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Sample records for ashmead hymenoptera braconidae

  1. A new species of Parapanteles Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitic on Charaxes athamas (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in India.

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    Gupta, Ankita; Khot, Rahul; Chorge, Sachin

    2014-07-01

    A new species of gregarious endoparasitoid, Parapanteles athamasae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitising caterpillars of Charaxes athamas (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on the host plant Senegalia catechu (=Acacia catechu) (L.f.) Hurter & Mabb., is described from Maharashtra, India. Diagnostic characters of the new species include: propodeum with areola 0.93× longer than wide, legs yellow, hind tibia 4.30× as long as ovipositor, ovipositor sheaths exerted, first metasomal tergal plate 1.24× longer than wide, with coarse sculpture merging with longitudinal striations at 3/4 of the apical region. This is the first time a species of the family Nymphalidae Rafinesque is recorded in association with Parapanteles Ashmead, 1900. A key to the Indian species of Parapanteles based on females is also provided.

  2. Revision of the new world genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae), with an identification key to species

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    Figueroa, José Isaac; Sharkey, Michael Joseph; Nápoles, Jesus Romero; García, José Antonio Sánchez; Martínez, Ana Mabel; López-Martínez, Victor; Pineda, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key to species and descriptions are presented for 14 species of the New World genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead. Seven new species, Crassomicrodus azteca, Crassomicrodus clypealis, Crassomicrodus costaricensis, Crassomicrodus jalisciensis, Crassomicrodus mariae, Crassomicrodus oaxaquensis,and Crassomicrodus olgae are described. Crassomicrodus fenestratus (Viereck) is synonymized with Crassomicrodus nigriceps (Cresson). Crassomicrodus melanopleurus (Ashmead) is recognized as a valid species. PMID:22144862

  3. Revision of the new world genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, with an identification key to species

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    José Figueroa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A key to species and descriptions are presented for 14 species of the New World genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead. Seven new species, C. azteca, C. clypealis, C. costaricensis, C. jalisciensis, C. mariae, C. oaxaquensis, and C. olgae are described. C. fenestratus (Viereck is synonymized with C. nigriceps (Cresson. C. melanopleurus (Ashmead is recognized as a valid species.

  4. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Reared Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Glyptapanteles Ashmead 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae Associated with Lepidoptera in India.

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    Ankita Gupta

    Full Text Available Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae is a cosmopolitan group of hyperdiverse parasitic wasps. The genus remains taxonomically challenging in India due to its highly speciose nature, morphological similarity amongst species and negligible host records. The Indian fauna is one of the most diverse and also the least studied. The present study is based on 60 populations reared from 35 host species, 100+ individual caterpillar rearings (1100 wasp specimens pinned and 2000 in alcohol and from 12 different geographical locations of the country (11 states and one Union territory that represent 26 provisional Glyptapanteles species within 8 species-groups. Out of 60 populations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on 38 based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods displayed three and four major discrete Glyptapanteles clades, respectively. In clade A very few Indian species were grouped along with Neotropical and Thailand species. The other clades B and C grouped the majority of the Indian species and showed considerable host specificity in both the trees. All parasitic wasp species were gregarious in nature, except for two populations. Three different sets of data (morphology, host records, and COI were integrated in order to generate accurate boundaries between species/species-groups. Illustrations of all parasitized caterpillars/cocoons and 42 habitus views of Glyptapanteles spp., distributional information, and GenBank accession numbers, are presented. The present study, perhaps the most comprehensive done to date in India, suggests the presence of several additional Glyptapanteles species, which were previously unrecognized.

  5. The Braconidae (Hymenoptera) of Greenland

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    Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty species belonging to 16 genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) are reported from Greenland. Seven are new species described and illustrated below: Dacnusa groenlandica spec. nov.; Aphidius tarsalis spec. nov.; Praon brevistigma spec. nov.; Blacus (B.) groenlandicus spec. nov.; Cotesia

  6. Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae

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    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of the two genera of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae are revised. Thirteen species are recognized, of which five are new and eight were previously described: Khoikhoia anthelion Sharkey, sp. n., K. lission Mason, 1984, K. oligospilos Sharkey, sp. n., K. semiadusta Mason, 1983, K. solata Mason, 1983, K. townesi Mason, 1983, K. turneri Mason, 1984, Sania browni Sharkey, sp. n., S. capensis Mason, 1983, S. henryi Mason, 1983, S. marjoriae Mason, 1983, S. masneri Sharkey, sp. n., and S. masoni Sharkey, sp. n.. All are from the Cape Region of South Africa, and all but one species are confined to the western Cape. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included. Based on phylogenetic position and morphological characters, speculations on life history are made, and it is suggested that some species may be parasitoids of wood- or stem-boring Lepidoptera. The DELTA data matrix and images for the key are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.1.ik; Intkey files are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.2.ik; Lucid files in LIF and SDD format are available at doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.3.ik and doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.4.ik. Publishing of DELTA raw data will facilitate future workers to edit keys and to add newly discovered taxa.

  7. Bibliography of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) (1964-2003)

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    Ghahari, H.; Yu, D.S.; Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    A bibliography of the family Braconidae/Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae is given for the period 1964-2003. It is an addition to Shenefelt's bibliography (1965), which covers the period 1785-1963. In total 10,436 references are listed.

  8. A new species of Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae; a parasitoid of the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Iran

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    Kees van Achterberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae, reared from the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, is described and illustrated. The genera Curreia Ashmead, 1900 and Endovipio Turner, 1922 are new synonyms of Megalommum Szépligeti, 1900. Notes on the biology of M. pistacivorae sp. n. and a key to the West Palaearctic and Oriental species are added. The following new combinations are given: M. xanthoceps (Fahringer, 1928, comb. n., M. jacobsoni (Tobias, 1968, comb. n., M. ayyari (Watanabe, 1950, comb. n., M. philippinense (Baker, 1917, comb. n., M. dodecanesi (Ferrière, 1922, comb. n., M. ceresense (Turner, 1922, comb. n., M. inareatum (Granger, 1949, comb. n., M. antefurcale (Szépligeti, 1915 comb. n. and M. tibiale (Ashmead, 1906, comb. n.  

  9. Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands

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    Achterberg, van C.; Guerrero, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands are described and illustrated: Peristenus angifemoralis spec. nov. from Tenerife, and P. gloriae spec. nov. from Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

  10. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

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    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera; Pyr

  11. A new species of the genus Homolobus Foerster from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae)

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    Achterberg, van C.; Shaw, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    A new high elevation altitude species of the genus Homolobus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae), H. fuscinervis spec. nov. from Ecuador (Napo province, 2163 m elevation) is described and illustrated.

