Sample records for asia bohol island

  1. Zeroes do matter: the tale of the missing fishes in Cabilao Island Bohol, Philippines

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    Erwin O. Brunio


    Full Text Available Data from plankton surveys typically contain many zeroes. Pomacentrid larvae collected fromthe reef of Cabilao Island, Bohol, Philippines was typical of such data wherein 294 out of 354 tows had 0larval counts. This data is traditionally analyzed using the Poisson distribution in linear model. However,the Poisson model predicted far less zeroes and more missing pomacentrids than what is observed. Toaccount for this kind of data, this paper examined other statistical distributions that can account for theextra zeroes and the missing fishes; these are negative binomial, zero-inflated poisson, zero-inflatednegative binomial, zero-altered poisson and zero-altered negative binomial. We fitted these distributionsand Poisson with location and moon phase as covariates to identify which of the model is suited for thedata. The best model was selected based on having the lowest Akaike`s Information Criteria (AIC score.The AIC result showed that the zero-altered negative binomial distribution (ZANB with moon phase ascovariate was suitable for the current data. The ZANB model showed that zeroes contribute a significanteffect on abundance estimate; higher number of zeroes accounted for the significantly lower fishesobserved in the first quarter than in the last quarter but not on the other moon phases. Excluding thezeroes, this difference is not statistically significant. Moreover, the ZANB model also was able to predictthe actual number of zero and non-zero fishes better than the Poisson model, thus the tale of themissing fishes is explained by the inappropriateness of Poisson to fit data with many zeroes.

  2. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines

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    Vlastimil Bogdan


    Full Text Available The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates–10 mammals (including Sus philippensis, 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus. The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62; the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40. Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats’ activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats’ temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris. Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary

  3. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines. (United States)

    Bogdan, Vlastimil; Jůnek, Tomáš; Jůnková Vymyslická, Pavla


    The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus) is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates-10 mammals (including Sus philippensis), 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus). The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62); the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40). Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats' activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats' temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga) was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary rainforest and a

  4. Natural and anthropogenic hazards in the Bohol karst (United States)

    Day, Mick; Urich, Peter


    About 40% of the island of Bohol is karst landscape, and karstic hazards affect much of this area, which contains about 75% of the population of 1.1 million. The inland karst consists of broad, alluviated valleys or poljes punctuated by isolated residuals (mogotes) and separated by uplands which are dissected by underdrained and abandoned dry valley systems, themselves dismembered by polygonal enclosed depressions (cockpits) and bordered by sinuous residual interfluvial ridges, which adjacent to the enclosed depressions have been reduced to isolated or connected residual hills. With population and urbanization increasing, and as infrastructure is developed, karstic hazards are becoming more prevalent and risks are increasing. One major natural hazard is seasonal drought, which disrupts water supplies, particularly in upland areas where groundwater resources are poorly developed and residents depend on rainwater and springs. Conversely, seasonal flooding, particularly that associated with tropical storms and extreme events, causes property damage and human death, injury and displacement in the valleys. Ground surface subsidence and collapse threatens developing infrastructure, dwellings and livestock, but the potential for catastrophic karstic failure appears to be limited. Slope failure also occurs, but is not often recognized as a hazard and has not been studied in detail. Human impacts include quarrying, groundwater abstraction, groundwater contamination, urbanization, agricultural development and tourism. Less than ten percent of the karst area is within protected areas and the karst is the setting for contemporary civil strife.

  5. Brief communication "The magnitude 7.2 Bohol earthquake, Philippines"

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    A. M. F. Lagmay


    Full Text Available A devastating earthquake struck Bohol, Philippines on 15 October 2013. The earthquake originated at 12 km depth from an unmapped reverse fault, which manifested on the surface for several kilometers and with maximum vertical displacement of 3 m. The earthquake resulted in 222 fatalities with damage to infrastructure estimated at US52.06 million. Widespread landslides and sinkholes formed in the predominantly limestone region during the earthquake. These remain a significant threat to communities as destabilized hillside slopes, landslide-dammed rivers and incipient sinkholes are still vulnerable to collapse, triggered possibly by aftershocks and heavy rains in the upcoming months of November and December.

  6. Statistical Properties of the Immediate Aftershocks of the 15 October 2013 Magnitude 7.1 Earthquake in Bohol, Philippines

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    Batac Rene C.


    Full Text Available The aftershock records of the magnitude 7.1 earthquake that hit the island of Bohol in central Philippines on 15 October 2013 is investigated in the light of previous results for the Philippines using historical earthquakes. Statistics of interevent distances and interevent times between successive aftershocks recorded for the whole month of October 2013 show marked differences from those of historical earthquakes from two Philippine catalogues of varying periods and completeness levels. In particular, the distributions closely follow only the regimes of the historical distributions that were previously attributed to the strong spatio-temporal correlations. The results therefore suggest that these correlated regimes which emerged naturally from the analyses are strongly dominated by the clustering of aftershock events.

  7. Marine Meiofauna in Songculan Lagoon, Songculan, Dauis, Bohol Philippines

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    Hongayo, Menelo C


    Full Text Available Meiofaunal organisms are small animals found living in the benthic zones of both freshwater and marine habitats and are considered numerically dominant metazoans. Their presence in the benthic zone is important since they serve as links to higher trophic levels in the ecosystems. This study aimed to identify meiofaunal organisms found in Songculan Lagoon, Songculan Dauis, Bohol, Philippines; determine the physico – chemical properties of water and sediments in Songculan Lagoon; and compute and compare for relative abundance of the meiofaunal taxa. This study was limited to meiofaunal taxa identification up to class level. Sampling involves coring method. The results identified eleven (11 meiofaunal taxa namely; Netamoda, Copepod, Ostracod, Turbellaria, Gastropod, Flatworms, Gastroticha, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Rotifera and Tardigrada.

  8. The History and Characteristics of the Mobulid Ray Fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines (United States)

    Tull, Malcolm


    The fishery for mobulid rays, also known as devil rays, has been practiced in the Bohol Sea for over a century yet very little is known about its history and characteristics. This study provides the first detailed description of the mobulid ray fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines. It describes the history and evolution of the fishery from the 19th century to 2013. It characterizes the fishery based on the species targeted, gears used, the organization, catch distribution, processing, monetary value, and the market of its by-products. This paper also analyses the changes that occurred through time, the management of the fishery and the drivers of the fishery. A multi-disciplinary approach was employed by combining ethno-historical research methods and catch landing monitoring in four primary sites within the Bohol Sea. This fishery began as an artisanal fishery using sail and row boats equipped with harpoons and gaff hooks practiced in at least four coastal villages in Bohol, Camiguin and Limasawa. The fishing fleet has decreased since the beginning of the 20th century however, with the motorization of the fishery and shift to the use of gillnets, the extent of the fishing grounds and market of the products have expanded. Four species of mobulid rays are caught in the Bohol Sea: Manta birostris, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni and Mobula tarapacana. A fifth species, targeted by a fishing community off Dinagat as an off-shoot of the Bohol fishery is most likely the Manta alfredi. Currently, the fishery for mobulids is centered in Bohol Province where it has been practiced longest. The monetary value of mobulids in this region has increased and the dependence of fishing communities for their livelihood is significant. The unique characteristics of this fishery and the socio-cultural context within which it operates merits a thorough investigation in order to design the appropriate management strategy. PMID:27575536

  9. Floristic Inventory of The Proposed Site for Tarsier Tourism Center in Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol, Philippines

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    Tomas D Reyes Jr


    Keywords: floristic inventory, Philippine tarsier, Bohol, primate conservation, tourism.   Inventarisasi flora dari Situs Usulan untuk Sentra Wisata Tarsier di Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol, Filipina Abstract Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk melakukan penilaian komposisi vegetasi dari Usulan Lokasi Pusat Wisata Tarsius (ULPWT di Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol dan melakukan analisis perbandingan antara Tarsier Sanctuary (TS yang ada di Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol. Dasar perbandingan yang digunakan yaitu dengan menghitung nilai penting, kekayaan spesies, dominansi spesies, dan prosentase distribusi dari tumbuhan berdasarkan kelas diameter yang telah ditentukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedua tempat memiliki kekayaan spesies dan nilai evenness/ kemerataan yang sangat tinggi. Spesies tumbuhan yang umum ditemukan di overstorey dan understorey di kedua area adalah katagpo (Psychotria sp., sagimsim (Syzygium brevistylum [C. B. Rob]Merr., dan bagauak (Clerodendrum minahassae Teijsm. & Binn.. Selain itu, sagimsim (Syzygium brevistylum [C.B.Rob.] Merr., selaginella (Selaginella cuppresina Lin., dan lunas (Lunasia amara Blanco juga umum ditemukan di lantai hutan di kedua tempat. Prosentase distribusi dari tumbuhan berdasarkan kelas diameter yang telah ditentukan menunjukkan bahwa ULPWT memiliki 87.55% dari keseluruhan tumbuhan yang tercatat dengan ukuran diameter 20 cm. Prosentase distribusi dari pohon pada kisaran ini (khususnya pada diameter >20 cm menunjukkan adanya kehadiran pohon berukuran medium dan besar. Diameter terbesar yang terukur di ULPWT adalah 70 cm sementara di TS hanya sebesar 22 cm. Lokasi seluas 10 ha di Villa Aurora, Bilar, sesuai untuk digunakan sebagai Pusat Wisata Tarsius. Apabila akan didirikan, maka kandang yang dibangun diharapkan mirip dengan yang telah dibangun di Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol, Pilipina, agar mencegah pemangsaan oleh satwa yang lepas.

  10. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands. (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R


    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  11. Annual variation in carbon budget using remote-sensing data and a process model in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, W.; Yamagata, Y.


    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is one of the most important carbon emission reduction efforts in the tropical region. Deforestation and land use changes are human activities with major impact on the regional carbon budged and the other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) emissions. Forest carbon biomass in Southeast Asia is largest in Asia region; however, the area of primary forest had continuously decreased due to land-use conversion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate carbon budged and greenhouse gases induced by deforestation from Borneo Island. We used time-series satellite remote-sensing data to track deforestation history in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia, and estimated the resulting forest carbon budget using a process-based model (VISIT: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases). The forest/non-forest area was mapped by applying the ALOS/PALSAR-calibrated threshold value to MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and NOAA-AVHRR images. The model allowed us to estimate changes in carbon budged and greenhouse gases by human disturbances, including land-use conversion from primary forest to cropland (e.g., oil-palm plantation). The estimated carbon stocks, budged, and greenhouse gases were verified using field observation of previous studies at some point of Borneo Island. Our results suggested that the southern part of Borneo Island was a large carbon source due to deforestation, although the VISIT model need be revised to account for tropical peatland.

  12. Geology and tectonics of Japanese islands: A review - The key to understanding the geology of Asia (United States)

    Wakita, Koji


    The age of the major geological units in Japan ranges from Cambrian to Quaternary. Precambrian basement is, however, expected, as the provenance of by detrital clasts of conglomerate, detrital zircons of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and as metamorphic rocks intruded by 500 Ma granites. Although rocks of Paleozoic age are not widely distributed, rocks and formations of late Mesozoic to Cenozoic can be found easily throughout Japan. Rocks of Jurassic age occur mainly in the Jurassic accretionary complexes, which comprise the backbone of the Japanese archipelago. The western part of Japan is composed mainly of Cretaceous to Paleogene felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks and accretionary complexes. The eastern part of the country is covered extensively by Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. During the Quaternary, volcanoes erupted in various parts of Japan, and alluvial plains were formed along the coastlines of the Japanese Islands. These geological units are divided by age and origin: i.e. Paleozoic continental margin; Paleozoic island arc; Paleozoic accretionary complexes; Mesozoic to Paleogene accretionary complexes and Cenozoic island arcs. These are further subdivided into the following tectonic units, e.g. Hida; Oki; Unazuki; Hida Gaien; Higo; Hitachi; Kurosegawa; South Kitakami; Nagato-Renge; Nedamo; Akiyoshi; Ultra-Tamba; Suo; Maizuru; Mino-Tamba; Chichibu; Chizu; Ryoke; Sanbagawa and Shimanto belts. The geological history of Japan commenced with the breakup of the Rodinia super continent, at about 750 Ma. At about 500 Ma, the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate began to be subducted beneath the continental margin of the South China Block. Since then, Proto-Japan has been located on the convergent margin of East Asia for about 500 Ma. In this tectonic setting, the most significant tectonic events recorded in the geology of Japan are subduction-accretion, paired metamorphism, arc volcanism, back-arc spreading and arc-arc collision. The major accretionary

  13. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16. (United States)

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  14. Spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 2 in Asia and AbaR-type resistance islands. (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, So Hyun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; So, Thomas Man-Kit; Yasin, Rohani M D; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Carlos, Celia C; Hsu, Li Yang; Buntaran, Latre; Lalitha, M K; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo


    In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.

  15. Species Diversity of Macro-benthic Invertebrates in Mangrove and Seagrass Ecosystems of Eastern Bohol, Philippines

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    Marichu C. Libres


    Full Text Available Descriptive survey method through actual resource assessment was conducted to determine the species diversity of macro-benthic invertebrates in the mangrove forest and seagrass beds of Eastern Bohol, Philippines namely: Anda, Candijay, Mabini, and Ubay. The 4 representative sites were chosen through random sampling. In each municipality, the researcher selected a representative area wherein 3 transects were laid perpendicular to the shoreline. The assessment in each transect covered a strip of 4 m by 50 m. All macro-benthic invertebrates intercepted within 4-meter to the left and right of the transect line were identified, counted and listed in a slate board. The data gathered were subjected to Shannon-Weiner Index and Kruskal Wallis Test. In mangrove forests, results revealed that Anda got the highest species diversity index of 1.66 with 11 species. The lowest value which is 1.15 was recorded in Candijay having only five macro-benthic invertebrate species. In the 4 municipalities, a total of 12 species representing 3 phyla were identified. In seagrass beds, 19 taxa of macro-benthic invertebrates were recorded belonging to three phyla. Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that macro-benthic invertebrates in eastern part of Bohol is diverse both in mangrove forests and seagrass beds. Moreover, there is no significant difference in the species diversity among the four representative sites.

  16. Sago Research in Pacific Island Countries and Southeast Asia - A Review


    LAUFA, Terence Miro


    This is a review that critiques sago research and provides some reflections on Papua New Guinea, of which its thesis has applications and implications for PICs and Southeast Asia. These reflections are based on an ecletic review of the literature on previous and current sago palm research carried out in some SUAS in PNG, with some case references drawn from that of Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Two broad aims are pursued in the present study. Firstly, the empiricism of sago research is...

  17. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith


    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  18. Capture-recapture analysis of all-cause mortality data in Bohol, Philippines

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    Sanvictores Diozele


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of mortality data for effective planning and monitoring of health services, official reporting systems rarely capture every death. The completeness of death reporting and the subsequent effect on mortality estimates were examined in six municipalities of Bohol province in the Philippines using a system review and capture-recapture analysis. Methods Reports of deaths were collected from records at local civil registration offices, health centers and hospitals, and parish churches. Records were reconciled using a specific set of matching criteria, and both a two-source and a three-source capture-recapture analysis was conducted. For the two-source analysis, civil registry and health data were combined due to dependence between these sources and analyzed against the church data. Results Significant dependence between civil registration and health reporting systems was identified. There were 8,075 unique deaths recorded in the study area between 2002 and 2007. We found 5% to 10% of all deaths were not reported to any source, while government records captured only 77% of all deaths. Life expectancy at birth (averaged for 2002-2007 was estimated at 65.7 years and 73.0 years for males and females, respectively. This was one to two years lower than life expectancy estimated from reconciled reported deaths from all sources, and four to five years lower than life expectancy estimated from civil registration data alone. Reporting patterns varied by age and municipality, with childhood deaths more underreported than adult deaths. Infant mortality was underreported in civil registration data by 62%. Conclusions Deaths are underreported in Bohol, with inconsistent reporting procedures contributing to this situation. Uncorrected mortality measures would subsequently be misleading if used for health planning and evaluation purposes. These findings highlight the importance of ensuring that official mortality estimates

  19. Demystifying the Magic of Eskaya Writing System in Duero, Bohol, Philippines

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    Sheeryn T. Bojos


    Full Text Available This study aimed to demystify the major characteristic of Eskaya writing system which is used by the Eskayas of Duero, Bohol, Philippines. This paper also analyzed some literary works of Eskaya tribe, elaborated the existing strategies in the preservation of Eskaya script and discovered the significance of this writing according to the social lives of the Eskayas. Interviews with the chieftain and other native members of the Eskaya tribe, naturalistic observation, and documentation were used in data gathering.Results show that the Eskaya writing system is based on the position of man’s body parts which convey communicative meanings like emotional response, physical interaction, mental desire and spiritual aspiration. This writing system paved the way to the creation of variety of literature ranging from biographies, code of conduct, myths and histories which shapes the unique identity of the Eskayas. Bohol’s rich folklore radiates nationalistic identity, natural and mystical origin,indigenous way of mathematical calculation,heroic reformation, quest for knowledge, code of conduct, affinity with nature, tragic and pure love, and social regard for human and mystical connection.Due to this unique identity, strategies in the preservation of the script have been strengthened; but conformity to the use the Visayan textgreatly played a big role regarding the deterioration of the use of the Eskaya writing system. It is recommendedthat other researchers may conduct a similar study on the characteristics, syllabi, and syntax of the Eskayan writing system.

  20. The Impact of a Local Development Project on Social Capital: Evidence from the Bohol Irrigation Scheme in the Philippines

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    Hogeun Park


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between local development projects and the residents’ social capital in Bohol, The Philippines. From this perspective, we hypothesized that social behaviors of local farmers are influenced by the availability of canal irrigation due to the collective water management required in irrigated societies. By combining the results of the ultimatum game (UG with a household survey on 245 villagers in Bohol, this paper (1 measures the degree of social capital at the individual level and (2 quantifies the effects of irrigation on social capital by controlling household as well as individual characteristics. Moreover, we employed a Spatial Autoregressive model to explore the spatial effects and social contexts of farmers’ behavioral patterns. The empirical results show that the level of measured social behavior is strongly associated with access to community irrigation water and asset holdings. Additionally, increased physical distance between residents leads to a decrease in social capital, or interdependency, among them. The results suggest that community engagement (e.g., irrigation management committee and turnout service association with local development projects would not only improve agricultural productivity but also enhance social relationships among farmers, highlighting its importance.

  1. Long-term observations of black carbon mass concentrations at Fukue Island, western Japan, during 2009-2015: constraining wet removal rates and emission strengths from East Asia (United States)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Pan, Xiaole; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Taketani, Fumikazu; Uno, Itsushi; Kondo, Yutaka


    Long-term (2009-2015) observations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were performed using a continuous soot-monitoring system (COSMOS) at Fukue Island, western Japan, to provide information on wet removal rate constraints and the emission strengths of important source regions in East Asia (China and others). The annual average mass concentration was 0.36 µg m-3, with distinct seasonality; high concentrations were recorded during autumn, winter, and spring and were caused by Asian continental outflows, which reached Fukue Island in 6-46 h. The observed data were categorized into two classes, i.e., with and without a wet removal effect, using the accumulated precipitation along a backward trajectory (APT) for the last 3 days as an index. Statistical analysis of the observed ΔBC / ΔCO ratios was performed to obtain information on the emission ratios (from data with zero APT only) and wet removal rates (including data with nonzero APTs). The estimated emission ratios (5.2-6.9 ng m-3 ppb-1) varied over the six air mass origin areas; the higher ratios for south-central East China (30-35° N) than for north-central East China (35-40° N) indicated the relative importance of domestic emissions and/or biomass burning sectors. The significantly higher BC / CO emission ratios adopted in the bottom-up Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2 (8.3-23 ng m-3 ppb-1) over central East China and Korea needed to be reduced at least by factors of 1.3 and 2.8 for central East China and Korea, respectively, but the ratio for Japan was reasonable. The wintertime enhancement of the BC emission from China, predicted by REAS2, was verified for air masses from south-central East China but not for those from north-central East China. Wet removal of BC was clearly identified as a decrease in the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio against APT. The transport efficiency (TE), defined as the ratio of the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio with precipitation to that without precipitation, was

  2. Plant diversity changes during the postglacial in East Asia: insights from Forest Refugia on Halla Volcano, Jeju Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Dolezal

    Full Text Available Understanding how past climate changes affected biodiversity is a key issue in contemporary ecology and conservation biology. These diversity changes are, however, difficult to reconstruct from paleoecological sources alone, because macrofossil and pollen records do not provide complete information about species assemblages. Ecologists therefore use information from modern analogues of past communities in order to get a better understanding of past diversity changes. Here we compare plant diversity, species traits and environment between late-glacial Abies, early-Holocene Quercus, and mid-Holocene warm-temperate Carpinus forest refugia on Jeju Island, Korea in order to provide insights into postglacial changes associated with their replacement. Based on detailed study of relict communities, we propose that the late-glacial open-canopy conifer forests in southern part of Korean Peninsula were rich in vascular plants, in particular of heliophilous herbs, whose dramatic decline was caused by the early Holocene invasion of dwarf bamboo into the understory of Quercus forests, followed by mid-Holocene expansion of strongly shading trees such as maple and hornbeam. This diversity loss was partly compensated in the Carpinus forests by an increase in shade-tolerant evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas. However, the pool of these species is much smaller than that of light-demanding herbs, and hence the total species richness is lower, both locally and in the whole area of the Carpinus and Quercus forests. The strongly shading tree species dominating in the hornbeam forests have higher leaf tissue N and P concentrations and smaller leaf dry matter content, which enhances litter decomposition and nutrient cycling and in turn favored the selection of highly competitive species in the shrub layer. This further reduced available light and caused almost complete disappearance of understory herbs, including dwarf bamboo.

  3. East Asia Winter Monsoon changes inferred from environmentally sensitive grain-size component records during the last 2300 years in mud area southwest off Cheju Island, ECS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Rong; YANG Zuosheng; Yoshiki Saito; GUO Zhigang; FAN Dejiang; LI Yunhai; XIAO Shangbin; SHI Xuefa; CHEN Muhong


    Environmentally sensitive grain-size component (ESGSC) extracted from grain-size data of a sediment core B2, which were retrieved from mud area southwest off Cheju Island (MACI), East China Sea (ECS), can be used to indicate the variations of East Asia Winter Monsoon (EAWM), with high (low) content/mean-size of ESGCS denote to strong (weak) EAWM. Combined with AMS14C datings core B2 provides a continuous high-resolution record of EAWM changes over the past 2300years, with an average resolution of 13 years. The results show that the variations of EAWM are consistent with temperature changes inferred from historical documents in eastern China over the past 2300 years, from which four climate stages may be identified. In stages before 1900 aBP (50 AD) and 1450-780 aBP (50- 1170 AD) the EAWM were comparatively weak, corresponding to warm climate periods in eastern China, respectively. And in stages of 1900-1450 aBP (50-500 AD) and 780-219aBP (1170-1731 AD) the EAWM were strongly developed, which correspond well to climate changes of two cold periods in eastern China. It is also shown from this study that the stage at 780-219 aBP (1170-1731 AD) was the coldest climate period during the last 2300 years and could be, therefore,related to the Little Ice Age (LIA). Climatic fluctuations appeared obviously in all the four stages, and two climate events of abrupt changes from warm to cold occurred at around 1900 aBP (50 AD) and 780 aBP (1170 AD), of which the latter is probably related to globe-scale changes of atmospheric circulation at that time.

  4. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee


    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  5. Asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring in East Asia (Toward interdisciplinary education on the climate systems and the "seasonal feeling" such as around the Japan Islands area) (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Sato, Sari; Akagi, Rikako; Haga, Yuichi; Miyake, Shoji


    There are many steps of seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" around the Japan Islands. For example, the "wintertime pressure pattern" begins to prevail already from November due to the seasonal development of the Siberian Air mass and the Siberian High, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher than in midwinter. On the other hand, since the southward retreat of the warm moist air mass in the western Pacific area delays rather greatly to the advances of those northern systems. Thus it would be interesting to re-examine the whole seasonal cycle around the Japan Islands at the view point of how the phase differences among seasonal marches of the Asian monsoon subsystems affect the variety of the seasonal cycle there, together with their effects on the "seasonal feeling". As such, the present study will examine the asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring through midwinter around the Japan Islands as an interesting example, and will also report the joint activity with music, and so on, toward the development of an interdisciplinary study plan on such topics for the students in junior high school, high school and the faculty of education of the university. The wintertime weather pattern, i.e., precipitation in the Japan Sea side and clear day in the Pacific side of the Japan Islands, prevails from early November to early March, reflected by the seasonal cycle of the Siberian Air Mass and the Siberian High. However, the air temperature shows the minimum from late January to early February around the Japan Islands. In other words, although the dominant weather patterns around November and in early March are nearly the same as each other, air temperature is still lower in early March (early spring). In spite of that, the solar radiation is rather stronger in early

  6. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    The Lakshadweep Islands lie on the sea route between West Asia and Africa on the one hand and South Asia and the Far East on the other. In maritime history, these islands have played a vital role by providing shelter, fresh water and landmarks...

  7. Atmospheric mercury concentrations at two sites in the Kyushu Islands, Japan, and evidence of long-range transport from East Asia (United States)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takami, Akinori


    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric gaseous mercury at Fukuoka and Minamata in the Kyushu Islands, western Japan, was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013 to investigate the influence of long-range transport of mercury in the Asian region. Speciation data at Fukuoka indicated that approximately 99% of the atmospheric mercury was in the gaseous elemental form. The average concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Fukuoka was slightly higher than that of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at Minamata. Synchronous pollution events of higher concentrations of both GEM at Fukuoka and TGM at Minamata were frequently observed from late fall to early spring. We infer that these events occurred due to long-range transport of mercury rather than local, domestic emission sources because the two sites are far apart (about 150 km), and local sources would be unlikely to synchronously influence concentrations at both sites over such a long distance. The results of backward trajectory analyses indicated that these events occurred when air masses came from the Asian continent. In addition, the pollution events were often the result of cold fronts or migratory anticyclones that passed over the Kyushu Islands, often accompanied by descending cool and heavy air currents. Thus, these results indicate that, under specific climate conditions, higher concentrations of atmospheric mercury are transported to the Kyushu Islands from the Asian continent, and are evident in ground-based observations there.

  8. Effects of landscape composition and pattern on land surface temperature: An urban heat island study in the megacities of Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C; Murayama, Yuji; Myint, Soe W


    Due to its adverse impacts on urban ecological environment and the overall livability of cities, the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has become a major research focus in various interrelated fields, including urban climatology, urban ecology, urban planning, and urban geography. This study sought to examine the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and the abundance and spatial pattern of impervious surface and green space in the metropolitan areas of Bangkok (Thailand), Jakarta (Indonesia), and Manila (Philippines). Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS data and various geospatial approaches, including urban-rural gradient, multiresolution grid-based, and spatial metrics-based techniques, were used to facilitate the analysis. We found a significant strong correlation between mean LST and the density of impervious surface (positive) and green space (negative) along the urban-rural gradients of the three cities, depicting a typical UHI profile. The correlation of impervious surface density with mean LST tends to increase in larger grids, whereas the correlation of green space density with mean LST tends to increase in smaller grids, indicating a stronger influence of impervious surface and green space on the variability of LST in larger and smaller areas, respectively. The size, shape complexity, and aggregation of the patches of impervious surface and green space also had significant relationships with mean LST, though aggregation had the most consistent strong correlation. On average, the mean LST of impervious surface is about 3°C higher than that of green space, highlighting the important role of green spaces in mitigating UHI effects, an important urban ecosystem service. We recommend that the density and spatial pattern of urban impervious surfaces and green spaces be considered in landscape and urban planning so that urban areas and cities can have healthier and more comfortable living urban environments.

