counterpart. In DC shipboard power systems, the bus voltage stability is a critical issue. The presence of tightly controlled high-power constant power load ...

  8. Mitigation of large power spills by an energy storage device in a stand alone energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bhaumik (Debarati); D.T. Crommelin (Daan); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe unpredictable nature of wind energy makes its integration to the electric grid highly challenging. However, these challenges can be addressed by incorporating storage devices (batteries) in the system. We perform an overall assessment of a single domestic power system with a wind

  9. System Theoretic Frameworks for Mitigating Risk Complexity in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adam David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cohn, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osborn, Douglas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeMenno, Mercy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Maikael A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Ethan Rutledge [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Mancel Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeantete, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In response to the expansion of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities -- and the associated suite of risks -- around the world, this project evaluated systems-based solutions for managing such risk complexity in multimodal and multi-jurisdictional international spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation. By better understanding systemic risks in SNF transportation, developing SNF transportation risk assessment frameworks, and evaluating these systems-based risk assessment frameworks, this research illustrated interdependency between safety, security, and safeguards risks is inherent in NFC activities and can go unidentified when each "S" is independently evaluated. Two novel system-theoretic analysis techniques -- dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA) and system-theoretic process analysis (STPA) -- provide integrated "3S" analysis to address these interdependencies and the research results suggest a need -- and provide a way -- to reprioritize United States engagement efforts to reduce global nuclear risks. Lastly, this research identifies areas where Sandia National Laboratories can spearhead technical advances to reduce global nuclear dangers.

  10. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH BEAM ABORT SYSTEM FOR SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATOR QUENCH MITIGATION*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkay, Katherine C.; Dooling, Jeffrey C.; Sajaev, Vadim; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-25

    A beam abort system has been implemented in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring. The abort system works in tandem with the existing machine protection system (MPS), and its purpose is to control the beam loss location and, thereby, minimize beam loss-induced quenches at the two superconducting undulators (SCUs). The abort system consists of a dedicated horizontal kicker designed to kick out all the bunches in a few turns after being triggered by MPS. The abort system concept was developed on the basis of single- and multi-particle tracking simulations using elegant and bench measurements of the kicker pulse. Performance of the abort system—kick amplitudes and loss distributions of all bunches—was analyzed using beam position monitor (BPM) turn histories, and agrees reasonably well with the model. Beam loss locations indicated by the BPMs are consistent with the fast fiber-optic beam loss monitor (BLM) diagnostics described elsewhere [1,2]. Operational experience with the abort system, various issues that were encountered, limitations of the system, and quench statistics are described.

  11. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  12. Forecasting of Currency Crises in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Young Song

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a forecasting system for currency crisis in East Asia based on a signaling approach. Our system uses 15 monthly indicators of five East Asian countries including Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand that were severely hit by the currency crisis in 1997. We investigate the performance of the system through deploying out-of-sample forecasting for the periods both before and after the 1997 East Asian currency crisis. Unlike the existing research based on the signaling approach, our out-of-sample forecasting does not fix the in-sample period. The out-of-sample forecasting between July 1995 and June 1997 shows that prior to breakout of the crisis, several indicators including real exchange rates and exports sent frequent warnings to all crisis-hit East Asian countries except the Philippines. This may indicate that a signaling-based early warning system for currency crisis could have been an useful method of forecasting the East Asian crisis. On the other hand, we also find that our forecasting system often generates warning signals during the out-of-sample period between July 1999 and June 2001. Since we have not observed any currency crisis in this region after 1998, these are all false alarms, indicating that our system may be seriously exposed to the type II error. We can, however, mitigate this problem if we adjust the optimal critical values of indicators depending on the preferences of forecasting system manager.

  13. Steady state load shedding to mitigate blackout in power systems using an improved harmony search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mageshvaran

    2015-09-01

    The proposed algorithm is tested on IEEE 14, 30 and 118 bus test systems. The viability of the proposed method in terms of solution quality and convergence properties is compared with the other conventional methods reported earlier.

  14. User requirements for decision support systems used for nuclear power plant accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    One limitation of existing information support systems is that the 'end user' (i.e., decision maker) is not properly accounted for in these systems. Therefore, it is needed to consider how the information to be provided by the system is going to be used and to recognize the cognitive decision making process. To discuss how to consider the end user as an integral part of decision support systems (DSS) a Technical Committee Meeting on 'User's Requirements for DSS' was organized by the IAEA in Vienna from 28 November - 1 December 1988. The meeting was attended by 45 participants from 22 countries and international organizations. Sixteen papers have been presented in three technical sessions, which addressed the following areas: Problem identification; design of DSS; user's considerations in DSSs. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Asia Pacific Research Initiative for Sustainable Energy Systems 2011 (APRISES11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Fuels, Biofuel Corrosion Control, and Waste Management Using the Flash-Carbonjzation TM Process. 3 Task 4, Ocean Energy work included continued...concept considers the use of waste materials at force provider or contingency bases as resources to meet the base’s energy needs [l]. Efforts to identify...that include energy conversion as the central component. Test and evaluation of waste to energy (WTE) systems with potential application at

  16. Tank Cascade Systems as a Sustainable Measure of Watershed Management in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Bebermeier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dry zone of Sri Lanka, human-made reservoirs have served for the collection, storage and distribution of rainfall and runoff and provide irrigation water for the cultivation of paddy for 2000 years. This paper introduces the layout and function of four traditional village tank cascade systems in the hinterland of Anuradhapura, located in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka. In contrast to large-scale tanks, these systems are managed and maintained by local villagers. Sedimentological data from two tanks provide information about processes leading to the formation of these deposits and their post-sedimentary, partly human-induced alterations. The presented data support the hypothesis, that the decentral managed tanks were not affected by severe erosion after the abandonment of the ancient capital Anuradhapura in the 11th century CE, a period that was characterized by socio-economic instability and increased climatic fluctuations. Presented results underline the significance of small-scale tank cascades systems to buffer the effects of climatic fluctuations and point to their potential as a cornerstone in coping with future climate change in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

  17. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonietz, Karl K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E. [JPL/CAL Tech; Rotman, Douglas A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Walker, Bruce C. [Sandia National Laboratory

    2011-09-26

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  18. Nuclear renaissance in Asia. Energy security and development of nuclear power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasugi, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    The energy policy and strategy of development of nuclear power generation system of China, India and Korea are stated on the basis of use of light water reactors (LWRs). The conditions of power generation and introduction plans of nuclear energy of other Asian countries such as Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are described. The power plant capacity of China increased from 50,500 MW in 2004, to 65,000 MW in 2005, and the target value is 40,000 MW of operating nuclear plants and 18,000 MW in building in 2020. China is lagging behind in peaceful use of nuclear energy technologies. A plan for the reform of nuclear industry and nuclear power generation projects of China are summarized. Total power plant capacity of India is 145,000 MW, but the nuclear plant capacity is 4,120 MW in 2008 and 63,000 MW of the target in 2032. Development of nuclear power, circumstance, and cooperation with other countries' industries are explained. 17,716 MW of nuclear power is in operation, 6,800 MW in building and 2,800 MW in the planning stage in Korea. History of development of national reactors and the subjects of development of the fourth generation reactor of Korea are stated. Management system of nuclear power plants in China, technical bases of nuclear power plants in China, development system of nuclear power generation in India, the conditions of power production of Korea in 2008, the capacity factor of Korea, Japan and world from 1998 to 2008, and comparison of nuclear industries in China, India and Korea are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  19. Joint System Prognostics For Increased Efficiency And Risk Mitigation In Advanced Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2006-08-01

    The science of prognostics is analogous to a doctor who, based on a set of symptoms and patient tests, assesses a probable cause, the risk to the patient, and a course of action for recovery. While traditional prognostics research has focused on the aspect of hydraulic and mechanical systems and associated failures, this project will take a joint view in focusing not only on the digital I&C aspect of reliability and risk, but also on the risks associated with the human element. Model development will not only include an approximation of the control system physical degradation but also on human performance degradation. Thus the goal of the prognostic system is to evaluate control room operation; to identify and potentially take action when performance degradation reduces plant efficiency, reliability or safety.

  20. Competitiveness in a Multipolar Port System: Striving for Regional Gateway Status in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihyun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of competitiveness between hub ports in the multipolar Northeast Asian system will determine which ports achieve regional gateway status. A survey instrument to assess 21 measurement items generated 203 responses from Shanghai, Hong Kong and Busan. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a valid and reliable competitiveness construct underpinning 19 measurement scales and a four-factor model incorporating availability, operational efficiency, port costs and service quality. Differences in factor importance revealed that success as a regional gateway port depends on a port area developing strategically into a multi-functional business centre. The model offers a management tool to guide future port improvement.

  1. Integrated soil, water and nutrient management for sustainable rice-wheat cropping systems in Asia. Report of a FAO/IAEA consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'Integrated soil, water and nutrient management for sustainable rice-wheat cropping systems in Asia' was held at FAO, Rome, August 22-25, 2000. Five consultants, together with one staff from IAEA headquarters, one staff from IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, five staff from FAO headquarters, two staff from FAO regional offices, one observer from ACIAR, one observer from Cornell University with expertise in crop, nutrient, soil and water management, attended the meeting. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of water and nutrient dynamics in rice-wheat systems in South Asia. These were complemented by a paper on the development of 15 N techniques to study the contribution of N from legumes. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Performance Evaluation and Nonlinear Mitigation through DQPSK Modulation in 32 × 40 Gbps Long-Haul DWDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Lucky; Agrawal, Vaibhav M.; Chaubey, V. K.

    2017-08-01

    Higher spectral efficiency and greater data rate per channel are the most cost-effective strategies to meet the exponential demand of data traffic in the optical core network. Multilevel modulation formats being spectrally efficient enhance the transmission capacity by coding information in the amplitude, phase, polarization or a combination of all. This paper presents the design architecture of a 32-channel dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) system, where each channel operates with multi-level phase modulation formats at 40 Gbps. The proposed design has been simulated for 50 GHz channel spacing to numerically compute the performance of both differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) modulation formats in such high-speed DWDM system. The transmission link is analyzed with perfect dispersion compensation and also with under-compensation scheme. The link performance in terms of quality factor (Q) for varying input powers with different dispersion compensation schemes has been evaluated. The simulation study shows significant nonlinear mitigation for both DPSK- and DQPSK-based DWDM systems up to 1,000 km and beyond. It is concluded that at higher power levels DQPSK format having a narrower spectrum shows better tolerance to dispersion and nonlinearities than DPSK format.

  3. A model of karst systems of the Usturt plateau (Middle Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victorov, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The issues relating to the structure and development of desert karst is currently one of the least studied problems. The goal of the research efforts presented in this paper was to create a model of karst systems in the Usturt Plateau and, primarily, of the systems formed by the prevailing numerous surface karst landforms. The model is based on the following main assumptions: the process of emergence of the karst phenomena is probabilistic and occurs independently at non-intersecting sites; the probability of emergence of one depression at a reference site depends only on its area. The increase of the dimensions of a karst landform is a random process that occurs independently of other karst landforms, its speed is governed by random factors, and it is directly proportionate to the existing dimensions of the landform. The model does not assume constancy of climatic characteristics. The testing was conducted at several reference sites of the Usturt Plateau. The research allowed us to reach the following conclusions: the karst depressions of the Usturt Plateau, which are the typical forms of desert karst, are governed by the Poisson distribution of their centres and by the lognormal distribution of their dimensions, similar to the karst depressions in a humid climate. The results may be used in assessments of karst hazard for linear and areal structures, as well as for small-dimensional structures. (Author)

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of a second generation energy production system from short rotation poplar in Eastern Germany and its accompanied uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Anja; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Prochnow, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the variance of the overall greenhouse gas mitigation potential of a complete second generation stationary bio-electricity production system, generated by poplar wood chips (Populus spec.) in Germany, using Monte Carlo simulations. We computed the GHG emissions as E B = (−0.034 ± 0.021) kg CO 2e MJ −1 (mean ± SD) and the mitigation factor as MF B = (0.274 ± 0.021) kg CO 2e MJ −1 following a life cycle assessment-based approach. Additionally, avoided nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions due to land use change were considered in the assessment. The most important factor for the overall mitigation variability was the uncertainty of the organic carbon changes in the soil, followed by the variability of yields. The uncertainty of (i) direct N 2 O emissions from the poplar site or (ii) the reference rye site as well as (iii) the uncertainty of heat recovery percentage was of minor importance. Uncertainties in the global warming potentials of nitrous oxide and methane and in the transport distance were found to be irrelevant. The uncertainty of the GHG mitigation which was associated with this specific electricity generation by poplar wood chips gasification was significantly lower compared to the variability of another common bio-electricity system (biogas). Uncertainty implications seem to be system-specific and therefore should be analysed separately for each bioenergy pathway under consideration. -- Highlights: •0.274 ± 0.021 kg CO 2e mitigation MJ −1 from poplar wood chips gasification. •Variability of soil organic carbon was most important for the mitigation uncertainty. •Overall variability was lower compared to the variability of bio-electricity from biogas. •Bioenergy systems should be analysed separately regarding their uncertainty aspects

  5. Past, present, and future climate at select INDEPTH member Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hondula

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate and weather affect human health directly and indirectly. There is a renewed interest in various aspects of environmental health as our understanding of ongoing climate change improves. In particular, today, the health effects in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are not well understood. Many computer models predict some of the biggest changes in places where people are equipped with minimal resources to combat the effects of a changing environment, particularly with regard to human health. Objective: This article documents the observed and projected climate profiles of select sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH network of Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Africa and Asia to support the integration of climate research with health practice and policy. Design: The climatology of four meteorological stations representative of a suite of INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs was assessed using daily data of 10 years. Historical and future trends were analyzed using reanalysis products and global climate model projections. Results: The climate characteristics of the HDSS sites investigated suggest vulnerability to different environmental stressors, and the changes expected over the next century are far greater in magnitude than those observed at many of the INDEPTH member sites. Conclusions: The magnitude of potential future climate changes in the LMICs highlights the need for improvements in collaborative climate–health research in these countries. Climate data resources are available to support such research efforts. The INDEPTH studies presented in this supplement are the first attempt to assess and document associations of climatic factors with mortality at the HDSSs.

  6. Past, present, and future climate at select INDEPTH member Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M; Rocklöv, Joacim; Sankoh, Osman A

    2012-11-23

    Climate and weather affect human health directly and indirectly. There is a renewed interest in various aspects of environmental health as our understanding of ongoing climate change improves. In particular, today, the health effects in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not well understood. Many computer models predict some of the biggest changes in places where people are equipped with minimal resources to combat the effects of a changing environment, particularly with regard to human health. This article documents the observed and projected climate profiles of select sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) network of Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Africa and Asia to support the integration of climate research with health practice and policy. The climatology of four meteorological stations representative of a suite of INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) was assessed using daily data of 10 years. Historical and future trends were analyzed using reanalysis products and global climate model projections. The climate characteristics of the HDSS sites investigated suggest vulnerability to different environmental stressors, and the changes expected over the next century are far greater in magnitude than those observed at many of the INDEPTH member sites. The magnitude of potential future climate changes in the LMICs highlights the need for improvements in collaborative climate-health research in these countries. Climate data resources are available to support such research efforts. The INDEPTH studies presented in this supplement are the first attempt to assess and document associations of climatic factors with mortality at the HDSSs.

  7. Temporal probabilistic shaping for mitigation of nonlinearities in optical fiber systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, finite state machine sources (FSMSs) are used to shape quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) for nonlinear transmission in optical fiber communication systems. The previous optimization algorithm for FSMSs is extended to cover an average power constraint, thus enabling temporal...

  8. A new memetic algorithm for mitigating tandem automated guided vehicle system partitioning problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrahimian, Parinaz

    2017-11-01

    Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) provides the flexibility and automation demanded by Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). However, with the growing concern on responsible management of resource use, it is crucial to manage these vehicles in an efficient way in order reduces travel time and controls conflicts and congestions. This paper presents the development process of a new Memetic Algorithm (MA) for optimizing partitioning problem of tandem AGVS. MAs employ a Genetic Algorithm (GA), as a global search, and apply a local search to bring the solutions to a local optimum point. A new Tabu Search (TS) has been developed and combined with a GA to refine the newly generated individuals by GA. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to minimize the maximum workload of the system. After all, the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using Matlab. This study also compared the objective function of the proposed MA with GA. The results showed that the TS, as a local search, significantly improves the objective function of the GA for different system sizes with large and small numbers of zone by 1.26 in average.