  12. Revision of Zelodia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

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    Michael Sharkey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of Thai Zelodia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are revised. Twenty-one species are treated, 19 new species are described, i.e. Zelodia charoeni, Zelodia chongkraii, Zelodia cholathorni, Zelodia idrisi, Zelodia nikomi, Zelodia nopadoli, Zelodia pahangensis, Zelodia panyaii, Zelodia poonsathii, Zelodia ratanae, Zelodia saksiti, Zelodia surachaii, Zelodia suyaneeae, Zelodia toyae, Zelodia uthaii, Zelodia wangi, Zelodia wichaii, Zelodia wirati, Zelodia wirotei. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included.

  13. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release.

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    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-09-25

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.

  14. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were paras

  15. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

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    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  16. New taxa of the subfamily Doryctinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from French Guiana and Brazil

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    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Three genera of the subfamily Doryctinae Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are treated and keyed: Ptesimogaster Marsh, 1965, Caingangia Marsh, 1993, and Leptodoryctes Barbalho & Penteado- Dias, 1999. The latter genus is characterised by the presence of an apical setal comb on the hind tibia.

  17. A new genus and subgenus of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from East Asia

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    Belokobylskij, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three new taxa belonging to the subfamily Euphorinae Foerster (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) are described and illustrated. Mama mariae gen. nov. & spec. nov. from southern Far East Russia and two species of the subgenus Chaetocentistes nov. of the genus Centistes Haliday. A key to species (i.e. Centiste

  18. Description of a new genus of Doryctinae wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Brazil

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    Gomes, S.A.G.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The new genus Lianus of subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. The differences from other genera of Doryctinae are discussed. Both included species originate from the Atlantic forest at Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  19. Description of a new genus of Doryctinae wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Brazil

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    Gomes, S.A.G.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The new genus Lianus of subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. The differences from other genera of Doryctinae are discussed. Both included species originate from the Atlantic forest at Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  20. Wolbachia infection in Cotesia sesamiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) causes cytoplasmic incompatibility : implications for biological control

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    Mochiah, M.B.; Ngi-Song, A.J.; Overholt, W.A.; Stouthamer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Cotesia sesamiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an indigenous, gregarious, larval endoparasitoid that attacks mid- to late-instar of the stem borer larvae. Although the parasitoid is distributed widely throughout Africa, not all local populations appear to be equally effective in controlling stem bore

  1. Notes on the genera Exasticolus van Achterberg (Homolobinae) and Orgilus Haliday (Orgilinae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with the description of three new species from French Guiana

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    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Among the collected material from the Kaw Montains, French Guiana, a new species of the genus Exasticolus van Achterberg, 1979 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae: E. thirionae spec. nov.) and two new species of the genus Orgilus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae: O. podus spec. no

  2. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    JF Sobczak

    Full Text Available Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  3. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae); Biologia y habitos del barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

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    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A., E-mail: hernandez.luismartin@inifap.gob.m, E-mail: urias.marioalfonso@inifap.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestal000, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Santiago, Nayarit (Mexico). Campo Experimental Santiago Ixcuintla; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor, E-mail: nestor@colpos.m [Instituto de Fitosanidad, Montecillo, Texcoco (Mexico). Colegio de Postgraduados

    2010-07-15

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  4. Two new and aberrant species of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from Japan

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    Achterberg, van C.; Maetô, K.

    1990-01-01

    One new species of the genus Pseudorhinoplus Fischer, 1972, and one of the genus Zelomorpha Ashmead, 1900 from Japan are described and illustrated. The generic limits of both genera are discussed. The genus Ahngeria Kokujev, 1902 is a new junior synonym of Coccygidium Saussure, 1892, and the subgenu

  5. Revision of the genus Tropobracon Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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    Achterberg, van C.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Tropobracon Cameron, 1905 (Braconidae: Braconinae) is revised and its species are keyed. The type species is re-described and fully illustrated. Two new species are described: T. comorensis spec. nov. from the Comores and T. infuscatus spec. nov. from Hong-Kong. Bracon dorsalis Matsumura,

  6. Revision of the Haliday collection of Braconidae (Hymenoptera)

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    Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    The type-series of the taxa of the family Braconidae described by A.H. Haliday (1806-1870) are reviewed, 99 lectotypes are designated, 24 new synonyms and 22 new combinations are given. Lectotypes are designated for the following nominal species: Alysia (Dacnusa) abdita Haliday, 1839; Opius (Opius)

  7. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae, with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for P. brunneus, only known from a single male, and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae. DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene were obtained for 30 species (83%, and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965, comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911, and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield: alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

  8. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Kula, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for Pseudapantelesbrunneus, only known from a single male), and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene) were obtained for 30 species (83%), and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software) and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapantelesmoerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n., Pseudapantelesbrunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapantelesruficollis (Cameron, 1911), and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield): alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

  9. Effects of feeding frequency and sugar concentration on behavior and longevity of the adult aphid parasitoid: Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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    Azzouz, H.; Giordanengo, P.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaiser, L.

    2004-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary aphid endoparasitoid. Adults feed on honeydew and possibly on other sugar sources such as nectar. Sugar sources can vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to biotic factors and environmental conditions. Experiments were conduct

  10. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

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    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  11. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae)

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    Wu, Q.; Achterberg, van C.; Tan, J.-L.; Chen, X.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van

  12. Revision of Therophilus s.s. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

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    Stephanie Stoelb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the limits of Therophilus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are redefined and restricted to a small proportion of the previously included species. Those species belonging to the world fauna are listed and the species from Thailand are revised. Forty-four species are assigned to the genus including 11 new species, i.e. T. anuchati, T. apichati, T. areeluckae, T. boonthami, T. chiangmaiensis, T. kwanuiae, T. songrami, T. sukpengae, T. wannai, T. wongchaii, T. wongwani. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to an electronic interactive key and to distribution maps are also included.

  13. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

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    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  14. [Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].

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    Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days.

  15. Fenología de los bracónidos (Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae del Pirineo andorrano

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    Falcó Garí, J. V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Phenology of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea at Andorra has been conducted/studied using a Malaise trap after a one-year cycle during 1993. A total of 1.892 specimens, representing 23 subfamilies and 79 genera were sampled. About 93.7% of the captures were koinobiont braconids, whereas 6.3% belonged to idiobiont braconids. The annual phenology has been characterized through the correlation between the evolution of the collected braconids and the weather (meteorological conditions. The maximum of the populations were registered between the two rain periods. In fact, the family Braconidae shows an abundance peak from middle of May to end of August, due to the xerothermic conditions of the andorran locality.



    La fenología de la familia Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea ha sido estudiada mediante una trampa Malaise en Andorra durante el año 1993. Han sido colectados 1.892 bracónidos (excepto Aphidiinae, pertenecientes a 23 subfamilias y 79 géneros. El 93,7% de los bracónidos capturados representa la estrategia biológica koinobionte frente al 6,3% de idiobiontes. La correlación de las capturas de los bracónidos con las condiciones meteorológicas ha permitido caracterizar la fenología anual de éstos. La evolución anual de las poblaciones alcanza sus máximos en el período comprendido entre las dos épocas de lluvias, pudiéndose señalar un único pico para la familia Braconidae, el cual transcurre desde mediados de mayo a finales de agosto, debido a las condiciones xerotérmicas de la localidad andorrana.