  9. 浅析“亚太再平衡”战略下美国与南太岛国关系的新发展%Brief Analysis on the New Development of the Relation between the U.S.and the South Pacific Islands under the Background of“Asia Pacific Rebalancing Strategy”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀琚; 叶圣萱


    历史上,美国与南太平洋岛国(以下简称“南太岛国”)有着长期而复杂的关系。自新世纪奥巴马政府实施“亚太再平衡”战略以来,美国重新提升了南太地区在其全球地缘政治安全战略中的地位,将其确立为“亚太再平衡”战略的第二道战线。美国增进了与该地区岛国的政治、安全关系,同时在经济援助、文化交流、气候变化、环境保护等方面,也加大了与南太岛国的合作。本文阐述了“亚太再平衡”战略背景下美国对南太岛国的重新定位,并探析了美国与南太岛国关系的新发展,进而提出中国的应对策略。%Historically,there was a long and complex relationship between the United States and the South Pacific islands.Since the Obama administration implemented “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”in the new century,the United States has newly promoted the status of the South Pacific region in its global geopo-litical and security strategy,and regarded this region as its second frontline of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”.The US enhances political and security relations with the islands in this region,and in the as-pects of economic assistance,cultural exchanges,climate change,and environmental protection.The Unit-ed States pushes forward cooperation with the South Pacific islands.This paper illustrates American reloca-tion towards the South Pacific islands under the background of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”,discus-ses the new development of the relation between the United States and the South Pacific islands,and then puts forward China’s replying strategies.

  10. Zoogeography of primates in insular Southeast Asia: species-area relationships and the effects of taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Meijaard, E.


    Given its complex zoogeography and large number of islands insular Southeast Asia makes an excellent subject for studying the interrelationships of species richness, island area and isolation. The islands are merely highpoints of an immense shallow continental shelf which during Pleistocene glacial

  11. ASIAS - Some History (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASIAS effort builds on demonstrations that an open exchange of information contributes to improved aviation safety. ASIAS is a comprehensive effort, covering the...

  12. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia. (United States)


    volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa, Latin America , and West Europe. Supplements to...Foreign Aid, Corporate Acceptance of Land Reform Law [WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS 18-24 Nov] ... 9 10 THAILAND Commerce Ministry Official Views...Land Reform Law 42000042 Manila WEEKLY AGRIBUSINESS in English 18-24 Nov 88 p 15 [Article under the rubric "ON THE BEAT" by Jake Espino] [Text

  13. East Asia Rolls On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The economic recovery in East Asia remains unchanged on its upward trajectory despite the earthquake and devastating tsunami in Japan on March 11.Growth in East Asia slowed after a sharp rebound from the global financial crisis but is improving nonetheless.The World Bank’s East Asia and Pacific Economic Update issued on March 21 projects real GDP growth in East Asia will be smaller than that of 2010 in the following two years.Besides future East Asian economic trends,the report also discusses the impact of the Japanese catastrophe.Edited excerpts follow:

  14. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. V. Genus Aedes, Subgenus Diceromyia Theobald in Southeast Asia (United States)


    Diceromyia) in Southeast Asia 19 paratype, NB681, from an island in the Chao Phraya River , Pak Kret, No&ha- buri, THAILAND, 16 June 1964, light trap... River (3 miles inland), Palawan and 1 from Cape Melville, Balabac to this species or Heimnannia scintillans Ludlow. Mattingly (1957: 3 2) states the

  15. Neurology in Asia. (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin


    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region.

  16. Report of the SocMon capacity development workshop for the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem countries in South Asia, St Martin's Island, Bangladesh, 2-11 January, 2015


    Hoon, V.; Saleem, M.; Townsley, P.


    Socio-economic Monitoring (SocMon) is an approach and set of tools for conducting socio-economic monitoring of changes in coastal communities. Planned outputs of the workshop included: training of local staff i SocMon methodologies; draft a SocMon report for St. Martin's Island; a workplan for implementing the SocMon; a communication strategy; and key inputs to a regional SocMon strategy

  17. Zika virus in Asia. (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe


    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  18. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong


    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  19. Asia's Economic Voices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ After several months of unease,economies across Asia are breathing a sigh of relief as recovery hopes become realities.But even with noticeable improvements being made,Asian nations still face the challenge of moving away from a dependence on exports and maintaining growth momentum.These issues were hot topics at this year's Boao Forum for Asia,with Asia's green recovery as its theme.More than2,000 economists and businesspeople from home and abroad attended the forum held in Boao of south China's Hainan Province from April9 to 11.

  20. Unification of South Asia (United States)


    Asia: for example, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christians. The Hindus are the descendants of the Aryans, nomadic people of Central Asia who... traditions . There are hundred thousands of people from Bangladesh who have, illegally, crossed over to India, over the years in pursuit of a better economic...festival of Urns. Such tradition is believed common even at the few Muslim ’dargahs’ at Priol Ponda and Cuncolim." "Prof Robert S. Newman, a

  1. Nuclear South Asia (United States)


    nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will keep China out of the South Asian nuclear picture. As Pakistan...remain unipolar for quite some time with the United States as the global superpower. There is predominance of geoeconomics as against drag China into the nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will likely keep China out of the South Asian

  2. Cancer Epidemiology in the Pacific Islands - Past, Present and Future


    Moore, Malcolm A.; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen JD; Sobue, Tomotaka


    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but i...

  3. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde


    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  4. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa. (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie


    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  5. Galapagos Islands (United States)


    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark L Wahlqvist


    @@ Populations in Asia are experiencing significant gains in life expectancy,especially in North East Asia and amongst Orientals throughout the region,with Japan,HongKong,Singapore and Macau having amongst the world's best life expectancies.

  7. Literacy in South Asia. (United States)

    Srivastava, R. N.


    A study of the various facets and dimensions of literacy programs in South Asia indicates that literacy is viewed as a means of human resource development geared toward meaningful participation of all sectors in society, with individual programs varying according to the magnitude of illiteracy, national goals, linguistic setting, and regional…

  8. Looking to Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Beijing Review:You said foreign policy under the Barack Obama administration is a policy of confrontation and containment of China.So do you think the expanded U.S.presence in Asia is mainly targeting China? If so,what are the consequences in terms of diplomatic relations between the two countries?

  9. OCLC in Asia Pacific. (United States)

    Chang, Min-min


    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  10. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping


    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal...

  11. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  12. Multicultural Central Asia. (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  13. Processes affecting the spatial distribution of seagrass meadow sedimentary material on Yao Yai Island, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, M.S.Y.; Ziegler, A.D.; Benner, S.G.; Evans, S.; Todd, P.A.; Gillis, L.G.; Vongtanaboon, S.; Jachowski, N.; Bouma, T.J.


    Many islands throughout SE Asia are experiencing rapid development and land-cover conversion thatpotentially threaten sensitive coastal ecosystems, such as seagrasses, through increased loading ofsediment and nutrients originating from disturbed catchments draining to the sea. To evaluate this threa

  14. Asbestos in Asia. (United States)

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W


    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases.

  15. Southeast Asia Report. (United States)


    Industry Export Targets for 1984-1985 Outlined (KOMPAS, 15 Dec 83) 17 - a - [III - ASIA - 107] Transmigrants in South Aceh Threatened by Food Shortages...Agriculture, Hospitals 47 Thai Illegal Aliens Returned 48 MALAYSIA Rithauddeen To Seek Re-Election (NEW STRAITS TIMES, 24 Jan 84) 49 MCA Elections...Reserve units telling them of the plan to get the numbers down through " wastage and controlled recruiting." With the Budget allocation for the Army

  16. Asia at the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ As the global economy transforms from a developed country centric to a more developing-focused model in the post-crisis world,Asia is emerging as a new economic powerhouse.Its policy choices are important for the continent's own sake,and also for the global economy as a whole.Dominique Strauss-Kahn,Managing Director of the IMF,noted this shift in a recent speech in Shanghai.Edited excerpts follow:

  17. Asia at the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As the global economy transforms from a developed countrycentric to a more developing-focused model in the post-crisis world,Asia is emerging as a new economic powerhouse.Its policy choices are important for the continent’s own sake, and also for the global economy as a whole.Dominique Strauss-Kahn,Managing Director of the IMF,noted this shift in a recent speech in Shanghai.Edited excerpts follow

  18. Growing East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ It was a busy exchanging period of East Asia in recent days. From October 28 to 31, 2007 the fourth China-ASEAN Expo (CAEXPO) and the fourth China-ASEAN Business and Investment Summit (CABIS) were held concurrently in Nanning, capital city of Guangxi Province in China. In the Expo,China witnessed a turnout of over 33,000 trade visitors and over 180 investment cooperation projects with ASEAN.

  19. Distribution of apparent magnetization for Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Magsat total field anomalies over Asia were used to construct an equivalent magnetization model, which represents the apparent magnetization distribution within an equivalent layer 40 km thick and correlates well with large-scale tectonics, for example, the Kazakhstan, Tarim, Yangtze, India, Sino-Korea and Indochina blocks. The basin, plain, sea basin, and islands are delineated by magnetization lows whereas the plateau and marine ridge correspond to magnetization highs. The boundary between Tibetan Plateau and India marked by a strong gradient along its length coincides with the Yarlung Zangbo River fault roughly. The Tanlu fault belt is the boundary between positive and negative anomalies. This boundary stretches in southwest direction and joins Sanjiang fault belt. The boundary between the Southeast China block and the Yangtze block is also clearly delineated by the magnetization anomalies. Generally, the magnetization boundaries are consistent with the collisional suture of blocks.

  20. Supply chain dynamics in Asia


    Banomyong, Ruth


    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  1. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  2. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region. (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L


    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  3. Gondwana to Asia: Preface (United States)

    Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Santosh, M.


    The Korean Peninsula, China, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, and Timor, among other regions, preserve important clues for the tectonic evolution of present-day Asia derived from the break-up of Mesozoic supercontinent Pangea. Evidence for the formation, evolution, and destruction of Earth's first coherent supercontinent Columbia during Paleoproterozoic, followed by the Neoproterozoic Rodinia and late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Gondwana supercontinents are also recorded in many of these regions. The debates surrounding some of these aspects and the state-of-the-art knowledge from these terranes were the focal themes of discussion during the "2013 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and the 10th Gondwana to Asia International Conference" held at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Korea during September 30th to October 2nd 2013. The conference was attended by more than 200 delegates representing 11 countries. The discussion continued at the "International conference on Continental Dynamics" held in Xian, China during April 2014. This special issue of Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, assembling 24 research papers is an outcome of the deliberations under various sessions of the above conferences. In assembling this special issue, we attempt to provide evidence-driven discussions on the construction and destruction of Precambrian and Paleozoic supercontinents preserved in present-day Asian continents. We also address a variety of themes including magmatic, metamorphic and metallogenic processes, as well as issues related to natural environment. We hope that the papers assembled in this special issue offer new insights into some of the key issues surrounding the geological, geophysical and geodynamic milieu in Asia, and a better understanding of analogous processes in other parts of the world.

  4. Crimean Crisis and Military Balance in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshu Li


    Full Text Available As the Crimean Crisis goes on, many analysis have been focusing on the dynamics among parties of Ukraine, the EU, the US and Russia. Very few noticed another important strategic impact the Crisis may cause: the Chinese military rebalancing in East Asia. China has been increasingly confident in assuming both political and military power in the East Asian region. The confidence resulted in the South China Sea disputes with ASEAN countries, “Anti-Secession Law” against Taiwan, and the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands Dispute with Japan. Behind such confidence of China, the EU has consistently been exporting defence products to China since the end of the Cold War; Ukraine, although sometimes reluctantly, has also been backing China along the process of building up a stronger navy as well as other defense industry construction; Russia has traditionally been supplying China with a wide range of military hardware. It can be noticed that the Crimean Crisis involved three out of four countries and region that have been behind China’s rise. How will the Crimean Crisis influence China’s rebalance in East Asia then? The answers stay opaque. This paper will attempt to answer the questions.

  5. 2011 minerals yearbook: Asia and the Pacific (United States)

    Fong-Sam, Yolanda; Kuo, Chin S.; Shi, Lin; Tse, Pui-Kwan; Wacaster, Susan; Wilburn, David R.


    The 31 countries and territories of the Asia and the Pacific region reported on in the Minerals Yearbook have a total area of about 30 million square kilometers, which accounts for about 20.1% of the world total. data and information for the majority of this report do not include Kiribati, Maldives, the Marshall islands, the federated states of Micronesia, Palau, tongo, or Vanuatu. the total population was about 3.9 billion, which accounted for 55.6% of the world total in 2011. china and india, which were the world’s two most populous countries, accounted for 66.7% of the region’s total population. the real gross domestic product (GdP) growth rate of 30 of the region’s countries increased in 2011 compared with that of 2010 whereas that of only one country, Japan, was reported to have decreased (by 0.8%). the GdP of 17 of the 31 countries and territories of the Asia and Pacific region increased by at least 5% in 2011, but for many countries the growth rate was lower than in 2010. the GdP of Mongolia, which was the country with the largest GdP growth in 2011, increased by 17.5% in 2011 compared with an increase of 6.4% in 2010 and a decrease of 1.3% in 2009 (tables 1, 2).

  6. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)


    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  7. Mortality in Asia. (United States)


    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  8. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson


    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  9. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines


    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立


    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied in detail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C....

  10. Pharmacovigilance in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipasha Biswas


    Full Text Available An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change.

  11. The genetic origins of the Andaman Islanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endicott, Phillip; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Stringer, Chris;


    Mitochondrial sequences were retrieved from museum specimens of the enigmatic Andaman Islanders to analyze their evolutionary history. D-loop and protein-coding data reveal that phenotypic similarities with African pygmoid groups are convergent. Genetic and epigenetic data are interpreted...... of humans through Asia. The results demonstrate that Victorian anthropological collections can be used to study extinct, or seriously admixed populations, to provide new data about early human origins....

  12. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana


    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste collectio

  13. Huntington Disease in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Xu


    Conclusions: The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, different haplotypes, and CCG polymorphisms. For the physicians, atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia, movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism, dystonia, or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary. Moreover, some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments. The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation, palliative care, and offer comfort of patients and their families. The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD.

  14. Huntington Disease in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Xu; Zhi-Ying Wu


    Objective:The objective was to review the major differences of Huntington disease (HD) in Asian population from those in the Caucasian population.Data Sources:Data cited in this review were obtained from PubMed database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 1994 to 2014.All the papers were written in English or Chinese languages,with the terms of Asia/Asian,HD,genotype,epidemiology,phenotype,and treatment used for the literature search.Study Selection:From the PubMed database,we included the articles and reviews which contained the HD patients' data from Asian countries.From the CNKI,we excluded the papers which were not original research.Due to the language's restrictions,those data published in other languages were not included.Results:In total,50 papers were cited in this review,authors of which were from the mainland of China,Japan,India,Thailand,Taiwan (China),Korea,and western countries.Conclusions:The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats,different haplotypes,and CCG polymorphisms.For the physicians,atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia,movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism,dystonia,or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary.Moreover,some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments.The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation,palliative care,and offer comfort of patients and their families.The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD.

  15. Towards An Integrated Fire Management Framework Using Space-Based Application In Asia-Pacific Region


    Hendri; Loh, Timothy; Tiwaree, Ram S.; Lee, Khiam Jin; Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao


    The integrated fire management framework using space-based application has been developed to reduce the consequences of fire disaster, particularly in developing countries, least developed countries (LDCs), small island developing states (SIDs) and land-locked developing countries (LLDCs) in Asia and the Pacific. Since 1982/1983 and 1997/1998, the two recorded forest fires in the world created much suffering in Asia and the Pacific region, while the resulting transboundary atmospheric polluta...

  16. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia


    Thomas Y. K. Chan


    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kon...

  17. Cyptotrama (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) from Asia. (United States)

    Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu-Liang


    Cyptotrama was divided into several sections, of which sect. Xerulina was often treated as a separate genus by some mycologists. In this study, collections of Cyptotrama from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia were studied. For comparison, materials from North America and New Zealand were analysed. Our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses indicated that Cyptotrama is monophyletic and Xerulina should be treated as a section within the genus Cyptotrama. Different scenarios of morphological character evolution in Cyptotrama are discovered. A total of seven species of Cyptotrama can be recognized from Asia, three of which, Cyptotrama angustispora, C. glabra, and C. shennongjia, are new to science. Meanwhile, three taxa previously placed in Xerulina or Marasmius were proved to be members of Cyptotrama, and the new combinations, namely Cyptotrama trogioides, C. megaspora, and C. myochroa, are accordingly proposed. A key for the diagnosis of worldwide Cyptotrama species is provided.

  18. Current Research in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda


    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  19. ITMA Asia + CITME 2008 Unveil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The first edition of ITMA Asia + CITME, combining two previously independently produced Asian textile machinery exhibitions, will open its doors to the global textile industry July 27~31 at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre(SNIEC),

  20. Economic Development in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dapice


    Full Text Available Most of the original ASEAN nations in Southeast Asia came out of the Asian Crisis facing slower growth (4%–6% a year and modest structural change compared to previous decades. [...

  1. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia


    Adan, R. I. Y.


    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  2. Record of Tylonycteris pachypus (Lesser Bamboo Bat from Andaman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Aul


    Full Text Available There was very limited and fragmented information on the bat fauna in the Andaman Islands before the study initiated in the Islands (2003-2007 and during this survey 25 species of bats were recorded along with the roosts and habitats. Our survey reconfirmed the presence of the bamboo bat after almost 3 decades from its last report by Hill in 1967. Bamboo bats are a group of small bats with unique skull and morphology. This species has been recorded from southern and northeastern South Asia, southern China, and much of Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this species is widely distributed and is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet divisions and India (Andaman Islands, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura and West Bengal (Bates et al., 2008. They roost inside hollow bamboo stems. During survey, we examined 8 specimens of Tylonycteris from Andaman Islands of which six were caught by local inhabitants and 2 were mist netted across fresh water pond in Webi (North Andaman Island. The earlier record of this specimen from this zone was without any proper information regarding its proper distribution and habitats.

  3. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia. (United States)

    Cheng, I K


    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  4. Commercial Power of Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Sincai


    Full Text Available The present paper, based on a detailed analysis of the main statistical foreign trade indicators of the emerging economies of the Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, outlines a series of characteristics of the foreign trade flows of the analysed economies from the ’50 up to the present. The accent is set on the period 1995-2006, which emphasizes two moments of crisis of the Asian trade: 1997-1998 and 2001. At the level of the analysed economies, it can be remarked a tendency of continuous growth of the share of the intra-regional trade flows in the total trade flows, mainly due to their participation in regional trade agreements, to the strenghtening of the regional production networks, to the role of China as engine of economic growth in the whole region and even at global level. On product category, the manufactures have the greatest share in the merchandise exports of the Asian emerging economies (especially office and telecom equipment, integrated circuits, automotive products, textiles and clothing, etc.. While China surpassed the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in the world trade in 2001 and that of Japan in 2004, the scenario presented in this paper indicates the surpass in 2007 of the share of Germany (second place in the world trade in 2005, the surpass of the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in 2009, and the surpass of the share of the group of the 8 Asian tigers and that of the USA as well in 2012. In the following decades, China might become the strongest world economy at the global level, but only if the sustainable development and the eradication of the social inequities will become de facto priorities of the Chinese officials. The actual negative externalities (costs of the Chinese economic growth, transferred on the environment and the society, will be object to another analyse.

  5. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  6. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan


    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  7. Big Prospects in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    After bottoming out last year, the emerging economies of East Asia are recouping their losses and setting out onto the fast growth track.But short-term growth does not necessarily indicate a prosperous future-the region still needs to rebalance its economies and precipitate a massive shift to green technologies and energy efficiency. The World Bank discussed this issue in the latest EastAsia & Pacific Economic Update,a biannual assessment of economies in the region.Edited excerpts follow:

  8. 亚太地区疟疾的流行病学%Epidemiology of Malaria in the Asia Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl Rieckmann


    @@ Malaria continues to afflict many people residing in the Asia Pacific Region. Both falciparum and vivax malaria are prevalent in many countries of the region.Malaria transmission is usually confined to rural areas,although it may also occur in some urban areas,particularly in India, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

  9. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia (United States)


    ... Partnership negotiations to conclude a high-standard, 21st century Asia-Pacific free trade agreement. The 2001... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... (CS) is organizing a trade mission to Southeast Asia, to take place in conjunction with the...

  10. Review of ITHA ASIA+CITHE 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ In General 27 July 2008,Shanghai-The first combined textile machinery show,ITMA ASIA+CITME 2008 opens today at Shanghai New International Expo Centre.With the joint strength of the two established brands ITMA ASIA and CITME,the combined show is by far Asia's most important textile machinery show in terms of exhibiting space and technology.

  11. Loading up Asia-Pacific style

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, A.; Johnson, R. [PT Connell Wagner, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    Coal shiploading ports dot the coastlines of many parts of the Asia Pacific region, being the nodes where inland transportation and sea transportation meet. The article is based on a paper entitled 'Overview of Asia's shiploading ports and transhipment operation for coal' presented at Coaltrans Asia in June 2003. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  12. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  13. Management Education in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Hoong, Yip Yat, Ed.

    Management needs in Southeast Asia are the focal points of a workshop held in Penang, March 1972, by the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development. Following the opening statement concerning these needs, the discussions at the workshop and a background paper, "Developing Management Competence," are presented. (MJM)

  14. A Lake Dream in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei


    @@ When William Wordsworth,representative of Lake Poets wrote his Ode to Night ingale nearby the Lake District of England at the turn of the nine-teenth century,he never imagined a century later,a similar romantic lake dream has been created in China,Asia.

  15. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid


    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  16. Lenzing Group: Expanding in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting


    @@ On April 10th,the Lenzing Group started operation of its new viscose fiber plant at Nanjing(China).The new viscose fiber plant is the second production site for this fiber of theLenzing Group in Asia and its sixth production site globally.

  17. Inverse estimation of radon flux distribution for East Asia using measured atmospheric radon concentration. (United States)

    Hirao, S; Hayashi, R; Moriizumi, J; Yamazawa, H; Tohjima, Y; Mukai, H


    In this study, the (222)Rn flux density distribution at surface was estimated in East Asia with the Bayesian synthesis inversion using measurement data and a long-range atmospheric (222)Rn transport model. Surface atmospheric (222)Rn concentrations measured at Hateruma Island in January 2008 were used. The estimated (222)Rn flux densities were generally higher than the prior ones. The area-weighted mean (222)Rn flux density for East Asia in January 2008 was estimated to be 44.0 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The use of the estimated (222)Rn flux density improved the discrepancy of the model-calculated concentrations with the measurements at Hateruma Island.

  18. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengor, A.M.C. (Instanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey))


    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  19. Glaciers of Asia (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  20. Evaluation of long range transport of fossil fuel originated organic aerosol at a background site in Northeast Asia (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jin; Lee, Ji Yi; Park, Jin Soo; Lee, Seok Jo; Kim, Hyun Jae; Jeon, Ha Eun; Sung, Min Young


    Northeast Asia is heavy air pollution region due to usage of large amounts of fossil fuel. In addition, meteorological conditions represented as prevailing westerlies in Northeast Asia region causes long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants emitted from China to Korea and Japan and even the United States across the Pacific Ocean (Bey et al., 2001). The Baengnyeong Island of Korea is located at the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula and close by North Korea and China, thus this site is regarded as an ideal place for background air measurements in Northeast Asia. Also, it has low local anthropogenic emissions and is frequently influenced by various air masses from China and North Korea in the Island. In this study, we performed intensive sampling during summer and winter in the Baengnyeong Island and analyzed various organic compounds including fossil fuel originated organic markers such as hopanes and PAHs using thermal desorption two dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOFMS). We also analyzed ~20 urban aerosol samples collected at Seoul, a representative urban site in Northeast Asia region to compare organic compounds distributions of aerosol samples at the Baengnyeong Island. By applying air mass back trajectory analysis and comparing organic compounds distributions in aerosol samples of the Baengnyeong Island and Seoul, the impact of long-range transport of fossil fuel originated organic pollutants at a background site in Northeast Asia were evaluated. (References) Bey, I., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Yantosca, R.M., 2001. Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: origins, pathways, and budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 106, 23097-23113.

  1. Teaching Neuro-Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific Region and China: A Personal Perspective. (United States)

    Crompton, John


    Over the last 30 years, I have been involved in a number of projects helping to educate and train local ophthalmologists in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, which lack adequate training and service in neuro-ophthalmology. In this article, I offer an overview of a number of different teaching initiatives and offer practical suggestions to anyone who might wish to become involved.

  2. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi


    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  3. Southeast Asia: A Climatological Study (United States)


    SOUTHEAST ASIA GEOGRAPHY of Chiangmai, rises to 2,580 meters. The extensive Rivers and Drainage Systems. The Mekong River b Chao Phraya lowlands, with...become the Chao Phraya River , which of the borders of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. drains into the Gulf of Thailand. Most of the Extensions of the Annam...It again forms the Chao Phraya lowlands from the Korat Plateau, the border with Thailand beginning about 120 kmn a broad, flat area with elevations

  4. More Trade with Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ To establish a long-term platform where China and other Northeast Asian countries could enjoy mutual benefits, interchange and communica-tion, NAITE faithfully plays its role. This Sep-tember 2 to 6, Changchun International Confer-ence & Exhibition Center welcomes again the NAITE, China Jilin-Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Expo, and it was the fourth session in Changchun, Jilin Province in the northeast of China. The impact is accumulating.

  5. Asia Confronts Its Inflation Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Lyons


    @@ Asia is finally waking up to its inflation challenge.Recent weeks have seen a further round of monetary tighten-ing, with a succession of central banks raising interest rates, or taking other measures to put a cap on rising prices.India, in particular, has taken tougher action than before, with a large rate hike, whilst others such as China have again pushed up reserve requirements.

  6. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook. (United States)


    over 2,000 m) is not applicable to Central Asia, partly because the general hypsometric level of this region is high and unstable, as a consequence fossils in them, gastropods have been discovered. On the main territory of the Tarim massif, which evidently represented a weakly elevated...places seams of gypsum and rock salt, and, in a part to the west of the town of Aksu, also a bed of gray limestone with small fresh- water gastropods

  7. [原著]An epidemiological survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis in the Southwest Islands, Japan.


    Sato,Yoshiya; Otsuru, Masamitsu; Asato, Ryuji; Yamashita, Takao; Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health; Department of Parasitology, Yamagata University School of Medicine


    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, primarilly a parasite of rodents, has attracted notice as an important agent of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis on many Pacific islands and in Southeast Asia. It is generally speculated in the pacific and Asian tropical and subtropical zones that the parasite has extended its geographic range to adjacent regions by introduction of the infected intermediate hosts, mainly Achatina fulica, or by the stowaway rats. The Southwest Islands are in an unique...

  8. Is Central Asia really exsiccating? (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.


    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  9. Shemya Island prehistory (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  10. Classifying Pacific islands (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.