  9. Mitigating the effects of system resolution on computer simulation of Portland cement hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos

    2008-01-01

    CEMHYD3D is an advanced, three-dimensional computer model for simulating the hydration processes of cement, in which the microstructure of the hydrating cement paste is represented by digitized particles in a cubic domain. However, the system resolution (which is determined by the voxel size) has a

  10. μShield : Configurable Code-Reuse Attacks Mitigation For Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Wetzels, Jos; Bokslag, Wouter; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Yan, Zheng; Molva, Refik; Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Kantola, Raimo

    2017-01-01

    Embedded devices are playing a major role in our way of life. Similar to other computer systems embedded devices are vulnerable to code-reuse attacks. Compromising these devices in a critical environment constitute a significant security and safety risk. In this paper, we present μShield, a memory

  11. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Floris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence.

    In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy. The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso.

    Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall

  12. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; De Agostini, A.; Stevan, G.; Tessari, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-11-01

    The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence. In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy). The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso. Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) curves

  13. Risk evaluation of the alternate-3A modification to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR-4, MARK-II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.; Karol, R.; Shiu, K.

    1983-01-01

    The authors present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices: the frequency of core damage, the expected early fatalities, and the expected latent fatalities. The ATWS prevention tree includes: the mechanical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the electrical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the recirculation pump trip and the Alternate Rod Insertion System. The mitigation tree includes: standby liquid control system, opening of the relief valves, reclosing the relief valves, failure of coolant injection, inadvertent actuation of the automatic depressurization system, inadvertent operation of high-pressure injection system and containment heat removal

  14. Copper ion treatment for zebra mussel mitigation in house service water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babinec, J. [We Energies, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The Oak Creek Power Plant is a four unit, coal-fired plant totaling 1 140 MW. The plant has a once-through circulating water system with a common forebay, from which it draws both main condenser circulating and house service water. System design prohibits thermal treatment strategies and obtaining environmental permitting for mollusicidal treatments is difficult at best. Initial treatment strategies revolved around chlorination, using sodium hypochlorite, which proved to be marginally successful, or chlorine dioxide, which raised safety concerns. This paper discusses plant design, treatment history, environmental permitting issues, design and installation of a copper ion generator, problems encountered and solutions, operating and maintenance requirements, and results to date of copper ion technology at the Energies' Oak Creek Power Plant. (orig.)

  15. A Complex Systems Perspective of Risk Mitigation and Modeling in Development and Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to define elegance in system architecture. Procedia Computer Science, 16, 927–936. Shannon, C. E. (1948). A...can be defined as “a measure of future uncertainties in achieving program performance goals and objectives within defined cost, schedule and...Defense in the DoD Risk Management Guide (DoD, 2006) defines risk as follows: Risk is a measure of future uncertainties in achieving program

  16. EVALUATION OF DISASTER MITIGATION SYSTEM AGAINST LAHAR FLOW OF PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maksal Saputra

    2013-05-01

    Result of the evaluation shows that the existing early warning system does not produce sufficient time for the sand miners to save themselves. The proposed solution is to divide sand mine area in Putih River into 3 zones, each zone has different procedure of the early warning and evacuation. This is arranged to avoid casualties to the sand miners. Keywords: Lahar flood, sand miners, early warning.

  17. Relative phase noise estimation and mitigation in Raman amplified coherent optical communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming; Xiang, Meng; Feng, Zhenhua; Yu, Dawei

    2014-01-27

    The interplay between the stochastic intensity fluctuation of Raman pump laser and cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect in transmission optical fiber leads to additional phase noise, namely, relative phase noise (RPN) of signal in multi-level modulated coherent optical communication system. Both theoretical analysis and quantitative simulation have been performed to investigate the characteristics and impact of RPN. Being low-pass in nature, RPN is different from XPM induced phase noise in PSK/OOK hybrid system, and has not been considered yet. The noise power of RPN can accumulate incoherently along transmission links. With a proper signal model, we study the impact of RPN to the coherent optical communication system through Monte Carlo simulation. RPN will cause more cycle slips in Viterbi-and-Viterbi (V-V) phase estimation (PE), and the quantitative analysis of cycle slip probability is carried out. When using sliding window V-V without any optimization, the Q factor penalty of RPN on DQPSK signal can be as large as around 5 dB in strong RPN condition. However, it can be reduced by over 3 dB when using an optimal block size or optimal averaging weights.

  18. Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

    2008-08-01

    The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia.

  19. Application of nano-structured coatings to mitigate flow-accelerated corrosion in secondary pipe systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jong Jin; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon steel is widely used as a structural material in secondary pipe systems. However, the passivity of carbon steel is not sufficient for protection in secondary water chemistry with a very fast-flowing fluid because of the dissolution of ferrous and magnetite ions and surface friction at the interface of the coolant and pipe surface. There have been many efforts to mitigate flow-accelerated corrosion through adoption of advanced water chemistries such as optimized dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration and temperature, as well as usage of new additives such as monoethanol amine (ETA) to adjust pH. However, these mitigation techniques pose certain challenges relating to the compatibility of new water chemistries with the steam generator, the thermal efficiency of the secondary side, etc. In this study, to improve the passivity of carbon steel, nanostructured coatings especially nanoparticle-enhanced surface coatings were adopted to improve resistance to corrosion and wear. Nanoparticles in the coating matrix help decrease the electrochemical potential compared coatings without nanoparticles, and thus help improve the mechanical properties, especially hardness, through precipitation. In other words, nanoparticle-enhanced surface coatings have the potential to mitigate flow-accelerated corrosion in secondary pipe systems. As candidate coatings, TiO 2 - and SiC-enhanced electrolytic and electroless nickel plating and Fe-Cr-W amorphous metallic coatings (AMC) were selected by acquiring the Pourbaix diagram with thermodynamic calculations. Both TiO 2 and SiC show a stable state in secondary water chemistry, and it is estimated that Fe-Cr-W can be applied to secondary water chemistry because it has a similar chemical composition to carbon steel. Electron microscopic analysis results with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) show the distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles in the nickel matrix coating layer, whereas the SiC nanoparticles

  20. Mitigating the Effects of Mobility and Synchronization Error in OFDM based Cooperative Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereket Babiso Yetera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing based mobile wireless network with a sender, a destination and a third station acting as a cooperating node is modelled and analyzed. The length of cyclic prefix in the orthogonal frequency division multiplexed symbols is made to vary depending on the channel conditions and maximum likelihood estimator is used at the receiver in order to compensate for the carrier frequency offset that occurs during transmission. Simulation results show that maximum likelihood estimator has better performance than self-cancellation estimations. The channels between the source, the cooperating node and the destination are modelled containing thermal noise, Rayleigh fading, Rician fading and path loss. Amplify-and-Forward cooperation protocol is used at the cooperating node when the system is in cooperation mode. For a relatively short distance between the cooperating nodes, when compared to the distance between them and the base station, amplify and forward cooperation protocol has a better performance than decode-and forward protocol, unless an error correcting code is simulated. The cooperating node turns its cooperation mode switch ON or OFF depending on the channel state between the source and the cooperating nodes.  The performance of different combination protocols at the receiver is simulated and maximum ratio combining is found to have better performance. However, for immobile wireless sensor networks Extended SNR (ESNR combiner has also better performance. The system has also showed that with any kind of combination protocol at the receiver it is possible to achieve second order diversity when there is only one cooperating node in the system.

  1. Hemodialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narayan; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-12-01

    Asia is the largest, most populous and most heterogeneous continent in the world. The number of patients with end-stage renal disease is growing rapidly in Asia. A fully informed report on the status of dialysis therapies including hemodialysis (HD) is limited by the lack of systematic registries. Available data suggest remarkable heterogeneities, with some countries like Taiwan, Japan and Korea exhibiting well-established HD systems, high prevalence and universal access to all patients, while low- and low-middle income countries are unable to provide HD to eligible patients because of high cost and poor healthcare systems. Many Asian countries have unregulated dialysis units, with poor standards of delivery, quality control and outcome reporting. This leads to high mortality due to preventable complications like infections. Modeling data suggest that at least 2.9 million people need dialysis in Asia, which represents a gap in availability of dialysis to the tune of -66%. The population is projected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Several countries are expanding access to HD. Innovative modifications in dialysis practice are being made to optimize outcomes. It is important to develop robust systems of documentation and outcome reporting to evaluate the effects of such changes. HD needs to develop in conjunction with effective preventive programs and improvement of health systems. The practice of HD in Asia is growing and evolving. Rapid expansion will improve the currently dismal access to care for large sections of the population. Quality issues need to be addressed if the full benefit of this therapy is to reach the population. Developed countries of Asia can provide substantial messages to developing economies. HD programs must develop in conjunction with prevention efforts. (1) While developed Western and Asian countries provide end-stage renal disease patients full access to HD, healthcare systems from South and South-East Asia can offer access to HD only

  2. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...... oxidation of CH4. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH4 emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH4 oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000m2 were integrated into the existing cover at the 12ha site. To increase CH4 load...

  3. Decision Making Support System (DMSS) For Water Resources And Flood Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful Ridwan Radzi, Mohd

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a significant issue in low-lying parts of the catchment in Malaysia, leading to flood damage & disruption in major storm events. Recognising the potential to reduce damage, the decision making support system (DMSS) has been developed to optimise the operation of the water resources assets to both maximise the effectiveness of flood control & maximize the availability of water for public supply & irrigation demand under drought conditions. DMSS functions as to reduce human error during critical times. The tools optimized rules for barrage, sluice gates, pumping station & dams. Its provide priority for flood zone protection & fuzzy logic supervisory control for all equipment.

  4. Review on strategies for biofouling mitigation in spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2018-02-01

    Because of the uneven distribution of fresh water in time and space, a large number of regions are experiencing water scarcity and stress. Membrane based desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis in coastal areas. However, in many cases membrane performance is restricted by biofouling. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on the state of the art strategies to control biofouling in spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane systems and point to possible future research directions. A critical review on biofouling control strategies such as feed water pre-treatment, membrane surface modification, feed spacer geometry optimization and hydrodynamics in spiral wound membrane systems is presented. In conclusion, biofouling cannot be avoided in the long run, and thus biofouling control strategies should focus on delaying the biofilm formation, reducing its impact on membrane performance and enhancing biofilm removal by advanced cleaning strategies. Therefore, future studies should aim on: (i) biofilm structural characterization; (ii) understanding to what extent biofilm properties affect membrane filtration performance, and (iii) developing methods to engineer biofilm properties such that biofouling would have only a low or delayed impact on the filtration process and accumulated biomass can be easily removed.

  5. Bridging gaps in bioenergy: Deploying system analysis to investigate potential biomass supply, demand and greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios from a national, European and global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.

    2014-01-01

    In transition towards a sustainable energy system with deep reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced consumption of fossil fuels, substitution of fossil energy carriers with biomass is considered one of the most important options. In the last decade, fossil energy and GHG mitigation

  6. The ICTP Regional System Model (RESM) to simulate the monsoon in the South Asia CORDEX domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Fabio; Coppola, Erika; Farneti, Riccardo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    South Asian climate is characterized mainly by the wet and dry dipole that divides the annual cycle in two seasons: the monsoon season and the dry season. The life and the economy of those regions is very much influenced by the climate variability and the monsoon variability therefore is crucial to understand the physical mechanism associated with them. The spatial and temporal representation of the monsoons over the South Asian region is one of the main challenge of global and regional climate models principally because they fail to represent the SST (sea surface temperature) induced rainfall when forced with observed SST resulting in a poor representation of the monsoon cycle (Fu et al. 2002). The coupling with the ocean is essential to be able to simulate the correct air-sea interaction; the results are in general much improved and the monsoon patterns and the time representation (like the onset for example) are closer to the observations (Fu et al. 2002; Fu et al. 2007; Ratnam et Al. 2008; Seo et Al. 2009). Here we present a Regional Earth System Model (RESM) composed by a regional climate model RegCM4 (Giorgi et al, 2012) coupled with the regional oceanic model MITgcm (Marshall et al, 1997) and two hydrological model: ChyM (Cetemps Hydrological Model, Coppola et al, 2007) and HD model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998). We simulate the Southern Asian Climate taking into account the whole hydrological cycle. Wind stress, water fluxes and heat fluxes are exchanged from the atmosphere to the ocean, SST are exchanged from ocean to the atmosphere and in order to conserve mass, the river discharge is calculated from the Hydrological model and sent to the ocean. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the impacts of local air-sea interaction in the simulation of the interannual variability, over the Indian CORDEX (Giorgi et al, 2009) domain through regionally ocean-atmosphere-river coupled and uncoupled simulations, with a focus on monsoon season

  7. System for mitigating consequences of loss of coolant accident at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukrinsky, A.M.; Rzheznikov, J.V.; Shvyryaev, J.V.; Zlatin, D.A.; Kuznetsov, J.A.; Babenko, E.A.; Tatarnikov, V.P.; Lapshin, A.L.; Sanovich, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The system according to the invention comprises a first room which accommodates a reactor plant and an active-type sprinkler means. As pressure rises in the first room due to a release of steam from the lost coolant, most of the air contained in this first room is driven out through holes provided in walls of the first room in immediate proximity to a floor of the first room, wherefrom it proceeds to a second room through channels and a basin-type condenser accommodated in the second room. The length of the channels is selected so as to form a water seal in these channels to prevent the back-flow of air from the second room to the first room and thus produce rarefaction in the first room. (author)

  8. Joint optimization of CQI calculation and interference mitigation for user scheduling in MIMO-OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sadek, Mirette

    2011-05-01

    In MIMO-OFDM multiuser systems, user scheduling is employed as a means of multiple access. In a downlink scenario, users that share the same subcarriers of an OFDM symbol are separated through precoding in order to achieve space division multiple access (SDMA). User scheduling techniques rely on channel knowledge at the transmitter, namely, the so-called channel quality indicator (CQI). In this paper, we implement a leakage-based precoding algorithm whose purpose is twofold. First, it is used to compute a reliable CQI based on a group of precoding vectors that are adapted to the channel. Then, it implements user scheduling through using the optimum vectors for precoding, thus minimizing interference among users. We also introduce the concept of resource block size adaptivity. The resource block (RB) is defined as the least unit in an OFDM symbol that a user can be assigned to. We propose a variable RB size that adapts to the channel conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Seals for Dust Mitigation of Mechanical Components for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Handschuh, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Component tests were conducted on spring-loaded Teflon seals to determine their performance in keeping lunar simulant out of mechanical component gearbox, motor, and bearing housings. Baseline tests were run in a dry-room without simulant for 10,000 cycles to determine wear effects of the seal against either anodized aluminum or stainless steel shafts. Repeat tests were conducted using lunar simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M. Finally, tests were conducted with and without simulant in vacuum at ambient temperature. Preliminary results indicate minimal seal and shaft wear through 10,000 cycles, and more importantly, no simulant was observed to pass through the seal-shaft interface. Future endurance tests are planned at relevant NASA Lunar Surface System architecture shaft sizes and operating conditions.

  10. Pilot-symbols-aided cycle slip mitigation for DP-16QAM optical communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Lu, Jianxin; Zhang, Guoyi; Xu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-23

    A pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU), which utilizes the time-division multiplexed pilot symbols that are transmitted with data, is proposed to do cycle slip detection and correction with the carrier phase estimation (CPE). Numerical simulations for 10 Gbaud dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) systems show that the block averaging quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) partitioning with PAPU greatly eliminates the performance degradation caused by cycle slips, maintains a low CS probability with less influence of filter length, and achieves a bit-error-rate (BER) performance below soft-decision forward error correction (FEC) limit 2 × 10⁻² at 15 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio with only 1.56% overhead and 6 MHz combined laser linewidth.

  11. A model of karst systems of the Usturt plateau (Middle Asia); Un modelo de sistemas karsticos de la meseta Usturt (Asia central)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorov, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The issues relating to the structure and development of desert karst is currently one of the least studied problems. The goal of the research efforts presented in this paper was to create a model of karst systems in the Usturt Plateau and, primarily, of the systems formed by the prevailing numerous surface karst landforms. The model is based on the following main assumptions: the process of emergence of the karst phenomena is probabilistic and occurs independently at non-intersecting sites; the probability of emergence of one depression at a reference site depends only on its area. The increase of the dimensions of a karst landform is a random process that occurs independently of other karst landforms, its speed is governed by random factors, and it is directly proportionate to the existing dimensions of the landform. The model does not assume constancy of climatic characteristics. The testing was conducted at several reference sites of the Usturt Plateau. The research allowed us to reach the following conclusions: the karst depressions of the Usturt Plateau, which are the typical forms of desert karst, are governed by the Poisson distribution of their centres and by the lognormal distribution of their dimensions, similar to the karst depressions in a humid climate. The results may be used in assessments of karst hazard for linear and areal structures, as well as for small-dimensional structures. (Author)

  12. Full-Scaled Advanced Systems Testbed: Ensuring Success of Adaptive Control Research Through Project Lifecycle Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    , experiment functionality, overall risk mitigation, flight test approach and results, and lessons learned of adaptive controls research of the Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed.