  16. Morfologia dos espermatozóides do parasitóide Apanteles galleriae Wilkinson, 1932(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Os Braconidae representam a segunda maior família de Hymenoptera e por serem vespas parasíticas de outros insetos são potencialmente importantes para o controle biológico. Como em outras famílias de Hymenoptera, nos Braconidae ainda há controvérsias em relação à sistemática de suas subfamílias, bem como entre eles e as outras famílias da superfamília Ichneumonoidea. A caracterização ultra- estrutural tem contribuído para o estudo filogenético de muitos grupos de animais, incluindo os insetos....

  17. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  18. Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from the Palaearctic Region and new records of species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junli; Kula, Robert R; Wharton, Robert A; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-05-14

    Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae), T. gymnonotum Yao sp. n., T. similis Yao sp. n., T. areolata Yao sp. n., and T. lineata Yao sp. n., are described from the Palaearctic Region of China, and T. chors Belokobylskij is newly recorded from China. Significant range extensions are given for T. bicolor (Nees von Esenbeck), T. gracilicornis (Nees von Esenbeck), and T. mitis Stelfox. A key to the Palaearctic species of Tanycarpa is provided.

  19. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Augusto Loni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world.

  20. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, C H; Pereira, L A; Filho, O M

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which was collected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individuals emerging from the same pupae.

  1. [Parasitic effect of Opius concolor (Spzl) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on an intermediate host Ceratitis capitata Wied (Diptera, Trypetidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamouda, M H; Ben Salah, H

    1984-01-01

    The parasitic incidence of Opius concolor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) on a replacement host, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Trypetidae) was studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis methods. A noticeable modification of C. capitata proteins was observed when parasited by O. concolor. But the most important phenomenon is the finding of common antigens between the host and the parasite. These results are discussed with regard to trophic and parasitic behaviour of the parasite.

  2. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses.

  3. A contribution to the knowledge of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, with six new records from Iran

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    S. Farahani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted for identification of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in the northern provinces of Iran. The specimens were collected using Malaise traps during 2010-2011. In all, 9 species in four genera consisting of Allurus Förster, Dinocampus Förster, Peristenus Nees and Perilitus Nees were collected and identified. The genus Allurus is recorded for the first time from Iran. Six species are newly recorded for the Iranian fauna including Allurus muricatus (Haliday, Peristenus pallipes Curtis, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe, Perilitus (Townesilitus bicolor (Wesmael, Perilitus foveolatus Reinhard and Perilitus rutilus (Nees. Morphological diagnostic characters and geographical distribution of the species are briefly discussed. A key is presented for identification of the genera and species in the studied area.

  4. Diversity of Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil

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    Sian de Souza Gadelha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Braconidae is a highly diversified family of Hymenoptera and usually known by their role in biological control both in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Despite of that, little is known about its diversity in the Amazon region. The present work inventoried the braconid fauna of an Open Ombrophylous Forest with Palm Trees of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, RO. Insects were collect from June/2008 to May/2009 using six Malaise traps in different parts of the reserve. A total of 377 wasps were captured, 17 subfamilies and 56 genera identified. Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae and Rogadinae subfamilies were very abundant, and also the genera Aleiodes, Bracon, Capitonius, Compsobracon, Heterospilus, Hymenochaonia, Opius, Pedinotus, Rogas and Stantonia. The calculated Shannon diversity index was 2.15 and 3.3 for subfamily and genera, respectively, which were, generally, higher than the values found for other regions in Brazil. Generally, parasitoids were more abundant during the rainy season. The present work contributes with new genera records and faunistic data of Braconidae in Rondonia State, western Amazon.

  5. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

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    Shi Min

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders

  6. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  7. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  8. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Kazemzadeh, Sedigheh; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, Hossein; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Ćetković, Aleksandar; Popović, Anđelka; Bodlah, Lmran; Tomanović, Željko

    2012-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of northeastern Iran were studied in this paper. A total of 29 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. The aphidiines presented in this work have been reared from 42 aphid host taxa occurring on 49 plant taxa from a total of 33 sampling sites. Sixty-six aphidiine-aphid-plant associations are presented. Trioxys metacarpalis sp. nov. from Chaitaphis tenuicaudata Nevsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Kochia scoparia, is described. The species diversity based on the comparative faunistic analysis is discussed.

  9. Revision of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand, with description of three new species

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    Kees van Achterberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand are revised. Eight species are treated, three new species are described, i.e. Euagathis breviantennata sp.n., E. setosimaculata sp. n. and E. pallitarsis sp. n. Disophrys sogdiana Fahringer, 1937, D. chinensis Fahringer, 1937, and Euagathis sentosus Chen & Yang, 1995, are new junior synonyms of Euagathis chinensis (Holm‑gren, 1868. Euagathis guangxiensis (Chen & Yang, 2006 is a new combination. Lectotypes are designated for Disophrys sogdiana Fahringer, 1937, and D. chinensis Fahringer, 1937. A dichotomous illustrated key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included.

  10. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ROGADINAE (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) EN UNA GRADIENTE ALTITUDINAL EN LOS ANDES DEL SUR DEL PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Sulca Garro, Lidia A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Perú).

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió la variación altitudinal de la riqueza, diversidad y estructura comunitaria de las avispas parasitoides de la subfamilia Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) en una gradiente altitudinal en el Valle de Cosñipata (Cuzco, Perú). Para ello, se definieron cuatro sitios de estudio entre 800 y 2800 m: Tono (800 m), San Pedro (1500 m), Rocotal (2000 m) y Wayquecha (2800 m) en los que se efectuaron cinco muestreos empleando trampas Malaise. Se capturó un total de 351 individuos comprendiend...

  11. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, M. Z.; Loeck, A. E.; Nörnberg, S. D.; Bernardi, D.; Nava, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg–larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus. These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg–adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus. However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase. PMID:27638954

  12. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  13. Selectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on adults of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Camila; Loureiro, Elisângela De Souza; Pereira, Fabricio Fagundes; Kassab, Samir Oliveira; Costa, Daniele Perassa; Barbosa, Rogério Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mortality patterns and interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and parasitoids is important to improve insect biological control programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879) Sorokin, 1833 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, 1912 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on adults of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with biological insecticides Biometha WP Plus (M. anisopliae), Biovéria G (B. bassiana), Boverril WP (B. bassiana), Metarril WP (M. anisopliae), and Metie WP (M. anisopliae) at concentrations of 1 x 10(9) conidia (con).mL(-1), 5 x 10(9) con.ml(-1), and 10 x 10(9) con.ml(-1). In the experimental, 10 females of C. flavipes were packed in disposable cups capped with a contact surface (filter paper, 9 cm2) treated with commercial product. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 16 treatments and five replicates of 10 females each. Mortality was assessed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exposition (HAE) of the products. In general, B. bassiana and M. anisopliae in the concentrations of 1 x 10(9) con.ml(-1), 5 x 10(9) con.ml(-1), and 10 x 10(9) con.ml(-1) can't affect C. flavipes females because the peak of mortality in treatments with bioinsecticides was similar to the control and this demonstrated the selectivity of fungi B. bassiana and M. anisopliae on C. flavipes females.