    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  11. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Wen-Chung (Taiwan Navy)


    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  12. Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa. (United States)

    Reimer, Aleisha R; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W; Gerner-Smidt, Peter


    Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative.

  13. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.


    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole


    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  15. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  16. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.


    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  17. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari


    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available:

  18. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.


    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers.

  19. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia (United States)

    Louys, Julien


    Much of Southeast Asia's large terrestrial carnivores appeared, evolved and disappeared from the region for reasons that remain poorly understood. Two of the most significant extinctions are represented by the charismatic Pleistocene megacarnivores Pachycrocuta and Pliocrocuta. Southeast Asia hosts the last populations of these species globally. Their persistence in southern China until the late Pleistocene suggests their extinction was not tied to that of the machairodont cats, which like the rest of the world became extinct sometime in the early Pleistocene in this region. Instead the disappearance of the hyenids is probably related to climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions. There is some evidence that the wolf and domesticated dog first appeared in Southeast Asia, although confirmation of this awaits more detailed fossil records. There does not appear to be a large carnivore guild turnover of the same scale or time as recorded in Europe and Africa, although an extinction event in the late Pleistocene is provisionally recorded. Environmental changes and fluctuating sea levels have had a unique impact on the region's large carnivore guild. Several large carnivores from Java show unique genetic and morphological variations, and this could potentially be related to the connection between Java and the Indochinese mainland sometime during the middle Pleistocene. The effects of islands on the large carnivores are complicated and at times contradictory. Nevertheless, periods of isolation of large carnivores on Java, Sumatra and Borneo from the continent had impacts on both extinctions and speciations, with at least one well documented endemic large carnivore evolving in Sundaland (Sunda clouded leopard). Hunting and deforestation ongoing since the mid- to late Holocene means that many extant members of the large carnivore guild are at high risk of extinction.

  20. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan


    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia. (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K


    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  2. AIDS. Grim news for Asia. (United States)


    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  3. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories of...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  4. CNA Maritime Asia Project. Workshop Two: Naval Developments in Asia (United States)


    conflict. The naval arms race between Britain and Germany in the days before the First World War is usually cited as a classic example of the genre ...deadly example of the genre , with the sinking of the ROK Corvette Cheonan and the bombardment of Yeonpyeong island in 2010. Many of the ROK Navy’s...flect conventional wisdom. The issue of Beijing’s perceptions regarding the ROK Navy and Vietnam Navy are likely a greater mystery and thus are

  5. Sex trafficking in South Asia. (United States)

    Huda, S


    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  6. CoalTrans Asia 98. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A total of 21 papers were presented at the conference on topics including: coal and power after the Asian crisis; Indonesia - an extended review; feeding Asia`s coal needs - a review of developments among Asia`s coal suppliers; buyers under constraint; and Asia`s coking coal demand and coke availability. 20 of the papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM and Worldwide Web database.

  7. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia. (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A


    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia.

  8. China South Asia Friendship Organizations’ Forum Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The establishment of a non-governmental cooperative mechanism between China and the nations of South Asia was one of the most important fruits of the first ever"China South Asia Friendship Organizations’ Forum"held in Beijing October 28-30,2009.This is part of new strategic thinking for developing deeper relations between the various

  9. Project on Asia's sustainable development starts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ A research project of the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA) on the sustainable development in Asia has been latmched. The fast meeting of its expert panel was held on 25 February in Beijing, bringing together more than 20 experts from 10 Asian countries, including Russia, ROK, Turkey, Israel, India, Mongolia, Iran,Azerbaijan, and the Philippines.

  10. Dynamics of Corporate Social Responsibility in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Rebecca Chunghee; Moon, Jeremy


    This article investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Asia through two related themes: research knowledge and ethical norms. ‘CSR in Asia’ research is shown to be growing, particularly in East Asia. Compared with Western CSR literature, it is shown to be dominated by empirical...

  11. Karaoke and Interpersonal Communication in East Asia. (United States)

    Ma, Ringo

    An exploratory study investigated the interpersonal meaning of karaoke to its participants in East Asia. Current research suggests that the popularity of karaoke in East Asia is associated with the cultural value of harmony and the indirect mode of communication in this region. Subjects, 51 East Asian undergraduate-level students who had…

  12. China-Central Asia Power Cooperation Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    After analyzing the basic information,distribution of energy resources and condition of power industry in Central Asia, the high feasibility for China to cooperate closely with Central Asia in transnational power interconnection, power investment and technology exchanges, etc. is studied. Furthermore, the forms, mechanisms, existing problems and suggestions for the improvement of current policies related to the power cooperation are proposed.

  13. Changing housing policy landscapes in Asia Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Ronald; R.L.H. Chiu


    The Asia Pacific region, and in particular East Asia, underwent rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Central to this transformation was intensive public and private investment in the housing sector. Although housing was largely commodified, public

  14. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  15. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers


    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  16. Deforestation and avian extinction on tropical landbridge islands. (United States)

    Sodhi, Navjot S; Wilcove, David S; Lee, Tien Ming; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Subaraj, R; Bernard, Henry; Yong, Ding Li; Lim, Susan L H; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Brook, Barry W


    There are few empirical data, particularly collected simultaneously from multiple sites, on extinctions resulting from human-driven land-use change. Southeast Asia has the highest deforestation rate in the world, but the resulting losses of biological diversity remain poorly documented. Between November 2006 and March 2008, we conducted bird surveys on six landbridge islands in Malaysia and Indonesia. These islands were surveyed previously for birds in the early 1900 s, when they were extensively forested. Our bird inventories of the islands were nearly complete, as indicated by sampling saturation curves and nonparametric true richness estimators. From zero (Pulau Malawali and Pulau Mantanani) to 15 (Pulau Bintan) diurnal resident landbird species were apparently extirpated since the early 1900 s. Adding comparable but published extinction data from Singapore to our regression analyses, we found there were proportionally fewer forest bird extinctions in areas with greater remaining forest cover. Nevertheless, the statistical evidence to support this relationship was weak, owing to our unavoidably small sample size. Bird species that are restricted to the Indomalayan region, lay few eggs, are heavier, and occupy a narrower habitat breadth, were most vulnerable to extinction on Pulau Bintan. This was the only island where sufficient data existed to analyze the correlates of extinction. Forest preservation and restoration are needed on these islands to conserve the remaining forest avifauna. Our study of landbridge islands indicates that deforestation may increasingly threaten Southeast Asian biodiversity.

  17. Electrochemical island growth (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  18. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kundu


    Full Text Available The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001–2008 trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2 acid followed by malonic (C3 and succinic (C4 acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9–47.4 % year−1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  19. East and Southeast Asia assessment. (United States)

    Suyono, H


    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment.

  20. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu


    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others.

  1. The Indonesian archipelago: an ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific. (United States)

    Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hallmark, Brian; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F; Cox, Murray P


    Indonesia, an island nation linking mainland Asia with the Pacific world, hosts a wide range of linguistic, ethnic and genetic diversity. Despite the complexity of this cultural environment, genetic studies in Indonesia remain surprisingly sparse. Here, we report mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and associated Y-chromosome diversity for the largest cohort of Indonesians examined to date-2740 individuals from 70 communities spanning 12 islands across the breadth of the Indonesian archipelago. We reconstruct 50 000 years of population movements, from mitochondrial lineages reflecting the very earliest settlers in island southeast Asia, to Neolithic population dispersals. Historic contacts from Chinese, Indians, Arabs and Europeans comprise a noticeable fraction of Y-chromosome variation, but are not reflected in the maternally inherited mtDNA. While this historic immigration favored men, patterns of genetic diversity show that women moved more widely in earlier times. However, measures of population differentiation signal that Indonesian communities are trending away from the matri- or ambilocality of early Austronesian societies toward the more common practice of patrilocal residence today. Such sex-specific dispersal patterns remain even after correcting for the different mutation rates of mtDNA and the Y chromosome. This detailed palimpsest of Indonesian genetic diversity is a direct outcome of the region's complex history of immigration, transitory migrants and populations that have endured in situ since the region's first settlement.

  2. U.S. Policy Towards Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui


    Greater East Asia is expected to be the next theatre for world politics.1 East Asian cooperation is rapidly developing through the channels of ASEAN Plus Three (APT) and East Asia Summit (EAS), both driven by ASEAN. Southeast Asia is a region of diverse states and cultures that brings together all the major powers of the Asian-Pacific in a myriad of strategic interests. It is thus an open arena with the potential for a variety of strategic game-playing, options, and uncertain outcomes.2 In recent years, China's developing relationship with Southeast Asia has undergone a significant shift as the U.S. 'distraction elsewhere and neglect of the region have created opportunities for an increased Chinese diplomatic and economic role in Southeast Asia.3 U.S. analysts are concerned about what may lie behind this shift in China-ASEAN relations, how it may affect American interests in the region and how best to react to the changes. Some have expressed concerns that to avoid becoming distanced from the region the U.S. should pay more attention to Southeast Asia, rather than just watching from a distance. This paper attempts to analyze the possible changes of U.S. policy towards Southeast Asia in the current context of East Asian Cooperation and its implications for China.

  3. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  4. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators......The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in Asia (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Jun-Jie


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical detection technique based on atomic emission spectroscopy to measure the elemental composition. LIBS has been extensively studied and developed due to the non-contact, fast response, high sensitivity, real-time and multi-elemental detection features. The development and applications of LIBS technique in Asia are summarized and discussed in this review paper. The researchers in Asia work on different aspects of the LIBS study in fundamentals, data processing and modeling, applications and instrumentations. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further development of LIBS technique in Asia are also evaluated to promote LIBS research and its applications.

  6. The Tethyan Himalayan detrital record shows that India-Asia terminal collision occurred by 54 Ma in the Western Himalaya (United States)

    Najman, Y.; Jenks, D.; Godin, L.; Boudagher-Fadel, M.; Millar, I.; Garzanti, E.; Horstwood, M.; Bracciali, L.


    The Himalayan orogen is a type example of continent-continent collision. Knowledge of the timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the calculation of the amount of convergence that must have been accommodated and thus to models of crustal deformation. Sedimentary rocks on the Indian plate near the suture zone can be used to constrain the time of collision by determining first evidence of Asian-derived material deposited on the Indian plate. However, in the Himalaya, for this approach to be applied successfully, it is necessary to be able to distinguish between Asian detritus and detritus from oceanic island arcs that may have collided with India prior to India-Asia collision. Zircons from the Indian plate, Asian plate and Kohistan-Ladakh Island arc can be distinguished based on their U-Pb ages combined with Hf signatures. We undertook a provenance study of the youngest detrital sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalaya of the Indian plate, in the Western Himalaya. We show that zircons of Asian affinity were deposited on the Indian plate at 54 Ma. We thus constrain terminal India-Asia collision, when both sutures north and south of the Kohistan-Ladakh Island arc were closed, to have occurred in the Western Himalaya by 54 Ma.

  7. The Emerging Research on Indigenous Management in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Zhou, Kevin


    Introduction to a Special Issue of the Asia Pacific Journal Management with the focus on the theme of indigenous management research in Asia.......Introduction to a Special Issue of the Asia Pacific Journal Management with the focus on the theme of indigenous management research in Asia....

  8. Examining Trends in Intra-Annual Distribution of Precipitation in South Asia, 1953-2007 (United States)

    Sharma, A. N.; Walter, T.


    Agriculture is an extremely important source of income and food security in South Asia. Changes in precipitation in the region could therefore influence the well-being of the large part of the world's population that resides there. Climate models project an increase in summer precipitation, an increase in extreme precipitation events and a likely weakening of the monsoon over South Asia. Factors apart from greenhouse gas induced climate change, such as urban heat islands and irrigation, may also affect precipitation patterns. A number of studies have investigated various recent trends in precipitation in South Asia, such as precipitation amounts, frequency, and intensity. Few studies have investigated trends in the start and end of the rainy season. Most of these studies focus on particular regions of India and/or on particular metrics. This presentation aims to more comprehensively examine changes in precipitation patterns over South Asia over the period 1953-2007 using APHRODITE, a newly available gridded daily precipitation dataset. We present two new "objective" methods to define the beginning and end of the rainy season across South Asia. Unlike other methods that rely on absolute thresholds of precipitation over pentads or other units of time, we define start and end of the rainy season based on the shape of annual cumulative precipitation curves. Defining the seasons thus, we then examine precipitation amounts, frequency, and extremes in before, during and after, the rainy season. We find that in most parts of South Asia, there is no trend in either the onset of the rainy season or total amount of precipitation. However, the start to the rainy season appears to have a significant trend towards the earlier in north-western India/eastern Pakistan and later in western Tibet. Some parts appear to have increasing days of precipitation with decreasing mean precipitation per day. Trends vary across the region, implying that the strategies for adaptation may need to

  9. Connected Vessels: West Asia and East Asia in China’s Geopolitics


    Yitzhak Shichor


    Las regiones de Asia Oriental y Asia Occidental (Oriente Medio) son normalmente tratadas en la literatura académica como dos asuntos separados y distintos dentro de la política exterior china. Los estudios acerca de la política de China en Asia Oriental apenas si mencionan Oriente Medio, mientras que los estudios de Oriente Medio apenas mencionan Asia Occidental. Pero de hecho ambas regiones no sólo están interconectadas en la visión geopolítica de Chin...

  10. Transport: Shipping emissions in East Asia (United States)

    Corbett, James


    Large growth in East Asia's sea-borne trade has increased premature deaths and atmospheric warming in the region. New legislation could reduce these impacts in areas around China, but joint efforts are needed for region-wide benefits.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  12. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring......, and the state-civil society relationship? The paper is divided into four parts. The first explores the historical and especially the contemporary changes in China's geo-economic bilateral relationship with Southeast Asia through its bilateral trade, the role of FDI, the role of the ethnic Chinese Diaspora...... interests in the region - both geo-economic and geo-political; however the bulk of this section is devoted to a comparison of the differences and similarities of US and Chinese approaches in Southeast Asia. Finally some concluding remarks are offered....

  13. St. Vincent Island Tour (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  14. Marine and Island Ecology. (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others


    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  15. Turkey’s New Activism in Asia


    Aras, Bulent; Dagci, Kenan; Caman, M. Efe


    This article aims to analyse Turkey’s foreign policy towards Asia, which is part of Turkey’s emerging universal foreign policy vision. The notion of geographic imagination is provided to theorize Turkey’s emerging policy attitudes and behaviors. Turkey’s involvement in Asia will focus on the development of economic relations, security cooperation, supporting Asian political schemes for a multilateral world order and playing a facilitator role in Asia’s encounter with the West. This new foreig...

  16. A nuclear third way in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkovich, G. (W. Alton Jones Foundation, Charlottesville, VA (United States))

    The threat posed by nuclear weapons has shifted dramatically in the aftermath of the Cold War. The long-standing prospect of Armageddon has all but disappeared, while the change of local nuclear conflict among undeclared nuclear weapons has grown. The danger is especially acute in South Asia, which, in strategic terms, embraces the subcontinent and parts of China, Central Asia, and the Middle East. The situation with regards to India and Pakistan is discussed at length.

  17. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia. (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard


    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  18. Institutional balancing in the Asia-Pacific




    This study is about how the secondary (smaller) powers of the Asia-Pacific region balance the major powers – the US and China – through multilateral (regional) institutions in the international system. This paper explains the increasing importance of the Asia-Pacific region, where the major powers encounter and challenge each other, and examines the smaller powers of the region, which pursue balancing policies against the major powers through multilateral (regional) institutions. Therefore, t...

  19. Collaborative work between the West and Asia. (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh


    The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  20. Origin and intra-island diversification of Sulawesi endemic Adrianichthyidae. (United States)

    Mokodongan, Daniel F; Yamahira, Kazunori


    Although the family Adrianichthyidae is broadly distributed throughout East and Southeast Asia, 19 endemic species, over half of the family, are distributed in Sulawesi, which is an island in Wallacea. However, it remains unclear how this Adrianichthyidae biodiversity hotspot was shaped. In this study, we reconstructed molecular phylogenies for the Sulawesi adrianichthyids and estimated the divergence times of major lineages to infer the detailed history of their origin and subsequent intra-island diversification. The mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies revealed that Sulawesi adrianichthyids are monophyletic, which indicates that they diverged from a single common ancestor. Species in the earliest branching lineages are currently distributed in the central and southeastern parts of the island, indicating that the common ancestor colonized Sula Spur, which is a large promontory that projects from the Australian continental margin, from Asia by oversea dispersal c.a. 20Mya. The first diversification event on Sulawesi, the split of the genus Adrianichthys, occurred c.a. 16Mya, and resulted in the nesting of Adrianichthys within Oryzias. Strong geographic structure was evident in the phylogeny; many species in the lineages branching off early are riverine and widely distributed in the southeastern and southwestern arms of Sulawesi, which suggests that oversea dispersal between tectonic subdivisions of this island during the late Miocene (7-5Mya) contributed to the distributions and diversification of the early branching lineages. In contrast, most species in the lineages branched off later are endemic to a single tectonic lake or lake system in the central Sulawesi, suggesting that habitat fragmentation due to the Pliocene collisions (c.a. 4Mya) among the tectonic subdivisions was the primary factor for diversification of the late branching, lacustrine lineages. Adrianichthys and some Oryzias in a certain late branching lineage are sympatric in Lake Poso, which

  1. Trafficking: a perspective from Asia. (United States)

    Skeldon, R


    The main theme of this article is market development and trafficking as a business. It touches upon most of the aspects of the phenomenon, which have been encountered elsewhere, and translates them into the relatively unfamiliar context of many of the Asian and South-East Asian economies. Equally, the literature cited is also probably unfamiliar. Themes touched upon include democratization, inter-state relations, human rights, and scale and perspectives, together with the problems of definitions, theory, and the reliability of data. The directions and characteristics of trafficking flows together with routes and border control are also considered. Coordinated official responses to criminality and criminal organizations, as well as to trafficked individuals, are beginning to emerge. There is a note of caution sounded that contextual and cultural perspectives, particularly on sex workers, must be viewed somewhat differently to those in Western societies. The article concludes that as long as countries in Asia maintain their policies of restrictive immigration, trafficking can be expected to continue and almost certainly increase. This is because accelerating development creates demand for labor at various skill levels and because even in times of recession migrants and brokers will seek to side-step attempts to expel immigrants and restrict access to labor markets. The elimination of trafficking is unlikely to be realistically achieved through legislation and declarations of intent but by improvements in the socioeconomic status of the population.

  2. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.


    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  3. Forget `crisis` - Asia is in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, R.B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    Most countries in Asia are experiencing an economic and political transition that is affecting their mining sectors in a number of ways. The biggest impact is an indirect one. Asia is a major consumer of metals. The economic downturn in Asia has put tremendous downward pressure on metal prices. Soft metal prices have made it very difficult for junior companies to raise equity capital to fund exploration budgets, and have forced producing companies to slash exploration budgets. The level of exploration in Asia has dropped by a sizeable margin. The slowdown in Asian economies threatens to affect the mining sector in other ways as well. In Indonesia and the Philippines, there is social discontent and political opportunism. In Indonesia, political restructuring is opening the door for regional governments to become more involved in the mining projects that they host. Overall, thought, its business as usual. Production levels continue at historical highs, with no real prospects for reductions. The trend to try to attract foreign investment through the implementation of modern regulatory frameworks persists, although sometimes at an exasperatingly slow pace. there is every reason to believe that Asia`s mining sector will survive the Asian transition to become strong than ever. The situation in Indonesia, the Philippines, China, Mongolia, Thailand, and Vietnam is described. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. The issues of islands governing in early Ming Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-sheng


    Full Text Available Ming Dynasty is a key transitional period in China’s maritime history. It marks the shift from outward expansion to passive defense, whereas underground marine trades were rampant and China had to face the rising Western powers. It deserves to examine Ming’s maritime management by different perspectives including the coastal islands. This research focuses on Veritable Records of the Ming(明實錄 and explores key terms such as ‘island’(島 and ‘isle’(嶼 via the approach of ‘Digital Humanities’ to sum up the main issues of islands governing in early Ming Dynasty: 1. To subjugate political rivals on the sea and to defeat remnant Mongolian militaries. 2. To surrender rebels and appease refugees on the coastal islands. 3. To suppress and defend against Japanese pirates. 4. Diplomatic relations with neighboring countries. These issues reflected that Chinese dynastic regime transition from Yuan to Ming not only drastically altered the order of the East Asia seas after 14th c., but was also the key factor for the island governing policies in the early Ming period. This article investigates the issues of islands governing to discuss how the internal and external situation and the characteristic oceanic consciousness influenced the marine affair policy decision in early Ming Dynasty.

  5. Insecticide resistance status in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci genetic groups Asia-I, Asia-II-1 and Asia-II-7 on the Indian subcontinent (United States)

    Naveen, N. C.; Chaubey, Rahul; Kumar, Dinesh; Rebijith, K. B.; Rajagopal, Raman; Subrahmanyam, B.; Subramanian, S.


    The present study is a summary of the current level of the insecticide resistance to selected organophosphates, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids in seven Indian field populations of Bemisia tabaci genetic groups Asia-I, Asia-II-1, and Asia-II-7. Susceptibility of these populations was varied with Asia-II-7 being the most susceptible, while Asia-I and Asia-II-1 populations were showing significant resistance to these insecticides. The variability of the LC50 values was 7x for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, 5x for monocrotophos and 3x for cypermethrin among the Asia-I, while, they were 7x for cypermethrin, 6x for deltamethrin and 5x for imidacloprid within the Asia-II-1 populations. When compared with the most susceptible, PUSA population (Asia-II-7), a substantial increase in resistant ratios was observed in both the populations of Asia-I and Asia-II-1. Comparative analysis during 2010–13 revealed a decline in susceptibility in Asia-I and Asia-II-1 populations of B. tabaci to the tested organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides. Evidence of potential control failure was detected using probit analysis estimates for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, monocrotophos and imidacloprid. Our results update resistance status of B. tabaci in India. The implications of insecticide resistance management of B. tabaci on Indian subcontinent are discussed. PMID:28098188

  6. Tibet's Role in Inner Asia. Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia, No. 2. (United States)

    Wylie, Turrell V.

    Second in a series of guides to help college and high school teachers incorporate information about Inner Asia into their courses, this pamphlet discusses the role of Tibet in Inner Asia. Aspects of Tibetan political and religious history are highlighted, and comments are made about the formative relationships Tibet had with her neighbors. Chapter…

  7. Editorial : islands : objects of representation


    Baldacchino, Godfrey


    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  8. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.


    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  9. Nunivak Island muskox studies (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  10. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti


    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  11. Melville Island, Australia (United States)


    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  12. 'Why is there no NATO in Asia?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun


    Why did the US prefer multilateral alliances in Europe, but bilateral alliances in Asia after World War II? Rationalists and constructivists debate the impact of power, institutions, and identities in explaining this highly contested question. We introduce a new argument embedded in prospect theory...... from political psychology — a prospect–threat alliance model — to account for the variation in US alliance strategy toward Europe and Asia after World War II. Through setting the threat level as a reference point for leaders’ prospects of gains or losses, we suggest: (1) high threats frame decision...... in a domain of gains, and bilateral alliances win out because states are risk-averse in terms of maintaining their freedom of action in seeking security through alliances with fewer allies. US alliance policy toward Asia after World War II is a within-case analysis that tests the validity of the prospect...

  13. Sub-decadal increase of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric total suspended particles in East Asia (United States)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.; Lee, M.; Tachibana, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Jang, J.


    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are good tracers to evaluate the chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and are important precursors for the production of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in aqueous phase. Here we report seasonal and interannual variations of aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal over sub-decadal scale (2001-2008) in ambient aerosols collected at Gosan, Jeju Island in the East China Sea. Glyoxal concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 106 ng m-3, with a peak in January. Concentrations of methylglyoxal ranged from 0.05 to 110 ng m-3 with a peak in April. The glyoxal peak is related with carbon monoxide and levoglucosan whereas methylglyoxal peak aligns with ozone. These results suggest an elevated combustion sources of glyoxal in January and secondary sources of methylglyoxal in April. A pronounced seasonal variation was observed for methylglyoxal to glyoxal ratios with maximum in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter, suggesting methyglyoxal to glyoxal ratio is an effective proxy to evaluate the strength of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources of organic aerosol in East Asia. Overall, concentrations of glyoxal from 2001 to 2008 increased by at least 29% per year in winter and 83% per year in spring, being consistent with the increase of ozone, carbon monoxide, and biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs in East Asia. We propose that the increased glyoxal and methylglyoxal could be related to an enhanced SOA production by their reactive uptake in aqueous phase over East Asia.

  14. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia. (United States)

    Butaud, Jean-François


    Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Noseworthy


    Full Text Available Early in the colonial period, many studies examining upland Southeast Asia focused on ethnography and ecology as a means for the colonial state to better understand the region's geography. This process resulted in the construction of physical, social, and intellectual boundaries that sought to maintain control of the colonial enterprise. The natural borderlands of the region defied such easy definition – the highlands, the plains at the edges of deltas, and heavily forested regions – became a fascination of colonial study. In the climate of pending Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN integration, which promises to begin the process of loosening restrictions for border crossing between Southeast Asian states by area residents, the study of borderlands has risen again. Because many of these border areas have pockets of highlands culture, continued study of the uplands is particularly relevant to deepening an understanding of the region. This review of several books on the Southeast Asian uplands explores historical and cultural strategies of individuals, particularly in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, the Dayak community on the island of Borneo, and the Cham community in Vietnam and Cambodia, as well as some of the challenges that they face regarding 'the borderlands'. Putting these studies in conversation can help develop an interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in Anthropology, Political Science, Linguistics, Ethnomusicology, and History, allowing for a more integrated international perspective.

  16. A Success Story of Philippine Counterinsurgency: A Study of Bohol (United States)


    Winning war vs. insurgency, poverty highlights guv’s SOPA ,‖ (accessed 4 February 2011). ―Winning war vs. insurgency, poverty highlights guv’s SOPA .‖ (accessed 4

  17. Capitalist Development in Contemporary Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn


    The study attempts to contribute to an understanding of the political economy of contemporary Southeast Asia in analytical, conceptual, empirical, and theoretical terms. It offers a critical explanation of the historical specificities of capitalist development in the region through a comparative...... and manifest ways. Analytically, the study devises a framework using a critical political economy approach to analyze the specificities of the hegemonic process, interests, and form of capitalist development in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Malaysia – a framework which may also be utilized to examine...

  18. CRISIS FOCUS Big Prospects in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ After bottoming out last year,the emerging economies of East Asia are recouping their losses and setting out onto the fast growth track.But short-term growth does not necessarily indicate a prosperous future-the region still needs to rebalance its economies and precipitate a massive shift to green technologies and energy efficiency.The World Bank discussed this issue in the latest East Asia & Pacific Economic Update,a biannual assessment of economies in the region.Edited excerpts follow:

  19. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  20. Diabetes epidemic in the Asia Pacific region: has hemoglobin A1C finally earned its place as a diagnostic tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagley


    Full Text Available Two-third of the world's population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.

  1. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future. (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka


    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  2. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics


    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  3. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines


    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.


    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  4. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  5. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia (United States)

    Jones, Peter


    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  6. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.