  13. Telerobotic Surgery: An Intelligent Systems Approach to Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Communication Delay. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardullo, Frank M.; Lewis, Harold W., III; Panfilov, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    An extremely innovative approach has been presented, which is to have the surgeon operate through a simulator running in real-time enhanced with an intelligent controller component to enhance the safety and efficiency of a remotely conducted operation. The use of a simulator enables the surgeon to operate in a virtual environment free from the impediments of telecommunication delay. The simulator functions as a predictor and periodically the simulator state is corrected with truth data. Three major research areas must be explored in order to ensure achieving the objectives. They are: simulator as predictor, image processing, and intelligent control. Each is equally necessary for success of the project and each of these involves a significant intelligent component in it. These are diverse, interdisciplinary areas of investigation, thereby requiring a highly coordinated effort by all the members of our team, to ensure an integrated system. The following is a brief discussion of those areas. Simulator as a predictor: The delays encountered in remote robotic surgery will be greater than any encountered in human-machine systems analysis, with the possible exception of remote operations in space. Therefore, novel compensation techniques will be developed. Included will be the development of the real-time simulator, which is at the heart of our approach. The simulator will present real-time, stereoscopic images and artificial haptic stimuli to the surgeon. Image processing: Because of the delay and the possibility of insufficient bandwidth a high level of novel image processing is necessary. This image processing will include several innovative aspects, including image interpretation, video to graphical conversion, texture extraction, geometric processing, image compression and image generation at the surgeon station. Intelligent control: Since the approach we propose is in a sense predictor based, albeit a very sophisticated predictor, a controller, which not only

  14. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  15. Advanced Receiver Design for Mitigating Multiple RF Impairments in OFDM Systems: Algorithms and RF Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kiayani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct-conversion architecture-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems are troubled by impairments such as in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q imbalance and carrier frequency offset (CFO. These impairments are unavoidable in any practical implementation and severely degrade the obtainable link performance. In this contribution, we study the joint impact of frequency-selective I/Q imbalance at both transmitter and receiver together with channel distortions and CFO error. Two estimation and compensation structures based on different pilot patterns are proposed for coping with such impairments. The first structure is based on preamble pilot pattern while the second one assumes a sparse pilot pattern. The proposed estimation/compensation structures are able to separate the individual impairments, which are then compensated in the reverse order of their appearance at the receiver. We present time-domain estimation and compensation algorithms for receiver I/Q imbalance and CFO and propose low-complexity algorithms for the compensation of channel distortions and transmitter IQ imbalance. The performance of the compensation algorithms is investigated with computer simulations as well as with practical radio frequency (RF measurements. The performance results indicate that the proposed techniques provide close to the ideal performance both in simulations and measurements.

  16. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  17. TWRS hydrogen mitigation portable standard hydrogen monitoring system platform design and fabrication engineering task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The primary function of portable gas monitoring is to quickly determine tank vapor space gas composition and gas release rate, and to detect gas release events. Characterization of the gas composition is needed for safety analysis. The lower flammability limit, as well as the peak burn temperature and pressure, are dependent upon the gas composition. If there is little or no knowledge about the gas composition, safety analysis utilize compositions that yield the worst case in a deflagration or detonation. This conservative approach to unknowns necessitates a significant increase in administrative and engineering costs. Knowledge of the true composition could lead to reductions in the assumptions and therefore contribute to a reduction in controls and work restrictions. Also, knowledge of the actual composition will be required information for the analysis that is needed to remove tanks from the Watch List. Similarly, the rate of generation and release of gases is required information for performing safety analysis, developing controls, designing equipment, and closing safety issues. To determine release rate, both the gas concentrations and the dome space ventilation rates (exhauster flow rate or passive dome/atmosphere exchange rate) are needed. Therefore, to quickly verify waste tank categorization or to provide additional characterization for tanks with installed gas monitoring, a temporary, portable standard hydrogen monitoring system is needed that can be used to measure gas compositions at both high and low sensitivities

  18. Mitigation of turbidity currents in reservoirs with passive retention systems: validation of CFD modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, E.; Alves, E.; Ferreira, R. M. L.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment deposition by continuous turbidity currents may affect eco-environmental river dynamics in natural reservoirs and hinder the maneuverability of bottom discharge gates in dam reservoirs. In recent years, innovative techniques have been proposed to enforce the deposition of turbidity further upstream in the reservoir (and away from the dam), namely, the use of solid and permeable obstacles such as water jet screens , geotextile screens, etc.. The main objective of this study is to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code applied to the simulation of the interaction between a turbidity current and a passive retention system, designed to induce sediment deposition. To accomplish the proposed objective, laboratory tests were conducted where a simple obstacle configuration was subjected to the passage of currents with different initial sediment concentrations. The experimental data was used to build benchmark cases to validate the 3D CFD software ANSYS-CFX. Sensitivity tests of mesh design, turbulence models and discretization requirements were performed. The validation consisted in comparing experimental and numerical results, involving instantaneous and time-averaged sediment concentrations and velocities. In general, a good agreement between the numerical and the experimental values is achieved when: i) realistic outlet conditions are specified, ii) channel roughness is properly calibrated, iii) two equation k - ɛ models are employed iv) a fine mesh is employed near the bottom boundary. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology through the project PTDC/ECM/099485/2008. The first author thanks the assistance of Professor Moitinho de Almeida from ICIST and to all members of the project and of the Fluvial Hydraulics group of CEHIDRO.

  19. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  20. Radon mitigation experience in difficult-to-mitigate schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Initial radon mitigation experience in schools has shown sub-slab depressurization (SSD) to be generally effective in reducing elevated levels of radon in schools that have a continuous layer of clean, coarse aggregate underneath the slab. However, mitigation experience is limited in schools without sub-slab aggregate and in schools with characteristics such as return-air ductwork underneath the slab or unducted return-air plenums in the drop ceiling that are open to the sub-slab area (via open tops of block walls). Mitigation of schools with utility tunnels and of schools constructed over crawl spaces is also limited. Three Maryland schools exhibiting some of the above characteristics are being researched to help understand the mechanisms that control radon entry and mitigation in schools where standard SSD systems are not effective. This paper discusses specific characteristics of potentially difficult-to-mitigate schools and, where applicable, details examples from the three Maryland schools

  1. Greenhouse gases mitigation potential and costs for Brazil's energy system from 2010 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno S.M.C.; Lucena, Andre F.P. de; Rathmann, Regis; Costa, Isabella V.L. da; Nogueira, Larissa P.P.; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; H. Junior, Mauricio F.; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyses the potential for energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and their abatement costs in the energy system of Brazil. The analysis of mitigation options and their costs focuses on the following sectors: industry, transportation and energy supply (electricity generation and oil refining), given their large contribution to the Brazil's GHGs emissions. For the industrial and oil refining sectors, the paper estimated abatement costs based on the investments along with the energy and operational costs of the measures considered. Two discount rates were used: 15% a year (private discount rate) and 8% a year (social discount rate). Compared to a business-as-usual reference scenario, results show a potential to reduce future energy-related GHG emissions by 27% in 2030. This study shows, however, that in relation to a reference year (2007), the examined abatement measures, along with the socioeconomic dynamics of an emerging country such as Brazil, would not be enough to attain absolute reductions in GHG emissions by 2030. This result is valid both each sector individually and for the sum of the emissions from all the sectors analyzed. (author)

  2. Coordinated Transmission of Interference Mitigation and Power Allocation in Two-User Two-Hop MIMO Relay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Nam Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers coordinated transmission for interference mitigation and power allocation in a correlated two-user two-hop multi-input multioutput (MIMO relay system. The proposed transmission scheme utilizes statistical channel state information (CSI (e.g., transmit correlation to minimize the cochannel interference (CCI caused by the relay. To this end, it is shown that the CCI can be represented in terms of the eigenvalues and the angle difference between the eigenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix of the intended and CCI channel, and that the condition minimizing the CCI can be characterized by the correlation amplitude and the phase difference between the transmit correlation coefficients of these channels. Then, a coordinated user-scheduling strategy is designed with the use of eigen-beamforming to minimize the CCI in an average sense. The transmit power of the base station and relay is optimized under separate power constraint. Analytic and numerical results show that the proposed scheme can maximize the achievable sum rate when the principal eigenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix of the intended and the CCI channel are orthogonal to each other, yielding a sum rate performance comparable to that of the minimum mean-square error-based coordinated beamforming which uses instantaneous CSI.

  3. Drinking water quality assessment and corrosion mitigation in the hospital water supply system of Chacas Village (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bigoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural hospitals in developing countries often lack appropriate water treatments to assure their water needs. In these facilities, due to water different uses and its use with medical equipment, water quality problems can cause very hazardous situations. In particular, corrosion of water distribution systems is a common issue that can cause unwanted changes in water quality and failures of the distribution system’s pipes. These considerations suggest that a complete monitoring program and water treatments to control and guarantee the water quality would be required in each health-care facility. This study assessed the quality of the water at the rural hospital of Chacas (Peru as measured via specific physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. The results show that the chemical and microbiological qualities of the water generally worsen from catchment to the hospital’s taps. Moreover, this work investigated the effects of a dolomite limestone filter installed to adjust the quality of the water distributed at the hospital and thereby mitigate the water’s corrosiveness. Corrosion indices were calculated to provide useful information on the water’s corrosiveness and positive results were obtained in reducing corrosiveness after the installation of the dolomite filter.

  4. Application of Nano-Structured Coatings for Mitigation of Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Secondary Pipe Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jong Jin; Yoo, Seung Chang; Huh, Jae Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a complex corrosion process combined with mechanical reaction with fluid. There were lots of research to mitigate FAC such as controlling temperature or water chemistry but in this research, we adopt active coating techniques especially nano-particle reinforced coatings. One of the general characteristics of FAC and its mitigation is that surface friction due to surface morphology makes a significant effect on FAC. Therefore to form a uniform coating layers, nano-particles including TiO2, SiC, Fe-Cr-W and Graphene were utilized. Those materials are known as greatly improve the corrosion resistance of substrates such as carbon steels but their effects on mitigation of FAC are not revealed clearly. Therefore in this research, the FAC resistive performance of nano-structured coatings were tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in room temperature 15 wt% sulfuric acid. As the flow-accelerated corrosion inhibitors in secondary piping system of nuclear power plants, various kinds of nano-structured coatings were prepared and tested in room-temperature electrochemical cells. SHS7740 with two types of Densifiers, electroless nickel plating with TiO2 are prepared. Electropolarization curves shows the outstanding corrosion mitigation performance of SHS7740 but EIS results shows the promising potential of Ni-P and Ni-P-TiO2 electroless nickel plating. For future work, high-temperature electrochemical analysis system will be constructed and in secondary water chemistry will be simulated.

  5. Decision analysis of mitigation and remediation of sedimentation within large wetland systems: a case study using Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Eash, Josh D.; Knutsen, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentation has been identified as an important stressor across a range of wetland systems. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has the responsibility of maintaining wetlands within its National Wildlife Refuge System for use by migratory waterbirds and other wildlife. Many of these wetlands could be negatively affected by accelerated rates of sedimentation, especially those located in agricultural parts of the landscape. In this report we document the results of a decision analysis project designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (herein referred to as the Refuge) determine a strategy for managing and mitigating the negative effects of sediment loading within Refuge wetlands. The Refuge’s largest wetland, Agassiz Pool, has accumulated so much sediment that it has become dominated by hybrid cattail (Typha × glauca), and the ability of the staff to control water levels in the Agassiz Pool has been substantially reduced. This project consisted of a workshop with Refuge staff, local and regional stakeholders, and several technical and scientific experts. At the workshop we established Refuge management and stakeholder objectives, a range of possible management strategies, and assessed the consequences of those strategies. After deliberating a range of actions, the staff chose to consider the following three strategies: (1) an inexpensive strategy, which largely focused on using outreach to reduce external sediment inputs to the Refuge; (2) the most expensive option, which built on the first option and relied on additional infrastructure changes to the Refuge to increase management capacity; and (3) a strategy that was less expensive than strategy 2 and relied mostly on existing infrastructure to improve management capacity. Despite the fact that our assessments were qualitative, Refuge staff decided they had enough information to select the third strategy. Following our qualitative assessment, we discussed

  6. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  7. Projected impacts to the production of outdoor recreation opportunities across US state park systems due to the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Miller, Anna B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A technical efficiency model identifies where state park systems can be improved. • The technical efficiency model is joined with output of CC policy simulations. • Shifts in operating expenditure under the CC mitigation policy are estimated. • Results reveal substantial variability across states. • Increasing technical efficiency is the best solution to adapt to CC policy impacts. - Abstract: Numerous empirical and simulation-based studies have documented or estimated variable impacts to the economic growth of nation states due to the adoption of domestic climate change mitigation policies. However, few studies have been able to empirically link projected changes in economic growth to the provision of public goods and services. In this research, we couple projected changes in economic growth to US states brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy with a longitudinal panel dataset detailing the production of outdoor recreation opportunities on lands managed in the public interest. Joining empirical data and simulation-based estimates allow us to better understand how the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy would affect the provision of public goods in the future. We first employ a technical efficiency model and metrics to provide decision makers with evidence of specific areas where operational efficiencies within the nation's state park systems can be improved. We then augment the empirical analysis with simulation-based changes in gross state product (GSP) to estimate changes to the states’ ability to provide outdoor recreation opportunities from 2014 to 2020; the results reveal substantial variability across states. Finally, we explore two potential solutions (increasing GSP or increasing technical efficiency) for addressing the negative impacts on the states’ park systems operating budgets brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy; the

  8. ASIAS - Some History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASIAS effort builds on demonstrations that an open exchange of information contributes to improved aviation safety. ASIAS is a comprehensive effort, covering the...

  9. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...

  10. Mortality from external causes in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streatfield, P Kim; Khan, Wasif A; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M A; Alam, Nurul; Diboulo, Eric; Niamba, Louis; Sié, Ali; Lankoandé, Bruno; Millogo, Roch; Soura, Abdramane B; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kone, Siaka; Ngoran, Eliezer K; Utzinger, Juerg; Ashebir, Yemane; Melaku, Yohannes A; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Azongo, Daniel; Oduro, Abraham; Wak, George; Wontuo, Peter; Attaa-Pomaa, Mary; Gyapong, Margaret; Manyeh, Alfred K; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K; Juvekar, Sanjay; Patil, Rutuja; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N; Khaggayi, Christine; Nyaguara, Amek; Obor, David; Odhiambo, Frank O; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Wamukoya, Marylene; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Collinson, Mark A; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Emina, Jacques B O; Sankoh, Osman A; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mortality from external causes, of all kinds, is an important component of overall mortality on a global basis. However, these deaths, like others in Africa and Asia, are often not counted or documented on an individual basis. Overviews of the state of external cause mortality in Africa and Asia are therefore based on uncertain information. The INDEPTH Network maintains longitudinal surveillance, including cause of death, at population sites across Africa and Asia, which offers important opportunities to document external cause mortality at the population level across a range of settings. To describe patterns of mortality from external causes at INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories. All deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. A total of 5,884 deaths due to external causes were documented over 11,828,253 person-years. Approximately one-quarter of those deaths were to children younger than 15 years. Causes of death were dominated by childhood drowning in Bangladesh, and by transport-related deaths and intentional injuries elsewhere. Detailed mortality rates are presented by cause of death, age group, and sex. The patterns of external cause mortality found here generally corresponded with expectations and other sources of information, but they fill some important gaps in population-based mortality data. They provide an important source of information to inform potentially preventive intervention designs.

  11. HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Millogo, Ourohiré; Sié, Ali; Zabré, Pascal; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kone, Siaka; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Abera, Semaw F.; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Ansah, Patrick; Azongo, Daniel; Kondayire, Felix; Oduro, Abraham; Amu, Alberta; Gyapong, Margaret; Kwarteng, Odette; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muralidharan, Veena; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Khagayi, Sammy; Laserson, Kayla F.; Nyaguara, Amek; Van Eijk, Anna M.; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wamukoya, Marylene; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Price, Alison; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Mee, Paul; Tollman, Stephen M.; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Arthur, Samuelina S.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA) methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data. Objective To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumonia. Design Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population. Results The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates. Conclusions Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS. PMID:25377330

  12. HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data. Objective: To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and pneumonia. Design: Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population. Results: The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates. Conclusions: Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS.