  14. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to caterpillar-induced volatiles from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Zhang, Yongjun; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming; Gao, Xiwu; Guo, Yuyuan

    2010-04-01

    Microplitis mediator Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important larval endoparasitoid of various lepidopteran pests, including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). In China, H. armigera is a key pest of cotton and is currently the focus of several biological control efforts that use M. mediator as principal natural enemy of this pest. To improve the success of biological control efforts, behavioral studies are needed that shed light on the interaction between M. mediator and H. armigera. In this study, we determined M. mediator response to volatile compounds from undamaged, mechanically injured, or H. armigera--damaged plants and identified attractive volatiles. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, we found that mechanically damaged plants and/or plants treated with H. armigera oral secretions did not attract wasps. However, volatiles from H. armigera-damaged plants elicited a strong attraction of both M. mediator sexes. Headspace extracts from H. armigera-damaged cotton were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), and a total of seven different compounds were found to elicit electroantennogram (EAG) responses, including an unknown compound. Six different EAD-active volatiles were identified from caterpillar-damaged cotton plants, of which 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were the principal compounds. Olfactometer assays indicated that individual synthetic compounds of 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and nonanal were attractive to M. mediator. Field cage studies showed that parasitism of H. armigera larvae by M. mediator was higher on cotton plants to which 3,7-dimethyl-1,3, 6-octatriene was applied. Our results show that the combination of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles may not only facilitate host, mate, or food location but may also increase H. armigera parasitism by M. mediator.

  15. Diversity of Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil Diversidade de Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera do Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian de Souza Gadelha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Braconidae is a highly diversified family of Hymenoptera and usually known by their role in biological control both in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Despite of that, little is known about its diversity in the Amazon region. The present work inventoried the braconid fauna of an Open Ombrophylous Forest with Palm Trees of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, RO. Insects were collect from June/2008 to May/2009 using six Malaise traps in different parts of the reserve. A total of 377 wasps were captured, 17 subfamilies and 56 genera identified. Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae and Rogadinae subfamilies were very abundant, and also the genera Aleiodes, Bracon, Capitonius, Compsobracon, Heterospilus, Hymenochaonia, Opius, Pedinotus, Rogas and Stantonia. The calculated Shannon diversity index was 2.15 and 3.3 for subfamily and genera, respectively, which were, generally, higher than the values found for other regions in Brazil. Generally, parasitoids were more abundant during the rainy season. The present work contributes with new genera records and faunistic data of Braconidae in Rondonia State, western Amazon.Braconidae é uma família altamente diversificada dentro da ordem Hymenoptera, possuindo grande importância no controle biológico tanto em sistemas agrícolas como em sistemas naturais. Contudo, a diversidade do grupo ainda é pouco conhecida para a região amazônica. Neste sentido, o presente estudo vem contribuir para este conhecimento através do inventariamento da assembléia de braconídeos do Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondônia. As coletas foram realizadas pelo período de um ano, utilizando seis armadilhas Malaise em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Aberta com palmeiras. Foram coletados 377 espécimes, identificados em 17 subfamílias e 56 gêneros. As subfamílias Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae e Rogadinae foram consideradas muito abundantes, assim como os gêneros: Aleiodes, Bracon

  16. Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae como inimigo natural de Archisepsis scabra (Loew (Diptera: Sepsidae em fezes bovinas Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as natural enemy of Archisepsis scabra (Loew (Diptera: Sepsidae in catlle dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports, for the first time, the occurrence of the parasite Spalangia drosophilae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Archisepsis scabra (Diptera: Sespsidae found in cow manure in the municipality of Cachoeira Dourada, GO, Brazil (18º29´S and 49º´W. Manure samples, collected at two-week intervals, were taken to the laboratory, and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of adult flies or their parasites. The parasitism prevalence was 5.7%.

  17. The braconid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae: Hieroxestinae) in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Mehrnejad, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Two species of Braconidae (Chelonus kermakiae (Tobias, 2001) (Cheloninae) and Centistidea pistaciella spec. nov. (Miracinae)) have been reared from the pistachio twig borer moth (Kermania pistaciella Amsel) (Tineidae). Both species are described and illustrated; Centistidea pistaciella spec. nov. is

  18. Annotated catalogue of the types of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in the Oxford University Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; O'Toole, C.

    1993-01-01

    An annotated catalogue of the types of Braconidae in the Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford, is given. The following new combinations are proposed: Aleiodes rothneyi (Shenefelt, 1975); Aniphiaulax agraensis (Cameron, 1897); Balcemena ruficollis (Cameron, 1899); Bicarinibracon

  19. Vervoortihelcon, a new genus of the subfamily Helconinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Helconini Foerster (Braconidae: Helconinae), Vervoortihelcon (type species: Vervoortihelcon scaramozzinoi spec, nov.) from Chile is described and illustrated. The new subtribe Vervoortihelconina is named to include the new genus.

  20. Parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera from puparia of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae in Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Adriana OLIVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registró la emergencia de parasitoides (Hymenoptera de crías experimentales de Diptera sarcosaprófagas (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, atraídas a cebos de carne bovina, en Buenos Aires (Argentina durante 1998-2003. Se determinaron cuatro taxones: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae y Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Sólo las dos primeras especies resultaron abundantes en todos los años. Se ha graficado el número total de emergencias de cada especie para cada mes, junto con las temperaturas promedio máxima y mínima.

  1. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. DipteraTachinidae and HymenopteraBraconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain.

  2. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 in Italy. 1. Diptera Tachinidae and Hymenoptera Braconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

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    Pier Luigi Scaramozzino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 (Lepidoptera Tortricidae in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae. This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera. Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen, whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of L. botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael are uncertain.

  3. Braconidae (Hymenoptera fauna in native, degraded and restoration areas of the Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    CA Barbieri Junior

    Full Text Available This study sampled the diversity of Braconidae (Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems: a degraded pasture, a secondary forest and an area in recovery process using native tree seedlings. The objective was to verify the use of those insects as a tool to check the local conservation by examining Shannon's diversity index. Ten subfamilies were identified, and Microgastrinae was predominant in a number of individuals. The diversity index calculated varies among the sampled areas, thus showing a correlation with vegetation cover with the number of individuals collected and number of subfamilies found. The results showed changes in the community of Braconidae, in the recovery area between the first and second year of study, thereby leading to the conclusion that they are indicators of environmental quality.