    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in th

  7. Freeing up Transport In Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A"golden triangle"of logistics is taking shape in Northeast Asia,particularly in the Tumenjiang Area A 50-km expressway will soon link two ports in North Korea.The inves- tor,Hunchun Donglin Economy and Trade Co.Ltd.,comes from the

  8. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  9. Shifting Patterns of Student Mobility in Asia (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju


    During the past decade, Asia--traditionally one of the largest exporters of mobile students--has experienced major changes in student mobility within higher education. As the worldwide competition for international students has escalated, many Asian countries have adopted a wide range of mechanisms and strategies in facilitating student mobility.…

  10. Suicide in Asia: opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Yousuf, Saman; Yip, Paul S F


    Asian countries account for approximately 60% of the world's suicides, but there is a great mismatch in the region between the scale of the problem and the resources available to tackle it. Despite certain commonalities, the continent itself is culturally, economically, and socially diverse. This paper reviews current epidemiologic patterns of suicide, including suicide trends, sociodemographic factors, urban/rural living, suicide methods, sociocultural religious influences, and risk and protective factors in Asia, as well as their implications. The observed epidemiologic distributions of suicides reflect complex interplays among the traditional value/culture system, rapid economic transitions under market globalization, availability/desirability of suicide methods, and sociocultural permission/prohibitions regarding suicides. In general, compared with Western countries, Asian countries still have a higher average suicide rate, lower male-to-female suicide gender ratio, and higher elderly-to-general-population suicide ratios. The role of mental illness in suicide is not as important as that in Western countries. In contrast, aggravated by access to lethal means in Asia (e.g., pesticide poisoning and jumping), acute life stress (e.g., family conflicts, job and financial security issues) plays a more important role than it does in Western countries. Some promising suicide prevention programs in Asia are illustrated. Considering the specific socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the region, community-based suicide intervention programs integrating multiple layers of intervention targets may be the most feasible and cost-effective strategy in Asia, with its populous areas and limited resources.

  11. Future of the Energy in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    I have been in oil and gas business, orthe evergy business in Japan for almost40 years at Mitsubishi Corporation. I hope myfew words will be a useful contribution totoday's agenda"Energy Security in Asia"and"Energy and Environment".

  12. Marketing Development Information in South Asia. (United States)

    Geethananda, Hemamalee


    Discusses adapting traditional marketing strategies for the nonprofit sector, including libraries and information centers, and describes experiences of the Development Information Network for South Asia in Sri Lanka. Topics addressed include librarians' value systems, including free access to information; the need for information marketing;…

  13. MALAYSIA Hidden Paradise of Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Remaining as one of the most pleasant and hassle-free countries in Southeast Asia, Malaysia attracts a huge number of tourists from around the world every year due to its splendid tropical beach resorts,golden sandy beaches, magnificent rainforests pluralist culture and brilliant shopping bargains.

  14. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor. (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban


    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  15. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia. (United States)


    Quits CWC"] [Text] New Delhi, May 8: The veteran Congress(I) leader, Mr Uma Shankar Dikshit, has quit the Congress Working Committee [CWC...expressed by the developing member countries regarding reduction of the quantum of aid to Asia following the developments in Eastern Europe. Prof

  16. Catastrophic payments for health care in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); R.P. Rannan-Eliya (Ravi); A. Somanathan (Aparnaa); S.R. Adhikari (Shiva Raj); C.C. Garg (Charu); D. Harbianto (Deni); A.N. Herrin (Alejandro); M.N. Huq (Mohammed); S. Ibragimova (Shamsia); A. Karan (Anup); T-J. Lee (Tae-Jin); G.M. Leung (Gabriel); J-F.R. Lu (Jui-fen Rachel); C.W. Ng (Ng); B.R. Pande (Badri Raj); R. Racelis (Rachel); S. Tao (Tao); K. Tin (Keith); K. Tisayaticom (Kanjana); L. Trisnantoro (Laksono); C. Vasavid (Vasavid); Y. Zhao (Yuxin)


    textabstractOut-of-pocket (OOP) payments are the principal means of financing health care throughout much of Asia. We estimate the magnitude and distribution of OOP payments for health care in fourteen countries and territories accounting for 81% of the Asian population. We focus on payments that ar

  17. Training Practices of Multinational Companies in Asia (United States)

    Zheng, Connie; Hyland, Paul; Soosay, Claudine


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore a range of training practices adopted by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in Asia. It investigated the level of training expenditure, the nature of training programs offered and the concerns about training in MNCs. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained through a survey of 529 MNCs…

  18. Career development for women scientists in Asia. (United States)

    Ip, Nancy Y


    Previously, challenges faced by women scientists have made it difficult for them to realize their dreams. The remarkable growth of Asian bioscience over the past decade, however, has created opportunities for young women in their home countries. The time is ripe for women in Asia to pursue their scientific aspirations.

  19. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia (United States)

    Silova, Iveta


    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been…

  20. Lenzing Group:Expanding in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On April 10th,the Lenzing Group started operation of its new viscose fiber plant at Nanjing (China).The new viscose fiber plant is the second production site for this fiber of the Lenzing Group in Asia and its sixth production site globally.

  1. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia (United States)

    Silova, Iveta


    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  2. The Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) over East Asia in Warm Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mesoscale convective system (MCS) cloud clusters,defined using an objective recognition analysis based on hourly geostationary infrared satellite data over East Asia during the warm seasons of 1996-2008 (except 2004),were investigated in this study.The geographical pattern of MCS distribution over East Asia shows several high-frequency centers at low latitudes,including the Indo-China peninsula,the Bay of Bengal,the Andaman Sea,the Brahmaputra river delta,the south China coastal region,and the Philippine Islands.There are several middle-frequency centers in the middle latitudes,e.g.,the central-east of the Tibet Plateau,the Plateau of west Sichuan,Mount Wuyi,and the Sayan Mountains in Russia;whereas in Lake Baikal,the Tarim Basin,the Taklimakan Desert,the Sea of Japan,and the Sea of Okhotsk,rare MCS distributions are observed.MCSs are most intensely active in summer,with the highest monthly frequency in July,which is partly associated with the breaking out and prevailing of the summer monsoon in East Asia.An obvious diurnal cycle feature is also found in MCS activities,which shows that MCSs are triggered in the afternoon,mature in the evening,and dissipate at night.MCS patterns over East Asia can be characterized as small,short-lived,or elongated,which move slowly and usually lead to heavy rains or floods.

  3. A present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the data of earthquake centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, P-wave first motion focal mechanism solution and deep hole breakouts, a present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region is compiled. The origi-nal stress data are smoothed for every 200 km ′ 200 km area by taking the average of all stress indicators within each sub-region. The stress map shows the spatial distribution of the orientation of principal stress axes and the stress regimes. An earthquake focal mechanism map for the eastern Asia is also given. The maps of orientation of principal stress axes show that, apart from the strong influence of the collision between the Indian Ocean plate and Eurasian plate, the present-day tectonic stress in eastern Asia is significantly affected by the back-arc extension of the subduction zones. The joint effect of the continental collision at the Himalaya arc and back-arc extension in the Burma arc region may be responsible for the remarkable rotation of the principal stress orientations in southeastern part of the Tibet plateau. The joint action of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate at Taiwan Island and the back-arc extension of the Ryukyu arc affect the stress field in eastern part of China. There are no strong earthquakes in the present day in the vast back-arc region of the Java trench subduction zone. The back-arc extension there may create a condition favorable to the southward flow of the lithosphere material in southeastern Asia. In the inner part of the Tibet plateau region, roughly demarcated by the Kunlun mountain, the northern and northeastern part is a broad intracontinental compressive zone, while the southern and southwestern part is generally in a normal-faulting stress state.

  4. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene (United States)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela


    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  5. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar


    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  6. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  7. Nuclear Security in Asia: A Global Affair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M.


    My goal with this paper is to stimulate some thinking as to how scientists, concerned with nonproliferation and arms control, can address their efforts to improve the security environment in Asia, an environment that impacts the security of the entire world. The processes that led to the nuclearization of Asia are complex, with each country's nuclear weapons program tightly coupled to internal and regional politics and to national rivalries. Therefore, the first step toward nuclear stability, and ideally proliferation reversal, in Asia is to understand the motivations for and evolution of these programs. The author begins by addressing the evolution of the nuclear weapons programs of India, China, and Pakistan. Next he discusses why India (and then Pakistan) may have felt compelled to clear the ambiguity of their programs with their 1998 nuclear tests. He also explores why the P5 states (U.S., U.K., France, Russia, China) were unable to persuade India and Pakistan to stop or reverse their nuclear weapons programs. I then look at other countries' actions and reactions that may amplify or dampen the response of India, Pakistan, and China to what they perceive as a deterioration of their security environment. Finally he looks at regional activities that may reverse the deteriorating global security that has resulted from a nuclearized South Asia. This situation is something of a paradox because, at the same time the South Asia security environment is deteriorating, Russia and the U.S., the former Cold War adversaries, are finally taking steps to reduce the massive nuclear arsenals that threatened global security for so many years.

  8. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians (United States)

    Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas


    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognized major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5kya we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  9. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians. (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas


    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years.

  10. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  11. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  12. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence (United States)



    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  13. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  14. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.


    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  15. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  16. Y chromosome analysis of dingoes and southeast asian village dogs suggests a neolithic continental expansion from Southeast Asia followed by multiple Austronesian dispersals. (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brown, Sarah K; Stephens, Danielle; Pedersen, Niels C; Wu, Jui-Te; Berry, Oliver


    Dogs originated more than 14,000 BP, but the location(s) where they first arose is uncertain. The earliest archeological evidence of ancient dogs was discovered in Europe and the Middle East, some 5-7 millennia before that from Southeast Asia. However, mitochondrial DNA analyses suggest that most modern dogs derive from Southeast Asia, which has fueled the controversial hypothesis that dog domestication originated in this region despite the lack of supporting archeological evidence. We propose and investigate with Y chromosomes an alternative hypothesis for the proximate origins of dogs from Southeast Asia--a massive Neolithic expansion of dogs from this region that largely replaced more primitive dogs to the west and north. Previous attempts to test matrilineal findings with independent patrilineal markers have lacked the necessary genealogical resolution and mutation rate estimates. Here, we used Y chromosome genotypes, composed of 29 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and 5 single tandem repeats (STRs), from 338 Australian dingoes, New Guinea singing dogs, and village dogs from Island Southeast Asia, along with modern European breed dogs, to estimate the evolutionary mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs based on calibration to the independently known age of the dingo population. Dingoes exhibited a unique haplogroup characterized by a single distinguishing SNP mutation and 14 STR haplotypes. The age of the European haplogroup was estimated to be only 1.7 times older than that of the dingo population, suggesting an origin during the Neolithic rather than the Paleolithic (as predicted by the Southeast Asian origins hypothesis). We hypothesize that isolation of Neolithic dogs from wolves in Southeast Asia was a key step accelerating their phenotypic transformation, enhancing their value in trade and as cargo, and enabling them to rapidly expand and replace more primitive dogs to the West. Our findings also suggest that dingoes could have arrived in Australia

  17. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C


    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  18. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island (United States)

    Levinson, Steven


    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  19. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour


    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  20. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)


    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  1. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesow, Ingolf


    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-lslamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly.

  2. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.


    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica MIHALACHE


    Full Text Available The present study highlights the cooperation-competition ratio in the Central Asia region aiming at maintaining a force balance between Russia and China – as main state actors of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, and avoiding the dominance of a state over the other member states of the Organization. Our paper attempts to identify the theoretical arguments that might render a better insight in this organization as a framework meant to mutually balance influence between Russia and China, with the purpose of reciprocally monitoring and limiting their power in a region considered the core of SCO – from a geographical point of view and from the point of view of the two powers’ interest. On the other hand, we should take into account that promoting multipolarity in the global politics is a common interest of China and Russia; both countries started to exclude, to various extents, the Western powers’ interests in Central Asia.

  4. Petroleum systems, resources of Southeast Asia, Australasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, J. [Atlantic Richfield Indonesia Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia)


    The Southeast Asia-Australasia region has over 100 productive petroleum systems ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pliocene. Plate tectonics have played a fundamental role in controlling the distribution and character of the region`s petroleum systems. There is a clear division between those systems on the Eurasian plate and those on the Indo-Australian plate. The distribution of significant oil and gas resources is highly concentrated in just a few chrono-stratigraphic units. Early Tertiary Paleogene source rocks account for over 50% of the region`s in-place petroleum resources. This article summarizes the region`s systems and resources, and compares and contrasts some of their essential elements in Southeast Asia and Australasia. With average production of 3.2 million b/d of oil and 18 bscfd of gas, the region accounts for almost 6% of world oil and gas production.

  5. Southeast Asia faces full energy agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, G.V. (Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand))

    Most governments in Southeast Asia are turning their state-owned electric systems into something more closely resembling private utilities in order to improve their economic performance, says G.V. Dang of the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand. [open quotes]The bottom line has replaced geographic expansion as the guiding principle behind electricity policy throughout much of Southeast asia,[close quotes] Dang says. Utilities are adopting standard corporate operating strategies; electricity prices are being allowed to rise to more accurately reflect costs; competition from privately owned power suppliers is increasing; and utilities are being forced to seek expansion capital on their own, rather than getting it all from the government. In a region where long-term energy policy traditionally has been shaped largely by immediate political objectives, the reforms now taking hold will better equip the region to meet the energy challenges of the 1990s, Dang says.

  6. 'Why is there no NATO in Asia?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun


    from political psychology — a prospect–threat alliance model — to account for the variation in US alliance strategy toward Europe and Asia after World War II. Through setting the threat level as a reference point for leaders’ prospects of gains or losses, we suggest: (1) high threats frame decision......-makers in a domain of losses, and multilateral alliances become a favorable alliance choice because states are more likely to take the risk of constraining their freedom of action in return for more help from multiple allies as well as for avoiding further strategic losses; (2) low threats position leaders...... in a domain of gains, and bilateral alliances win out because states are risk-averse in terms of maintaining their freedom of action in seeking security through alliances with fewer allies. US alliance policy toward Asia after World War II is a within-case analysis that tests the validity of the prospect...

  7. The lithosphere thermal structure of the Southeast Asia: constrained by Vs data (United States)

    Chuanhai, Yu; Xiaobin, Shi; Qunshu, Tang; Xiaoqiu, Yang


    The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. As we all know, the tectonic evolution is closely related to the deep thermal structure state. Therefore, an accurate estimation of lithosphere thermal structure and lithosphere thickness is important in extracting information on tectonics and geodynamics. Though the thermal regime could be calculated with the observed surface heat flow, there are many uncertainties in the calculated deep thermal state. In this study, we calculated the deep lithosphere thermal structure of Southeast Asia regions by employing an empirical relationship between Vs and temperature, from the calculated temperature-depth profiles, we can identify the base of the thermal lithosphere. The results show that the temperature contours at 80km depth is about 200-300°C higher in the rifted basins and oceanic basins such as Andaman Sea, Thailand Bay, Thailand Rift Basin, South China Sea than in the plateaus and subduction zones such as Khorat Plateau, Sumatra Island and Philippine Trench regions. Generally, the thermal state indicated by the temperature contours at 80 km depth is in agreement with those suggested by the observed surface heat flow. The temperature at 100 km and 200 km depth in Southeast Asia regions is 1450-1500°C and 1650-1780°C which suggest that the study regions might have a higher thermal state than other regions. Our results also show that the estimated thickness of the lithosphere are 85-95 km in the regions of Subduction and collision regions surrounding the study area such as Java trench system, Sumatra trench system, Indo-Asian collision suture zone, Taiwan orogenic belt, Luzon Island, Celebes Island and Northeast of Borneo and becomes smaller toward the South China Sea. In the South China

  8. The Garden Cafe. An experiment in vocational education in the Philippines. (United States)

    Olson, J R


    The author visited Bohol, a picturesque island in the Philippines 350 miles south of Manila, in 1986 and 1990 to observe and record the emerging deaf culture. Before the Peace Corps started a school program on the island some eight years ago, deaf children grew up functionally illiterate. Those who have not been found and are not enrolled in the fledgling school program still do, as they are completely isolated from the deaf community. This article describes heroic efforts to teach vocational skills to the deaf in Bohol. The project not only succeeded but led to the island's best restaurant, The Garden Cafe.

  9. Work Together to Build a Safer Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han; Fangming


    <正>Asia,which means"the place where the sun rises",is a name given by westerners.It is known as a region characterized by long history,big population,cultural diversity,and complex political and economic systems.Under the impact of the Western world,the modem times witnesses Asian countries experience the suffering of foreign invasion and colonialism,and win their national impendence after long

  10. Evolving economic architecture in East Asia


    Kawai, Masahiro


    This paper examines how East Asia's economic architecture has been evolving over the last ten years and how it will shape itself in the future. With the progress of market-driven economic integration, East Asian economies have developed various cooperative initiatives for trade and finance, including free trade agreements (FTAs), the Chiang Mai Initiative, the Economic Review and Policy Dialogue, and the Asian Bond Markets Initiative. The paper suggests policy directions for greater regional ...

  11. Stroke in Asia: a global disaster. (United States)

    Kim, Jong S


    Although stroke is a world-wide problem, the burden of stroke is particularly serious in Asia; its mortality is higher than in Europe or North America. The situation in Asia is dichotomized. Stroke mortality and case fatality has been declining in northern-eastern countries such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and urbanized areas of China. This is attributed to both the risk factor control and stroke care improvement. However, declining stroke incidence is rarely observed, which is in part due to rapidly aging population. As a result, there is an increase in the number of stroke survivors who require long-term, costly care. The extremely low birth rate and relatively insecure social health system markedly increases the caregiver burden. The problem in southern Asian countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia is more fundamental. With the improving control of infectious diseases, life expectancy is prolonged. However, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking become prevalent, and are poorly controlled. Stroke neurologists, organized stroke centers, and diagnostic tools are insufficient, which has resulted in high stroke fatality and mortality. Throughout Asia, the most urgent priority should be the primary stroke prevention through promoting a healthy lifestyle, e.g. low salt intake, regular physical exercise, stopping smoking, government sectors should take a stronger initiative to accomplish this. The rapidly aging populations and stroke burden will shrink the economy and destabilize the society, not only in Asia but also globally unless appropriate efforts are promptly initiated, this may result in a global disaster.

  12. International Trade Openness and Inflation in Asia


    Yutaka Kurihara


    This article examines whether international trade openness is related with inflation or not in Asian countries. The relationship in the world has been discussed including economic growth for a long time from both theoretical and empirical ones, however, there has not been any consensus about this problem. It is necessary to analyze this relationship to achieve sound economic growth. Panel data in Asia and OECD countries are used to examine the relationship between international trade openness...

  13. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  14. Asia's Peaceful Rise: A Multiple Interactive Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liru


    @@ As the author sees it, "Asia's peaceful rise" seems to be a more appropriate expression to highlight the 21st century than the current buzzwords of "Asian century" or "the century of Asian resurgence" justifiably associated with the surging growth of regional economies and tighter ties among them since the end of the Cold War. It is of crucial significance to identify this as a process replete with complexities-an identification necessary for gauging its impact on the international community.

  15. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia (United States)


    dollars worth of illegal or unregistered cash, most of it associated with narcotics trafficking and unreported remittances from migrant labor , is...Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia month on some construction sites.32 Remittances from legal migrant labor are part of the Central Asian...farms and construction sites,36 since they rarely have any le- gal standing. Also, income from migrant labor is usually barely suffi- cient to cover

  16. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah


    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  17. Bronze Civilization Shines Asia Art Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang


    @@ The 11th Asia Arts Festival (AAF) was held from August 18 through 26, 2009 in Ordos, a city in the northern China's Inner Mongolia autonomous region. This event was jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China and the People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and organized by the Ordos Municipal People's Government, Culture Department of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and China Arts and Entertainment Group.

  18. Mapping 'Gender Evaluation' in South Asia


    Govinda, R


    This article reviews literature on gender, development and evaluation to map the emerging theoretical terrain of measuring change in gender relations in South Asia. It traces the separate but related trajectories of thinking on gender and development, of ‘evaluation culture’, and of conducting social science research to explore the points where these conflict and converge. It also presents an overview of the most commonly used frameworks employed in gender evaluations, and critically examines...

  19. Alcoholism in Southeast Asia. Prevalence and treatment. (United States)

    McGovern, M P


    A pilot, field investigation of the prevalence and treatment of alcoholism in Southeast Asia (Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, and Thailand) and conducted. The methodology combined an informant study, interviewing leading alcohol and drug abuse authorities; utilising existing data; and clinical and naturalistic observation. The effects of modernisation, multiracial culture, and the unilateral focus on opiates are discussed; recommendations on treatment, education, and research are presented.

  20. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  1. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia. (United States)


    Stand [THE ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY OF INDIA 15 Jan] 52 Sweden Asked To Reopen Bofors Probe /PATRIOT26 Jan] 54 Insurgency Problem in Manipur Examined...Swiss court orders. Insurgency Problem in Manipur Examined 91AS06I7A Calcutta THE STATESMAN in English 29-31 Jan 91 [Reports by Gautam Chaudhuri] [29...March 1991 SOUTH ASIA 55 Manipur , which has common borders with Burma and easily accessible routes, to Bangladesh. The distrust between India and

  2. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Asia-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Siva; Reddy


    Primary open angle glaucoma is the second most important cause of permanent blindness in the Asia Pacific region. Thus it is very important to identify epidemiological and other risk factore which are associated with open angle glaucoma. The risk for glaucoma optic nerve damage increases with the age and with the level of the intraocular pressure. In this paper, I will highlight our study of several risk factors for development of the open angle glaucoma like (1) elevated intraocular pressure, (2) myopi...

  3. The Problems of Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Faisol Keling


    Full Text Available The September 11th attack had opened the eyes of countries inthe international system regarding the threats from terrorists which is seen as capable of threatening the security of country. Many countries started talking about the development of international terrorists which are able to threaten a particular country at anytime. The success of international terrorists attacked against the most power country like United Stated has influenced the emergence of various terrorist activities all over the world including in the Southeast Asia. This region has got theworld’s attention when terrorism movements were developing like the‘Jemaah Islamiah Front’ (Indonesia, Abu Sayyaf Group and MoroIslamic Liberation Front (Philippines, Pattani Liberation Front(Thailand and Malaysian Militant Group (Malaysia which potentiallythreatened the security of the Southeast Asia region. These terroristgroups have changed from making limited or small attacks in the country to making serious threats and becoming bigger movements. Manypredictions have been made as to clarify how these terrorist attacks have changed into active threats. This situation has been connected to the role played by international terrorist who secretly entered the countries in the Southeast Asia to help the local terrorist. Therefore, this paper will explain the influence of international terrorist in the terrorism activities in this region. Besides that, it will also explain the background of these terrorist movements in the region and how these terrorist are able to enter a particular country and help the local terrorist movement to be moreactive in the region.

  4. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective. (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C


    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates.

  5. Seasonally Varying Reference Atmospheres for East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Vertical profiles of seasonally varying pressure, temperature, water vapor, and trace gases (O3, N2O, CO,CH4), representing atmospheric conditions up to a height of 100 km over the East Asia region (30°-50°N,110°-150°E) were constructed by using various observation data, model outputs of atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, and gaseous concentrations. Optical characteristics of the obtained East Asia reference atmospheres were compared with those from typical midlatitude summer and winter atmospheres. It was noted that, in the water vapor field, there are major differences between the two model atmospheres during the summer. The resultant impact during the summer of water vapor difference on incoming solar fluxes at the surface and emitted terrestrial fluxes at the top of the atmosphere are 14.3 W m-2 and 6.5 W m-2,respectively. On the other hand, the winter difference between East Asian and midlatitude atmospheres appears to be insignificant. Reference atmospheres for the spring and fall are also available. Utilizing the constructed atmospheric profiles as inputs to the radiative transfer model, it is expected that the constructed seasonally varying reference atmospheres can facilitate better descriptions of optical properties in East Asia.

  6. Japanese Encephalitis: Estimating Future Trends in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Metelka


    Full Text Available Limited surveillance programs and lack of diagnostic laboratory testing capacity in many low and middle income Asian countries have made it difficult to validate epidemiological patterns and anticipate future changes in disease risk. In this study, we consider the case of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and examine how populations of human hosts and animal reservoirs are expected to change over the next three decades. Growth was modelled at the sub-national level for rural and urban areas to estimate where high-density, susceptible populations will potentially overlap with populations of the virus' amplifying host. High-risk areas based on these projections were compared to the current distribution of Japanese Encephalitis, and known immunization activities in order to identify areas of highest priority for concern. Results indicated that mapping JE risk factors at the sub-national level is an effective way to contextualize and supplement JE surveillance data. New patterns of risk factor change occurring in Southeast Asia were identified, including around major urban areas experiencing both urbanization and growth in pig populations. A hotspot analysis of pig-to-population ratio found a significant spatial cluster extending northward through Southeast Asia and interior China. Mapping forecasted changes in risk factors for JE highlights regions vulnerable to emerging zoonoses and may be an important tool for developing effecting transnational health policies.

  7. The human genetic history of South Asia. (United States)

    Majumder, Partha P


    South Asia--comprising India, Pakistan, countries in the sub-Himalayan region and Myanmar--was one of the first geographical regions to have been peopled by modern humans. This region has served as a major route of dispersal to other geographical regions, including southeast Asia. The Indian society comprises tribal, ranked caste, and other populations that are largely endogamous. As a result of evolutionary antiquity and endogamy, populations of India show high genetic differentiation and extensive structuring. Linguistic differences of populations provide the best explanation of genetic differences observed in this region of the world. Within India, consistent with social history, extant populations inhabiting northern regions show closer affinities with Indo-European speaking populations of central Asia that those inhabiting southern regions. Extant southern Indian populations may have been derived from early colonizers arriving from Africa along the southern exit route. The higher-ranked caste populations, who were the torch-bearers of Hindu rituals, show closer affinities with central Asian, Indo-European speaking, populations.

  8. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia. (United States)

    Shah, N M


    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future.

  9. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina


    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  10. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.


    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  11. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia (United States)

    Morley, C. K.


    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  12. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  13. Finding of Parastrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) in Rattus rattus in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; López-González, Mercedes; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Segovia, Matías; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Casanova, Juan Carlos; Valladares, Basilio; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Feliu, Carlos


    Parastrongylus cantonensis is a parasite of murid rodents that can infect humans and cause health problems as eosinophilic meningitis. Although it is endemic in south Asia, the Pacific islands, Australia, USA, and a few Caribbean islands, it has been extended to new geographical regions. In the Canary Islands (Spain) a survey of helminths of Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus domesticus was carried out. Furthermore, five species of molluscs were examined for nematode larvae to determine whether they are potential intermediate hosts of P. cantonensis. Nematodes were found in the lungs of 15% of 67 R. rattus examined in Tenerife, one of the four studied islands, with a prevalence of 20% in the highest focus of infection. Based on morphological and molecular analysis, with the complete internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) nucleotide sequences, nematodes were identified as P. cantonensis. Larval nematodes found from snails and slugs were identified as third-stage (L(3)) Metastrongyloidea, but the molecular study showed that they did not belong to P. cantonensis. This is the first finding of angiostrongyliasis in rats in the Canary Islands (Spain). New molecular data for this species and Parastrongylus dujardini are reported. The presence of P. cantonensis in Tenerife could be of importance from the public health point of view. Further studies are required in order to look for other potential foci of infections in the Canary Islands.