  13. Thoron Mitigation System based on charcoal bed for applications in thorium fuel cycle facilities (part 2): Development, characterization, and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep Kumara, K; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S; Karunakara, N

    2017-06-01

    Exposure due to thoron ( 220 Rn) gas and its decay products in a thorium fuel cycle facility handling thorium or 232 U/ 233 U mixture compounds is an important issue of radiological concern requiring control and mitigation. Adsorption in a flow-through charcoal bed offers an excellent method of alleviating the release of 220 Rn into occupational and public domain. In this paper, we present the design, development, and characterization of a Thoron Mitigation System (TMS) for industrial application. Systematic experiments were conducted in the TMS for examining the 220 Rn mitigation characteristics with respect to a host of parameters such as flow rate, pressure drop, charcoal grain size, charcoal mass and bed depth, water content, and heat of the carrier gas. An analysis of the experimental data shows that 220 Rn attenuation in a flow through charcoal bed is not exponential with respect to the residence time, L/U a (L: bed depth; U a : superficial velocity), but follows a power law behaviour, which can be attributed to the occurrence of large voids due to wall channeling in a flow through bed. The study demonstrates the regeneration of charcoal adsorption capacity degraded due to moisture adsorption, by hot air blowing technique. It is found that the mitigation factor (MF), which is the ratio of the inlet 220 Rn concentration (C in ) to the outlet 220 Rn concentration (C out ), of more than 10 4 for the TMS is easily achievable during continuous operation (>1000 h) at a flow rate of 40 L min -1 with negligible (charcoal bed offers a compact and effective device to remove 220 Rn from affluent air streams in a space constrained domain. The prototype system has been installed in a thorium fuel cycle facility where it is being evaluated for its long-term performance and overall effectiveness in mitigating 220 Rn levels in the workplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GIST-PM-Asia v1: development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample

  15. Experiments in water-macrophyte systems to uncover the dynamics of pesticide mitigation processes in vegetated surface waters/streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Christoph; Bakanov, Nikita; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on the dynamics and the durability of the processes governing the mitigation of pesticide loads by aquatic vegetation in vegetated streams, which are characterized by dynamic discharge regimes and short chemical residence times, is scarce. In a static long-term experiment (48 h), the dissipation of five pesticides from the aqueous phase followed a biphasic pattern in the presence of aquatic macrophytes. A dynamic concentration decrease driven by sorption to the macrophytes ranged from 8.3 to 60.4% for isoproturon and bifenox, respectively, within the first 2 h of exposure. While the aqueous concentrations of imidacloprid, isoproturon, and tebufenozide remained constant thereafter, the continuous but decelerated concentration decrease of difenoconazole and bifenox in the water-macrophyte systems used here was assumed to be attributed to macrophyte-induced degradation processes. In addition, a semi-static short-term experiment was conducted, where macrophytes were transferred to uncontaminated medium after 2 h of exposure to simulate a transient pesticide peak. In the first part of the experiment, adsorption to macrophytes resulted in partitioning coefficients (logK D_Adsorp) ranging from 0.2 for imidacloprid to 2.2 for bifenox. One hour after the macrophytes were transferred to the uncontaminated medium, desorption of the compounds from the macrophytes resulted in a new phase equilibrium and K D_Desorp values of 1.46 for difenoconazole and 1.95 for bifenox were determined. A correlation analysis revealed the best match between the compound affinity to adsorb to macrophytes (expressed as K D_Adsorp) and their soil organic carbon-water partitioning coefficient (K OC) compared to their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (K OW) or a mathematically derived partitioning coefficient.

  16. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mid-Cretaceous aeolian desert systems in the Yunlong area of the Lanping Basin, China: Implications for palaeoatmosphere dynamics and paleoclimatic change in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaojie; Wu, Chihua; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Yi, Haisheng; Xia, Guoqing; Wagreich, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The mid-Cretaceous constitutes a period of worldwide atmospheric and oceanic change associated with slower thermohaline circulation and ocean anoxic events, possible polar glaciations and by a changing climate pattern becoming controlled by a zonal planetary wind system and an equatorial humid belt. During the mid-Cretaceous, the subtropical high-pressure arid climate belt of the planetary wind system controlled the palaeolatitude distribution of humid belts in Asia as well as the spatial distribution of rain belts over the massive continental blocks at mid-low latitudes in the southern and northern hemispheres. Additionally, the orographic effect of the Andean-type active continental margin in East Asia hindered the transportation of ocean moisture to inland regions. With rising temperatures and palaeoatmospheric conditions dominated by high pressure systems, desert climate environments expanded at the inland areas of East Asia including those accumulated in the mid-Cretaceous of the Simao Basin, the Sichuan Basin, and the Thailand's Khorat Basin, and leading the Late Cretaceous erg systems in the Xinjiang Basin and Jianghan Basin. This manuscript presents evidences that allow to reinterpret previously considered water-laid sediments to be accumulated as windblown deposits forming part of extensive erg (sandy desert) systems. Using a multidisciplinary approach including petrological, sedimentological and architectural observations, the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Turonian) Nanxin Formation from the Yunlong region of Lanping Basin, formerly considered to aqueous deposits is here interpreted as representing aeolian deposits, showing local aeolian-fluvial interaction deposits. The palaeowind directions obtained from the analysis of aeolian dune cross-beddings indicates that inland deserts were compatible with a high-pressure cell (HPC) existing in the mid-low latitudes of East Asia during the mid-Cretaceous. Compared with the Early Cretaceous, the mid-Cretaceous had

  18. System design description for the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1998-03-02

    There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. Any changes made to controlled components in the field will be updated after the time of implementation to support the engineers and operators understand, maintain, train to and operate the system. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status. The incorporation of the two documents, Computer Systems Design Description (HNF-SD-WMCSDD-008) and the Input/Output Channel List (HNF-SD-WM-EL-001), as appendices allow for fewer errors in changes. Because the documents are all together, they will be approved as one document, not three separate entities which could be updated at different times, creating a situation which does not accurately depict field conditions.

  19. System design description for the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. Any changes made to controlled components in the field will be updated after the time of implementation to support the engineers and operators understand, maintain, train to and operate the system. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status. The incorporation of the two documents, Computer Systems Design Description (HNF-SD-WMCSDD-008) and the Input/Output Channel List (HNF-SD-WM-EL-001), as appendices allow for fewer errors in changes. Because the documents are all together, they will be approved as one document, not three separate entities which could be updated at different times, creating a situation which does not accurately depict field conditions

  20. Mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions from intensive rice production systems in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, Azeem; Vu, Quynh Duong; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2017-01-01

    respectively. The EM and PM resulted in higher N2O emissions compared to M (25–36%) and C (42–43%) in both systems. The contribution of increased N2O emissions with EM and PM to global warming potential (GWP) was negligible. EM reduced the GWP by 42% compared to C with F in the IWM system, and by 20–52%, 30......Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies are often constrained by rice farmers’ preferences, therefore an assessment of mitigation strategies taking farmers’ constraints into consideration, are important for their possible adoption. The field experiments were conducted for two continuous rice......-growing seasons in northern Vietnam, to evaluate the effectiveness of drainage patterns on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions under farmers’ variable conditions. Two improved drainage practices (pre-planting plus midseason [PM] drainage and early-season plus midseason [EM] drainage) were compared...

  1. The next generation of urban MACCs. Reassessing the cost-effectiveness of urban mitigation options by integrating a systemic approach and social costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Lefèvre, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Many cities are implementing policies and climate action plans. Yet local climate policies suffer from a lack of scientific understanding and evaluation methods able to support the definition of efficient mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to build on classical approaches in the energy policy field that exist at the national and international level to propose an urban MACCs methodology able to fulfill this lack and inform local debates. The methodology is an extension of static “expert-based” MACCs; it combines a land use transport integrated model and an abatement cost methodology that integrates co-benefits, and takes into account the spatial and systemic dimensions of cities. The methodology is implemented for the transportation sector of a mid-sized European city (Grenoble, France). Our results present the cost-effectiveness and political feasibility of several proposed measures. We find that the inclusion of co-benefits can profoundly change the cost-benefit assessment of transport mitigation options. Moreover we underline the key parameters determining the cost-effectiveness ranking of mitigation options. These urban MACCs aim to serve as a bridge between urban planning and mitigation policies and can thus contribute to strengthen and align sustainable and climate change agendas at the local level. - Highlights: •Local climate policies lack scientific understanding for prioritizing mitigation actions. •We develop a method to evaluate cost-effectiveness of urban transportation actions. •This method combines urban modeling and MACCs to inform urban planning. •Abatement costs from its application to a mid-sized city are presented. •The impact of the inclusion of co-benefits is analyzed.

  2. Trade-offs between electrification and climate change mitigation : An analysis of the Java-Bali power system in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handayani, Kamia; Krozer, Yoram; Filatova, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The power sector in many developing countries face challenges of a fast-rising electricity demand in urban areas and an urgency of improved electricity access in rural areas. In the context of climate change, these development needs are challenged by the vital goal of CO2 mitigation. This paper

  3. Fusion of High-Rate GPS and Seismic Data: Applications to Early Warning Systems for Mitigation of Geological Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Crowell, B.; Webb, F.; Kedar, S.; Clayton, R.; Miyahara, B.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss the fusion of low-latency (1 s) high-rate (1 Hz or greater) CGPS displacements and traditional seismic data, in order to extend the frequency range and timeliness of surface displacement data already available at lower frequencies from space borne InSAR and (typically daily) CGPS coordinate time series. The goal is development of components of early warning systems for mitigation of geological hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes). The advantage of the GPS data is that it is a direct measurement of ground displacement. With seismic data, this type of measure has to be obtained by deconvolution of the instrument response and integration of the broadband (velocity) measurements, or a double integration of the strong motion (acceleration) measurements. Due to the bandwidth and the dynamic range limits of seismometers the accuracy of absolute displacements so derived is poor. This problem is not present in the high-sample rate GPS data. While the seismic measurement provides a powerful constraint on the much noisier GPS measurements, unlike the seismometer, the GPS receiver never clips. Using the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at USCD, we present an example of combining in real-time 50 Hz GPS displacements and 250 Hz raw accelerometer data using a multi-rate Kalman filter, previously applied to bridge monitoring. A full-scale 7- story building atop the shake table was subjected to high intensity shaking by replaying the Sylmar accelerometer record from the Mw 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake. The resulting 250 Hz displacement waveform is significantly more accurate than obtained solely by low-pass filtering and double integration of the 250 Hz accelerometer records. Next we demonstrate the elements of an earthquake early warning system by analyzing the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki thrust earthquake off Hokkaido Island detected by the dense Japan national real-time CGPS

  4. Electromagnetic approaches to wall characterization, wall mitigation, and antenna design for through-the-wall radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajudeen, Christopher

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a topic of current interest due to its wide range of public safety, law enforcement, and defense applications. Among the various available technologies such as, acoustic, thermal, and optical imaging, which can be employed to sense and image targets of interest, electromagnetic (EM) imaging, in the microwave frequency bands, is the most widely utilized technology and has been at the forefront of research in recent years. The primary objectives for any Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging (TWRI) system are to obtain a layout of the building and/or inner rooms, detect if there are targets of interest including humans or weapons, determine if there are countermeasures being employed to further obscure the contents of a building or room of interest, and finally to classify the detected targets. Unlike conventional radar scenarios, the presence of walls, made of common construction materials such as brick, drywall, plywood, cinder block, and solid concrete, adversely affects the ability of any conventional imaging technique to properly image targets enclosed within building structures as the propagation through the wall can induce shadowing effects on targets of interest which may result in image degradation, errors in target localization, and even complete target masking. For many applications of TWR systems, the wall ringing signals are strong enough to mask the returns from targets not located a sufficient distance behind the wall, beyond the distance of the wall ringing, and thus without proper wall mitigation, target detection becomes extremely difficult. The results presented in this thesis focus on the development of wall parameter estimation, and intra-wall and wall-type characterization techniques for use in both the time and frequency domains as well as analysis of these techniques under various real world scenarios such as reduced system bandwidth scenarios, various wall backing scenarios, the case of inhomogeneous walls, presence

  5. Thoron Mitigation System based on charcoal bed for applications in thorium fuel cycle facilities (part 1): Development of theoretical models for design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, B K; Sudeep Kumara, K; Karunakara, N; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2017-06-01

    Regulating the environmental discharge of 220 Rn (historically known as thoron) and its decay products from thorium processing facilities is important for protection of environment and general public living in the vicinities. Activated charcoal provides an effective solution to this problem because of its high adsorption capacity to gaseous element like radon. In order to design and develop a charcoal based Thoron Mitigation System, a mathematical model has been developed in the present work for studying the 220 Rn transport and adsorption in a flow through charcoal bed and estimating the 220 Rn mitigation factor (MF) as a function of system and operating parameters. The model accounts for inter- and intra-grain diffusion, advection, radioactive decay and adsorption processes. Also, the effects of large void fluctuation and wall channeling on the mitigation factor have been included through a statistical model. Closed form solution has been provided for the MF in terms of adsorption coefficient, system dimensions, grain size, flow rate and void fluctuation exponent. It is shown that the delay effects due to intra grain diffusion plays a significant role thereby rendering external equilibrium assumptions unsuitable. Also, the application of the statistical model clearly demonstrates the transition from the exponential MF to a power-law form and shows how the occurrence of channels with low probability can lower mitigation factor by several orders of magnitude. As a part of aiding design, the model is further extended to optimise the bed dimensions in respect of pressure drop and MF. The application of the results for the design and development of a practically useful charcoal bed is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shared Identity and Reconciliation: Can a Future Security Framework in Northeast Asia Draw from Experiences of the North Atlantic Security Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Podoler (Folkstone: Global Oriental, 2009), 190. 14 Victor D. Cha, “Powerplay. Origins of the U.S. Alliance System in Asia,” International Security...overcome the bellicose nature of relations between European states and mitigate the chaos that stemmed from this bellicosity continued. In 1625, Hugo ...32, no. 2 (2008): 21–36. Cook, Don. Forging the Alliance. NATO, 1945–1950. London: Secker & Warburg, 1989. Cha, Victor D. “Powerplay. Origins of

  7. Challenges of Tsunami Disaster and Extreme climate Events Along Coastal Region in Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, S.

    2017-12-01

    South Asia is more vulnerable to Geo disasters and impacts of climate changes in recent years. On 26 December 2004 massive waves triggered by an earthquake surged into coastal communities in Asia and East Africa with devastating force. Hitting Indonesia, Sri Lanka , Thailand and India hardest, the deadly waves swept more than 200 000 people to their deaths. Also in an another extreme climate change phenomenon during 2005 - 2006,causing heavy rains and flooding situation in the South Asia - Europe and Pacific region ,more than 100 million population in these regions are witnessing the social- economical and ecological risks and impacts due to climate changes and Geohazards. For mitigating geo-disasters, marine hazards and rehabilitation during post tsunami period, scientific knowledge is needed, requiring experienced research communities who can train the local population during tsunami rehabilitation. Several civil society institutions jointly started the initiatives on the problem identifications in management of risks in geo-disasters, tsunami rehabilitation ,Vulnerability and risk assessments for Geohazards etc., to investigate problems related to social-economic and ecological risks and management issues resulting from the December tsunami and Geo- disaster, to aid mitigation planning in affected areas and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable and economic solutions. The poster aims to assess the potential risk and hazard , technical issues, problems and damage arising from Tsunami in the Asia-pacific region in coastal geology, coastal ecosystems and coastal environmental systems . This poster deals with the status and issues of interactions between Human and Ocean Systems, Geo-risks, marine risks along coastal region of Asia- Pacific and also human influence on the earth system . The poster presentation focuses on capacity building of the local population, scientists and researchers for integration of human and ocean

  8. Common characterization of variability and forecast errors of variable energy sources and their mitigation using reserves in power system integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Dir. Plantif. de la Production Eolienne, Montreal, QC (Canada). HQ Production; Holttinen, H. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    This In this paper we define and characterize the two random variables, variability and forecast error, over which uncertainty in power systems operations is characterized and mitigated. We show that the characterization of both these variables can be carried out with the same mathematical tools. Furthermore, this common characterization of random variables lends itself to a common methodology for the calculation of non-contingency reserves required to mitigate their effects. A parallel comparison of these two variables demonstrates similar inherent statistical properties. They depend on imminent conditions, evolve with time and can be asymmetric. Correlation is an important factor when aggregating individual wind farm characteristics in forming the distribution of the total wind generation for imminent conditions. (orig.)