  4. Four new genera of Braconinae and Rogadinae from the Oriental region (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1989-01-01

    Three new genera of the Braconinae and one new genus of the Rogadinae (Braconidae) from the Oriental region are described and fully illustrated. Acrocerilia (type-species: A. pachynervis spec. nov. from the Philippines, parasite of cocoa-moth), Cordibraco (type-species: C. setorae spec. nov. from Sa

  5. Four new genera of the subfamily Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Indo-Australian region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1992-01-01

    Four new genera of Braconinae (Braconidae) are described and illustrated from the IndoAustralian region: Acampyloneurus gen. nov. (type species: Campyloneurus aruensis Shenefelt, 1978) from Aru, Arubracon gen. nov. (type species: Bracon basalis Smith, 1859) from Aru, Floralibracon gen. nov. (type sp

  6. Revison of the Euagathis species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae) from Wallacea and Papua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2004-01-01

    The species of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900 (Braconidae: Agathidinae) from Wallacea and Papua (including Northeast Australia and Solomon Islands) are revised and keyed. Thirty-three species are recognized, of which 11 are new: Euagathis brevitibialis spec. nov. from Papua New Guinea; E. dejo

  7. Selectividad de insecticidas biorracionales hacia Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoide de Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    La avispa endoparásita Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un importante enemigo natural de la plaga clave del tomate, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), en el Cinturón Hortícola de La Plata (provincia de Buenos Aires). Los daños causados por la plaga pueden llegar hasta el 80% si no se toman los recaudos necesarios. Para su control se utilizan insecticidas altamente tóxicos que generan contaminación ambiental, perjudican la presencia de los EN y promueven la generación ...

  8. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.

  9. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae. I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species significant range extension is documented, including new records for France, Canada, United States, and Sweden. New host data are also provided for several species. The species name Apanteles masmithi Fernández-Triana is considered a syn. n. of Dolichogenidea britannica (Wilkinson.

  10. Seven new species of Allorhogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae from Mexico Siete especies nuevas de Allorhogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae de México

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    Juan José Martínez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven new Mexican species of the gall associated doryctine genus Allorhogas are described, illustrated and molecularly characterized: A. amuzgo sp. nov., A. coccolobae sp. nov., A. crassifemur sp. nov., A. jaliscoensis sp. nov., A. marshi sp. nov., A. parvus sp. nov., and A. scotti sp. nov. These new species were collected in tropical dry forests situated along the Pacific coast of Mexico in the states of Jalisco, Oaxaca and Guerrero. Allorhogas coccolobae was reared from leaf galls probably induced by an unidentified cecidomyiid (Diptera on Coccoloba barbadensis Jacq., representing the first record of this genus on Polygonaceae galls. A key to the described Mexican species of Allorhogas is provided.Se describen, ilustran y caracterizan molecularmente 7 especies nuevas del género gallícola Allorhogas (Braconidae: Doryctinae: A. amuzgo sp. nov., A. coccolobae sp. nov., A. crassifemur sp. nov., A. jaliscoensis sp. nov., A. marshi sp. nov., A. parvus sp. nov. y A. scotti sp. nov. Estas especies fueron recolectadas en bosques tropicales caducifolios de la costa del Pacífico mexicano en Jalisco, Oaxaca y Guerrero. Allorhogas coccolobae fue criada de agallas foliares en Coccoloba barbadensis Jacq., inducidas probablemente por un cecidómido (Diptera no identificado, representando el primer registro de este género en agallas de Polygonaceae. Se presenta una clave para las especies de Allorhogas descritas para México.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression profile, odorant affinity, and stability of two odorant-binding proteins in Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2017-02-01

    The polyembryonic endoparasitoid wasp Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is deployed successfully as a biocontrol agent for corn pest insects from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia in Europe and throughout Asia, including Japan, Korea, and China. The odorants are recognized, bound, and solubilized by odorant-binding protein (OBP) in the initial biochemical recognition steps in olfaction that transport them across the sensillum lymph to initiate behavioral response. In the present study, we examine the odorant-binding effects on thermal stability of McinOBP2, McinOBP3, and their mutant form that lacks the third disulfide bonds. Real-time PCR experiments indicate that these two are expressed mainly in adult antennae, with expression levels differing by sex. Odorant-binding affinities of aldehydes, terpenoids, and aliphatic alcohols were measured with circular dichroism spectroscopy based on changes in the thermal stability of the proteins upon their affinities to odorants. The obtained results reveal higher affinity of trans-caryophelle, farnesene, and cis-3-Hexen-1-ol exhibits to both wild and mutant McinOBP2 and McinOBP3. Although conformational flexibility of the mutants and shape of binding cavity make differences in odorant affinity between the wild-type and mutant, it suggested that lacking the third disulfide bond in mutant proteins may have chance to incorrect folded structures that reduced the affinity to these odorants. In addition, CD spectra clearly indicate proteins enriched with α-helical content.

  12. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  13. Siete especies nuevas de Allorhogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) de México

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Martínez; Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón

    2015-01-01

    Se describen, ilustran y caracterizan molecularmente 7 especies nuevas del género gallícola Allorhogas (Braconidae: Doryctinae): A. amuzgo sp. nov., A. coccolobae sp. nov., A. crassifemur sp. nov., A. jaliscoensis sp. nov., A. marshi sp. nov., A. parvus sp. nov. y A. scotti sp. nov. Estas especies fueron recolectadas en bosques tropicales caducifolios de la costa del Pacífico mexicano en Jalisco, Oaxaca y Guerrero. Allorhogas coccolobae fue criada de agallas foliares en Coccoloba barbadensis ...

  14. Simultaneous molecular and morphological analysis of braconid relationships (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae) indicates independent mt-tRNA gene inversions within a single wasp family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, Mark; Belshaw, Robert; Austin, Andrew D; Quicke, Donald L J

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the phylogeny of the Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) with a much expanded data set compared with that of previous attempts, employing 16S and 28S rDNA gene fragments, together with a suite of morphological characters, from 74 ingroup taxa. Most notably, parsimony analyses under a range of models recovered the Aphidiinae as sister group to the cyclostomes and the Ichneutinae as sister group to the microgastroids. The cyclostomes were recovered as a natural group only if certain, putatively misplaced genera (Mesostoa, Aspilodemon) were excluded from them. Further, mapping of rearrangement characters onto this phylogeny of the Braconidae indicated parallel inversions of the mt-tRNAD gene, with the two instances of inversion distinguishable by the presence or absence of an additional tRNA gene (tRNAH). This is the first report of a parallel inversion of a mt-tRNA gene and makes the Braconidae the first metazoan family to display both parallel inversions and translocations.

  15. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica –including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5. Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI mitochondrial gene, information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae, ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  16. Análise da riqueza da fauna de Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea em remanescentes naturais da Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA de Descalvado, SP

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    Cirelli Kátia Resende Netto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea fauna richness in natural remnants of the Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA of Descalvado, SP. A survey of the Braconidae fauna on fragmentary natural environments at northeast São Paulo State was conducted using Malaise traps installed in five sites of Área de Proteção Ambiental of Descalvado. A total of 2,262 specimens, representing 22 subfamilies and 94 genera, was sampled throughout a period of sixteen months (from May, 1999 to August, 2000. Biological data were obtained from current literature and behavior patterns of host utilization for the studied fauna, mainly Braconidae which have been successful in control of agricultural insect pests. Statistical analyses indicated that the asymptote of the genera richness has been approached using this sampling method. This is the most complete survey yet available from natural fragmentary areas of the Descalvado Braconidae fauna. Patterns of distribution and richness of the Braconidae genera were established. Cluster Analysis was adopted taking as attribute the number of Braconidae genera.