  14. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac


    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  15. The great triangular seismic region in eastern Asia: Thoughts on its dynamic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Gao


    Full Text Available A huge triangle-shaped tectonic region in eastern Asia plays host to numerous major earthquakes. The three boundaries of this region, which contains plateaus, mountains, and intermountain basins, are roughly the Himalayan arc, the Tianshan-Baikal, and longitude line ∼105°E. Within this triangular region, tectonism is intense and major deformation occurs both between crustal blocks and within most of them. Outside of this region, rigid blocks move as a whole with relatively few major earthquakes and relatively weak Cenozoic deformation. On a large tectonic scale, the presence of this broad region of intraplate deformation results from dynamic interactions between the Indian, Philippine Sea-West Pacific, and Eurasian plates, as well as the influence of deep-level mantle flow. The Indian subcontinent, which continues to move northwards at ∼40 mm/a since its collision with Eurasia, has plunged beneath Tibet, resulting in various movements and deformations along the Himalayan arc that diffuse over a long distance into the hinterland of Asia. The northward crustal escape of Asia from the Himalayan collisional zone turns eastwards and southeastwards along 95°–100°E longitude and defines the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. At the western Himalayan syntaxis, the Pamirs continue to move into central Asia, leading to crustal deformation and earthquakes that are largely accommodated by old EW or NW trending faults in the bordering areas between China, Mongolia, and Russia, and are restricted by the stable landmass northwest of the Tianshan-Altai-Baikal region. The subduction of the Philippine and Pacific plates under the Eurasian continent has generated a very long and narrow seismic zone along trenches and island arcs in the marginal seas while imposing only slight horizontal compression on the Asian continent that does not impede the eastward motion of eastern Asia. In the third dimension, there may be southeastward deep mantle flow beneath most of

  16. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  17. HLA in anthropology: the enigma of Easter Island. (United States)

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thorsby, Erik


    In this article, we first present four significant cases where human leukocyte antigen (HLA) studies have been useful for the reconstruction of human peopling history on the worldwide scale; i.e., the spread of modern humans from East Africa, the colonization of East Asia along two geographic routes, the co-evolution of genes and languages in Africa, and the peopling of Europe through a main northward migration. These examples show that natural selection did not erase the genetic signatures of our past migrations in the HLA genetic diversity patterns observed today. In the second part, we summarize our studies on Easter Island. Using genomic HLA typing, we could trace an introduction of HLA alleles of native American (Amerindian) origin to Easter Island before the Peruvian slave trades; i.e., before the 1860s, and provide suggestive evidence that they may have already been introduced in prehistoric time. Our results give further support to an initial Polynesian population of the island, but also reveal an early contribution by Amerindians. Together, our data illustrate the usefulness of typing for HLA alleles to complement genetic analyses in anthropological investigations.

  18. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan


    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  19. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands]. (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin


    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić


    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  1. CoalTrans Asia 98. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A total of 21 papers were presented at the conference on topics including: coal and power after the Asian crisis; Indonesia - an extended review; feeding Asia's coal needs - a review of developments among Asia's coal suppliers; buyers under constraint; and Asia's coking coal demand and coke availability. 20 of the papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM and Worldwide Web database.

  2. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka


    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-marie


    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the ...

  3. The Strategic Shift to the Asia-Pacific (United States)


    Rebalancing in the Asia -Pacific: China’s Response and the Future Regional Order ( New Zealand : Centre for Strategic Studies, 2012), 2, http... strategy ? After describing what military steps the United States pledged to take toward the Asia -Pacific and examining the Air -Sea Battle within the region. 4. AIR FORCE The air force’s role in this strategy is to assign space, tactical aircraft, and bomber forces to the Asia

  4. U.S. Strategy in Southeast Asia: The Spratly Islands Dispute (United States)


    Solomon, "America and Asian Security in an Era of Geoeconomics ," address before the Pacific Rim Forum, San Diego, CA, 15 May 1992, U.S. Department of State...Solomon, Richard H. "America and Asian Security in an Era of Geoeconomics ." Address before the Pacific Rim Forum, San Diego, CA, 15 May 1992. In US

  5. Late colonization of Easter Island. (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P


    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  6. Late Post-glacial Sea Level Rise and Its Effects On Human Activity In Asia (United States)

    Oppenheimer, S. J.

    Three rapid post-glacial sea-level rises flooded coastlines with large continental shelves. The last of these, shortly before the interglacial optimum c.7,500BP, not only changed coastal Neolithic societies, but may also have stimulated maritime skills. Two Asian examples explore these aspects. First, during the Mid-Holocene, the Arabian Gulf transgressed as far inland as Ur probably laying down Woolley's famous Ur Flood silt layer between 7,000-5,500 BP. Stratigraphy and dating suggests the phase of rapid sea level rise immediately preceded the start of the 'Ubaid pottery period. Red-slipped Uruk pottery and copper items then appear from about 6,000BP, but above Woolley's silt layer. The Sumerian King Lists also record a major upheaval and dynastic change after 'the Flood'. Second, the final flooding of the Sunda shelf in Southeast Asia was followed by a maritime extension of human occupation from Northern Melanesia south into the Solomon Islands 6,000 years ago. Simultaneously, further west on the north coast of New Guinea, new archaeological assemblages ap- pear beneath a silt layer left by a pro-grading 6,000 year-old inland sea. The presence of arboriculture items such as betel nuts and the contemporary arrival of dogs and pigs in the same region suggests intrusion from Southeast Asia. This supports Solheim's suggestion that rapid sea-level rise on the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf stimulated maritime skills and invention in Southeast Asia. This may have provided the initial stimulus to the first maritime expansion that was later to colonise the whole Pacific.

  7. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong


    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  8. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulombe Caroline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin OZARSLAN,


    Full Text Available Open and distance learning (ODL is one of the most important trends in education in Asia as well as all around the world. This book reviews ODL/ICT developments in schools, colleges, universities, open schooling, workplace training, professional development and non-formal adult and community education. It examines ODL and ICT experiences, successes and failures of Asian education and training.This is one of the comprehensive books on distance education applications in Asia. It is written by Colin Latchem and Insung Jung. Colin Latchem is an Australian-based consultant in open and distance learning. Insung Jung is Professor of Education, Media & Society at the International Christian University in Tokyo. The book's broader audience is anyone who is interested in ODL. If you are looking for on developments in ODL in Asia, this book is primarily for you. The book is consisted of 266 pages (+xiv covering 12 chapters with a conclusion part in each chapter.These conclusion parts provide a critical look at that chapter‘s issue Topics covered in the book are as follows: Technology, E-readiness And E-learning Readiness, Open Schooling, SchoolNets and Information and Communications Technology (ICT Integration in Classrooms, Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, Workplace Training, Professional Development and Non-Formal Adult and Community Education, New Providers and New Markets, ICT Integration In and Beyond the School, Instructional Design, Learner Support and Assessment in E-Learning, Leadership for Educational Change and Innovation, Quality Assurance and Accreditation, Staff Training and Development, Research, Publication and Translating Research into Practice.

  10. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.


    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  11. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in spring 2004. (United States)

    Primbs, Toby; Simonich, Staci; Schmedding, David; Wilson, Glenn; Jaffe, Dan; Takami, Akinori; Kato, Shungo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Kajii, Yoshizumi


    To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. alpha/gamma HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 +/- 1.0 and 1.2 +/- 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO2. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs.

  12. Mantle transition zone, stagnant slab and intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia (United States)

    Chen, Chuanxu; Zhao, Dapeng; Tian, You; Wu, Shiguo; Hasegawa, Akira; Lei, Jianshe; Park, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ik-Bum


    Three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures of the mantle down to a depth of 800 km beneath NE Asia are investigated using ˜981,000 high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events recorded at 2388 stations of permanent and portable seismic networks deployed in NE China, Japan and South Korea. Our results do not support the existence of a gap (or a hole) in the stagnant slab under the Changbai volcano, which was proposed by a previous study of teleseismic tomography. In this work we conducted joint inversions of both local-earthquake arrival times and teleseismic relative travel-time residuals, leading to a robust tomography of the upper mantle and the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath NE Asia. Our joint inversion results reveal clearly the subducting Pacific slab beneath the Japan Islands and the Japan Sea, as well as the stagnant slab in the MTZ beneath the Korean Peninsula and NE China. A big mantle wedge (BMW) has formed in the upper mantle and the upper part of the MTZ above the stagnant slab. Localized low-velocity anomalies are revealed clearly in the crust and the BMW directly beneath the active Changbai and Ulleung volcanoes, indicating that the intraplate volcanism is caused by hot and wet upwelling in the BMW associated with corner flows in the BMW and deep slab dehydration as well.

  13. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation (United States)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.


    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  14. New and little known Brachodidae from tropical Asia and Papua New Guinea (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea). (United States)

    Kallies, Axel


    In this study nine new species and a new genus of Brachodidae are described from tropical Asia and Papua New Guinea. Synechodes polias sp. nov. and Synechodes tamila sp. nov. are described from Sulawesi and southern India, respectively. A new genus, Saccocera gen. nov. (type species Miscera orpheus Kallies, 2004), is described to accommodate five species occurring from Taiwan and Sumatra across Melanesia to Papua New Guinea. It differs significantly from the related genera Miscera Walker, 1863 and Synechodes Turner, 1913 in morphological details of the head and the male and female genitalia. Two species of Saccocera are described here, Saccocera panaras sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and Saccocera miangkabau sp. nov. from Sumatra. Furthermore, Miscera minahasa sp. nov. and Paranigilgia mariannae sp. nov. are described from Sulawesi, Paranigilgia brandti sp. nov. and Nigilgia atribractea sp. nov. from Papua, and Nigilgia browni sp. nov. is described from Christmas Island. Finally, Synechodes heppneri Kallies, 1998 syn. nov. is reverted to a junior synonym of Synechodes coniophora Turner, 1913. Nigilgia anactis Diakonoff, 1982 is figured for the first time and its distribution in Asia is discussed.

  15. Representation of Central Asia and Traveling Self in Vambery’s Travels in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Gholi


    Full Text Available In the course of the nineteenth century Arminius Vambery, an anglophile travel writer, in the guise of a mendicant dervish with a group of Tartar pilgrims departs to secluded and sealed Central Asia. After six months travel in the Khanates of Central Asia, he undertakes a journey to England where he offers his observations to the Royal Geographical Society and publishes his travelogue, Travel in Central Asia. Despite its literary merits and connection with British imperialism, the travelogue has not been scrutinized separately by the scholars of travel writing. To fill the gap, this article by drawing on the theories of post-structuralism: Orientalism and Postcolonialism, endeavors to unveil the political agenda behind the travel writer’s representation of his travelees, destination, and his own traveling self. Additionally, it argues that the travel writer in dialogue with other Western travel writers to deterritorialize his traversed region or justify the prospective presence of Britain in Central Asia, represents his journey destination as the locus of barbarity, a region under the grip of despotic rulers, as well as an area with frozen time, while to exhibit his Eurocentrism, he portrays his traveling subject as the a suffering hero and a benign traveler.

  16. Connected Vessels: West Asia and East Asia in China’s Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Shichor


    Full Text Available Las regiones de Asia Oriental y Asia Occidental (Oriente Medio son normalmente tratadas en la literatura académica como dos asuntos separados y distintos dentro de la política exterior china. Los estudios acerca de la política de China en Asia Oriental apenas si mencionan Oriente Medio, mientras que los estudios de Oriente Medio apenas mencionan Asia Occidental. Pero de hecho ambas regiones no sólo están interconectadas en la visión geopolítica de China sino que proporcionan claves para entender la política exterior de Beijing hacia cada una de ellas –esto es, ambas regiones son interdependientes. Como tales, son vasos conectados en el sentido de que la situación en una afecta, e incluso determina, la política de China con respecto a la otra. Esto es evidente desde diversas perspectivas: estratégicas, económicas, energéticas, militares, e incluso con respecto al Islam. La mutua dependencia es una de las características de las relaciones internacionales contemporáneas desde el final de la Guerra Fría, y mientras normalmente está limitada a uno o dos aspectos (fundamentalmente económico y militar, en el caso de China y Oriente Medio, la mutua dependencia regional implica bastantes niveles.

  17. 1st International AsiaHaptics conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hideyuki; Kyung, Ki-Uk


    This book is aimed not only at haptics and human interface researchers, but also at developers and designers from manufacturing corporations and the entertainment industry who are working to change our lives. This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International AsiaHaptics conference, held in Tsukuba, Japan, in 2014. The book describes the state of the art of the diverse haptics- (touch-) related research, including scientific research into haptics perception and illusion, development of haptics devices, and applications for a wide variety of fields such as education, medicine, telecommunication, navigation, and entertainment.

  18. Coaltrans Asia. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Twenty two papers are presented. Subjects covered include the Kyoto Protocol; Asian economies; steel industry; Japan's changing coal-buying; Indian steel production and coking coal demand; advances in coal generation; Callide Merchant Plants; coal industry and suppliers in Australia, China, Indonesia and Asia; electricity industry and demand in Japan and Korea; future of self-loading/discharging vessels; and risk management techniques for the shipping market. Some of the papers only consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  19. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.


    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  20. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia (United States)


    been seen for weeks. Among the names mentioned in this context was that of Lieutenant General Natiq Sha- kir , commander of the 5th Corps, deployed...Iraqi announcement reported at the time that the 51 year old Shakr had resigned for reasons of health. He was said to be suffering from cancer . The...ASIA 97 you have cancer and you are not going to survive for long. That does not mean that you do not seek a cure. So it is not too difficult a thing

  1. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik


    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  2. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.


    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  3. Las conflictivas fronteras de Asia Central


    Stanganelli, Isabel Cecilia


    Si bien el gran juego político del siglo XIX definió la frontera entre Rusia y Afganistán mediante un tratado firmado por Rusia y el Reino Unido, la vasta región que hoy constituyen las cinco restantes repúblicas de Asia Central fue incorporada a Rusia zarista en sucesivas etapas y en el período soviético dotada por Moscú de límites con funciones puramente administrativas. La sorpresiva independencia de las repúblicas en diciembre de 1991 transformó a esos límites en internacionales. Lejos...

  4. China-Central Asia Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The China-Central Asia Friendship Association(CCAFA) held its inaugural meeting in Beijing on December 18,2007. The CCAFA,founded at the initiation of the CPAFFC,is a national non-profit social organization with legal person status.It aims to further expand people-to-people contact between China and the five Central Asian countries,namely Kazakhstan,Kirghizstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan,enhance regional cooperation and deepen good-neighbourly relations so as to consolidate the social foundation for lasting friendship between China and these countries and promote common development.

  5. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia). (United States)

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V


    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone.

  6. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean


    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete


    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  7. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim


    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  8. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael


    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  9. Shoreline dynamics of the Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    Lakshadweep group of islands are mainly coral atolls. Fringing reefs protect these small islands from the attack of waves. This paper describes the waves and currents acting on Kalpeni, Kavaratti, Minicoy, Agatti, Kadamat and Androth islands...

  10. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  11. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  12. The submental island flap. (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F


    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  13. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi


    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  14. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica (United States)


    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  15. Rain on small tropical islands (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.


    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  16. Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits. (United States)

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F


    The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region.

  17. Gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asia: Epidemiology. (United States)

    Jawad, Fatema; Ejaz, Kiran


    Gestational diabetes mellitus, is defined by the American Diabetes Association as "diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes". WHO has further classified the period of diagnosis as Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The former term is applicable in the early period of gestation and GDM is detected after 24 weeks. Irrespective of the guidelines followed, the presence of Diabetes Mellitus during pregnancy, has to be taken seriously as it is an important metabolic derangement and can prove to be harmful for the mother and dangerous for the foetus. The rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the world along with obesity, is a major contributing factor for GDM. The trend of this rise is more steep in the low and middle income countries thus proportionately increasing the risk for GDM. South Asia falls in this bracket and the responsible factors have to be identified and corrected. Management should begin from primordial prevention for which education is a key factor. Every woman should be taught the way to follow a healthy life style. Identification of the contributing factors and universal screening facilities for all pregnant women living in both rural and urban areas, should be given prime importance. On detecting Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy or GDM, monitoring and health care facilities should be provided. This review provides some available figures of GDM in South Asia, the risk factors in this population and the steps for prevention.

  18. Taking CERN physics to South Asia

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo


    CERN physicists travelled to South Asia last month to bring a plethora of particle physics events to schools, universities and public venues. The initiative was the first of its kind in the region, and brought CERN particle physics to a new audience in Nepal and India.   Kathmandu University students take part in an ATLAS virtual visit. On 19 December 2014, students from Kathmandu University and Tribhuvan University, Nepal and 16 schools in Punjab, India took part in a joint virtual visit to ATLAS. The visit, which was the first of its kind in South Asia, followed a two-day Masterclass in particle physics that took place simultaneously in the two countries. The Masterclass was organised as a part of Physics Without Frontiers, an International Centre for Theoretical Physics project in partnership with CERN. Besides the Masterclass, physics workshops led by ATLAS physicists Kate Shaw, Joerg Stelzer and Suyog Shrestha were held for high school students and science teachers in three different d...

  19. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo


    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  20. Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project for Asia. (United States)

    Fu, Congbin; Wang, Shuyu; Xiong, Zhe; Gutowski, William J.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; McGregor, John L.; Sato, Yasuo; Kato, Hisashi; Kim, Jeong-Woo; Suh, Myoung-Seok


    Improving the simulation of regional climate change is one of the high-priority areas of climate study because regional information is needed for climate change impact assessments. Such information is especially important for the region covered by the East Asian monsoon where there is high variability in both space and time. To this end, the Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project (RMIP) for Asia has been established to evaluate and improve regional climate model (RCM) simulations of the monsoon climate. RMIP operates under joint support of the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), the Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training (START), the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and several projects of participating nations. The project currently involves 10 research groups from Australia, China, Japan, South Korea, and the United States, as well as scientists from India, Italy, Mongolia, North Korea, and Russia.RMIP has three simulation phases: March 1997-August 1998, which covers a full annual cycle and extremes in monsoon behavior; January 1989-December 1998, which examines simulated climatology; and a regional climate change scenario, involving nesting with a global model. This paper is a brief report of RMIP goals, implementation design, and some initial results from the first phase studies.

  1. Review - Inter-Ethnic Dynamics in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ramirez


    Full Text Available Review of: Culas, Christian and François Robinne (eds. 2009. Inter-ethnic Dynamics in Asia: Considering the Other Through Ethnonyms, Territories and Ritual. London: New York: Routledge. 215. Bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-415-55936-2 (hardcover, 130USD, 978-0-203-86138-7 (ebook, 99.61USD. One of this volume's many merits is that it sets out to seriously address ethnic categorization in Upland Southeast Asia. Many valuable publications have dealt specifically with ethnicity in this region, where the complex intricacies of collective identities are easily noticed by social scientists. A strongpoint of this volume is its highlighting certain dimensions that have traditionally received little attention. This is thanks to a relatively unusual approach aimed at understanding horizontal inter-ethnic relationships. While many scholars have focused on relations between the state and 'minorities', or on opposition between hills and valleys – and sometimes both, as in the case of Scott (2009 – this compilation examines the manifold identity relations that "structure the ethnic groups' social spaces on a local or micro-regional level" (1.

  2. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia (United States)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.


    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  3. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohadjer


    Full Text Available Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  4. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy in Asia. (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mehran, Ladan; Alamdari, Shahram; Subekti, Imam; Vaidya, Bijay; Poppe, Kris; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; San Luis, Teofilo; Akamizu, Takashi


    Maternal hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is associated with adverse impacts on both mother and fetus. Recently, the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society have published guidelines for the management of thyroid diseases in pregnancy. We aimed to disclose the impact of these guidelines in current practices of Asian members of the Asia-Oceania Thyroid Association (AOTA) regarding the management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Completed questionnaire survey, based on clinical case scenarios, was collected from 321 Asian physician members of AOTA from 21 Asian countries in 2013. For a woman with Graves' disease planning pregnancy, 92% of clinicians favored antithyroid treatment, 52% with propylthiouracil (PTU) while 40% preferred methimazole (MMI). For a pregnant woman with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism, nearly all responders initiated PTU treatment. To monitor dosage of antithyroid drugs, approximately 73% of responders used TSH and free T4 (FT4) levels without free T3 (FT3) (53%) or with FT3 (20%). Majority of responders targeted achieving low serum TSH with FT4 (or total T4) in the upper end of the normal range. For management of gestational thyrotoxicosis, 40% chose to follow up and 52% treated patients with PTU. Although timing of TSH receptor antibodies measurement in pregnant hyperthyroid patients was variable, 53% of responders would check it at least once during pregnancy. Nearly 80% of responders do not treat subclinical hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Therefore, despite wide variations in the management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy in Asia, majority of Asian physicians practice within the recommendations of major professional societies.

  5. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.


    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  6. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview (United States)

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.


    ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the

  7. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties (United States)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)


    depth gradient, with AOD(500 nm) extremes from 0.1 to 1.1. On the Pacific transit from Honolulu to Hachijo AOD(500 nm) averaged 0.2, including increases to 0.4 after several storms, suggesting the strong impact of wind-generated seasalt. The AOD maximum, found in the Sea of Japan, was influenced by dust and anthropogenic sources. (4) In Beijing, single scattering albedo retrieved from AERONET sun-sky radiometry yielded midvisible SSA=0.88 with strong wavelength dependence, suggesting a significant black carbon component. SSA retrieved during dust episodes was approx. 0.90 and variable but wavelength neutral reflecting the presence of urban haze with the dust. Downwind at Anmyon Island SSA was considerably higher, approx. 0.94, but wavelength neutral for dust episodes and spectrally dependent during non dust periods. (5) Satellite retrievals show major aerosol features moving from Asia over the Pacific; however, determining seasonal-average aerosol effects is hampered by sampling frequency and large-scale cloud systems that obscure key parts of aerosol patterns. Preliminary calculations using, satellite-retrieved AOD fields and initial ACE-Asia aerosol properties (including sulfates, soot, and dust) yield clear-sky aerosol radiative effects in the seasonal-average ACE-Asia plume exceeding those of manmade greenhouse gases. Quantifying all-sky direct aerosol radiative effects is complicated by the need to define the height of absorbing aerosols with respect to cloud decks.

  8. Radiocarbon chronology and environment of woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in northern Asia: results and perspectives (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Orlova, Lyobov A.


    This paper reviews the history of the woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in Siberia and adjacent northern Asia. The particular emphases are the chronology and environment of mammoth existence and extinction, based on about 530 radiocarbon dates from about 230 localities with mammoth remains and palaeoenvironmental records of the last 50,000 years. Until ca. 12,000 radiocarbon years ago (BP), mammoths inhabited all of northern Asia, from the High Arctic to southern Siberia and northeastern China. Since ca. 12,000 BP, mammoth disappeared from major parts of Siberia and adjacent northern Asia, and survived mainly in the Arctic regions of Siberia, north of 69° northern latitude. However, recently, it was found that some mammoth populations continued to exist in central and southern Western Siberia until ca. 11,100-10,200 BP. 'Normal' size mammoths became extinct in mainland Siberia at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, ca. 9700 BP. On Wrangel Island in the High Arctic, small-sized mammoths survived into the Middle-Late Holocene, ca. 7700-3700 BP. Compared with previous studies, it is now possible to reveal the complex nature of the process of final mammoth extinction in Siberia, with some small populations surviving outside of the Arctic until ca. 10,000 BP. The extinction of mammoth was most probably caused by a combination of factors, such as global warming in the Late Glacial (since ca. 15,000 BP) and the disintegration of landscapes suitable for mammoths throughout the Upper Pleistocene, such as light forests with vast open spaces occupied by meadows and forest tundra. The expansion of forest vegetation after the Last Glacial Maximum in Siberia, including its northeastern part, created unsuitable habitats for herbivorous megafauna, especially for mammoths. However, the Holocene environment of Wrangel Island was not of 'glacial' type and this requires further studies. The relationship between mammoths and Upper Palaeolithic humans is also considered. The

  9. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes. (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui


    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.

  10. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.


    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  11. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  12. CoalTrans Asia 97. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Twenty one papers were presented at the conference in six sessions entitled: setting the scene; supplying Asia`s steam coal; port developments and shipping review; independent power production; Asian steam coal demand; and Asian coking coal prospects. Nineteen of the papers and panels have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  13. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng


    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  14. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr


    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively...... sustainable development for Arctic communities under globalization....

  15. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan


    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  16. ITMA ASIA + CITME 2010 Attracts Strong Support despite Economic Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Despite the current global economic woes, textile machinery makers re-main confident about the long-term prospects of the textile industry in Asia, es-pecially China. They have given the show owners of ITMA ASIA + CITME 2010 a vote of confidence by signing up for space in the second combined show.

  17. Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region


    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.


    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  18. India's Emerging Connectivity with Southeast Asia: Progress and Prospects


    De, Prabir


    Connectivity is the key building block of convergence and cohesion in any regional integration initiative. Development of connectivity across any region - especially of transportation linkages, energy pipelines, and information and communication technology - contributes to integration by reducing transaction costs and facilitating intraregional trade and investment. The potential gains from closer connectivity between South Asia and Southeast Asia are no doubt large. India's regional integrat...

  19. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo


    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  20. Adventures in Advocacy: Real World Strategies for Education in Asia (United States)

    Fortunato, Barbara; De Guzman, Sylvia


    In the face of compelling challenges, the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education (ASPBAE), the Global Campaign for Education (GCE), as well as the national education coalitions in Asia, have levelled up efforts in the past five years to advance the right of all citizens to quality education and learning opportunities…

  1. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr


    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively...

  2. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education (United States)

    Salter, Peta


    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  3. Pirates, ports, and coasts in Asia: historical and contemporary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; Osseweijer, M.


    Pirates, Ports and Coasts in Asia aims to fill in some of the historical gaps in the coverage of maritime piracy and armed robbery in Asia. The authors highlight a variety of activities ranging from raiding, destroying and pillaging coastal villages and capturing inhabitants to attacking and taking

  4. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs


    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  5. Towards understanding the origin and dispersal of Austronesians in the Solomon Sea: HLA class II polymorphism in eight distinct populations of Asia-Oceania. (United States)

    Zimdahl, H; Schiefenhövel, W; Kayser, M; Roewer, L; Nagy, M


    HLA class II nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were examined in eight ethnic groups of Asia-Oceania using DNA typing methods. Allele frequencies and characteristic DR/DQ haplotypes were determined and compared with those of other populations of Asia-Oceania. Genetic distances were measured to show the genetic relationship within the studied populations as well as between the studied populations and previously published populations. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on HLA allele frequencies using the neighbour-joining method. The populations, mainly Trobriand Islanders, Roro, Tolai, Western Samoans and Taiwanese Aborigines, are characterized by a reduced diversity at the HLA loci examined, especially for DPB1. The high frequency of the 'Asian'-specific DPB1*0501 allele in Trobrianders and Roro, but also in Western Samoans and Taiwanese Aborigines, was the most striking result. The prevalence of DPB1*0501 and the short genetic distance from Trobriander and Roro to Taiwanese Aborigines provide evidence that the origin of the Austronesian odyssey is south-east Asia, and Taiwan could be an important part of it. The relatedness of Trobrianders to the Polynesian population from Western Samoa indicates a probable recent common ancestor. The observed lack of diversity may reflect bottleneck(s) and/or limited diversity of the founding population. Analysis of HLA class I antigens, together with mt-DNA and Y-chromosomal studies, will give us further information about the settlement of the Trobriand and other islands during the colonization of the Pacific.