  9. Mitigation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  10. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark: 1. System design and gas distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Filippo; Scheutz, Charlotte; Skov, Bent H; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation at landfills by methane oxidation in engineered biocover systems is believed to be a cost effective technology, but so far a full quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of the technology in full scale has only been carried out in a few cases. A third generation semi-passive biocover system was constructed at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark. The biocover system was fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate collection wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the commonly observed surface emission hot spot areas resulting from an uneven gas distribution to the active methane oxidation layer, leading to areas with methane overloading. Performed screening of methane and carbon dioxide surface concentrations, as well as flux measurement using a flux chamber at the surface of the biocover, showed homogenous distributions indicating an even gas distribution. This was supported by results from a tracer gas test where the compound HFC-134a was added to the gas inlet over an adequately long time period to obtain tracer gas stationarity in the whole biocover system. Studies of the tracer gas movement within the biocover system showed a very even gas distribution in gas probes installed in the gas distribution layer. Also the flux of tracer gas out of the biocover surface, as measured by flux chamber technique, showed a spatially even distribution. Installed probes logging the temperature and moisture content of the methane oxidation layer at different depths showed elevated temperatures in the layer with temperature differences to the ambient temperature in the range of 25-50°C at the deepest measuring point due to the microbial processes occurring in the layer. The moisture measurements showed that infiltrating precipitation was efficiently drained away from the methane oxidation layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional design criteria for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-09-01

    Early in 1990, the potential for a large quantity of hydrogen and nitrous oxide to exist as an explosive mixture within some Hanford waste tanks was declared an unreviewed safety question. The waste tank safety task team was established at that time to carry out safety evaluations and plan the means for mitigating this potential hazard. Action was promptly taken to identify those tanks with the highest hazard and to implement interim operating requirements to minimize ignition sources

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Pham, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios were considered, namely the base case with no mitigation options, replacement of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by biogas stove, substitution of gasoline by ethanol in transport sector, replacement of coal by wood as fuel in industrial boilers, electricity generation with biomass energy technologies and an integrated scenario including all the options together. Substitution of coal stoves by biogas stove has positive abatement cost, as the cost of wood in Vietnam is higher than coal. Replacement of kerosene and LPG cookstoves by biomass stove also has a positive abatement cost. Replacement of gasoline by ethanol can be realized after a few years, as at present the cost of ethanol is more than the cost of gasoline. The replacement of coal by biomass in industrial boiler is also not an attractive option as wood is more expensive than coal in Vietnam. The substitution of fossil fuel fired plants by packages of BETs has a negative abatement cost. This option, if implemented, would result in mitigation of 10.83 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 in 2010

  13. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-04-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia.

  14. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  15. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    .... This report contains information about Southeast Asia including military operations, international relations, foreign trade, political parties, foreign government, economics, agriculture, and health...

  16. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  17. One hundred case studies of Asia-Pacific telemedicine using a digital video transport system over a research and education network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Shuji; Nakashima, Naoki; Okamura, Koji; Tanaka, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of video in telemedicine is most helpful, the transmission of high-quality moving images is difficult in conventional systems due to the limitation of network bandwidth and the quality of service. We have established a new system via the academic broadband network that can preserve the original quality and assure smooth movement of the image. Here we report on 100 case studies and discuss the lessons we have learned. Kyushu University Hospital in Fukuoka, Japan, was linked to 53 medical institutions and meeting venues in 13 countries and regions over the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network, an international research and education consortium. The digital video transport system (DVTS), free software that transforms digital video signals directly into Internet Protocol, was installed on a personal computer (PC) with a network bandwidth of 30 Mbps per channel. Between February 2003 and June 2007, 100 telecommunication sessions were held, 94 of which were international and 6 domestic. Furthermore, 47 involved real-time demonstrations and 53 interactive teleconferences using video or PC presentations. Multiple stations were connected in 37 events, and the number of connected stations in total reached 269. The time delay was restricted to 0.3-1.0 seconds between the stations. Participants provided feedback via questionnaires, and with respect to image quality, 509 (68.3%) participants reported "very good," 206 (27.7%) reported "good," 19 (2.6%) reported "poor," and 11 (1.5%) reported "very poor." DVTS is both economical, with a minimal initial investment, and simple to set up, and this is the first time that this advanced system has been used so widely in the Asia-Pacific region. Because the high-speed academic network for research and education is available worldwide, we believe our cutting-edge technology will facilitate medical standardization beyond geographic borders in the world.

  18. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20?23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology,...

  19. Asia and Africa in the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Iakovlevich Belokrenitskii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The section examines the colonial history of Asia and Africa, as well as key periods and directions of colonization. The authors analyze the features of the colonial political systems, processes of power distribution, the relationships between colonies and metropolis. Particular attention is paid to the strengthening of Asia and Africa in the final period of colonialism, as well as the impact of the Second World War and a new system of international relations on the process of decolonization.

  20. Far East Asia | Page 84 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India. Language English. Read more about Bellanet Network Transition Period. Language English. Read more about Transition de Bellanet. Language French. Read more about Atténuation des risques pour la ...

  1. Characteristics of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Multipath and Its Mitigation Method Based on Kalman Filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhao; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Shubi; Liu, Xin

    2018-01-12

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier phase measurement for short baseline meets the requirements of deformation monitoring of large structures. However, the carrier phase multipath effect is the main error source with double difference (DD) processing. There are lots of methods to deal with the multipath errors of Global Position System (GPS) carrier phase data. The BeiDou navigation satellite System (BDS) multipath mitigation is still a research hotspot because the unique constellation design of BDS makes it different to mitigate multipath effects compared to GPS. Multipath error periodically repeats for its strong correlation to geometry of satellites, reflective surface and antenna which is also repetitive. We analyzed the characteristics of orbital periods of BDS satellites which are consistent with multipath repeat periods of corresponding satellites. The results show that the orbital periods and multipath periods for BDS geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites are about one day but the periods of MEO satellites are about seven days. The Kalman filter (KF) and Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother (RTSS) was introduced to extract the multipath models from single difference (SD) residuals with traditional sidereal filter (SF). Wavelet filter and Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) were also used to mitigate multipath effects. The experimental results show that the three filters methods all have obvious effect on improvement of baseline accuracy and the performance of KT-RTSS method is slightly better than that of wavelet filter and EMD filter. The baseline vector accuracy on east, north and up (E, N, U) components with KF-RTSS method were improved by 62.8%, 63.6%, 62.5% on day of year 280 and 57.3%, 53.4%, 55.9% on day of year 281, respectively.

  2. Characteristics of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Multipath and Its Mitigation Method Based on Kalman Filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS carrier phase measurement for short baseline meets the requirements of deformation monitoring of large structures. However, the carrier phase multipath effect is the main error source with double difference (DD processing. There are lots of methods to deal with the multipath errors of Global Position System (GPS carrier phase data. The BeiDou navigation satellite System (BDS multipath mitigation is still a research hotspot because the unique constellation design of BDS makes it different to mitigate multipath effects compared to GPS. Multipath error periodically repeats for its strong correlation to geometry of satellites, reflective surface and antenna which is also repetitive. We analyzed the characteristics of orbital periods of BDS satellites which are consistent with multipath repeat periods of corresponding satellites. The results show that the orbital periods and multipath periods for BDS geostationary earth orbit (GEO and inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO satellites are about one day but the periods of MEO satellites are about seven days. The Kalman filter (KF and Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother (RTSS was introduced to extract the multipath models from single difference (SD residuals with traditional sidereal filter (SF. Wavelet filter and Empirical mode decomposition (EMD were also used to mitigate multipath effects. The experimental results show that the three filters methods all have obvious effect on improvement of baseline accuracy and the performance of KT-RTSS method is slightly better than that of wavelet filter and EMD filter. The baseline vector accuracy on east, north and up (E, N, U components with KF-RTSS method were improved by 62.8%, 63.6%, 62.5% on day of year 280 and 57.3%, 53.4%, 55.9% on day of year 281, respectively.

  3. Passive Control System for Mitigation of Longitudinal Buffeting Responses of a Six-Tower Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Geng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the Jiashao Bridge, the longest multispan cable-stayed bridge in the world. A time-domain procedure for analyzing buffeting responses of the bridge is implemented in ANSYS with the aeroelastic effect included. The characteristics of longitudinal buffeting responses of the six-tower cable-stayed bridge are studied in some detail, focusing on the effects of insufficient longitudinal stiffness of central towers and partially longitudinal constraints between the bridge deck and part of bridge towers. The effectiveness of viscous fluid dampers on the mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the bridge is further investigated and a multiobjective optimization design method that uses a nondominating sort genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II is used to optimize parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The results of the parametric investigations show that, by appropriate use of viscous fluid dampers, the top displacements of central towers and base forces of bridge towers longitudinally restricted with the bridge deck can be reduced significantly, with hampering the significant gain achieved in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally unrestricted with the bridge deck. And the optimized parameters for the viscous fluid dampers can be determined from Pareto-optimal fronts using the NSGA-II that can satisfy the desired performance requirements.

  4. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  5. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design: All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results: A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions: Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates

  6. Active Flow Control (AFC) and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) System Design and Integration on the Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.; Harris, F. Keith; Spoor, Marc A.; Boyland, Susannah R.; Farrell, Thomas E.; Raines, David M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systems overview of how the Boeing and NASA team designed, analyzed, fabricated, and integrated the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology and Insect Accretion Mitigation (IAM) systems on the Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project partnered with Boeing to demonstrate these two technology systems on a specially outfitted Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator during the spring of 2015. The AFC system demonstrated attenuation of flow separation on a highly deflected rudder and increased the side force generated. This AFC system may enable a smaller vertical tail to provide the control authority needed in the event of an engine failure during takeoff while still operating in a conventional manner over the rest of the flight envelope. The AFC system consisted of ducting to obtain air from the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a control valve to modulate the system mass flow, a heat exchanger to lower the APU air temperature, and additional ducting to deliver the air to the AFC actuators located on the vertical tail. The IAM system demonstrated how to mitigate insect residue adhesion on a wing's leading edge. Something as small as insect residue on a leading edge can cause turbulent wedges that interrupt laminar flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel use. The IAM system consisted of NASA developed Engineered Surfaces (ES) which were thin aluminum sheet substrate panels with coatings applied to the exterior. These ES were installed on slats 8 and 9 on the right wing of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. They were designed to support panel removal and installation in one crew shift. Each slat accommodated 4 panels. Both the AFC and IAM flight test were the culmination of several years of development and produced valuable data for the advancement of modern aircraft designs.

  7. Evaluation and mitigation of the degradation by corrosion in the components of the service water system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaices A, E.; Salaices, M.; Ovando, R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main problems that face the nuclear power stations is the degradation by corrosion in the service water systems. The corrosion causes lost substantial in energy generation and a high cost in maintenance and repairs. In this work, the results of a study of the degradation by the MIC mechanisms (microorganisms influenced corrosion), incrustations in heat exchangers and erosion for solid particles in the components of a typical service water system of a nuclear plant are presented. Diverse mitigation options are analyzed for these mechanisms. In the analysis, it was used the CHECWORKS-CWA code to carry out the evaluation of the degradation so much as well as the mitigation of the caused damage. The results are presented in susceptibility indexes and degradation rates component-by-component. A significant decrement could be observed in the susceptibility to MIC when changing the operation conditions of stagnated flow to continuous flow. With respect to the erosion by solid particles, it was found a significant reduction of the damage it when adding filters to the system. Finally, in the case of the heat exchangers, it is shown that one of the more viable options to diminish incrustations and existent calcium deposits it is the reduction of the pH of the service water. (Author)

  8. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: Phase II. Selection and/or Modification of COTS Field Portable Waste Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, Carol [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kivenas, Nadia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Magnuson, Matthew [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States).

    2015-01-01

    After an accidental or malicious release of radioactivity, large urban areas may be contaminated, compromising response efforts by first responders and law enforcement officials. In addition, some public services (e.g., drinking water and wastewater treatment, electrical power distribution, etc.) may be disrupted. In such an event, it may be important to deploy mitigation efforts in certain areas to restore response activities and public services (Fig. S-1). This report explores the state-of-the-art approach for a system to rapidly return critical infrastructure components to service following a cesium-137 (Cs-137) radiological dispersal device (RDD) release while avoiding the spread of Cs-137 beyond its original deposition area and minimizing the amount of Cs-137-contaminated wastewater. Specifically, we describe a wash system consisting of chemical additives added to fire hydrant water and irreversible solid sequestering agents added as the water is collected and treated for recycle in situ. The wash system is intended to be a rapidly deployable, cost-effective means of mitigating an urban setting for the purpose of restoring critical infrastructure and operational activities after a radiological release.

  9. Estimating the burden of lung cancer and the efficiency of home radon mitigation systems in some Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arydah, Mo'tassem

    2018-01-15

    Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of death of cancer in Canada in both men and women, and indoor radon is the second leading cause of LC after tobacco smoking. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) is used to assess radon exposure risk. In this work we estimate the burden of LC in some Canadian provinces. We use the PAR to identify the radon levels responsible for most LC cases. Finally, we use the PAR function of the two variables, radon action and target levels, to search for a possible optimal mitigation program. The LC burden for Ontario, Alberta, Manitoba, Quebec and British Columbia was estimated using provincial radon and mortality data. Then the PAR and LC cases for these provinces were estimated over the period 2006-2009 at different given indoor radon exposure levels. Finally, the PAR function when radon action levels and radon target levels are variables was analyzed. The highest burden of LC in 2006-2009 was in Ontario and Quebec. During the period 2006-2009, 6% of houses in Ontario, 9% of houses in Alberta, 19% of houses in Manitoba, 7% of houses in Quebec, and 5% of houses in British Columbia had radon levels higher than 200 Bq/m 3 and were responsible about 913, 211, 260, 972, and 258 lives, respectively. Radon mitigation programs could have prevented these LC cases. The BEIR VI assumption for the United States (US) population, 95% of LC deaths in men and 90% of LC deaths in women are Ever-Smokers (ES), can be applied to the Canadian population. The PAR is a linear function in the target radon value with an estimated slope of 0.0001 for Ontario, Alberta, Quebec and British Columbia, and 0.0004 for Manitoba. The PAR is almost a square root function in the radon action level. The PAR is sensitive to changes in the radon mitigation program and as such, any improvement is a worthwhile investment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  11. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  13. The nuclear Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordonnier, I.; Tertrais, B.

    2001-01-01

    Since the demolition of the Berlin wall, Asia has become the theater of nuclear rivalry, with as main actors: india, Pakistan, China and South Korea. This book analyzes the geo-political situation in this region of the world and asks some important questions about the new strategic map of Asia: what is the impact of the development of nuclear activities on the security of Asia? Will the deployment of anti-missile defenses lead to a new weapons rush? Is there a nuclear warfare risk? (J.S.)

  14. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  15. The processes of transformation of the education system and science in Asia in the estimates of international organizations and transnational ranking agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valer'evna Koldunova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historiographical review of assessments of higher education and science development in Asia, which has now become the key economic region of the world. It is a common knowledge that education, science and innovations represent a driving force of economic development and indispensable for building a knowledge-based economy. The analysis presented in this article adds to a better understanding of knowledge-based economy development in Greater Eastern Asia. The article presents the research literature and science metrics analysis on science and education development in Asia dividing it into four clusters. International organizations (e.g., the UN and OECD and transnational ranking agencies (like QS judging by the quantitative indicators point out that Greater Eastern Asia (Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and India has become one of the world leaders in terms of higher education development and innovations. In high technologies, the region is second only to the USA and is constantly bridging this gap. Greater Middle East (the Middle East and Central Asia looks differently in this respect. Arab countries’ opportunities to build knowledge-based economy are very limited as well as those of Central Asia. In terms of quality of science and education Greater Eastern Asia (with the exception of the most advanced countries of the region is still lagging behind the West and in terms of fundamental science this gap looks very serious. However, there are efforts in place to make the rise of science and education in Asia more quality-oriented, for instance focusing more on strengthening engineering and hard science in the Asian universities.