  17. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae from the Azores

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    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini.

  18. Life tables of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Anagasta kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effect of host density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Stathas, G J

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive performance of the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against the moths Anagasta kuehniella Zeller and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied in the laboratory. The analysis was based on the comparison of parasitoid's life table parameters related to those of its hosts at various conditions of host density (daily supply of 1, 5, 15, and 30 full-grown host larvae). The estimated parameters were the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0), the mean generation time (G), the finite capacity of increase (lambda), the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the doubling time (DT), the reproductive value (Vx), and the life expectancy (ex). The rm of H. hebetor proved to be significantly higher than those of its hosts at all host densities. When only one host per day was supplied, the wasp had the lowest reproductive potential, whereas it was maximized when 15 hosts per day were exposed. Maximum values of R0 and GRR were obtained at densities > or =15 host larvae per day. Any increase in host supply above this threshold did not cause significant changes in life table parameters. Variation of rm as a function of host density can be described by the linear regression. Sex ratio of wasp progeny (females/total) ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, irrespective of host density or species. Newly emerged adults recorded maximum ex and Vx. The results of this study can be used to improve mass rearing programs and inoculative release applications of H. hebetor against moth pests of stored products.

  19. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elie A.Dannon; Manuele Tamò; Cyriaque Agboton; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) on development time,longevity,fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions.The larvae were parasitized when in the second instar.Maruca vitrata larvae were fed with flowers of four legumes,that is,Vigna unguiculata (cowpea),Sesbania rostrata,Lonchocarpus sericeus and Pterocarpus santalinoides,or an artificial diet both before and after parasitization.The parasitoid did not develop in hosts feeding on L.sericeus or V.unguiculata at 25℃,or on P.santalinoides at 25℃ or 29℃.Apanteles taragaraae had the shortest development time on artificial diet at both 25℃ and 29℃ while the longest development time was recorded on L.sericeus at 29℃.Female wasps took longer to develop compared to males at the two temperatures,regardless of the feeding substrate of their host.The longevity of the wasps at 25℃ varied among feeding substrates,but not at 29℃.Survival rate of parasitized larvae depends on the feeding substrate.Moreover,infection of host larvae with Maruca vitrata multi-nucleopolyhedrovirus (MaviMNPV) killed larger proportions of parasitized larvae at 25℃ than at 29℃,which was likely caused by the difference in parasitoid developmental rate.The proportion of female parasitoids was lowest on L.sericeus.The daily fecundity showed a nonlinear trend regardless of the feeding substrate,indicating that A.taragaraae is a pro-ovigenic species.The data support the slow growth-high mortality hypothesis.

  20. Parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera from puparia of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae in Buenos Aires, Argentina Avispas parasitoides (Hymenoptera a partir de puparios de moscas sarcosaprófagas (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of parasitoid Hymenoptera from experimental rearings of sarcosaprophagous Diptera (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae attracted to beef baits were recorded in Buenos Aires (Argentina from 1998 to 2003. Four taxa were identified: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae and Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Only the first two species were abundant in all years. The number of added monthly emergences of each species is presented and correlated with monthly mean maximum-minimum temperatures.Se registró la emergencia de parasitoides (Hymenoptera de crías experimentales de Diptera sarcosaprófagas (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, atraídas a cebos de carne bovina, en Buenos Aires (Argentina durante 1998-2003. Se determinaron cuatro taxones: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae, Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Chalcididae, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Pteromaliidae y Alysia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae. Sólo las dos primeras especies resultaron abundantes en todos los años. Se ha graficado el número total de emergencias de cada especie para cada mes, junto con las temperaturas promedio máxima y mínima.

  1. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  2. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully

  3. The valid name for the genus Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Braconidae), preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foissner, W.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta: Braconidae) is preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora). The name previously used for Loxocephalus Foerster, Myiocephalus Marshall, 1897, becomes the valid name for the genus.

  4. The genus Spathius Nees (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae in Mexico: occurrence of a highly diverse Old World taxon in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Belokobylskij

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the parasitoid wasp genus Spathius Nees (Braconidae: Doryctinae from Mexico, S.mexicanus sp. n. and S. chamelae sp. n., are described and illustrated. These represent the second and third described species of this highly diverse Old World genus in the Neotropics, and the first described species recorded for the Mexican territory.

  5. Singing on the wings! Male wing fanning performances affect female willingness to copulate in the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Donati, Elisa; Giunti, Giulia; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is a generalist endoparasitoid attacking more than 100 aphid species. In L. testaceipes, wing fanning is a main male courtship display evoked by a female-borne sex pheromone. However, no information is available on the characteristics and behavioral role of male fanning during courtship in this parasitoid. Here, the courtship behavior of a wild strain of L. testaceipes was quantified and the male wing fanning performances were analyzed through high-speed video recordings and examined in relation to mating success. Courtship sequence of wild L. testaceipes did not substantially differ from that previously reported for other populations mass reared on aphids. We observed that the male courtship duration did not affect mating success. However, video analysis revealed that the males producing high-frequency fanning signals achieved higher mating success over those that display low-frequency fanning. Wing fanning before successful and unsuccessful courtship differed in amplitude of wing movements and alignment toward the mate, highlighting that frontal courtship positively influence the female mating decisions. This study increases knowledge on sexual behavior in a key parasitoid of aphids, highlighting the importance of wing fanning among the range of sensory modalities used in the sexual communication of L. testaceipes. From a practical point of view, this information is useful in L. testaceipes-based biocontrol strategies, since it can help to establish parameters for quality checking of mass-reared wasps over time.

  6. Interactions between the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R J; Alencar, J R D C C; Silva, K P; Cividanes, F J; Duarte, R T; Agostini, L T; Polanczyk, R A

    2014-06-01

    The interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae McIntoch (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nymphs of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were first exposed to parasitoid females for 24 h and then 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards sprayed with a solution of B. bassiana. Likewise, aphids were also sprayed with B. bassiana and then exposed to parasitoids at 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards. Parasitism rate varied from 13 to 66.5%, and were significantly lower in treatments where the two agents were exposed within a 0-24 h time interval compared with the control (without B. bassiana). Parasitoid emergence was negatively affected in treatments with B. bassiana spraying and subsequent exposure to D. rapae. Decreases in longevity of adult females of the D. rapae F1 generation were observed in treatments with B. bassiana spraying. The application of these two biological control agents can be used in combination on the control of M. persicae, wherein this use requires effective time management to avoid antagonistic interactions.