  6. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  7. International trade and specialisation between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte


    The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialisation within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions...... and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major...... share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export of raw fur skin from Europe to Asia, and a major export of fur garments from Asia to Europe including Russia. The conclusion is...

  8. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David


    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War...... Europe and South Asia. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf may have adopted more moderate foreign policy towards India after experiencing fear of imminent nuclear war during the ten month mobilised crisis in 2002 as Nikita Khrushchev did forty years earlier. I argue that the stability...

  9. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte


    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export...... of raw fur skin from Europe to Asia, and a major export of fur garments from Asia to Europe including Russia. The conclusion is, that there is a major international trade of both fur skin and fur garments between Europe and Asia, and that the international specialization in this sector is high....

  10. Surge-tectonic evolution of southeastern Asia: a geohydrodynamics approach (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The repeated need for ad hoc modifications in plate-tectonic models to explain the evolution of southeastern Asia reveals their inability to fully explain the complex features and dynamics of this region. As one example, the hypothesis does not provide a mechanism to explain the 180° turns and twists along the strike of several foldbelts and island arcs in the region (e.g. Banda arc). Convection-cell configuration renders such 180° contortions and Rayleigh-Bénard-type convection impossible. However, during the last 10 years, new data bearing on the convection-cell problem have become available in the form of seismotomographic images of the earth's interior. These images show that (i) mantle diapirs as proposed by traditional plate-tectonic models do not exist; (ii) there is no discernible pattern of upper or lower mantle convection, and thus no longer an adequate mechanism to move plates; and (iii) the lithosphere above a depth of about 80 km is permeated by an interconnected network of low-velocity channels. Seismic-reflection studies of the low-velocity channels discovered on the seismotomographic images reveal that these channels have walls with a 7.1-7.8 km s -1 P-wave velocity. Commonly, the interiors of the channels are acoustically transparent, with much slower P-wave velocities, in places as low as 5.4 km s -1. The author and co-workers have interpreted the low velocities as evidence for the presence of partial melt in the channels, and they postulated that this melt moves preferentially eastward as a result of the earth's rotation. They named these channels "surge channels" and their new hypothesis for earth dynamics "surge tectonics". Surge channels underlie every type of tectonic belt, which includes mid-ocean ridges, aseismic ridges, continental rifts, strike-slip fracture zones, and foldbelts. In southeastern Asia, surge channels—mainly foldbelts—lie between all platform and cratonic massifs. These massifs, platforms, and tectonics belts

  11. Biological Invasions of Geminiviruses: Case Study of TYLCV and Bemisia tabaci in Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Lett


    Full Text Available In the last 20 years, molecular ecology approaches have proven to be extremely useful to identify and assess factors associated with viral emerging diseases, particularly in economically and socially important tropical crops such as maize (maize streak disease and cassava (cassava mosaic disease. Molecular ecology approaches were applied in Reunion Island to analyze the epidemic of tomato yellow leaf curl disease, which has been affecting the island since the end of the 1990s. Before the invasive biotype B (currently known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci spread across the world, Reunion Island (South West Indian Ocean only hosted an indigenous biotype of B. tabaci, Ms (currently known as Indian Ocean cryptic species. Wild hybrids between invasive and indigenous species were subsequently characterized over multiple generations. Endosymbiont analysis of the hybrid population indicated that matings were non-random. Similarly, while no indigenous begomoviruses have ever been reported on Reunion Island, the two main strains of one of the most damaging and emerging plant viruses in the world, the Mild and Israel strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-Mld and TYLCV-IL, were introduced in 1997 and 2004 respectively. While these introductions extensively modified the agricultural landscape of Reunion Island, they also provided an invaluable opportunity to study the ecological and genetic mechanisms involved in biological invasion and competition.

  12. Modeling of Urban Heat Island at Global Scale (United States)

    KC, B.; Ruth, M.


    Urban Heat Island (UHI) is the temperature difference between urban and its rural background temperature. At the local level, the choice of building materials and urban geometry are vital in determining the UHI magnitude of a city. At the city scale, economic growth, population, climate, and land use dynamics are the main drivers behind changes in UHIs. The main objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive assessment of UHI based on these "macro variables" at regional and global scale. We based our analysis on published research for Europe, North America, and Asia, reporting data for 83 cities across the globe with unique climatic, economic, and environmental conditions. Exploratory data analysis including Pearson correlation was performed to explore the relationship between UHI and PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤5 microns), PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 microns), vegetation per capita, built area, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), population density and population. Additionally, dummy variables were used to capture potential influences of climate types (based on Koppen classifications) and the ways by which UHI was measured. We developed three linear regression models, one for each of the three continents (Asia, Europe, and North America) and one model for all the cities across these continents. This study provides a unique perspective for predicting UHI magnitudes at large scales based on economic activity and pollution levels of a city, which has important implications in urban planning.

  13. Methodology of Leaving America for Asia: Reading South Korea's Social Studies Textbooks through Chen Kuan-Hsing's Asia as Method (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun


    This project began as a content analysis of five South Korean high school Social Studies textbooks. Yet, it has evolved into an epistemological experiment to pursue the question of "what does it mean to leave America for Asia, at least methodologically, for the researcher who left Asia for America?" Using the textbooks as a mediating…

  14. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan... (United States)


    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our draft comprehensive conservation plan (CCP), draft wilderness stewardship plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our alternatives, including our preferred......

  15. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iguchi Kei'ichiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  16. Sexual medicine disparities between Asia and North America: commentary on male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin F Katz; Doron S Stember; Harris M Nagler


    @@ In a recently published article in Asian Journal of Andrology, Ho et al.1 examine prevalence,attitudes, and treatment patterns related to sexual dysfunction in Asia and contrast them with those of Western society.They highlight the relative paucity of data with respect to erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation, and hypogonadism in the Asian population.Although the authors make a commendable attempt to characterize sexual dysfunction in Asia, there are multiple factors that complicate interpretation of published prevalence rates.Confounding factors affecting interpretation of these studies include the methodology of identification of the studied cohorts, ages of study participants, survey response rates, definitions of ED, and strategies and lengths of time for data collection.

  17. Atmospheric PCDD/F measurement in Taiwan and Southeast Asia during Dongsha Experiment (United States)

    Thuan, Ngo Thi; Chi, Kai Hsien; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chang, Moo Been; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Peng, Chi-Ming


    The international campaign of Dongsha Experiment was conducted in the northern Southeast Asian region during March-May 2010. To address the effects of long-range transport on the persistent organic pollutants and further understand the PCDD/F contamination in Vietnam, atmospheric PCDD/Fs were evaluated at a coastal station (Pingtung County, Sites A) in southern Taiwan, remote island station in South China Sea (Dongsha Island, Site B) and coastal station (Da Nang City, Site C) in central Vietnam during different sampling periods in this study. The measurements indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations were 1.01-27.4 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 22), 1.52-10.8 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 17) and 23.4-146 fg I-TEQ/m3 (n = 16) at Sites A, B and C, respectively, during different periods in 2010. In March 2010, an Asian dust storm (ADS) that originated in Gobi deserts eventually reached populated areas of East Asia, including Taiwan and the island in northern South China Sea. During the ADS episode, measurements made in southern Taiwan and South China Sea on 16 and 21 March 2010 indicate that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased 6.5 and 6.9 times at Sites A and B, respectively. Furthermore, the significantly higher PCDD/F concentrations and contents in suspended particles (134-546 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP) were measured at Site C in the central Vietnam. In addition, the distribution of PCDD/F congeners measured in Central Vietnam was quite different from those measured at other stations with high PCDD distribution (>80%) especially in OCDD (>70%). During the Vietnam conflict, United States (US) forces had sprayed a greater volume of defoliant with higher PCDD/F contents than originally estimated. We consider that the high fraction of PCDDs observed in Vietnam probably originated as anthropogenic emission from specific source in Vietnam.

  18. Emplacement of Bela and Muslim Bagh Ophiolites and Significance of India-Asia Collision in Western Pakistan (United States)

    Xiong, Yingqian

    The collision of India with Asia is an important geologic event preceded by the formation of now obducted ophiolites of Western Pakistan. Ophiolites along the suture zone between India and Asia can help elucidate the pre-terminal and terminal collisional history of the Himalaya orogen. Along the western boundary of the Indian plate, the Bela Ophiolite (BO) and associated allochthonous Sub-Ophiolitic Volcanic Complexes (BSOVC) represent the largest composite exposures of mafic and ultramafic rocks. The Muslim Bagh Ophiolite (MBO) is another well-known ophiolite. Collectively, they have not been extensively studied because of their remote location. A detailed geological map for the BO-BSOVC was created using remote sensing and field data. False-color images (Landsat ETM+ bands 7-4-2 in RGB), color band-ratio composite images of Landsat ETM+ data (5/7-5/1-5/4 in RGB), ASTER data (4/5-6/7-3/4 in RGB), and Mafic Index images along with reflectance spectroscopy data were used to discriminate different lithologies. Based on the geochemistry, age, and tectonic contact relationships of the samples analyzed, the BO most likely formed in an oceanic supra-subduction forearc environment ˜65 Ma on the upper plate of a westward-dipping subduction zone that consumed Indian plate oceanic crust. The alkali basalts trace elements signatures from the BSOVC show OIB signatures. They are likely to be from seamount complexes that were part of the subducting Indian plate. Analyzed dike samples from the MBO show typical subduction-related trace element signatures on a chondrite-normalized diagram and in a Th-Hf/3-Ta ternary diagram. The island arc affinity for the diabase dikes cutting the mantle section and sheeted dikes indicates that their origin could be analogous to some segments of the Chile ridge. An island arc affinity for dikes cutting the metamorphic sole indicates that emplacement of the MBO was followed by island arc-type magmatism.

  19. Asia's changing role in global climate change. (United States)

    Siddiqi, Toufiq A


    Asia's role in global climate change has evolved significantly from the time when the Kyoto Protocol was being negotiated. Emissions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas, from energy use in Asian countries now exceed those from the European Union or North America. Three of the top five emitters-China, India, and Japan, are Asian countries. Any meaningful global effort to address global climate change requires the active cooperation of these and other large Asian countries, if it is to succeed. Issues of equity between countries, within countries, and between generations, need to be tackled. Some quantitative current and historic data to illustrate the difficulties involved are provided, and one approach to making progress is suggested.

  20. 19th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan


    This PALO volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 19th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2015), held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 22-25, 2015. The IES series of conference is an annual event that was initiated back in 1997 in Canberra, Australia. IES aims to bring together researchers from countries of the Asian Pacific Rim, in the fields of intelligent systems and evolutionary computation, to exchange ideas, present recent results and discuss possible collaborations. Researchers beyond Asian Pacific Rim countries are also welcome and encouraged to participate. The theme for IES 2015 is “Transforming Big Data into Knowledge and Technological Breakthroughs”. The host organization for IES 2015 is the School of Information Technology (SIT), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), and it is technically sponsored by the International Neural Network Society (INNS). IES 2015 is collocated with three other conferences; namely, The 6th International Confere...

  1. Perbandingan Pendidikan Islam di Asia Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendi susanto


    Full Text Available Islamic education in Southeast Asia has some diverse substances. In Indonesia, Islamic education experience rapid progress. Indonesia employ Islamic education as cumpolsary subject in schools and public universities. In Malaysia, Islamic education has many improvements since 1956 e.g. Islamic education is taught in national school and also Malaysia also formed religious education department that handle every religious subject in schools. Thailand, especially in couple regions such as Pattani, Setul, Yala, and Narathiwat, Islamic education with boarding school and Madrasah become islamic identity backbone and Islamic struggle against central government. Meanwhile, different condition takes place to Islamic education in Singapore. There is still an uncleared purpose between islamic education with national education system, there is no islamic university, no standard curriculum, no central islamic education administration, and the lack of fund and economical status of religion teacher.

  2. Rabies in Asia: the classical zoonosis. (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera


    Rabies remains a constant threat to humans throughout much of Asia. The dog is the main reservoir and vector with wildlife playing a very minor role. No Asian country or region has been declared rabies free by WHO in over two decades and there is evidence of canine rabies spread to new regions during the past 10 years. We now have the knowledge and technology to control canine rabies. The main barrier in managing this costly endemic is lack of motivation by authorities to address this issue along with regional inability of public health and livestock (agriculture) officials to tackle this issue in cooperation and coordination. Rabies is one of the first recognized zoonoses and a model for a true "One Health" management goal where human; veterinary, and government officials must work together in harmony to defeat this disease.

  3. Asia in the New Distribution of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Mora


    Full Text Available The relations between sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have developed at a considerable rate over the recent decades. The economic figures and political interests are testimony to a new distribution of influences on the Dark Continent, insomuch as the powerful nations along the Asiatic shore are now competing with both the former colonial mother counties and the United States. Indeed, if the economic weight of Africa’s market is weak world-wide, this does not make it unattractive from a strategic point of view for those Asiatic countries looking for international prestige or resources for their growing economies. This rapprochement, motivated by political reasons also, seems exemplified by the growing presence of major economies like Japan and China - as well as those aspirations of the middle-sized powers like South Korea and Malaysia - in the international issues concerning sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra


    Full Text Available The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP was a sink, estimated at −104 ± 150 Tg C yr−1 during 2007–2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be −191 ± 193 Tg C yr−1 during the period of 2000–2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1 the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration of −220 ± 186 Tg C yr−1 (2 the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of −14 ± 50 Tg C yr−1, which resulted from a sink of −16 Tg C yr−1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr−1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3 the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr−1; and (4 the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr−1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr−1 for the decades of 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land-to-atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr−1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C

  5. Political Stability and Economic Growth in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of various factors of political instability on economic growth in selected ten Asian economies during 1990-2005. Our empirical findings show a close relationship between political stability and economic growth. We have analyzed the data by using ordinary least squire econometrics methods, which conclude that 32.35 scores increasing of index of political stability leads to one percent increase in economic growth. From these finding based on Asia experiences, we can conjecture that political stability plays a dominant role in determination of economic growth and sources of capital accumulation. This study uses the average proportion methods and Tinbergen diagrams to show the relative importance of political stability than economic freedom to accumulate capital, measured by four sources of capital accumulation which are proximate causes for economic growth. The results also clearly show that the role of political stability in accelerating economic growth is more vital than economic freedom.

  6. Crustal evolution in Asia: Correlations and connections (United States)

    Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Kwon, Sanghoon; Santosh, M.


    The Asian region records multiple subduction, accretion and collision processes related to the breakup of Gondwana and Pangea, and the ongoing formation of the future supercontinent Amasia. The oldest geological record of Asia is preserved in Archean crustal fragments which were welded together by later collisional events related to the assembly of several supercontinents. The Asian region also records recent geological events such as volcanic activities and mega-earthquakes related to subduction of oceanic plates along active continental margins and collision of microplates. This region is thus regarded as an excellent field laboratory for examining the evolution of continental crust and cratons, formation and destruction of continents and supercontinents, and related metallogenic and surface environmental processes.

  7. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  8. The spider family Selenopidae (Arachnida, Araneae in Australia and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Crews


    Full Text Available The spider family Selenopidae Simon occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, currently containing nearly 200 species in five genera. We relimit and revise the family to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and Asia. The family Selenopidae is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul and Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous errors in the definition. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: S. bursarius Karsch, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, S. ollarius Zhu, Sha, and Chen, and S. radiatus Latreille, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha, and Chen is recognized as a junior synonym of S. radiatus, syn. n. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with A. baginawa sp. n., and is known only from the Philippine island of Mindoro. Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with G. careus sp. n., and is known only from Papua New Guinea. Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and has 24 species: K. australiensis (L. Koch comb. n., K. gangarie sp. n., K. monteithi sp. n., K. alanlongbottomi sp. n., K. keithlongbottomi sp. n., K. larryoo sp. n., K. jarrit sp. n., K. marrayagong sp. n., K. raveni sp. n., K. badgeradda sp. n., K. burbidgei sp. n., K. karrawarla sp. n., K. julianneae sp. n., K. martamarta sp. n., K. manaayn sp. n., K. vadlaadambara sp. n., K. pilkingtoni sp. n., K. deserticola sp. n., K. ngarutjaranya sp. n., K. francesae sp. n., K. toolbrunup sp. n., the type species K. ellenae sp. n., K. jenniferae sp. n., and K. dawara sp. n. The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal: M. agumbensis (Tikader, comb. n., the type of the genus M. mahishasura sp. n., M. montigenus (Simon, comb. n., M. nilgirensis (Reimoser comb. n., and M. shiva sp. n. The genus Pakawops gen. n. is

  9. On the fog variability over south Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, F.S. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Koernich, H.; Tjernstroem, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, The Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm (Sweden)


    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of ''cross-over temperature'' combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards. (orig.)

  10. On the fog variability over south Asia (United States)

    Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.


    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

  11. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software. (United States)

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco


    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  12. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  13. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  14. India's Engagement With East Asia and The China Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li


    @@ Introduction India's engagement with East Asia has enjoyed a long history.In ancient times,the Indian Civilization exerted substantial influence on Southeast and East Asia.Buddhism,originating on the Subcontinent more than two centuries ago,remains most popular in Southeast and East Asia.India also has centuries of economic bonds with the region.Under the colonial rule of the British,India was used to safeguard and promote British"interests"in the Pacific Ocean,as well as in the Middle East and Africa.

  15. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah


    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  16. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaspy, D.T. [Southern Energy, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  17. Evolution of the clinical trial landscape in Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathindranath S


    Full Text Available Shourav Yathindranath,1 Amar Kureishi,2 Simranjit Singh,3 Spencer Yeow,3 Grace Geng,4 Karen Wai,1 Audrey Ho,1 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee5 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, 2Drug Development Asia, 3Strategic Planning Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 4People’s Republic of China Site Services, Quintiles, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore Introduction: Asia Pacific has and continues to be one of the fastest-growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. This growth has a carry-over effect of driving pharmaceutical research and development investment in the region. Coupled with this, there have been multiple initiatives conducted by governments and other research focused organizations and societies in the region to help support this growth in research. In this report, we discuss the latest developments in pharmaceutical research and development in Asia Pacific and how these various initiatives have made an impact. Methods: An extensive search of the major clinical trial registries, along with the literature and Internet review of the recent developments in clinical trials, was performed comparing two time periods – 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. Results: In overall numbers, the clinical trial industry in Asia Pacific has remained stable when comparing the two time periods, with stable volumes of clinical trial numbers and site numbers. However, on closer inspection, a dynamic change in geography, nature, and therapeutic areas of the trials being conducted is observed. Japan, South Korea, People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan continue to be major clinical trial destinations. Developing countries, such as Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines, have seen rising standards of living and medical care; this is starting to impact their contribution to trials. Also, there are an increasing number of local trials in Asia Pacific with a bigger role

  18. Variations of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Zhang


    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.

  20. The Marble Types of Thassos Island through the Ages (United States)

    Laskaridis, Kostas; Patronis, Michael; Papatrechas, Christos; Schouenborg, Björn


    The first references to the "white whole-grain" marble of Thassos Island, Greece, date back to the 6th century BC when stones were quarried at Alyki peninsula and at Fanari and Vathy capes. Since that time, Thassos marble was exported to Samothraki and other neighbouring islands, Asia Minor coastal cities, Southern Greece and Rome. In ancient times, there were two principal types of marble quarries in Thassos: (a) those producing material for the construction of temples and for the creation of various art pieces, i.e. ornamental stones, and (b) those for extraction of rough blocks for export. This paper aims at describing the Thassos marble, the geological setting in brief, its historic use and future supply possibilities and other reasons why it is a time-enduring ornamental stone. The aesthetical characteristics and the physical mechanical properties of its two main types (i.e. calcitic and dolomitic) are described and evaluated. The relevant results justify the wide application range and the continuous use of Thassos marble from ancient to present times and confirm the ability of this stone to survive over time. Keywords: Thassos, Marble, Ornamental Stones, Physical Mechanical Properties, Historic use

  1. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.


    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  2. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas (United States)


    plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island...Benedet, L., and Waters, J.P. (2004). “Coupling geological concepts with historical data sets in a MIS framework to prospect for beach-compatible sands on...are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island from storms. If there are funding

  3. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  4. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim


    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  5. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  6. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  7. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  8. Three Mile Island Accident Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  9. Fires and Thick Smoke Across Southeast Asia (United States)


    Vehicles and power plants are not the only sources of air pollution and greenhouses gases: fires contribute, too. In the Northern Hemisphere spring, which is the end of dry season across much of Southeast Asia, thousands of fires burn each year as people clear cropland and pasture in anticipation of the upcoming wet (growing) season. Intentional fires also escape people's control and burn into adjacent forest. The smoke from these fires crosses the Pacific Ocean, affecting climate far away. This dramatic photo-like image of fires and smoke in Southeast Asia was captured on April 2, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite. MODIS detected hundreds, possibly thousands of fires (marked in red), burning in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and China. Thick smoke hides nearly all of Laos, where the highest concentration of fires is located. In southern China and northern Vietnam, the smoke has sunk into the valleys that crisscross the mountainous terrain; only the highest ridgelines, which appear dark green, emerge from the blanket of smoke. The smoke sails above a bank of clouds at upper right as a dingy, yellowish haze. Fires have been burning in the region for more than month, as shown by the high carbon monoxide levels observed by NASA's MOPITT sensor during March 2007. In addition to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, fires produce tiny particles of incompletely burned, or charred, carbon. According to research published in mid-March 2007 in the Journal of Geophysical Research, significant amounts of this black carbon travel across the Pacific Ocean to North America at altitudes above 2 kilometers. In spring 2004, between 25-35 gigatons (roughly 55 to 77 million pounds) of black carbon crossed the Pacific and entered skies over western North America between March 26 and April 25; nearly 75 percent of it came from Asia. (Smoke and other pollution have no respect for borders; for example, scientists have also

  10. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean Islands: A Cure for Economies in Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Connell


    Full Text Available Small island states have increasingly sought new means of economic diversification. Several Caribbean states have begun to develop medical tourism, partly building on existing tourist-oriented economies. Medical tourism has boomed in this century in several states in Asia and in Central America. The Bahamas, Barbados and the Cayman Islands exemplify different strategies for medical tourism, in order to generate foreign exchange and new employment, and reduce costs from overseas referrals. Most medical tourism projects have been developed by overseas corporations and are oriented to a US market. Business principles rather than health care dominate development strategies, notably of emerging transnational medical corporations, and raise ethical issues. Success will be difficult to achieve in a crowded and competitive market.

  11. Colonization and Community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics


    In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.

  12. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko


    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  13. Generalized Geology of Southeast Asia (geo3bl) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of Southeast Asia...

  14. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of South Asia (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and rock type for South Asia. The geologic...

  15. Geologic map of South Asia (geo8ag) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is the digital geologic layer for the map of South Asia. The data set includes arcs, polgons, polygon labels, and attributes for geology, faults,...

  16. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    the interrelated variables, inconsistencies and disruptive effects of India's and China’s dramatic rise and insertion into the global political economy and more specifically how this relationship is playing out in Southeast Asia. The paper is divided into five sections. In the introduction the overall historical......The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast Asia...... and strategic relationship between India and China has been briefly outlined. Second section recaps the theoretical considerations while part three focuses on China and India’s encroachment into Southeast Asia. Part four gives examples of competition and rivalry in energy and related resources between the two...

  17. Know your epidemic, know your response: targeting HIV in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Curth, Nadja; Bridge, Jamie


    prevention and treatment services. In order to reach the Millennium Development Goal of halting and reversing the spread of HIV by 2015 and to achieve universal access to HIV treatment, these barriers must be overcome across Asia. High-impact programs must be targeted at those in need, with continuous......This article provides an overview of the HIV epidemic in Asia, the context within which the epidemic is evolving, and the key actions to address the challenges faced by countries and risk groups. HIV epidemics across Asia are predominantly concentrated among most-at-risk populations. Although...... there have been many successes in the HIV response in Asia over the past decade, great challenges clearly remain - especially when addressing most-at-risk populations, who are often criminalized, marginalized, and discriminated against. These groups face significant legal and social barriers to accessing HIV...

  18. Geologic Provinces of Southeast Asia, 2000 (prv3bl) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia,...

  19. Linguistic phylogenies support back-migration from Beringia to Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Sicoli

    Full Text Available Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America.

  20. Asia's First Bat Research Center Established in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ In cooperation with a local government, the CAS Institute of Zoology (IOZ) has established Asia's first bat research and protection center in Fangshan, a southwest suburb of Beijing. Its opening ceremony was held on November 16, 2004.

  1. Is corporate Asia ready for the green economy?


    Hewitt, Gordon


    This report explores the concept of a ‘green economy’, and its relevance in Asia. It explores the roles that policymakers, investors, corporates and accountants need to play to facilitate the transition to a green economy. Publisher PDF

  2. CDC: Pregnant Women Should Avoid Southeast Asia Due to Zika (United States)

    ... now urging women to delay travel to 11 countries in Southeast Asia where the virus is circulating. Reports are also describing the first two cases of Zika-linked microcephaly in Thailand. Since the Zika outbreak began last year, thousands ...

  3. Shanghai Dishes at the Beijing Asia Jinjiang Hotel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THE Beijing Asia Jinjiang Hotel in east Beijing is neither magnificent nor luxuriant, but the Shanghai cuisine served there makes it popular. The unforgettable dishes are the weapon that this hotel uses to compete with bigger hotels in the neighborhood.

  4. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yousaf


    Full Text Available In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  5. Kazakhstan: A Key Economic Driving Force of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Located strategically in the center of Eurasia, the Republic of Kazakhstan has been the largest country in terms of its territory, and also one of the most important economy and dynamic transport hub with abundant resources in Central Asia.

  6. Women Leaders of New Asia Summit Held in Zhenjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>With women now playing a wider role in world development each passing day, much attention was focused on the 2012 "Women Leaders of New Asia Summit", held in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, April 19-21.

  7. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  8. Asia Rice Crop Estimation and Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) for GEOGLAM (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Sobue, S.


    Food security is a critical issue for the international community because of rapid population and economic growth, and climate change. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss food security and food price volatility, and they agreed on an 'Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture'. This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The aim of GEOGLAM is to reinforce the international community's ability to produce and disseminate relevant, timely, and accurate forecasts of agricultural production on regional, national, and global scales by utilizing remote sensing technology. GEOGLAM focused on four major grain crops, wheat, maize, soybeans and rice. In particular, Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumption, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asian region. Hence, Asian space and agricultural agencies with an interest in the development of rice crop monitoring technology launched an Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) component for the GEOGLAM initiative. In Asian region, rice is mainly cultivated in rainy season, and a large amount of cloud limits rice crop monitoring with optical sensors. But, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is all-weather sensor and can observe land surface even if the area is covered by cloud. Therefore, SAR technology would be powerful tool to monitor rice crop in Asian region. Asia-RiCE team required mainly SAR observation data including ALOS-2, RISAT-1, Sentinel-1 and RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed for Asia-RiCE GEOGLAM Phase 1 implementation (2013-2015) to the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) in the GEOGLAM-CEOS Global Agricultural Monitoring Co-community Meeting held in June 2013. And also, rice crop has complicated cropping systems such as rein-fed or irrigated cultivation, single, double or sometimes triple cropping. In addition, each agricultural field is smaller than that of

  9. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994-1996)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S. Lam; T.J.Wang; T. Wangt; J. Tang; Y.Kajii; C.M. Liu; S.G. Shim


    Surface ozone(O3) was measured at Oki Island(Japan), Cheju Island(South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D' Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994-December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE(International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9 ± 15.8, 48.1 ± 17.9, 30.2 + 16.4, 31.6 + 17.5, 36.3 ± 17.5, 34.8 ± 11.5 and 48.2 ± 9.5ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D' Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season.Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin' an report high-level O3in autumn and Iow level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remainshigh in autumn and Iow in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  10. Beyond the Crisis: Financial Regulatory Reform in Emerging Asia


    Lee, Chee Sung; Park, Cyn-Young


    The main objective of this paper is to suggest reform measures to address the gaps and weaknesses in emerging Asia's financial regulatory and supervisory systems, on the basis of lessons drawn from the global crisis. For emerging Asia, the direct impact of the global financial crisis has been limited, thus generating substantially less pressure for financial restructuring and regulatory reform than is the case in developed economies. However, the underlying causes of the current turmoil—such ...