  16. Turbulence mitigation scheme based on multiple-user detection in an orbital-angular-momentum multiplexed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Chen, Han-Wu

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric turbulence (AT) induced crosstalk can significantly impair the performance of a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. In this paper, we propose a multiple-user detection (MUD) turbulence mitigation scheme in an OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link. First, we present a MUD equivalent communication model for an OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link under AT. In the equivalent model, each input bit stream represents one user’s information. The deformed OAM spatial modes caused by AT, instead of the pure OAM spatial modes, are used as information carriers, and the overlapping between the deformed OAM spatial modes are computed as the correlation coefficients between the users. Then, we present a turbulence mitigation scheme based on MUD idea to enhance AT tolerance of the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link. In the proposed scheme, the crosstalk caused by AT is used as a useful component to deduce users’ information. The numerical results show that the performance of the OAM-multiplexed communication link has greatly improved by the proposed scheme. When the turbulence strength is 1 × 10-15 m-2/3, the transmission distance is 1000 m and the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 26 dB, the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of four spatial multiplexed OAM modes lm = +1,+2,+3,+4 are all close to 10-5, and there is a 2-3 fold increase in the BER performance in comparison with those results without the proposed scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme is more effective for an OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link with a larger OAM mode topological charge interval. The proposed scheme is a promising direction for compensating the interference caused by AT in the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Open Research Fund of Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network

  17. Averting Crisis in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Lee-Jay

    1986-01-01

    Discusses issues related to population growth in Asia, considering various programs and their successes. Indicates that China has had the greatest recent success in reducing population growth (with its one-child family policy). (JN)

  18. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  19. NIR LIDAR for Hazard Mitigation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have investigated the feasibility of employing a hazard detection and mitigation system based upon a polarization discriminating range-gated Lidar system. This...

  20. Temporal and Spatial Explicit Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems : Modelling variable renewable energy systems to address climate change mitigation and universal electricity access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyringer, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Two major global challenges climate change mitigation and universal electricity access, can be addressed by large scale deployment of renewable energy sources (Alstone et al., 2015). Around 60% of greenhouse gas emissions originate from energy generation and 90% of CO2 emissions are caused by fossil

  1. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-23

    195010 JPRS-SEA-87-059 23 APRIL 1987 Dis iv ib ulion . ü r,limited TV A XZB; Southeast Asia Report FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE...87-059 23 APRIL 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA Jakarta’s Position on Afghan Issue Praised (ANTARA NEWS BULLETIN, 17 Mar 87) 1...various dates) 91 Daily Worries About Overpopulation , Unemployment (Editorial; BAN MUANG, 26 Jan 87) 1°5 Briefs Smugglers to PRK ^J° Workers

  2. World review: Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2000-05-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Asia in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Australia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkmenistan and Vietnam. It is expected that soon after 2000, oil demand in Southeast Asia will resume growth at 4-5% per annum and demand for petroleum products in China will more than double by 2010.

  3. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-31

    282043 JPRS-SEA-86-129 31 JULY 1986 Southeast Asia Report 19980605 201 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE REPRODUCED BV NATIONAL...addressed to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-S.EA-86-129 31 JULY 1986 SOUTHEAST ASIA ...WELFARE Reporters Criticized for Taking Bribes , Writing False Stories (SAIGON GIAI PHONG, 14 May 86) . 96 POPULATION, CUSTOMS, AND CULTURE

  4. Doing Business in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    ICHIJO Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and globalization in Asia are driving new investment opportunities and intensifying competition. To sustain competitive advantage in this new business environment, which is marked by both fierce competition and unprecedented opportunities for collaboration, business leaders must expand their vision beyond their local markets and industries to the rest of Asia and the world. As Japan's population declines and ages and the yen continues to appreciate rapidly, attention is ...

  5. Presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water samples from Southeast Asia: towards an integrated water detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Thulasi; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Onichandran, Subashini; Jaturas, Narong; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Tabo, Hazel A L; Tabo, Norbel; Dungca, Julieta Z; Tangpong, Jitbanjong; Phiriyasamith, Sucheep; Yuttayong, Boonyaorn; Polseela, Raxsina; Do, Binh Nhu; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2016-01-13

    Access to clean and safe drinking water that is free from pathogenic protozoan parasites, especially Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia that cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, is still an issue in Southeast Asia (SEA). This study is the first attempt to detect the aforementioned protozoan parasites in water samples from countries in SEA, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. A total of 221 water samples of 10 l each were collected between April and October 2013 from Malaysia (53), Thailand (120), the Philippines (33), and Vietnam (15). A physicochemical analysis was conducted. The water samples were processed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's methods 1622/1623.1, microscopically observed and subsequently screened using qPCR assays. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.06 ± 0.19 oocyst/L, and untreated water samples from Thailand (25/93), Malaysia (17/44), and the Philippines (11/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.13 ± 0.18 to 0.57 ± 1.41 oocyst/L. Giardia cysts were found in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.02 ± 0.06 cyst/L, and in untreated water samples from Thailand (20/93), Vietnam (5/10), Malaysia (22/44), and the Philippines (16/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.12 ± 0.3 to 8.90 ± 19.65 cyst/L. The pathogens C. parvum and G. lamblia were detected using using qPCR assays by targeting the 138-bp fragment and the small subunit gene, respectively. C. parvum was detected in untreated water samples from the Philippines (1/23) and Malaysia (2/44), whilst, G. lamblia detected was detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10) and in untreated water samples from Thailand (21/93), Malaysia (12/44), and the Philippines (17/23). Nitrate concentration was found to have a high positive correlation with (oo)cyst (0.993). The presence of

  6. Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitani, H.; Yamada, K.; Yamaji, K.; Matsuhashi, T.; Iizuka, E.; Suzuki, T.; Genchi, H.; Komiyama, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes actual condition and measures against heat island (HI) phenomena in large urban areas with buildings. Tokyo was selected as a model. To extract typical pattern of daily change of air temperature, statistic analysis was conducted using the existing air temperature data at 100 points in and near the city of Tokyo. As a result, five patterns were obtained, i.e., central city, sea/land water affecting zone, thickly settled suburbs, garden city, and countryside. Each one point was selected in each pattern, to measure the underground temperature. It was found that the effect of HI can be easily evaluated from the underground temperature. It was suggested that the HI effect in the central city is estimated to be around 3.6 {degree}C. The measures mitigating HI were divided into the thermal balance improvement in the whole district and the temperature improvement of living space by homogenization or inhomogenization. Energy conservation was investigated for improving the thermal balance which can be practically conducted. According to the measures, it was found that the air temperature in the central city can be decreased by about 0.5 {degree}C at maximum. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yoshikado, H.; Kondo, H.; Kaneho, N.; Saegusa, N.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the assessment method of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas. The heat island phenomena were classified into meso-scale with 100 km-scale, block-scale with several km-scale, and building-scale with 100 m-scale. Urban thermal environment simulation model was developed in response to each scale. For the development, regional data using aircraft and artificial satellite observations, surface observation and thermal environment observation at Shinjuku new central city of Tokyo, and artificial waste heat actual survey data in the southern Kanto district were utilized. Results of the urban thermal environment simulation were introduced as an application of this model. Temperature distributions of the heat island in the Kanto district were simulated with considering urban conditions near Tokyo and without considering it. Daily changes of wall surfaces of high buildings and road surface were calculated. Increase in the air temperature in the back stream of building roofs with increased temperature was determined. 4 figs.

  8. Impact of Operating Room Environment on Postoperative Central Nervous System Infection in a Resource-Limited Neurosurgical Center in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Swathi; Vasudevan, Madabushi Chakravarthy; Nair, Mani Nathan; Joyce, Cara; Germanwala, Anand V

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are serious complications following neurosurgical intervention. We previously investigated the incidence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a resource-limited, neurosurgical center in south Asia. This follow-up study was conducted to analyze differences in PCNSIs at the same institution following only one apparent change: the operating room air filtration system. This was a retrospective study of all neurosurgical cases performed between December 1, 2013, and March 31, 2016 at our center. Providers, patient demographic data, case types, perioperative care, rate of PCNSI, and rates of other complications were reviewed. These results were then compared with the findings of our previous study of neurosurgical cases between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. All 623 neurosurgical operative cases over the study period were reviewed. Four patients (0.6%) had a PCNSI, and no patients had a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. In the previous study, among 363 cases, 71 patients (19.6%) had a PCNSI and 7 (1.9%) had a positive CSF culture (all Gram-negative organisms). The differences in both parameters are statistically significant (P system inside the neurosurgical operating rooms; this environmental change occurred during the 5 months between the 2 studies. This study demonstrates the impact of environmental factors in reducing infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of mitigation studies from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At the international level, Pakistan's contractual obligations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) include the preparation of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions abatement program, a national communication on climate change, and the formulation of a least-cost GHG abatement action plan and strategy. Pakistan ratified the UNFCCC in June 1994. The ratification of the Convention has lead to the undertaking of activities such as the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS) Project, which aims to build capacity in Asian countries in the preparation of GHG inventories and mitigation programs. (au)

  10. A protoype observation system for water resources in South - East Asia: ground and space measurements to support hydrological and atmospheric modeling of the Qinghai - Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, M.; Jia, L.; Colin, J.

    2009-04-01

    The project "Coordinated Asia-European long-term Observing system of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau hydro-meteorological processes and the Asian-monsoon systEm with Ground satellite Image data and numerical Simulations (CEOP - AEGIS)" is funded by the European Commission under the FP7 Theme Environment. The goal is two-fold: a) to construct out of existing ground measurements and current / future satellites an observing system to determine and monitor the water yield of the Plateau; b) to monitor the evolution of snow, vegetation cover, surface wetness and surface fluxes and analyze the linkage with convective activity, (extreme) precipitation events and the Asian Monsoon. Three main elements are foreseen. A) Observations of the terms of the water balance: precipitation, meltwater from snow and glaciers, changes in soil water content and evaporation for a period of three years will be generated by integrating ground and satellite measurements on weekly and monthly basis. Radiative transfer models and algorithms are being developed for different regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum. B) The water balance of the Plateau will be calculated with a distributed hydrological model. Interactions of land surface hydrology with convective activity and the Asian Monsoon will be investigated by using a meso-scale atmospheric model. C) Time-series of image data are being used to demonstrate a Drought and a Flood Early Warning Systems. The system relies on an existing and expanding network of observatories and on spaceborne observing systems for which data continuity is guaranteed. A Database Management System will be put in place in Lhasa.

  11. Nuclear power in Asia: Experience and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Kun

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries have developed ambitious energy supply programs to expand their energy supply systems to meet the growing needs of their rapidly expanding economies. Most of their new electrical generation needs will be met by coal, oil and gas. However, the consideration of growing energy demand, energy security, environmental conservation, and technology enhancement is inducing more Asian countries toward the pursuit of nuclear power development. At present, nuclear power provides about 30% of electricity in Japan, and about 40% of electricity in Korea. These and other Asian countries are presumed to significantly increase their nuclear power generation capacities in coming years. Korea's nuclear power generation facilities are projected to grow from 12 gigawatt in 1998 to 16.7 gigawatt by 2004. On the other hand, China and India have now installed nuclear capacities of about 2 gigawatt, respectively, which will increase by a factor of two or more by 2004. The installed nuclear capacity in the Asian region totalled 67 gigawatt as of the end of 1997, representing about sixteen percent of the world capacity of 369 gigawatt. Looking to the year 2010, it is anticipated that most of the world's increase in nuclear capacity will come from Asia. It is further forecasted that Asian nations will continue to expand their nuclear capacity as they move into the 21st century. For example, China plans to develop additional 18 gigawatt of nuclear power plants by the year 2010. Nuclear power is also of particular interest to a number of emerging Asian countries in view of environmental conservation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in particular. Nuclear power appeals to some countries because of its high technology content. The strength in an advanced technology, such as the technological capability related to nuclear power, contributes to the overall development of the corresponding country's engineering base, enhancement of industrial infrastructure and expansion of

  12. Exploring the roots of unintended safety threats associated with the introduction of hospital ePrescribing systems and candidate avoidance and/or mitigation strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Hajar; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Williams, Robin; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-09-01

    Hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems offer a wide range of patient safety benefits. Like other hospital health information technology interventions, however, they may also introduce new areas of risk. Despite recent advances in identifying these risks, the development and use of ePrescribing systems is still leading to numerous unintended consequences, which may undermine improvement and threaten patient safety. These negative consequences need to be analysed in the design, implementation and use of these systems. We therefore aimed to understand the roots of these reported threats and identify candidate avoidance/mitigation strategies. We analysed a longitudinal, qualitative study of the implementation and adoption of ePrescribing systems in six English hospitals, each being conceptualised as a case study. Data included semistructured interviews, observations of implementation meetings and system use, and a collection of relevant documents. We analysed data first within and then across the case studies. Our dataset included 214 interviews, 24 observations and 18 documents. We developed a taxonomy of factors underlying unintended safety threats in: (1) suboptimal system design, including lack of support for complex medication administration regimens, lack of effective integration between different systems, and lack of effective automated decision support tools; (2) inappropriate use of systems-in particular, too much reliance on the system and introduction of workarounds; and (3) suboptimal implementation strategies resulting from partial roll-outs/dual systems and lack of appropriate training. We have identified a number of system and organisational strategies that could potentially avoid or reduce these risks. Imperfections in the design, implementation and use of ePrescribing systems can give rise to unintended consequences, including safety threats. Hospitals and suppliers need to implement short- and long-term strategies in terms of the

  13. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda.

  14. From insulation contracting to radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    As the definition of house doctor has evolved over the past ten years and the field of energy services has grown more sophisticated, many contractors have expanded the services they offer their clients. This paper presents the story of one insulation contractor who has found a niche in radon testing and mitigation. The EPA now has a national program for the radon mitigator called the Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. The requirements include attending the Radon Technology for Mitigators course, passing an exam, and taking continuing education. In the Midwest, the most popular mitigation technique is the subslab depressurization system. To draw suction from under the slab, the system can take advantage of an existing sump crock or can penetrate the slab. Interior drain tiles collect water to empty into the crock, providing an excellent pathway to draw from. This mitigation process is explained

  15. Impact of human Campylobacter infections in Southeast Asia: The contribution of the poultry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Krishanthi Jayarukshi Kumari; Satharasinghe, Dilan Amila; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-12-12

    Campylobacter is globally recognized as a major cause of foodborne infection in humans, whilst the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of repelling therapy increase the threat to public health. Poultry is the most frequent source of Campylobacter infection in humans, and southeast Asia is a global leader in poultry production, consumption, and exports. Though three of the world's top 20 most populated countries are located in southeast Asia, the true burden of Campylobacter infection in the region has not been fully elucidated. Based on published data, Campylobacter has been reported in humans, animals, and food commodities in the region. To our knowledge, this study is the first to review the status of human Campylobacter infection in southeast Asia and to discuss future perspectives. Gaining insight into the true burden of the infection and prevalence levels of Campylobacter spp. in the southeast Asian region is essential to ensuring global and regional food safety through facilitating improvements in surveillance systems, food safety regulations, and mitigation strategies.

  16. Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojin; Song, Chul-han; Park, Rae Seol; Park, Mi Eun; Han, Kyung man; Kim, Jhoon; Choi, Myungje; Ghim, Young Sung; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2016-04-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70{%}, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample

  17. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release...of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests ii UNCLAS\\\\Public | CG-926 RDC A. Balsley & Dr. M. Fitzpatrick | Public | June 2017 N...06320 Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests iii UNCLAS\\\\Public | CG-926 RDC A. Balsley & Dr. M. Fitzpatrick | Public

  18. Blind I/Q imbalance and nonlinear ISI mitigation in Nyquist-SCM direct detection system with cascaded widely linear and Volterra equalizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ju, Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Nyquist-SCM signal after fiber transmission, direct detection (DD), and analog down-conversion suffers from linear ISI, nonlinear ISI, and I/Q imbalance, simultaneously. Theoretical analysis based on widely linear (WL) and Volterra series is given to explain the relationship and interaction of these three interferences. A blind equalization algorithm, cascaded WL and Volterra equalizer, is designed to mitigate these three interferences. Furthermore, the feasibility of the proposed cascaded algorithm is experimentally demonstrated based on a 40-Gbps data rate 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) virtual single sideband (VSSB) Nyquist-SCM DD system over 100-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission. In addition, the performances of conventional strictly linear equalizer, WL equalizer, Volterra equalizer, and cascaded WL and Volterra equalizer are experimentally evaluated, respectively.