  7. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

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    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new species and five species of Microplitis previously described from Mesoamerica. In ACG, all Microplitis were reared exclusively from Sphingidae, while all Snellenius were reared from Noctuoidea (Noctuidae and Erebidae. All of the wasp species with known host records are unambiguously specialists, parasitizing one or a few related hosts. Biological information (wasp cocoon and caterpillar hosts in the Neotropical region seems to differ from similar data reported in previous works for the Oriental region -but more studies on the world fauna are needed. Although the distinction between these two genera has been controversial, we consider that the available evidence, although not conclusive, suggests that these two genera are best kept as separate (based on the presence of at least a partial epicnemial carina in Snellenius, which is absent in Microplitis. The following 28 species, all authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described as species nova: Microplitis adrianguadamuzi, M. alexanderrojasi, M. francopupulini, M. hebertbakeri, M. jorgehernandezi, Snellenius billburgeri, S. bobdressleri, S. donstonei, S. felipechavarriai, S. gerardoherrerai, S. irenebakerae, S. isidrochaconi, S. johnkressi, S. jorgecampabadali, S. jorgegomezlauritoi, S. josesarukhani, S. kerrydresslerae, S. lucindamcdadeae, S. luisdiegogomezi, S. mariakuzminae, S. mariamartachavarriae, S. phildevriesi, S. quiricojimenezi, S. robertoespinozai, S. sandyknappae, S. velvaruddae, S. vickifunkae, S. warrenwagneri.

  8. Effects of the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zi-Wen; Xu, Gang; Gan, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xuan; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-02-01

    The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6h after injection. Dose-response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone.

  9. Biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated larva of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae);Aspectos biologicos e morfologicos de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) criado em larvas irradiadas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    Valle, Giuliana Etore do

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was evaluate some biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata on irradiated and not irradiated larva of bisexual and tsl strains of Ceratitis capitata. The experiments were developed at the Laboratorio de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia (LIARE) of CENA/USP. For gamma radiation treatment it was used a Cobalt-60 source, model Gamma beam-650. Larva of bisexual strain were irradiated with 65 Gy and the tsl strain with 45 Gy. Experiments were carried out at room temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, 75 +- 5 % RH and 14 hours of photo phase. After irradiation, the bisexual strain larva were exposed to adults of D. longicaudata for parasitization and parameters of percentage adult emergency and rate of male and female of D. longicaudata were observed. For tsl strain, were used larva from the first and the fourth collection only, and the following parameters were observed: percentage of adult emergency, rate of male and female, and the average unitary volume and weight of pupae at the 8{sup th} and 16 days after the parasitism date. Other parameters evaluated for tsl strain related to the parasitoid morphology such as, the length of the body, antenna, tibia and ovipositor. As result, both of the first and second experiments, the rate of parasitism was satisfactory, as well as showed larger incidence of females than males in parasitized larva, discarding the possibility that gamma radiation interfere in the sexual rate. No significant differences were observed on pupae volume. Some differences on pupae weight were observed at 8th and 16th day after the parasitism date, which should be associated to pre-emerging flies (8th day) and empty pupa (16th day). None significant difference was observed on morphological parameters, so one can conclude that gamma radiation treatment did not interfere in these quality parameters of the parasitoid. (author)

  10. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  11. Evolutionary relationships among the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) inferred from partial 16S rDNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, M; Austin, A D; Antolin, M F

    1998-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the Braconidae were examined using homologous 16S rDNA gene sequence data. Analyses recovered the few well-supported relationships evident in this family from morphological analyses, viz the monophyly of the microgastroid complex of subfamilies, the monophyly of the cyclostome complex of subfamilies (= braconoids), a sister-group relationship between the Alysiinae and Opiinae, and a close relationship between the Helconinae and Blacinae. With respect to the braconoid complex of subfamilies, a sister-group relationship was recovered between Aphidiinae and Mesostoinae, and a clade composed of Gnamptodontinae + Histeromerinae + Rhyssalinae + Aphidiinae + Mesostoinae was also recovered. The Doryctinae and Rogadinae sensu lato (s.l.) were generally not resolved as monophyletic. With respect to the helconoid complex of subfamilies, a sister-group relationship was recovered between Sigalphinae and Agathidinae, whereas Neoneurinae fell out among other helconoid subfamilies. Other relationships among the helconoid subfamilies were unclear from these analyses. With respect to the microgastroid complex of subfamilies, our data conform to morphological estimates, recovering ((Microgastrinae + Miracinae) + Cardiochilinae) + Cheloninae. The topology of our trees suggests that the cyclostome subfamilies are a natural derived group, inferring that endoparasitism (not ectoparasitism) is the ancestral state for the Braconidae, unless all of the ectoparasitic ancestors of the helconoid + microgastroid subfamilies are now extinct.

  12. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.

  13. Two new species of Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae reared from fruit-infesting tephritid (Diptera hosts in Kenya

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    Robert Wharton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species of opiine Braconidae, reared from fruit-infesting Tephritidae in Kenya, are described. Psyttalia masneri sp. n. was reared from fruits of Dracaena fragrans (L. Ker Gawl. (Liliaceae infested with Taomyia marshalli Bezzi in western Kenya. Psyttalia masneri is the only opiine braconid known to attack members of the genus Taomyia. Unusual morphological features of P. masneri and its host are detailed. Psyttalia halidayi sp. n. was reared from fruits of Lettowianthus stellatus Diels (Annonaceae infested with Ceratitis rosa Karsch in coastal Kenya. Psyttalia halidayi is morphologically similar to several described species of Psyttalia that have previously been used in the biological control of tephritid pests. Unlike these other species, P. halidayi can attack and successfully develop on C. rosa, a serious pest of cultivated fruits. A list of valid species in Psyttalia is provided, along with comments on species groups and host records.

  14. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions.

  15. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Lapointe, Stephen; Paranhos, Beatriz Jordão; Aluja, Martín

    2011-11-01

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ability to exploit fruit juice would allow such a parasitoid to efficiently forage for hosts and food sources simultaneously. Two New World opiines, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), are also prominent Anastrepha parasitoids and are roughly sympatric. All three species were provided with: (1) pulp and juice diets derived from a highly domesticated Old World fruit (orange, Citrus sinensis L.) that is only recently sympatric with the Mexican flies and parasitoids and so offered little opportunity for the evolution of feeding-adaptations and (2) a less-domesticated New World fruit (guava, Psidium guajava L.), sympatric over evolutionary time with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. Both sexes of D. longicaudata died when provided guava pulp or juice at a rate similar to a water-only control. D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, presumably adapted to the nutrient/chemical constituents of guava, also died at a similar rate. Survival of all three species on orange pulp and juice was greater than on water, and often equaled that obtained on a honey and water solution. In confirmatory experiments in Mexico, D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, as well as other tephritid parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fisher), all died at a significantly higher rates when provided guava in comparison to a honey and water diet. Such a result is likely due to guavas being repellent, innutritious or toxic. D. longicaudata clearly consumed guava juice tagged with a colored dye. Dilutions of orange and guava juice resulted in shorter lifespans than dilutions of orange