  11. Understanding the Main Problems in Northeast Asia Is the Key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun


    The situation in Northeast Asia is, without doubt, undergoing profound and complex changes, resulting from the interaction of different elements in the political, economic and security fields in the region. Only after painstaking investigation can the main problems in Northeast Asia be understood. In this way, we can avoid an escalation of problems, safeguard regional peace and ensure a benign regional environment for the promotion of the economic development and welfare of various countries.

  12. Asia Pacific super grid. Solar electricity generation, storage and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, Andrew [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems; Luther, Joachim [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Nadolny, Anna [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    This paper explores the large scale transmission of solar electricity to Southeast Asia from Australia. Despite the expense and losses incurred in long distance transmission of Australian solar electricity, it appears to be competitive with locally produced solar electricity because of high insolation levels in Australia. Supplementation of locally produced electricity (both from renewable and conventional sources) with power from Australia, together with substantial integrated energy storage, would allow a high solar electricity fraction to be achieved in Southeast Asia. (orig.)

  13. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  14. Epidemiology of adult asthma in Asia: toward a better understanding


    Song, Woo-Jung; Kang, Min-Gyu; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon


    Asia is the world's most dynamic area. Asthma is a major chronic disease in Asia, like other continents. However, unlike childhood asthma, the epidemiological burden of asthma in Asian adults has been unclear. Here we reviewed the currently available literatures on the epidemiology of adult asthma in the Asian community populations. Adult asthma prevalence was generally lower in Asian than in Europe, but the increasing trends suggested the disease burden to rise in the near future. However, f...

  15. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic


    Sean Wasserman; Paul Anantharajah Tambyah; Poh Lian Lim


    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivi...



    Tulepbergenova, Gulsana


    The Greater Central Asia (GCA) project initiated in 2005 confirmed that the United States treated the region as a foreign policy and security priority. The project was primarily promoted by the changed balance of forces in favor of Russia and partly China, which called for an adequate strategic and geopolitical response. At the same time, the Greater Central Asia idea can be viewed as a conceptual and ideological substantiation of what the United States is trying to accomplish in the region. ...

  17. Adaptation to Climate Change and Managing Disaster Risk in the Caribbean and South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolcemascolo, G. [Asian Disaster Preparedness Center ADPC, Pathumthani (Thailand); Collymore, J.; Keipi, K. [Inter-American Development Bank IDB, Christ Church (Barbados)


    Small island and coastal nations of the world have long been recognized as being among the most likely to be affected by the potential impacts of global climate change. Such nations may be found in both the Caribbean and Asian regions. These regions share other commonalities as well, such as tropical climates and, to some extent, the hazards to which these countries are vulnerable. The inextricable linkage between climate change and disaster management emerges from the potential of the former to result in an increased frequency and severity of hydro-meteorological hazards and the associated increase in risk faced by countries as a whole and by vulnerable communities in particular. Within the Caribbean, the most visible of these impacts has been the increasing vulnerability to severe storms and the increased frequency and intensity of flood events. In Asia, the severity of weather extremes associated with the El Nino phenomenon has been apparent. Recent events have resulted in significant social, economic and environmental losses. But, the more gradual-yet nevertheless potentially as catastrophic-impacts expected from climate change include enhanced coastal and beach erosion; loss of land and property; dislocation of people; reduced resilience of coastal ecosystems and hence reduced viability for fisheries; and the bleaching and destruction of coral reefs. For the island states of both the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, which depend heavily on tourism, agriculture and fisheries for their livelihood, these impacts could be ruinous. For many countries, increased vulnerability to water shortages due to climate change is also a very significant concern. The need for a comprehensive integrated approach to natural hazard risk management that would combine the broader climate change and risk management agendas, as well as the urgency to advance the mainstreaming of disaster management and climate change, resulted in the convening of the Seminar on Climate Change and Severe

  18. The epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Asia. (United States)

    Fransen, Marlene; Bridgett, Lisa; March, Lyn; Hoy, Damian; Penserga, Ester; Brooks, Peter


    Worldwide, osteoarthritis (OA) is estimated to be the fourth leading cause of disability. Most of this disability burden is attributable to the involvement of the hips or the knees. OA is strongly associated with ageing and the Asian region is ageing rapidly. Further, OA has been associated with heavy physical occupational activity, a required livelihood for many people living in rural communities in developing countries. Unfortunately, joint replacement surgery, an effective intervention for people with severe OA involving the hips or knees, is inaccessible to most people in these regions. On the other hand, obesity, another major risk factor, may be less prevalent, although it is on the increase. Determining region-specific OA prevalence and risk factor profiles will provide important information for planning future cost-effective preventive strategies and health care services. An update of what is currently known about the prevalence of hip and knee OA from population-based studies conducted in the Asian region is presented in this review. Many of the recent studies have conducted comparisons between urban and rural areas and poor and affluent communities. The results of Asian-based studies evaluating risk factors from population-based cohorts or case-control studies, and the current evidence on OA morbidity burden in Asia is also outlined.

  19. Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited) (United States)

    Webster, P. J.


    In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

  20. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia. (United States)

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-wei


    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues.

  1. Jejak-jejak Imperial dalam Beragam Nasionalisme Asia Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi


    Full Text Available Anthony Reid, Imperial Alchemy: Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia (New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010, xiii + 248 pages.Reid has long been widely known as a senior historian with a specialty in the history of Aceh, Sumatra, and the Indonesian revolution. Recently, he has begun to write about the history of Southeast Asia. Inspired by French historian Fernand Braudel, this work presents what Reid calls a “total history” of this region. In this approach wars, royal dynasties, and foreign traders are not prioritized over the diets, health, and pastimes of ordinary people. Through this work, Reid has begun to strengthen the study of Southeast Asia. As one of the pioneers and masters of the study of Asia and the Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, Reid is uniquely positioned to offer new insights about this region’s history. In this book, Reid offers a new understanding of the historical data collected on the link between ethnic identity, nationalism, and history of Southeast Asia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i3.516

  2. Acid deposition in Asia: Emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects (United States)

    Duan, Lei; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Yuepeng; Larssen, Thorjørn; Tang, Jie; Mulder, Jan


    We review and synthesize the current state of knowledge regarding acid deposition and its environmental effects across Asia. The extent and magnitude of acid deposition in Asia became apparent only about one decade after this issue was well described in Europe and North America. In addition to the temperate zone, much of eastern and southern Asia is situated in the tropics and subtropics, climate zones hitherto little studied with respect to the effects of high loads of acid deposition. Surface waters across Asia are generally not sensitive to the effects of acid deposition, whereas soils in some regions are sensitive to acidification due to low mineral weathering. However, soil acidification was largely neutralized by such processes as base cation deposition, nitrate (NO3-) denitrification, and sulfate (SO42-) adsorption. Accompanying the decrease in S deposition in recent years, N deposition is of increasing concern in Asia. The acidifying effect of N deposition may be more important than S deposition in well drained tropical/subtropical soils due to high SO42- adsorption. The risk of regional soil acidification is a major threat in Eastern Asia, indicated by critical load exceedance in large areas.

  3. Variations in Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Northern East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinmin; ZHAI Panmao; WANG Cuicui


    Based on an improved objective cyclone detection and tracking algorithm, decadal variations in extratropical cyclones in northern East Asia are studied by using the ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure data during 1958-2001. The results reveal that extratropical cyclone activity has displayed clear seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability in northern East Asia. Spring is the season when cyclones occur most frequently. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclones shows that cyclones occur mainly within the 40°-50°N latitudinal band in northern East Asia, and the most frequent region of occurrence is in Mongolia. Furthermore, this study also reveals the fact that the frequency of extratropical cyclones has significantly decreased in the lower latitude region of northern East Asia during 1958-2001, but dccadal variability has dominated in higher latitude bands, with frequent cyclone genesis. The intensity of extratropical cyclones has decreased on an annual and seasonal basis. Variation of the annual number of cyclones in northern East Asia is associated with the mean intensity of the baroclinic frontal zone, which is influenced by climate warming in the higher latitudes. Moreover, the dipole structure of extratopical cyclone change, with increases in the north and decreases in the southern part of northern East Asia, is related to the northward movement of the baroclinic frontal zone on either side of 110°E.

  4. Mammals evolve faster on smaller islands. (United States)

    Millien, Virginie


    Island mammals often display remarkable evolutionary changes in size and morphology. Both theory and empirical data support the hypothesis that island mammals evolve at faster rates than their mainland congeners. It is also often assumed that the island effect is stronger and that evolution is faster on the smallest islands. I used a dataset assembled from the literature to test these assumptions for the first time. I show that mammals on smaller islands do indeed evolve more rapidly than mammals on larger islands, and also evolve by a greater amount. These results fit well the theory of an evolutionary burst due to the opening of new ecological opportunities on islands. This evolutionary burst is expected to be the strongest on the smallest islands where the contrast between the island and the mainland environments is the most dramatic.

  5. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.


    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  6. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.


    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  7. New Magnetic Anomaly Map of the East Asia with Some Preliminary Tectonic Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Doo


    Full Text Available Magnetic data provides basic information for geological and geophysical interpretation. In this study we compile recently collected (57 cruises survey and old (published and open access magnetic data. This compilation includes land, marine and aeromagnetic data acquired in the East Asia region. The newly acquired magnetic data are mainly concentrated mainly in the South China Sea (SCS (especially in the northern continental shelf, the northwestern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB, and the East China Sea. The updated magnetic dataset is gridded with a spacing of one arc-minute. The new magnetic map provides new insights into the tectonic setting of East Asia. Analysis of the compiled data reveals several regional anomaly patterns: (1 the NE-SW trending high positive magnetic anomaly zone extending from southwest Taiwan to the area about 114.5°E114.5°E and 22°N22°N is pronounced; but it is less continuous southwest of the Penghu islands. In addition, the orientation of this high linear magnetic zone changes slightly in 118.5°E,118.5°E, 22.5°N22.5°N from N60°EN60°E - N50°E.N50°E. (2 Between the Gagua Ridge (GR and the Luzon-Okinawa Fracture Zone (LOFZ the marine magnetic stripes of the WPB exhibit a NW-SE orientation. This suggests that the seafloor spreading could be related to the first stage of the WPB east of the LOFZ. (3 The Urdaneta and Amami plateaus are associated with high magnetization zones. These high magnetization zones extend northwestward and are subducting beneath the Ryukyu Trench.

  8. A review of Indian Phanerozoic palaeomagnetism: Implications for the India-Asia collision (United States)

    Klootwijk, Chris T.


    An overview is presented of the Indian apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Phanerozoic and in particular for post-Late Palaeozoic times. This APWP is compiled on basis of data available at October 1981 from peninsular and extrapeninsular Indo-Pakistan and from DSDP cores from the Indian plate. One of the more important and newly recognized features of this APWP is a large-scale Triassic-Jurassic loop. This loop indicates a changeover from a Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic northwards and counter-clockwise rotational movement, with Greater India reaching moderately low southern latitudes, into a southwards and clockwise rotational movement during the Early to Middle Jurassic. Recognizable likewise in APWP's from other Gondwana continents, this loop reflects the opening of the Neotethys. Studies of extrapeninsular regions up to and north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone have shown wide-spread presence of magnetic overprints, which delineate two regionally confined age groups. Younger overprints (20-40 m.y.) predominate in the more external thrust zones. Older overprints (50-60 m.y.), in contrast, are found in the more internal zones both north and south of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone. The latter are interpreted to reflect a late phase of relaxation in the Early Tertiary collision of Greater India with south-central Asia or off-shore island arcs, which occurred at equatorial to low northern palaeolatitudes (0°-10°N). Subsequent northwards movement over 2500-3000 km or more and impingement of Greater India into southern Asia resulted into large-scale underthrusting of Greater India along the Main Central Thrust beneath southern Tibet, and to clockwise rotation of thrust units in the Western Himalaya. A discrepancy between Indian palaeomagnetic data and results available todate from southern Tibet is discussed.

  9. Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Sharing New Ideas for Asia Clean Energy Future


    Asian Development Bank


    In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...

  10. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano


    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  11. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas. (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma


    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although H. canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome in the 21st century: perspectives from Asia or South-east Asia. (United States)

    Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang


    Asian irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) studies not only confirm the truth of this functional disorder but also describe the current disease situation of this continent, with its variable socioeconomic backgrounds. Most Asian community IBS prevalence is within 5-10%, regardless of gender or ethnic character. As well as meeting the main Rome II criteria, Asian IBS subjects also have many minor symptoms. Thus this recommendation remains useful to diagnose Asian IBS. Also, female patients commonly express constipation-predominant (C-) symptoms. Extra-colonic symptoms are common in Asia, for example dyspepsia, insomnia and irritable urinary bladder. Asian IBS subjects do experience psychological disturbances including anxiety, depression, agoraphobia and neuroticism. Accordingly, their quality of life is poor and there is absenteeism leading to excessive physician visits. Abnormal gut motor and sensory functions have been indicated among the Asian IBS subjects. Now, there is evidence of altered colonic neuroimmune function leading to gut hypersensitivity and dysmotility. An Asia-Pacific trial also confirmed tegaserod efficacy on female C-IBS subjects. More than 90% of nurses have very limited IBS knowledge, and are unable even to explain it clearly. In conclusion, Western recommended criteria clearly diagnose Asian IBS and many factors are mutual leading to IBS. Current IBS treatments remain useful but additional reeducation for medical professionals appears to be needed.

  13. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  14. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia (United States)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy


    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  15. Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Natalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report

  16. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  17. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  18. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  19. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  20. Genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipat Wasitthankasem

    Full Text Available The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world's population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5' untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%, followed by 1a (19.9%, 1b (12.6%, 3b (9.7% and 2a (0.5%. While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27-36%, genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9% constituted subtype 6f (7.8%, 6n (7.7%, 6i (3.4%, 6j and 6m (0.7% each, 6c (0.3%, 6v and 6xa (0.2% each and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively. Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread.

  1. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra


    Full Text Available The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP was a sink, estimated at −104 ± 150 Tg C yr−1 during 2007–2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be −191 ± 193 Tg C yr−1 during the period of 2000–2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1 the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration of −220 ± 186 Tg C yr−1 (2 the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of −14 ± 50 Tg C yr−1, which resulted from a sink of −16 Tg C yr−1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr−1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3 the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr−1; and (4 the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr−1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr−1 for the 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land–atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr−1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C yr−1

  2. Malaria in South Asia: prevalence and control. (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajan, Satish N; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K


    The "Malaria Evolution in South Asia" (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US-India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public-private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012.

  3. A Dynamical Downscaling Experiment over East Asia (United States)

    Baek, H.; Kwon, W.; Choi, D.; Kim, C.; Cha, Y.


    To assess future climate change for Korea due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, dynamical downscaling are carried out with MM5 at 18 km resolution over Korea driven at the lateral boundaries by meteorological field from atmospheric model ECHAM4 T106. Sea surface temperatures are from corresponding simulation with the ECHO-G. We analyze two 22-year regional climate simulations, one for present day conditions (1979-2000) and one for future condition (2079-2100) under SRES A1B Scenario. The simulated present day climate by the time-slice experiment with the high-resolution model ECHAM4 T106 show successful performance in simulating the northward migration and the local of the maximum rainfall during the rainy season over East Asia, although its rainfall amount was somewhat weak compared to the observation. Change of East Asian summer monsoon rainfall in the future tends to be increased especially over the east of Japan during July and September. Downscaled mean temperature over Korea during the period of 1979-2000 reproduce the realistic features although the results have cold bias. Simulated daily mean temperature will increase about 3.3É by the end of the 21st century compared with present day and, seasonally the rising is projected to be larger in winter than in summer. Also, simulated precipitation will increase about 15% by the end of of the 21st century compared with present day. These downscaled future climate scenario will be used for studies on impact, adapatation, and vulnerability of climate change over Korea.

  4. Spatial distribution of pingos in Northern Asia (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, Benjamin M.


    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of more than 6000 pingo locations in a 3.5 ?? 106 km2 region of Northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteristics, surface geology, hydrology, climate, and elevation datasets using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Pingo heights in the dataset vary between 2 and 37 m, with a mean height of 4.8 m. About 64% of the pingos occur in continuous permafrost with high ice content and thick sediments; another 19% in continuous permafrost with moderate ice content and thick sediments. The majority of these pingos likely formed through closed system freezing, typical of those located in drained thermokarst lake basins of northern lowlands with continuous permafrost. About 82% of the pingos are located in the tundra bioclimatic zone. Most pingos in the dataset are located in regions with mean annual ground temperatures between -3 and -11 ??C and mean annual air temperatures between -7 and -18 ??C. The dataset confirms that surface geology and hydrology are key factors for pingo formation and occurrence. Based on model predictions for near-future permafrost distribution, hundreds of pingos along the southern margins of permafrost will be located in regions with thawing permafrost by 2100, which ultimately may lead to increased occurrence of pingo collapse. Based on our dataset and previously published estimates of pingo numbers from other regions, we conclude that there are more than 11 000 pingos on Earth. ?? 2010 Author(s).

  5. Voluntary organizations in development in South Asia. (United States)

    Maloney, C


    The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.

  6. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity. (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger


    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  7. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia. (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C


    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review.

  8. Validation of Hotspots Detected by Satellites in Sentinel Asia (United States)

    Kaku, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.


    The Sentinel Asia (SA) initiative is a collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in the Asia- Pacific region. It aims to: "EImprove safety in society by ICT and space technology "EImprove speed and accuracy of disaster preparedness and early warning "EMinimize the number of victims and social/economic losses. SA is a voluntary initiative led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share disaster information in near-real-time across the Asia-Pacific region. Wildfire is a major and recurring phenomenon that has a serious impact on property and human health, affecting many countries in the Asia region. Compared to other disasters in the area, it does not necessarily cause many immediate fatalities. However, it causes serious impact on property and human health due to smoke. Furthermore, its effects are of great relevance both at a regional and global level, and accordingly bear substantial influence on global warming. Responding to requirements from Asian countries, under Sentinel Asia a dedicated Wildfire Working Group (WG) has been established to apply remote sensing technology to the management of wildfire. Having accurate information on the location and intensity of the fires, and subsequent control of wildfire, are therefore very important and urgent tasks across the region. SA primarily addresses the issue of near-real-time information distribution on wildfires in the region. Concerning hotspot data obtained by satellites, it is essential to validate and improve its accuracy. In the framework of Sentinel Asia Wildfire WG, various approaches to hotspot detection, including MOD14 algorithm for MODIS hotspots, were studied, and their validations were carried out, comparing them with active fires extracted from satellite imagery and ground truth data in Chiengmai, Thailand and in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  9. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (United States)


    ...) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater South Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater North Light to Channel Islands Harbor North Jetty Light 5....

  10. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife [Refuge]: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  11. "Mosquitoes collected on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (Diptera : Culicidae)"


    "NODA, Shinichi"


    Mosquito larval surveys were carried out on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island in August 2011. Larvae were collected from 133 natural and artificial habitats. A total of 1,761 larvae belonging to nine species including one unidentified species were collected. On Weno Island, eight species, Aedes hensilli, Ae. albopictus, Ae. lamelliferus, Aedes sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. carolinensis, Cx. annulirostris and Lutzia vorax, were collected. On Romonum Island,  four sp...

  12. Half-metre sea-level fluctuations on centennial timescales from mid-Holocene corals of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Meltzner, Aron J.; Switzer, Adam D.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Ashe, Erica; Qiu, Qiang; Hill, David F.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Kopp, Robert E.; Hill, Emma M.; Majewski, Jędrzej M.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.


    Sea-level rise is a global problem, yet to forecast future changes, we must understand how and why relative sea level (RSL) varied in the past, on local to global scales. In East and Southeast Asia, details of Holocene RSL are poorly understood. Here we present two independent high-resolution RSL proxy records from Belitung Island on the Sunda Shelf. These records capture spatial variations in glacial isostatic adjustment and paleotidal range, yet both reveal a RSL history between 6850 and 6500 cal years BP that includes two 0.6 m fluctuations, with rates of RSL change reaching 13+/-4 mm per year (2σ). Observations along the south coast of China, although of a lower resolution, reveal fluctuations similar in amplitude and timing to those on the Sunda Shelf. The consistency of the Southeast Asian records, from sites 2,600 km apart, suggests that the records reflect regional changes in RSL that are unprecedented in modern times.

  13. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trivitayanurak


    Full Text Available We use a nested version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to better understand the composition and variation of aerosol over Borneo and the broader Southeast Asian region in conjunction with aircraft and satellite observations. Our focus on Southeast Asia reflects the importance of this region as a source of reactive organic gases and aerosols from natural forests, biomass burning, and food and fuel crops. We particularly focus on July 2008 when the UK BAe-146 research aircraft was deployed over northern Malaysian Borneo as part of the ACES/OP3 measurement campaign. During July 2008 we find using the model that Borneo (defined as Borneo Island and the surrounding Indonesian islands was a net exporter of primary organic aerosol (42 kT and black carbon aerosol (11 kT. We find only 13% of volatile organic compound oxidation products partition to secondary organic aerosol (SOA, with Borneo being a net exporter of SOA (15 kT. SOA represents approximately 19% of the total organic aerosol over the region. Sulphate is mainly from aqueous-phase oxidation (68%, with smaller contributions from gas-phase oxidation (15% and advection into the regions (14%. We find that there is a large source of sea salt, as expected, but this largely deposits within the region; we find that dust aerosol plays only a relatively small role in the aerosol burden. In contrast to coincident surface measurements over Northern Borneo that find a pristine environment with evidence for substantial biogenic SOA formation we find that the free troposphere is influenced by biomass burning aerosol transported from the northwest of the Island and further afield. We find several transport events during July 2008 over Borneo associated with elevated aerosol concentrations, none of which coincide with the aircraft flights. We use MODIS aerosol optical depths (AOD data and the model to put the July campaign into a longer temporal perspective. We find that Borneo is where

  14. The Big Island of Hawaii (United States)


    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  15. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  16. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2003 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  17. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  18. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... this page: Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  19. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  1. Thin metal island plasmon sensor (United States)

    Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Downey, Todd R.; Passian, A.; Oden, Patrick I.; Wig, A. G.; Crilly, P. B.; Mangeant, S.; Ferrell, Trinidad L.


    The effects of the local dielectric environment on the surface-plasmon resonances of annealed gold-island films are studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. Gold- island films were annealed at 600 degree(s)C to produce spheroidal shape particles which exhibit well-resolved resonances in polarized, angle-resolved, absorption spectra. These resonances are shifted in different amounts by the depolarization effect of the surrounding medium (liquids with various refraction indices). Cross-section calculations based upon non-retarded, single-particle, dielectric interaction for these various configurations are presented and found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles (United States)


    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  3. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.


    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  5. Climatic change in Asia: Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report studies the impacts of climate change in Indonesia on the coastal zone, agriculture, and human health, recommends strategies to adapt to these impacts, and identifies some cost-effective mitigation opportunities in the energy sector. As an archipelago of nearly 17,000 islands, Indonesia will suffer significant physical and socioeconomic impacts from even small rises in sea level. Effects including land use, agriculture, infrastructure and communication, disease incidence, coastal zones and forestry are discussed. National policy options recommended favour adaption over mitigation and preventative over curative action. These include modification to farming practice, afforestation investment in research training, subsidies and incentives to facilitate adaptive responses in local communities, construction of sea walls and dikes, encouragement in water conservation, and prevention, surveillance and treatment of diseases (malaria, dengue fever and diarrhoea). Mitigation options include switching away from coal-based generation. Regional cooperation through, for example ASEAN, should be encouraged in coping with climate change. An inventory of Greenhouse gases emissions is included in the report. 93 refs., 8 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Late-Holocene vegetation and climate change in Jeju Island, Korea and its implications for ENSO influences (United States)

    Park, Jungjae; Shin, Young Ho; Byrne, Roger


    Several recent studies suggest the hypothesis that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important factor controlling the Holocene East Asian Monsoon (EAM). However, the mechanism underlying this influence remains unclear due to the lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records from the coast of East Asia. Here, we provide a new record of late Holocene climate change in coastal East Asia based on multi-proxy evidence (pollen, organic content, magnetic susceptibility, grain size) obtained from a sediment core from Jeju Island, South Korea. As Jeju Island is strongly influenced by the Kuroshio flow, our sediment proxy records contain ENSO signals from the tropical Pacific. The study area was affected by dry/cool conditions in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) between 4350 and 1920 cal yr BP when El Niños were frequent, and by rapid warming/wetting and forestation since 1920 cal yr BP when La Niñas were more common. Jeju Island was relatively dry/cool between 2100 and 1600, 1300-1200, 1100-1000, 800-650, and 300-50 cal yr BP, as opposed to the Galápagos Islands, which were relatively wet/warm, reflecting the ENSO-related negative correlation between eastern and western margins of Pacific. Wet conditions may have prevailed during the early Little Ice Age (LIA) (620-280 cal yr BP) despite consistent cooling. This period of high precipitation may have been associated with the increased landfall of typhoons and with warmer Kuroshio currents under La Niña-like conditions. According to our results, EAM on the East Asian coastal margin was predominantly driven by ENSO activity, rather than by the precession effect. Paleoclimatic data from Jeju Island, with its insular position and closeness to warm Kuroshio currents, provide clear evidence of these ENSO influences.