  19. Asia electricity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    Electricity demand in Asia has grown and continues to grow rapidly. Over 40 per cent of the world's growth in electricity output up to 2010 is expected to come from China and East and South Asia. The need to build the additional production capacity to meet demand is the driving force behind the major structural and institutional changes that are presently transforming the electricity sectors throughout the region. The Asia Electricity Study looks in detail at the current and future role of the electricity sectors in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. It analyses existing and planned electricity policies in areas such as financing regulation, environment and end-use efficiency. To build the region's power infrastructure will require large investments, well beyond what governments or multilateral lending institutions can provide. Consequently, mobilizing private sector participation in the process is vital. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are being allowed to enter what has, until recently, been a government-dominated field. State-owned utilities are being corporatized and/or privatized to improve their competitiveness. Developing the regulatory environment to match the changes taking place is a key challenge. The significant expansion of generation capacity in Asia will have implications well beyond the region. Changes in energy trade volumes and patterns, caused by the need to obtain fuel for power stations, will have an impact on the energy security of Asia and the world as a whole Similarly, fuel and technology choices will have important consequences for both the regional and global environment. (author)

  20. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  1. 'Barreira ativa': a new concept of mitigation system dedicated to the environment; Barreira ativa: um novo conceito de mitigacao dedicado ao meio-ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andre A. de; Camerini, Daniel A.; Ferreira, Rodrigo Carvalho; Lima, Vinicius de Carvalho [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Reis, Ney Robinson Salvi dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil spill in water environments (sea, lakes and rivers) causes big social, economic, and environmental impacts. Upon the techniques of contingency, the first providence adopted is the superficial confinement, using conventional containment booms. The Also available systems require complex logistic of installation, and generally do not obtain ideal indices of contention, besides that, they need subsequent phases of collect and handling the pollutant. We present a new concept, already patented, and developed specially for these situations of contingency - the 'Barreira Ativa'. The innovative concept of this proposal is the collector system incorporated to the traditional booms. The pumping system is continuous and assembled to a series of lateral modules which offers the ability to recover and collect oil spill. Positioned in the oil spill region, it permits the pollutant capture that is pumped to special tanks. Thus, beyond it contains the oil advancement , Barreira Ativa also collects it. In this work we show the principle of operation, the field test results, discussing the efficacy and the future possibilities. Also we present a project for an automated system to mitigate oil spill in aquatic environments. The system integrates the Barreira Ativa with sensors and cameras to monitoring the area, and satellite communication. (author)

  2. A Tale of Amalgamation of Three Permo-Triassic Collage Systems in Central Asia: Oroclines, Sutures, and Terminal Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Sun, Shu; Li, Jiliang; Huang, Baochun; Han, Chunming; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Chen, Hanlin

    2015-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt records the accretion and convergence of three collage systems that were finally rotated into two major oroclines. The Mongolia collage system was a long, N-S-oriented composite ribbon that was rotated to its current orientation when the Mongol-Okhotsk orocline was formed. The components of the Kazakhstan collage system were welded together into a long, single composite arc that was bent to form the Kazakhstan orocline. The cratons of Tarim and North China were united and sutured by the Beishan orogen, which terminated with formation of the Solonker suture in northern China. All components of the three collage systems were generated by the Neoproterozoic and were amalgamated in the Permo-Triassic. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt evolved by multiple convergence and accretion of many orogenic components during multiple phases of amalgamation, followed by two phases of orocline rotation.

  3. Low-Carbon Competitiveness in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Srivastav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the risks from climate change have strengthened the need for cleaner forms of economic growth. Using patent, trade and output data, we measure the current size of Asia’s low-carbon economy and assess its competitiveness across key sectors. We look at three success factors for low-carbon competitiveness at the sector level: the ability to convert to low-carbon products and processes (measured by a specialization in low-carbon innovation, the ability to gain and maintain market share (measured by existing comparative advantages and a favorable starting point (measured by current output and scale. Using this framework, we identify the ‘climate change mitigation technologies’ that Asian countries specialize in and can potentially scale up. The analysis shows that Asia’s top low-carbon economies are Japan, South Korea and China. The sectors in which Asia is particularly well placed to be globally competitive include efficient lighting, photovoltaics and energy storage. Overall, Asia is a specialist in innovating and exporting climate change mitigation technologies but there are significant regional disparities.

  4. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  5. Drought monitoring and warning system of rice paddy field in Asia by MTSAT and GSMaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, W.; Darmawan, S.; Oyoshi, K.

    2014-12-01

    This research focuses on a development of satellite-based drought monitoring warning system in Asian Pacific country. Drought condition of cropland is evaluated by using Keeth-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) computed from rainfall measurements with GSMaP product, land surface temperature by MTSAT product and vegetation phenology by MODIS NDVI product at daily basis. The derived information is disseminated as a system for an application of space based technology (SBT) in the implementation of the Core Agriculture Support Program. The benefit of this system are to develop satellite-based drought monitoring and early warning system in Asian counties using freely available data, and to develop capacity of policy makers in those countries to apply the developed system in policy making. A series of training program has been carried out in 2013 and 2014 to officers and researchers of ministry of agriculture and relevant agencies in Greater Mekong Subregion countries including Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. This system is running as fully operational and can be accessed at http://webgms.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/DMEWS/

  6. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  7. Snow Radiance Data Assimilation over High Mountain Asia Using the NASA Land Information System and a Well-Trained Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.; Forman, B. A.; Yoon, Y.; Kumar, S.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) has been progressively losing ice and snow in recent decades, which could negatively impact regional water supply and native ecosystems. One goal of this study is to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of snow (and ice) across the HMA region. In addition, modeled snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates will be enhanced through the assimilation of passive microwave brightness temperatures (TB) collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) as part of a radiance assimilation system. The radiance assimilation framework includes the NASA Land Information System (LIS) in conjunction with a well-trained support vector machine (SVM) that acts as the observation operator. The Noah Land Surface Model with multi-parameterization options (Noah-MP) is used as the prior model for simulating snow dynamics. Noah-MP is forced by meteorological fields from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) atmospheric reanalysis for the periods 01 Sep. 2002 to 01 Sep. 2011. The radiance assimilation system requires two separate phases: 1) training and 2) assimilation. During the training phase, a nonlinear SVM is generated for three different AMSR-E frequencies - 10.65, 18.7, and 36.5 GHz - at both vertical and horizontal polarization. The trained SVM is then used to predict TB during the assimilation phase. An ensemble Kalman filter will be used to condition the model on AMSR-E brightness temperatures not used during SVM training. The performance of the Noah-MP (with and without radiance assimilation) will be assessed via comparison to in-situ measurements, remotely-sensing geophysical retrievals, and other reanalysis products.

  8. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  10. A satellite for Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John D. R.

    In April 1990, an American satellite will be launched by China on the Long March 3 rocket. This satellite, called AsiaSat 1 will provide domestic telecommunications service to the countries of Asia. AsiaSat 1 is designed to provide satellite communications services to China, Thailand and Pakistan. These services will also be available for the use of neighboring countries such as Korea, Hong Kong, Burma and Nepal. As an independently financed satellite, it will provide services to each of these countries on an equal access basis and will be shared by these countries depending on their needs. The satellite's 24 C-band transponders will be leased or sold to customers in each of these countries. Transponders will be used for many purposes including back-up to national telephone networks, new private network services and the distribution of television programs.

  11. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-22

    006037 JPRS-SEA-85-129 2 2 August 198 5 Southeast Asia Report -minim .... -«trw.ni i i ^.„ .iB^n^jj^j Äpfwovsd to pabEa «stea»«f...Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 222U1. JPRS-SEA-85-129 22 August 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT...Jun 85) Equality Between State Enterprises, Cooperatives Sought ^ ^ (NHAN DAN, 18 Jun 85) POPULATION , CUSTOMS AND CULTURE NHAN DAN Sounds Alarm

  13. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-05

    MR) will be titled EAST ASIA/ KOREA (KAR). The MONGOLIAN REPORT (MOM) will be titled EAST ASIA/MONGOLIA (MON). KOREA : KULLOJA (AKU) will be issued...session of the SPA " Seventh Naiional Assembly t! parses a resolu- tion on soeio cconcnii • development for liiir, ; the draft Slate l)ud"iV ioi Is...8217.’ Deeemne:- 1 !):’■’. 3 — Ö. A Vietnamese’ tourism delegation headed by Tran Quoc Huong, secretary of the CPV CC and head of the General Department

  14. Nuclear power in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association reports that Asia is the only region in the world where electricity generating capacity and specifically nuclear power is growing significantly. In East and South Asia, there are over 109 nuclear power reactors in operation, 18 under construction and plans to build about a further 100. The greatest growth in nuclear generation is expected in China, Japan, South Korea and India. As a member of the SE Asian community, Australia cannot afford to ignore the existence and growth of nuclear power generation on its door step, even if it has not, up to now, needed to utilise this power source

  15. East Asia: Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-18

    243113 JPRS-KAR-88-015 18 JULY 1988 -JPRS Repor East Asia Korea \\s #^ \\fl """telST^BXrtiOl^ blArEMENT Appro^6^ foi pub Distribution... Asia Korea JPRS-KAR-88-015 CONTENTS 18 July 1988 OLYMPICS TONG-A ILBO Discusses Co-Hosting Possibility SOUTH KOREA POLITICAL PPD Requests...tries should be thoroughly investigated. The main opposition party also called for an investiga- tion into whether an alleged bribe worth 6.25

  16. AUTOPARK and DOSISPARK. Two modules of the software system for assessment and mitigation of radionuclide deposition and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.; Bleher, M.; Stapel, R.; Jakob, P.; Eklund, J.; Luczak-Ulrik, D.

    1994-09-01

    The PARK software system as a part of the IMIS system performs the processing of the measured ambient radioactivity data so as to allow full-scale analyses to be made of the topical radiological situation across Germany, or prospective analyses. The PARK data are intended to serve as the database for large-area ambient radioactivity assessment in the event of a radiological emergency, and as a basis for decisions to be taken for remedial action and recommended protective provisions. The software system relies essentially on the dynamic food chain model called ECOSYS-87, and comprises the sub-systems AUTOPARK, DIAPARK, and DOSISPARK. The core system is the largely automated sub-system AUTOPARK which at highest performance level of the entire IMIS system, as provided for in section 2 of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, (StrVG), processes the measured data of the federal monitoring stations, and the results of the atmospheric dispersion computations contributed by the German Weather Service. In the event of a radiological emergency, AUTOPARK delivers the data for fast assessment of the given and prospective contamination of essential agricultural produce and of the radiation dose to the population, as well as data for assessment of the effects achieved by remedial action. DOSISPARK is the module applied in routine operation of the IMIS system for assessment of radiation doses to the population. The report explains the procedure for routine dose calculations and the permanent data base (as e.g. dose coefficients) maintained for this purpose, which also is available for emergency data processing with the AUTOPARK module. DIAPARK is a dialog-controlled software system. It allows analysis of specific problems in the wake of an emergency, as for example changes in the composition of animal feed, on the basis of data delivered by AUTOPARK, indicating the nuclide deposition and accumulation in soil and vegetation. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Deixis mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnik Olga Gennadievna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the deictic mitigation as a special type of mitigation devices directed at distancing the speaker from the content of the utterance. In most cases, the point of reference coincides with the speaker. It is well known that the main types of deixis are person, place and time. It was found out that the deixis of place does not play a significant role in the expression of the mitigation strategy. The research has revealed that reference to both the time and the person coordinates of the deictic center plays an important part in the development of mitigating strategies. The main distancing strategy with the help of the time deixis is the usage of conditional forms of verbs. In addition to mitigating strategy underlying deictic shift along the temporal coordinate the speakers could use metaphoric shift along the coordinates of the speech act. It was proved that the deletion of the speech act participants’ identity (the indefinite pronoun one, the agentless passive construction, and the pseudo-inclusive pronoun we. one can get the mitigating effect. The partial deictic shift from the speaker’s coordinate towards the listener brings about a particular perlocutionary effect: it diminishes the speaker’s role. The authors come to a conclusion about the necessity of highlighting the mitigating function of deixis, which is a kind of Deixis ad Phantasma but not as the secondary, narrative deixis but as the primary dialogue deixis referring to the information implied in the utterance.

  18. Energy challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquet, V.

    2007-01-01

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation during the 60's and 70's

  19. Central Asia | Page 180 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the food systems of South Asia, the margin between cultivated and uncultivated biodiversity dissolves through women's day-to-day practice of collecting and cooking food, constituting a feminine landscape. The authors bring this practice to light, and demonstrate the value of food production and consumption systems that ...

  20. Environmental implications of dairy sheep supply chain and evaluation of climate change mitigation actions for Sardinian sheep farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vagnoni, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of small ruminant sector to overall livestock GHG emissions is quite significant and the optimization of environmental performances by the way of eco-innovation is considered a valid strategy to improve the competitiveness of Mediterranean dairy sheep systems. Despite their significant role in environmental and socio-economic terms, little research has been conducted on the environmental implications of dairy sheep production systems. In this context, the main aim of this ...

  1. Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary...

  2. Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary...

  3. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  4. Evaluation of dual-mode rainwater harvesting system to mitigate typhoon-induced water shortage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Liaw, C-H

    2010-01-01

    The water shortage of today's world is one of the most challenging problems and the world is looking for the best solution to reduce it. Some human made causes and also natural causes are liable for the shortage of the existing water supply system. In Taiwan, especially during typhoon, the turbidity of raw water increases beyond the treatment level and the plant cannot supply required amount of water. To make the system effective, a couple of days are needed and the shortage occurs. The purpose of this study is to solve this emergency shortage problem. A dual-mode Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) was designed for this study as a supplement to the existing water supply system to support some selected non-potable components such as toilet and urinal flushing of an elementary school. An optimal design algorithm was developed using YAS (yield after spillage) and YBS (yield before spillage) release rules. The study result proved that an optimum volume of tank can solve the emergency water shortage properly. The system was found to be more reliable in Taipei area than that of Tainan area. The study also discovered that a government subsidy would be needed to promote the system in Taiwan.

  5. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  6. Mitigation Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

  7. Paleoseismology of Sinistral-Slip Fault System, Focusing on the Mae Chan Fault, on the Shan Plateau, SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, E. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Wiwegwin, W.; Weldon, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Shan Plateau, which includes portions of Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam lies between the dextral NS-trending Sagaing and SE-trending Red River faults and contains 14 active E-W sinistral-slip faults, including the Mae Chan Fault (MCF) in northern Thailand. The last ground-rupturing earthquake to occur on the broader sinistral fault system was the M6.8 Tarlay earthquake in Myanmar in March 2011 on the Nam Ma fault immediately north of the MCF the last earthquake to occur on the MCF was a M4.0 in the 5th century that destroyed the entire city of Wiang Yonok (Morley et al., 2011). We report on a trenching study of the MCF, which is part of a broader study to create a regional seismic hazard map of the entire Shan Plateau. By studying the MCF, which appears to be representative of the sinistral faults, and easy to work on, we hope to characterize both it and the other unstudied faults in the system. As part of a paleoseismology training course we dug two trenches at the Pa Tueng site on the MCF, within an offset river channel and the trenches exposed young sediment with abundant charcoal (in process of dating), cultural artifacts, and evidence for the last two (or three) ground-rupturing earthquakes on the fault. We hope to use the data from this site to narrow the recurrence interval, which is currently to be 2,000-4,000 years and the slip rate of 1-2 mm/year, being developed at other sites on the fault. By extrapolating the data of the MCF to the other faults we will have a better understanding of the whole fault system. Once we have characterized the MCF, we plan to use geomorphic offsets and strain rates from regional GPS to relatively estimate the activity of the other faults in this sinistral system.