  7. Post-Jurassic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Seton, Maria; Dietmar Müller, R.; Flament, Nicolas


    The accretionary growth of Asia, linked to long-term convergence between Eurasia, Gondwana-derived blocks and the Pacific, resulted in a mosaic of terranes for which conflicting tectonic interpretations exist. Here, we propose solutions to a number of controversies related to the evolution of Sundaland through a synthesis of published geological data and plate reconstructions that reconcile both geological and geophysical constraints with plate driving forces. We propose that West Sulawesi, East Java and easternmost Borneo rifted from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, collided with an intra-oceanic arc at ~115 Ma and subsequently sutured to Sundaland by 80 Ma. Although recent models argue that the Southwest Borneo core accreted to Sundaland at this time, we use volcanic and biogeographic constraints to show that the core of Borneo was on the Asian margin since at least the mid Jurassic. This northward transfer of Gondwana-derived continental fragments required a convergent plate boundary in the easternmost Tethys that we propose gave rise to the Philippine Archipelago based on the formation of latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous supra-subduction zone ophiolites on Halmahera, Obi Island and Luzon. The Late Cretaceous marks the shift from Andean-style subduction to back-arc opening on the east Asian margin. Arc volcanism along South China ceased by ~60 Ma due to the rollback of the Izanagi slab, leading to the oceanward migration of the volcanic arc and the opening of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS). We use the Apennines-Tyrrhenian system in the Mediterranean as an analogue to model this back-arc. Continued rollback detaches South Palawan, Mindoro and the Semitau continental blocks from the stable east Asian margin and transfers them onto Sundaland in the Eocene to produce the Sarawak Orogeny. The extrusion of Indochina and subduction polarity reversal along northern Borneo opens the South China Sea and transfers the Dangerous Grounds-Reed Bank southward to

  8. Paleolatitude and age of the Indo-Asia collision (United States)

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Meijers, Maud; Kapp, Paul


    Tibetan plateau uplift is thought to have major repercussions on Asian paleoenvironments as well as global climate. However, its timing remain elusive due to ongoing controversies on the kinematics of the Indo-Asia collision. This can be solved by paleomagnetically-determined paleolatitudes of terranes bounding the Indo-Asia suture zone. We show here, based on new paleomagnetic data from the Linzizong volcanic rocks (54-47 Ma) near the city of Lhasa, that the latitude of the southern margin of Asia was 19.5 +/- 5.0 N when these rocks were deposited. This implies, when compared to a review of regional paleomagnetic datasets, that the onset of collision occurred ca. 48 Ma (95% confidence interval between 57 Ma and 40 Ma), thus excluding the possibility of a younger (~35 Ma) collision. These results are consistent with tomographic anomalies locating the collision at 15-25 N, and with independent 56-46 Ma collision age estimates inferred from the timing of slowing down of India, high pressure metamorphism, the end of marine sedimentation and the first occurrence of Asian detritus on the Indian margin. Our results imply 3300 +/- 600 km subsequent latitudinal convergence between India and Asia divided into 1500 +/- 600 km within Asia and 1800 +/- 700 km within India.

  9. Strategic Balance in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The authors analyze events in the Asia-Pacific region since the end of the Cold War and then draw three conclusions about the strategic balance of "one superpower, multiple major powers" in this region. First, compared with a stable superpower, the U.S., current multiple powers-China, Japan,Russia, ASEAN, India and Australia-are more dynamic.Second, two kinds of forces maintain order-a combination of national strength and non-national strength. On one hand, there are four different models which could ensure Asia-Pacific order in the future: the U.S. model of hegemony, China's model of a harmonious Asia-Pacific region, ASEAN's model of regional cooperation, and the model of non-states actors. On the other hand, four different structures-security, production, finance and knowledge-are closely linked in this area. Third,globalization of the market economy brings dynamic and diverse development. The authors believe that China's"Harmonious Asia-Pacific" model is the best choice for the Asia-Pacific strategic pattern of "One superpower, multiple major powers."

  10. Treatment of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis in Asia: A Consensus Guide (United States)

    Cheong, Wai Kwong; Yeung, Chi Keung; Torsekar, Raghunandan Govind; Suh, Dae Hun; Ungpakorn, Rataporn; Widaty, Sandra; Azizan, Noor Zalmy; Gabriel, Maria Teresita; Tran, Hau Khang; Chong, Wei Sheng; Shih, I-Hsin; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Micali, Giuseppe


    Seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) is common in Asia. Its prevalence is estimated to be 1-5% in adults. However, larger population-based studies into the epidemiology of SD in Asia are lacking, and the aetiology of SD may differ widely from Western countries and in different parts of Asia. In addition, clinically significant differences between Asian and Caucasian skin have been reported. There is a need to define standardized clinical diagnostic criteria and/or a grading system to help determine appropriate treatments for SD within Asia. With this in mind, experts from India, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Italy convened to define the landscape of SD in Asia at a meeting held in Singapore. The consensus group developed a comprehensive algorithm to aid clinicians to recommend appropriate treatment of SD in both adults and children. In most cases, satisfactory therapeutic results can be accomplished with topical antifungal agents or topical corticosteroids. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents with antifungal properties have been shown to be a viable option for both acute and maintenance therapy. PMID:27386464

  11. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics. (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  12. Living Alone: One-person households in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jun Jean Yeung


    Full Text Available Background: The one-person household (OPH is the fastest-growing type of household in many regions of the world, but no systematic work on it has been done outside of Europe and North America. This special collection consists of ten articles that examine the living-alone phenomenon in Asia. Objective: This paper summarizes their findings, highlights unique features found in Asia, and discusses the implications of the increase in OPH in Asia for individuals' well-being and societies' resource distribution. Methods: Census data are used for an international comparison of the prevalence of one-person households. Results: The papers reveal vast heterogeneity across regions and within nations. While widows remains a major group of OPH, the rising prevalence of OPH in Asia is mainly fueled by the increase of young urban adults who live alone as a consequence of delayed or declining marriage, increasing divorce, and increasing geographic mobility. Many of them are working class individuals or migrant workers. The impact of living alone varies by cultural, demographic, and policy contexts. The papers identify groups that are potentially vulnerable to social isolation and financial distress and challenge the generally negative stereotypes of the OPH living arrangement. Conclusions: OPH will continue to increase in Asia in the next few decades due to the rapid aging trend, declining marriage and fertility rates, and increase in divorce and migration. More theoretical development and empirically-based work is needed to understand the complexity and impact of such a living arrangement.

  13. Intraplate Deformation of Asia Derived from ITRF2000 Velocity Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The definition of an "intraplate fixed" frame remains a significant error source for crustal motion studies at a few millimeters per year level. An appropriate implementation of such a frame is very important to avoid biased velocities and to confirm a valid geophysical interpretation. Here, we establish the newest global plate motion model of ITRF2000VEL and research the definition of an Asian-fixed frame in Asia using the ITRF2000 velocity field. By X2 and F ratio tests, we find a subset site in Asia that satisfies a rigid rap rotation with residual velocities <0. 95 mm/a and provide a stable Asia reference frame (SARF). In this reference frame, we find residual velocities at Asiatic ITRF2000 sites that are consistent with known active tectonic feature. An important result of this study is the identification of internal deformation of the order of 1-2 mm/a in an area usually interpreted as "stable" Asia. These results should be further checked as newer, denser and more accurate space geodetic data sets with longer observation time span, which become available for Asia.

  14. Combination therapy in hypertension: an Asia-Pacific consensus viewpoint. (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rashid; Reyes, Eugenio B; Sritara, Piyamitr; Pancholia, Arvind; Van Phuoc, Dang; Tomlinson, Brian


    Hypertension incurs a significant healthcare burden in Asia-Pacific countries, which have suboptimal rates of blood pressure (BP) treatment and control. A consensus meeting of hypertension experts from the Asia-Pacific region convened in Hanoi, Vietnam, in April 2013. The principal objectives were to discuss the growing problem of hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region, and to develop consensus recommendations to promote standards of care across the region. A particular focus was recommendations for combination therapy, since it is known that most patients with hypertension will require two or more antihypertensive drugs to achieve BP control, and also that combinations of drugs with complementary mechanisms of action achieve BP targets more effectively than monotherapy. The expert panel reviewed guidelines for hypertension management from the USA and Europe, as well as individual Asia-Pacific countries, and devised a treatment matrix/guide, in which they propose the preferred combination therapy regimens for patients with hypertension, both with and without compelling indications. This report summarizes key recommendations from the group, including recommended antihypertensive combinations for specific patient populations. These strategies generally entail initiating therapy with free drug combinations, starting with the lowest available dosage, followed by treatment with single-pill combinations once the BP target has been achieved. A single reference for the whole Asia-Pacific region may contribute to increased consistency of treatment and greater proportions of patients achieving BP control, and hence reducing hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

  15. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Flores


    Full Text Available We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species. Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies.

  16. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.


    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31 Li

  17. Asia from Space: New Ideas for Exploration (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin


    which lack radial drainage. Numerous other differences can be identified. As a normal component of the modern fluvial environment, megafans must exist in the subsurface. Megafan size, predictable channel patterns of the formative river, and the gradation from coarser to finer sediments from apex to toe of megafans are characteristics that ought to assist in understanding subsurface patterns of hydrocarbon host rocks, and possibly source rocks as well. We show examples from various producing basins. A roughness map of Asia, based on an algorithm developed for Mars, shows megafan landscapes to be dominated by short baseline roughness and low slopes, consistent with megafan-dominated plains worldwide. Interestingly, this a unique signature for a larger continental landform.

  18. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Lau, W. K.-M.; Ramanathan, V.; Wu, G.; Ding, Y.; Manoj, M. G.; Liu, J.; Qian, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, T.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ming, Y.; Wang, Y.; Huang, J.; Wang, B.; Xu, X.; Lee, S.-S.; Cribb, M.; Zhang, F.; Yang, X.; Zhao, C.; Takemura, T.; Wang, K.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zhang, H.; Guo, J.; Zhai, P. M.; Sugimoto, N.; Babu, S. S.; Brasseur, G. P.


    The increasing severity of droughts/floods and worsening air quality from increasing aerosols in Asia monsoon regions are the two gravest threats facing over 60% of the world population living in Asian monsoon regions. These dual threats have fueled a large body of research in the last decade on the roles of aerosols in impacting Asian monsoon weather and climate. This paper provides a comprehensive review of studies on Asian aerosols, monsoons, and their interactions. The Asian monsoon region is a primary source of emissions of diverse species of aerosols from both anthropogenic and natural origins. The distributions of aerosol loading are strongly influenced by distinct weather and climatic regimes, which are, in turn, modulated by aerosol effects. On a continental scale, aerosols reduce surface insolation and weaken the land-ocean thermal contrast, thus inhibiting the development of monsoons. Locally, aerosol radiative effects alter the thermodynamic stability and convective potential of the lower atmosphere leading to reduced temperatures, increased atmospheric stability, and weakened wind and atmospheric circulations. The atmospheric thermodynamic state, which determines the formation of clouds, convection, and precipitation, may also be altered by aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon and desert dust in Asian monsoon regions may also induce dynamical feedback processes, leading to a strengthening of the early monsoon and affecting the subsequent evolution of the monsoon. Many mechanisms have been put forth regarding how aerosols modulate the amplitude, frequency, intensity, and phase of different monsoon climate variables. A wide range of theoretical, observational, and modeling findings on the Asian monsoon, aerosols, and their interactions are synthesized. A new paradigm is proposed on investigating aerosol-monsoon interactions, in which natural aerosols such as desert dust, black carbon from

  19. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up. (United States)

    Keeny, S M


    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  20. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis


    aurorae observed in the United States during the interval AD 1880–1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

  1. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya


    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  2. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  3. Chaos in easter island ecology. (United States)

    Sprott, J C


    This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems.

  4. 1946 Unimak Island, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 1, 1946, at 12:29 [local time] a rather strong magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred with source to the south of Unimak Island, causing one of the most...

  5. Date with the Green Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Qingdao,also spelled Tsingtao,iS one of the most beautiful and clean cities in China and with a population of around 2.5 million(7 million regional)is the largest city after Jinan(the capital)in Shandong Province.The name"Qingdao"means "The Green Island".

  6. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.


    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (Elsevier B.V.

  7. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, K.A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, R.J.;


    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  8. On a Crowded Desert Island. (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel


    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  9. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Robyn Margaret; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon


    NTRODUCTION Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance...... (ODA) for HIV programmes in the region. METHODS: The donor countries considered in this analysis are Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. To estimate bilateral and multilateral ODA financing for HIV programmes in the Asia...... for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) for the period 2014 to 2016. RESULTS: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV...

  10. Website Usability in Asia “From Within”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil


    As the number of website users in Asia grows, there is an increasing need to gain an overview of human–computer interaction (HCI) research about users and websites in that context. This article presents an overview of HCI research on website usability in Asia “from within,” which outlines...... the articles written by researchers with affiliations to universities in that part of the world. Based on a key word approach to major HCI research outlets, 60 articles from 2001 to 2011 were identified and analyzed. Results indicate that academic websites, e-commerce websites, and tourism websites were...... the most studied website domains in Asia. Typically, university graduates were used as participants in a laboratory setup and asked to navigate and find information on a website. No systematic use of cultural variables or theories to code, analyze, and interpret data and findings was found. The article...

  11. Powerful women leaders rise in Asia despite gender inequality. (United States)

    Over the years, Asia has produced some of the worlds most formidable women leaders, including Indira Ghandi, Madame Mao, Benazir Bhutto, and Corazon Aquino. The list continues with South Asia's leaders, prime ministers, opposition leaders, and vice-presidents, however, such an impressive list does not reflect true equality nor enlightened gender politics. According to Sonny Lo, sociology professor at Hong Kong University, no Asian political system observes true gender equality. It is noted that these Asian leaders rose into prominence after the death or imprisonment of their fathers or husbands. Nevertheless, the elections of Anson Chan and life-long dissident Annette Lu, signal the emergence of a new model for women leaders in Asia. Still, Lo emphasizes that this new trend is merely a reflection of civil service equal opportunity rules. Lo adds that even Taiwan President Chen Sui-Bian's all-women cabinet does not reflect the nation's sentiment, but a wish to project an image.

  12. Rock Art Research in Southeast Asia: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Hidalgo Tan


    Full Text Available Rock art has been known in Southeast Asia since the early 19th century, but relatively little attention has been paid to this class of archaeological material. This paper attempts to correct the perception that there is little rock art known in the region; especially in the light of intensified research efforts over the last 30 years that have led to the discovery of numerous new sites. Over a thousand rock art sites are known in the form of rock paintings, petroglyphs and megaliths in Southeast Asia, and their distribution across the various territories are uneven. This paper summarises the state of rock art research in Southeast Asia and discusses some of the challenges of studying rock art in this region, research trends and new finds from recent research.

  13. Constraints on the collision and the pre-collision tectonic configuration between India and Asia from detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry studies in the lower Indus basin, Pakistan (United States)

    Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Guillot, Stephane; Roddaz, Martin; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Metais, Gregoire; Carter, Andrew; Marivaux, Laurent; Solangi, Sarfraz


    The timing of India-Asia suturing in the Western Himalaya is complex, with the relative timings of collision between the Indian plate and Asian plate with the Kohistan Island arc and a proposed Tethyan Himalayan microcontinent, debated. Here we present an integrated provenance study of geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry on the late Cretaceous-Pleistocene sediments from the lower Indus basin on the Indian plate. The detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track data show a reversal in sediment source from a pure Indian signature to increasing inputs from the suture zone and the Asian plate between the middle Paleocene and early Oligocene. The Nd and Sr isotopes narrow down this change to 50 Ma by revealing input of Asian detritus and the establishment of a Nd & Sr isotopic pattern similar to that of the present-day Indus Fan by 50 Ma, with no significant variations up section, contrary to what might be expected if later major collisions had occurred. Our isotopic data indicate that since 50 Ma, Greater India was occupied by a fluvial-deltaic system, analogous to the present-day Indus and named as the Paleo-Indus, which has been transporting Asian detritus southward across the suture zone and Kohistan-Ladakh arc. This suggests that no other ocean basins were located between India and Asia after this time in this region. Our data require that in the west, the India-Asia collision was accomplished by ˜50 Ma.

  14. Soil Resources and Land Use in Tropical Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tropical Asia is a region comprising South and Southeast Asia and under strong influence of the Asianmonsoon climate. It is characterized by an extremely high population density and by high land use intensity.Paddy rice cultivation is the most important form of agriculture in the greater part of the region. Soilresources of tropical Asia have a specific feature in comparison with tropical Africa and America. Ultisolsdominate in uplands, and lowland soils like Inceptisols and Histosols are relatively abundant. The latterpoint is made clearer if we take the landforms of the region with a vast extent of lowlands into consideration.Geologically, tropical Asia with the Himalayan orogeny and active volcanism exhibits a conspicuous contrastto tropical Africa and America with the dominance of the shield structure. This along with the monsoonclimate should have determined the basic features of landforms and soil, and accordingly all the agriculturaland social characteristics of tropical Asia today. Although paddy rice cultivation in the lowland is highlysustainable, upland cultivation in extensive Ultisol areas tends to be handicapped by low fertility and higherodibility of the soil, resulting in low sustainability. Land shortage is compelling people to exploit slopelandsin hills and mountains, on the one hand, and thus far unutilized coastal lowlands, on the other. Both ofthese new reclamations are facing to serious land degradation problems today. Tropical Asia will continueto be the most densely populated region of the world with ever-increasing population. In order to meet theincreasing food demand lowland rice cultivation should be intensified by the infrastructure development toease the stresses on slopelands and vulnerable coastal lowlands. At the same time, upland crop productionin Ultisol areas should be stabilized and enhanced, providing integrated nutrient management and measuresfor soil conservation.

  15. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Arndt


    Full Text Available Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li


    Full Text Available U.S.recently launched strategy of rebalancing to Asia worsens the atmosphere forChina’s energy security and increases the risks for energy transportation from Africa and theMiddle East. The diversification of energy sources is a reasonable strategic choice, so the importance of the Eurasian continent forChinaincreases. Central Asia does not play anymore a supporting role in the agenda ofChina’s energy security strategy. It is rather becoming a region of major strategic importance.

  17. What shapes food value chains? Lessons from aquaculture in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, I; Ponte, Stefano


    In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive role...... and private standards. We find that the most sophisticated aquaculture operations in Asia are found in value chains led by retailers and branded processors and where the quality of domestic institutional frameworks has facilitated compliance with increasing demands from buyers overseas. Finally, we reflect...... on the sustainability challenges of aquaculture and provide four broad observations on the governance of food value chains....

  18. The rise of naval powes in Asia and Europe's decline


    Terjesen, Bjørn; Tunsjø, Øystein (eds.)


    For the first time in modern history Asian states are spending more on defence than their European counterparts. The sea power ambitions of leading land powers such as China, Russia and India stand as a challenge to US naval supremacy in the region. The old European great powers are becoming marginalised in an increasingly Asia-centred world. The edited volume The Rise of Naval Powers in Asia and Europe’s Decline examines this new geopolitical landscape of the 21st century, emphasising ...

  19. ASEAN and Strategic Rivalry among the Great Powers in Asia


    Fenna Egberink; Frans-Paul van der Putten


    This paper looks at ASEAN’s role in the context of the three main bilateral relations among the great powers in Asia: China-US, China-Japan, and China-India. The authors argue that although ASEAN’s influence is limited in terms of geographical reach and its impact on actual security issues, Southeast Asia is potentially an important object of great power rivalry and thus the sub-region is highly relevant to Asian geopolitics. The key question with regard to geopolitical stability is how A...

  20. The Asia-Pacific Century: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)


    in all its forms. Asia faces two primary sources of natural disasters: weather and geology . Among the most severe weather problems in the region are...storms to hit the region. On 29 April 1991, a category-four cyclone struck Bangladesh , killing an es- timated 138,000 people—a death toll held down by... Bangladesh in the 1970s.31 In the case of these cyclones and storms, most of the deaths 10 │ WHY ASIA MATTERS and destruction were due to flooding, which can

  1. Is the development policy improving the gender situation in Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Asia, and India in particular,  witnessed the highest rate of economic growth globally. However, there is an  issue of economic and social concern: gender balance of poverty.Based on the empirical evidence, the paper analysis the design and  impact of development aid provided by international donors on the gender situation in rural areas in India and partly of other parts of Asia. In conclusion, the women-situation type of conditionality was contained in 20 percent of the projects under scrutiny. The positive impact was detected in 22 out of 28 projects having such a conditionality.

  2. Cautious Peace: Strategy and Circumstance in Asia-Pacific Security. (United States)


    of the Major Powers: A Workshop Report, East-West Center/Center for Naval Analyses, 1993 146 Paul Krugman , "The Myth of Asia’s Miracle," Foreign...within the next 15 years." Honolulu Star Bulletin, March 18, 1994, cited in PACOM Economic Update, 1994, p. 7. 151 10 11 12 13 7 See, e.g., Paul ... Krugman , "The Myth of Asia’s Miracle," Foreign Affairs, November/December 1994, pp. 62-78. 8 This compared favorably to North America, which had an

  3. Phylogeography and historical demography of Polypedates leucomystax in the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines: evidence for recent human-mediated range expansion? (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Linkem, Charles W; Siler, Cameron D; Sukumaran, Jeet; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Diesmos, Arvin C; Iskandar, Djoko T; Bickford, David; Evans, Ben J; McGuire, Jimmy A; Grismer, Lee; Supriatna, Jatna; Andayani, Noviar


    Southeast Asia's widespread species offer unique opportunities to explore the effects of geographical barriers to dispersal on patterns of vertebrate lineage diversification. We analyzed mitochondrial gene sequences (16S rDNA) from a geographically widespread sample of 266 Southeast Asian tree frogs, including 244 individuals of Polypedates leucomystax and its close relatives. Our expectation was that lineages on island archipelagos would exhibit more substantial geographic structure, corresponding to the geological history of terrestrial connectivity in this region, compared to the Asian mainland. Contrary to predictions, we found evidence of numerous highly divergent lineages from a limited area on the Asian mainland, but fewer lineages with shallower divergences throughout oceanic islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. Surprisingly and in numerous instances, lineages in the archipelagos span distinct biogeographical provinces. Phylogeographic analyses identified four major haplotype clades; summary statistics, mismatch distributions, and Bayesian coalescent inference of demography provide support for recent range expansion, population growth, and/or admixture in the Philippine and some Sulawesi populations. We speculate that the current range of P. leucomystax in Southeast Asia is much larger now than in the recent past. Conversion of forested areas to monoculture agriculture and transportation of agricultural products between islands may have facilitated unprecedented population and range expansion in P. leucomystax throughout thousands of islands in the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos.

  4. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands. (United States)

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita


    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  5. Regional Approaches to the Development of Human and Economic Resources: Asia. (United States)

    Profeta, Lydia; Davie, Robert S.


    This examination of human resource development in Asia focuses on the role of education in the development plans of the Philippines, and the contributions of Australia to the growth of developing countries in Southeast Asia. (SK)

  6. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia (United States)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro


    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  7. Origins of linguistic diversity in the Aleutian Islands. (United States)

    Berge, Anna


    The Aleut language, currently spoken along the Aleutian chain and the Pribilof and Commander islands, is the only language in its branch of the Eskimo-Aleut language family, and traditional methods of linguistic reconstruction have neither satisfactorily explained its relationship with languages on the Asian continent nor its development from Proto-Eskimo-Aleut. Linguistic reconstruction has always been important in understanding the prehistory and history of the Aleuts, and new approaches in comparative linguistics, more comprehensive information on typological features of neighboring languages, and continuing language documentation allow us to propose a rich and continuous history of contact with various groups of people. I evaluate evidence that the Aleut language may have been shaped by contact with neighbors in Asia and Alaska, eventually giving rise to its differentiation from the Eskimo languages. I look at dialect differentiation along the Aleutian chain and what this differentiation reveals about the migration trends of the Aleut along the chain. I look at the colonial expansion of the Aleut-speaking area and resulting additional varieties of Aleut in the historical period. Finally, I review the effects of the Russian and American colonial periods on the Aleut language and the severe endangerment that the language faces today as a result. I conclude that there is evidence of possible Aleut contact with both neighboring peoples; however, much of this evidence has not yet been subjected to systematic comparative reconstructions. Linguistic evidence supports theories of at least two westward expansions of Aleuts along the island chain, but it is not yet clear what motivated the dialect differentiations. Finally, I offer some thoughts on directions for future dialect studies and the continuing documentation of Aleut.

  8. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.


    Aim: We undertook the largest comparative study to date of the form of the island species–area relationship (ISAR) using 207 habitat island datasets and 601 true island datasets. We also undertook analyses of (a) the factors influencing z- and c-values of the power (log–log) model and (b) how z...... and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...

  9. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy


    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  10. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia (United States)


    Although the design waves at the sites of the proposed Tangier Island jet - ties are not depth-limited, increased water depths will allow larger waves to...of the north jetty had significantly erod- ed. At high tide, the point was completely surrounded by water and cut off from the main part of the...environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental

  11. [Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in East Asia based on remote sensing and process-based model]. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie


    Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of AsiaFlux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across East Asia. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India.

  12. HIV epidemics and prevention responses in Asia and Eastern Europe: lessons to be learned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Lazarus, Jeff; Atun, Rifat


    This paper describes characteristics of the HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) and Asia and Central Asia, and draws comparisons between these regions. It focuses on the role that key populations continue to play in HIV transmission in both regions, the challenges that this po...

  13. China, Russia and the Balance of Power in Central Asia. Strategic Forum, Number 223, November 2006 (United States)


    migrant workers from the former Soviet countries, including Central Asia. While the exact statistics on migrant labor are difficult to come reports suggest that this traffic has developed into a two-way dependency— Russia on migrant labor from Central Asia, and Central Asia on migrant

  14. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation... will be in place to provide the necessary security measures required for the Asia-Pacific Economic... temporary Sec. 165.T14-0800 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T14-0800 Security Zones; 2011 Asia-Pacific...

  15. The Security Mechanism of Northeast Asia:Reality and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Northeast Asia is one of the most important regions relating China's core security interests. It is also the only region in the world that has not shaken off the fetters of "Cold War." Ever since the breakout of the "Korean nuclear crisis," the "Four-Party talks" and "SixParty talks" that were crisis management oriented have been held consecutively.

  16. The Largest Gold Mine in Asia was Found in Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Recently,at Yangshan,a place bordering with Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces,of Wen County in Gansu Province,the largest gold mine in Asia was found with proved gold reserve of 308 tons,changing the history of having no super large independent gold deposits over 200 tons in China.

  17. The Strategic Importance of Central Asia: An American View (United States)


    mainte- nance of access to airspace and territory in the heart of Asia; the development of alternative sources of energy; and the furthering of freedom 17. Martha Brill Olcott, “Druzhba Narodov v Mire Energetiki,” Pro et Contra, 10

  18. 2010 Para Games of Asia Slated For December 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The 2010 Para Games of Asia,part of the worldwide Paralympic Movement and governed by the Asian Paralympic Committee(APC),today announced that theGames will be held December 12-19,2010,here in the Southern Chinese city of Guangzhou.

  19. Asia and the Pacific in 2020: Scenarios for Educational Research (United States)

    Power, Colin


    By 2020 our world will have changed and with it the shape and role of education and of educational research. One cannot predict the future, but in this paper three possible scenarios are outlined reflecting alternative approaches of government to the economic, political, social and environmental challenges facing the Asia Pacific region. For each…

  20. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast Asia (United States)

    Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Seminskiy, Zhan V.


    This report contains explanatory material and summary tables for lode mineral deposits and placer districts (Map A, sheet 1) and metallogenic belts of Northeast Asia (Maps B, C, and D on sheets 2, 3, and 4, respectively). The map region includes eastern Siberia, southeastern Russia, Mongolia, northeast China, and Japan. A large group of geologists—members of the joint international project, Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia—prepared the maps, tables, and introductory text. This is a cooperative project with the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian National University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Technical University, Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Research Institute, Jilin University, China Geological Survey, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Japan, and U.S. Geological Survey. This report is one of a series of reports on the mineral resources, geodynamics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia. Companion studies include (1) a detailed geodynamics map of Northeast Asia (Parfenov and others, 2003); (2) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000); (3) a series of metallogenic belt maps (Obolenskiy and others, 2004); (4) location map of lode mineral deposits and placer districts of Northeast Asia (Ariunbileg and others, 2003b); (5) descriptions of metallogenic belts (Rodionov and others, 2004); (6) a database on significant metalliferous and selected nonmetalliferous lode deposits and selected placer districts (Ariunbileg and others, 2003a); and (7) a series of summary project publications (Ariunbileg and 74 others, 2003b).