  8. A Comparison of Japanese and British Colonial Policy in Asia and their Effect on Indigenous Educational Systems Through 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    however, three recurring themes. First was the belief in the existence of the emperor as the highest power in the state. Second was the filial piety and...placed on loyalty and filial piety .59 Thus, education assumed an indoctrinating role and Japanese authorities placed education for individual growth on...and its inherent principles of loyalty and filial piety .62 Both systems stressed the importance of practical learning to serve the good of the state as

  9. Use of probabilistic safety analysis for design of emergency mitigation systems in hydrogen producer plant with sulfur-iodine technology, Section II: sulfuric acid decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, A.; Nelson E, P. F.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Over the last decades, the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases has prompted the development of technologies for the production of clean fuels through the use of primary energy resources of zero emissions, as the heat of nuclear reactors of high temperature. Within these technologies, one of the most promising is the hydrogen production by sulfur-iodine cycle coupled to a high temperature reactor initially proposed by General Atomics. By their nature and because it will be large-scale plants, the development of these technologies from its present phase to its procurement and construction, will have to incorporate emergency mitigation systems in all its parts and interconnections to prevent undesired events that could put threaten the plant integrity and the nearby area. For the particular case of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle, most analysis have focused on hydrogen explosions and failures in the primary cooling systems. While these events are the most catastrophic, is that there are also many other events that even taking less direct consequences, could jeopardize the plant operation, the people safety of nearby communities and carry the same economic consequences. In this study we analyzed one of these events, which is the formation of a toxic cloud prompted by uncontrolled leakage of concentrated sulfuric acid in the second section of sulfur-iodine process of General Atomics. In this section, the sulfuric acid concentration is near to 90% in conditions of high temperature and positive pressure. Under these conditions the sulfuric acid and sulfur oxides from the reactor will form a toxic cloud that the have contact with the plant personnel could cause fatalities, or to reach a town would cause suffocation, respiratory problems and eye irritation. The methodology used for this study is the supported design in probabilistic safety analysis. Mitigation systems were postulated based on the isolation of a possible leak, the neutralization of a pond of

  10. Water uptake depth analyses using stable water isotopes in rice-based cropping systems in Southeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Orlowski, Natalie; Racela, Healthcliff S. U.; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crop in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice-based cropping systems will help to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study were to (1) determine the contributions of various water sources to plant growth in diversified rice-based production systems (wet rice, aerobic rice) (2) investigate water uptake depths at different maturity periods during wet and dry conditions, and (3) calculate WUE of the cropping systems. Our field experiment is based on changes of stable water isotope concentrations in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum due to transpiration and evaporation. Soil samples were collected together with root sampling from nine different depths under vegetative, reproductive, and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples were extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Groundwater, surface water, rain, and irrigation water were sampled weekly. All water samples were analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) via a laser spectroscope (Los Gatos DLT100). The direct inference approach, which is based on comparing isotopic compositions between plant stem water and soil water, were used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These estimations were used to determine the proportion of water from upper soil horizons and deep horizons for rice in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Shallow soil water has the higher evaporation than from deeper soil water where the highest evaporation effect is at 5 cm depth (drying front). Water uptake is mostly taking place from surface water in the vegetative and between 5-10 cm in the reproductive period, since roots have grown widely and deeper in the reproductive stage. This will be

  11. Heart Transplantation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Young; Oh, Byung-Hee

    2017-04-25

    Heart transplantation (HTx) is the effective way to improve quality of life as well as survival in terminal heart failure (HF) patients. Since the first heart transplant in 1968 in Japan and in earnest in 1987 at Taiwan, HTx has been continuously increasing in Asia. Although the current percentage of heart transplants from Asia comprises only 5.7% of cases in the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) registry, the values were under-reported and soon will be greatly increased. HTx in Asia shows comparable with or even better results compared with ISHLT registry data. Several endemic infections, including type B hepatitis, tuberculosis, and cytomegalovirus, are unique aspects of HTx in Asia, and need special attention in transplant care. Although cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is considered as a leading cause of death after HTx globally, multiple observations suggest less prevalence and benign nature of CAV among Asian populations. Although there are many obstacles such as religion, social taboo or legal process, Asian countries will keep overcoming obstacles and broaden the field of HTx.

  12. Multicultural Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  13. Value-based approaches to healthcare systems and pharmacoeconomics requirements in Asia: South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Asian healthcare systems are very diverse, representing cultures, political systems and economies from more than 30 countries with varying histories. Despite the diversity in the region, there has been enormous growth in health economics and outcomes research since the beginning of the 21st century. Whilst Japan has seen very limited use of health technology assessment (HTA), South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand have had remarkable success in establishing government agencies for HTA, employing HTA concepts from the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). These three countries are driven by the following common factors: (i) a desire to establish universal healthcare insurance coverage in their respective nations; (ii) the need for rational allocation of scarce resources; (iii) a desire for government to provide leadership in HTA; and (iv) availability of HTA professionals and faculties through international networks. The HTA models introduced by these three countries are both similar to and different from those of HTA agencies in Europe, but might work well as examples for other countries in the region.

  14. Incentives for methane mitigation and energy-efficiency improvements in the case of Ukraine's natural gas transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of anthropogenic methane emissions into the atmosphere in Ukraine. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine's natural gas transmission company, Ukrtransgaz. The company's investments into system upgrades, along with a 34% fall in throughput, resulted in reduction of Ukrtransgaz system's own consumption of natural gas by 68% in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine's transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine's natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of the most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of several factors has created conditions for successful reductions in methane emissions and combustion. These factors include: an eightfold increase in the price of imported natural gas; comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, such as the Laws of Ukraine on Protecting the Natural Environment and on Air Protection; policies aimed at integration with European Union's energy market and accession to the Energy Community Treaty; and the country's participation in international cooperation on environment, such

  15. Mitigation win-win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  16. Appalachian Stream Mitigation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 5 day workshop in 2011 developed for state and federal regulatory and resource agencies, who review, comment on and/or approve compensatory mitigation plans for surface coal mining projects in Appalachia

  17. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  18. Development of an integrated model for energy systems planning and carbon dioxide mitigation under uncertainty - Tradeoffs between two-level decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S W; Li, Y P; Xu, L P

    2018-07-01

    A bi-level fuzzy programming (BFLP) method was developed for energy systems planning (ESP) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) mitigation under uncertainty. BFLP could handle fuzzy information and leader-follower problem in decision-making processes. It could also address the tradeoffs among different decision makers in two decision-making levels through prioritizing the most important goal. Then, a BFLP-ESP model was formulated for planning energy system of Beijing, in which the upper-level objective is to minimize CO 2 emission and the lower-level objective is to minimize the system cost. Results provided a range of decision alternatives that corresponded to a tradeoff between system optimality and reliability under uncertainty. Compared to the single-level model with a target to minimize system cost, the amounts of pollutant/CO 2 emissions from BFLP-ESP were reduced since the study system would prefer more clean energies (i.e. natural gas, LPG and electricity) to replace coal fuel. Decision alternatives from BFLP were more beneficial for supporting Beijing to adjust its energy mix and enact its emission-abatement policy. Results also revealed that the low-carbon policy for power plants (e.g., shutting down all coal-fired power plants) could lead to a potentially increment of imported energy for Beijing, which would increase the risk of energy shortage. The findings could help decision makers analyze the interactions between different stakeholders in ESP and provide useful information for policy design under uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and improvement of historical emission inventory in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, J. I.; Yumimoto, K.; Itahashi, S.; Maki, T.; Nagashima, T.; Ohara, T.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of economy and population, Asia becomes the largest emitter regions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases in the world. To tackle this problem, it is essential to understand the current status and past trend and to estimate effectiveness of mitigation measures using monitoring data, air quality and climate models, and emission inventories. We developed a historical emission inventory in Asia for 1950-2010 base on Regional Emission Inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2. In these 6 decades, emissions of all species in Asia showed remarkable increases. Recently, the largest emitter country in Asia is China. However, in 1960s, Japan is the largest emitter country for SO2 till about 1970 and NOx till about 1980, respectively. We surveyed effectiveness of abatement measures on NOx emissions in Japan and China. In Japan, the largest effective mitigation measure is regulation for motor vehicles. In 2010, reduced amounts of NOx emissions were estimated to be 2.7 time larger than actual emissions. For China, until 2010, the most effective mitigation measure is low-NOx burner installed in power plants. Regulation of motor vehicles also assumed to reduce NOx emissions from road transport by 40% compared to those without regulations in 2010. We roughly expanded the period of NOx emissions in China and Japan till 2012 and trend between 2008 and 2012 were compared with top-down emissions estimated using inverse modeling technique and satellite observations. Compared to top-down emissions, trends of the bottom-up emissions in China (Japan) overestimated increased (decreased) ratios in 2008-2012. For China, our emissions seem to underestimate the penetration rates of FGD for NOx installed in power plants. On the other hand, decreased rates of NOx emission factors for road vehicles in Japan might be overestimated in our emissions. These differences will be reconsidered to update our bottom-up emission inventory.

  20. Research and Development initiative of Satellite Technology Application for Environmental Issues in Asia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Sobue, S.; Oyoshi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change and human activities are directly or indirectly influence the acceleration of environmental problems and natural hazards such as forest fires, drought and floods in the Asia-Pacific countries. Satellite technology has become one of the key information sources in assessment, monitoring and mitigation of these hazards and related phenomenon. However, there are still gaps between science and application of space technology in practical usage. Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) recommended to initiate the Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) proposal providing opportunity to potential user agencies in the Asia Pacific region to develop prototype applications of space technology for number of key issues including forest resources management, coastal monitoring and management, agriculture and food security, water resource management and development user-friendly tools for application of space technology. The main activity of SAFE is SAFE prototyping. SAFE prototyping is a demonstration for end users and decision makers to apply space technology applications for solving environmental issues in Asia-Pacific region. By utilizing space technology and getting technical support by experts, prototype executers can develop the application system, which could support decision making activities. SAFE holds a workshop once a year. In the workshop, new prototypes are approved and the progress of on-going prototypes are confirmed. Every prototype is limited for two years period and all activities are operated by volunteer manner. As of 2016, 20 prototypes are completed and 6 prototypes are on-going. Some of the completed prototypes, for example drought monitoring in Indonesia were applied to operational use by a local official organization.

  1. The End of Population Growth in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, W.; Scherbov, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents probabilistic population projections for five regions of Asia (South Asia, Central Asia, China region, Pacific OECD and Pacific Asia) and Asia as a whole. Over this century, Asia will experience a very heterogeneous demographic development: Central Asia is still expected to almost double its population and South Asia will become by far the worlds most populous region, rapidly surpassing the China region. Simultaneously, todays Pacific OECD countries are likely to shrink in...

  2. Injury mitigation estimates for an intersection driver assistance system in straight crossing path crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, John M; Sherony, Rini; Gabler, Hampton C

    2017-05-29

    Accounting for one fifth of all crashes and one sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States, intersection crashes are among the most frequent and fatal crash modes. Intersection advanced driver assistance systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of crashes and number of vehicles with a seriously injured driver (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 3+) that could be prevented or reduced if, for every straight crossing path (SCP) intersection crash, one of the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS. This study retrospectively simulated 448 U.S. SCP crashes as if one of the vehicles had been equipped with I-ADAS. Crashes were reconstructed to determine the path and speeds traveled by the vehicles. Cases were then simulated with I-ADAS. A total of 30 variations of I-ADAS were considered in this study. These variations consisted of 5 separate activation timing thresholds, 3 separate computational latency times, and 2 different I-ADAS response modalities (i.e., a warning or autonomous braking). The likelihood of a serious driver injury was computed for every vehicle in every crash using impact delta-V. The results were then compiled across all crashes in order to estimate system effectiveness. The model predicted that an I-ADAS that delivers an alert to the driver has the potential to prevent 0-23% of SCP crashes and 0-25% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. Conversely, an I-ADAS that autonomously brakes was found to have the potential to prevent 25-59% of crashes and 38-79% of vehicles with a seriously injured driver. I-ADAS effectiveness is a strong function of design. Increasing computational latency time from 0 to 0.5 s was found to reduce crash and injury prevention estimates by approximately one third. For an I-ADAS that delivers an alert, crash/injury prevention effectiveness was found to be very sensitive to

  3. Women and militarization in South Asia: Media Research Fellowships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Panos South Asia and IDRC are working together on “Bringing Women's Voices into the Mainstream: A Media Research Fellowship on Women and ... Women and militarization in South Asia: Media Research Fellowships ... Highlight: The need for victim support services in India's Criminal Justice System.

  4. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    in the wastewater receiving rivers in Hanoi and pore water was extracted from the sediment under anaerobic conditions. Total concentrations of about 34 elements were determined in water spinach, soil, sediment and pore water. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations were determined in liver, skin and muscle tissue of fish...... than 11% of the tolerable intake for each element. The PTE content of water spinach in Hanoi and Cheung Ek Lake in Phnom Penh constituted low food safety risks for consumers. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle, skin and liver of fish grown in wastewater-fed systems in Hanoi and Phnom were low...... and in most cases below the detection limit. However, mean Cd and Pb concentrations in liver of tilapia were 0.366 and 0.31 mg kg-1 f.w., respectively. Arsenic concentrations in skin of tilapia had a mean of 0.15 mg kg-1 f.w. Mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in skin of blackskin catfish caught in Phnom...

  5. Analysis on long-term perspective of nuclear energy in the global energy system in terms of CO2 mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Uotani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The value of nuclear energy is analyzed for prevention of global warming and climate change by means of a global energy model, which finds the cost minimum energy system over the time range of 2000 - 2100. Six scenarios are examined in this analysis, considering two scenarios of economic growth rate, two scenarios of electrification rate, and FBR introduction or not. The results indicate that progress of electricity generation is the key to reduce the global CO 2 emission, and the role of FBRs with its nuclear fuel cycle is very robust against any economic conditions. (author)

  6. A Global System of in situ Sensors, Communication Satellites and in situ Actuators Dedicated to the Nearly-Real-Time Detection and Mitigation of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, M.

    2009-05-01

    Most of the ~ 230,000 lives lost in the Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 could have been saved if the victims had had 5 - 15 minutes notice of the tsunami's arrival, provided that the local authorities had had some evacuation plan in place, e.g. running up hill when a klaxon sounded, or retreating to low cost shelters constructed to provide a vertical escape from inundation. Similar structures, equipped with supplies of drinking water, food, blankets, etc., could save countless thousands of people from drowning in flood-prone locations such as Bangladesh or the delta region of Burma, or dying in the aftermath of such events. Given sufficiently rapid communications, a disaster nowcasting system could also order the closing of gas mains, or the powering down of electricity networks, as well as the sounding of klaxons, only tens of seconds before an earthquake wave strikes a major city such as Los Angeles. The central and critical requirement for mitigating natural disasters is two-way communication. Imagine a globally accessible internet collecting event-triggered messages from arrays of sensors (that detect inundation, for example) so they can be analyzed by centralized computer systems in nearly real-time, which then send instructions to alarm systems and actuators in the areas at risk. (Of course, local authorities would have to be involved in planning the local responses to alarms, in constructing rescue facilities, and in educating their populations accordingly). Only a constellation of satellites could provide a communications system with global accessibility and the required robustness. Such an infrastructure would allow the international community to exploit the many common elements in the detection, assessment and response to unfolding disasters. I shall describe some of the elements of such a system, for which I propose the working name CELERITY.

  7. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  8. Peritoneal Dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Vickie Wai-Ki; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing demand of dialysis in Asia for end-stage renal failure patients. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries in Asia. The growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Asia is significant and seeing a good trend. With the enhanced practices of PD, the quality of care in PD in Asia is also improved. Overall, PD and hemodialysis (HD) are comparable in clinical outcome. There is a global trend in the reduction of peritonitis rates and Asian countries also witness such improvement. The socio-economic benefits of PD for end-stage renal failure patients in both urban and rural areas in the developed and developing regions of Asia are an important consideration. This can help to reduce the financial burden of renal failure in addressing the growing demand of patients on dialysis. Initiatives should be considered to further drive down the cost of PD in Asia. Growing demand for dialysis by an increasing number of end-stage renal failure patients requires the use of a cost-effective quality dialysis modality. PD is found to be comparable to HD in outcome and quality. In most countries in Asia, PD should be more cost-effective than HD. A 'PD-first' or a 'PD as first considered therapy' policy can be an overall strategy in many countries in Asia in managing renal failure patients, taking the examples of Hong Kong and Thailand. (1) PD is cheaper than HD and provides a better quality of life worldwide, but its prevalence is significantly lower than that of HD in all countries, with the exception of Hong Kong. Allowing reimbursement of PD but not HD has permitted to increase the use of PD over HD in many Asian countries like Hong Kong, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, as well as in New Zealand and Australia over the last years. In the Western world, however, HD is still promoted, and the proportion of patients treated with PD decreases. Japan remains an exception in Asia where PD penetration is very low. Lack of adequate education of

  9. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  10. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Bochenek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating

  11. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  12. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  13. Mitigating Groundwater Depletion in North China Plain with Cropping System that Alternate Deep and Shallow Rooted Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle; peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle; ryegrass–cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle; and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year. We found that, compared to WS, the SpCSpWS annual evapotranspiration was 28% lower, PWS was 19% lower and RCPWS was 14% lower. The yield per unit of water evaporated improved for wheat within any alternative rotation compared to WS, increasing up to 19%. Average soil moisture contents at the sowing date of wheat in the SpCSpWS, PWS, and RCPWS rotations were 7, 4, and 10% higher than WS, respectively. The advantage of alternative rotations was that a deep rooted crop of winter wheat reaching down to 180 cm followed shallow rooted crops (sweet potato and peanut drawing soil moisture from 0 to 120 cm. They benefited from the sequencing and vertical complementarity of soil moisture extraction. Thus, replacing the traditional crop rotation with cropping system that involves rotating with annual shallow rooted crops is promising for reducing groundwater depletion in the North China Plain.

  14. Impact of tree planting configuration on canopy interception and soil hydrological properties: Implications for flood mitigation in silvopastoral systems