  16. Development of hyperparasitoid wasp Lysibia nana (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in a multitrophic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Witjes, L.M.A.; Wagenaar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Lysibia nana Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a solitary hyperparasitoid that attacks newly cocooned prepupae and pupae of braconid wasps in the subfamily Microgastrinae. One of its preferred hosts is Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of white but

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitoids associated with Melitaeini butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Melitaeini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankare, Maaria; Shaw, Mark R

    2004-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Cotesia Cameron (Braconidae) species parasitising Melitaeini butterflies were examined using DNA sequence data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH1 dehydrogenase genes, nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region) as well as 12 microsatellite loci. Molecular data were available from ostensibly six species of Cotesia from 16 host butterfly species in Europe, Asia, and North America. Analysis of the combined sequence data using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed two distinct Cotesia clades. In one clade (C. acuminata (Reinhard); C. bignellii (Marshall)) host ranges are apparently narrow and, although Euphydryas (s. lato) is well-utilised, permeation of Melitaea (s. lato) has been slight. In the other clade (C. melitaearum (Wilkinson); C. lycophron (Nixon); C. cynthiae (Nixon)) host utilization across the Melitaeini as a whole is more extensive and the data are consistent with more recent, or active, speciation processes. Neighbour-joining trees calculated separately for the two main clades based on chord distance (DCE) of microsatellite allele frequencies were consistent with phylogenetic trees obtained from the sequence data. Our analysis strongly suggests the presence of several additional, previously unrecognised, Cotesia species parasitising this group of butterflies.

  18. Description of Aulosaphoides aquilus,sp.nov.(Hymenoptera:Braconidae) from Fujian%福建黑腹拟犁沟茧蜂记述(膜翅目:茧蜂科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍志山; 杨建全; 陈家骅

    2000-01-01

    记述了采自福建将乐龙栖山自然保护区的拟犁沟茧蜂属Aulosaphoides van Achterberg (膜翅目:茧蜂科:软节茧蜂亚科)一新种:黑腹拟犁沟茧蜂A.aquilus,sp.nov..新种模式标本保存于福建农业大学植物保护系益虫研究室.%The present paper describes one new species,Aulosaphoides aquilus,sp.nov.,of genus Aulosaphoides van Achterberg (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Lysiterminae) collected from Mt.Longqishan Natural Reserve in Jiangle,Fujian.A key to 8 world species of the genus Aulosapheides van Achterberg is also provided.The type material is deposited in the Beneficial Insects Lab,Department of Plant Protection,Fujian Agricultural University,Fuzhou,China.

  19. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  20. Relationships among the cyclostome braconid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) subfamilies inferred from a mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, M

    1999-03-01

    The arrangement of mitochondrial tRNA genes for lysine (K) and aspartate (D) from the junction of the cytochrome oxidase II and ATPase 8 genes was determined in a range of hymenopteran taxa. This indicated that the ancestral arrangement for the order is 'KD', as found in the Diptera (represented by Drosophila and Anopheles) and basal Orthoptera. Most Hymenoptera that evolved after the appearance of parasitism also have the 'KD' arrangement, including noncyclostome braconids. However, most cyclostome braconids have either a 'DK' or a 'DHK' arrangement (where 'H' refers to the tRNA gene for Histidine). In both cases, the aspartate tRNA gene is encoded on the mitochondrial N-strand, rather than the J-strand as is usually the case. This rearrangement identified a monophyletic group not previously recognized, consisting of Rogadinae + Braconinae + Gnamptodontinae + Histeromerinae + Rhyssalinae + Betylobraconinae + Opiinae + Alysiinae. Only one cyclostome subfamily (Doryctinae) retained the 'KD' arrangement, suggesting this to be the most basal of the cyclostome subfamilies, consistent with ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic for the cyclostomes. However, the Aphidiinae also retained the 'KD' arrangement, leaving unresolved the issue of whether they should be included within the cyclostomes.

  1. First report of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) under different cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea mays L.). However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106). In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management.

  2. First report of Dolichozele koebeleiViereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in maize (Zea maysL. under different cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Silva

    Full Text Available In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea maysL.. However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in Spodoptera frugiperda(J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106. In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management.

  3. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  4. Braconinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) emerged from larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loni, Augusto; Samartsev, Konstantin G; Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Bracon admotus Papp, 2000, and three species of the genus Habrobracon Ashmead, 1895, Habrobracon concolorans (Marshall, 1900), Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) and Habrobracon pillerianae Fischer, 1980, were obtained from the larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium Linnaeus, 1753 (Thymelaeaceae) in the natural reserve of Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli (Pisa-Central Italy). Bracon admotus, Habrobracon concolorans and Habrobracon pillerianae were found for the first time to be associated with Lobesia botrana, while Habrobracon hebetor was reared for the first time from the larvae of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae) that was found on the same host plant. Bracon admotus and Habrobracon pillerianae are new to the fauna of Italy and Western Europe. A key is proposed for the determination of Habrobracon species reared from Lobesia botrana and related Palaearctic species of this genus. Habrobracon lineatellae Fisher, 1968 is considered as a valid species.

  5. Braconinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) emerged from larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loni, Augusto; Samartsev, Konstantin G.; Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bracon admotus Papp, 2000, and three species of the genus Habrobracon Ashmead, 1895, Habrobracon concolorans (Marshall, 1900), Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) and Habrobracon pillerianae Fischer, 1980, were obtained from the larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium Linnaeus, 1753 (Thymelaeaceae) in the natural reserve of Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli (Pisa-Central Italy). Bracon admotus, Habrobracon concolorans and Habrobracon pillerianae were found for the first time to be associated with Lobesia botrana, while Habrobracon hebetor was reared for the first time from the larvae of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae) that was found on the same host plant. Bracon admotus and Habrobracon pillerianae are new to the fauna of Italy and Western Europe. A key is proposed for the determination of Habrobracon species reared from Lobesia botrana and related Palaearctic species of this genus. Habrobracon lineatellae Fisher, 1968 is considered as a valid species. PMID:27408529

  6. Phenoloxidase in larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): molecular cloning of the proenzyme cDNA and enzyme activity in larvae paralyzed and parasitized by Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzer, Kris L; Zhu, Kun Yan; Baker, James E

    2005-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a major component of the insect immune system. The enzyme is involved in encapsulation and melanization processes as well as wound healing and cuticle sclerotization. PO is present as an inactive proenzyme, prophenoloxidase (PPO), which is activated via a protease cascade. In this study, we have cloned a full-length PPO1 cDNA and a partial PPO2 cDNA from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and documented changes in PO activity in larvae paralyzed and parasitized by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The cDNA for PPO1 is 2,748 bp and encodes a protein of 681 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 78,328 and pI of 6.41 containing a conserved proteolytic cleavage site found in other PPOs. P. interpunctella PPO1 ranges from 71-78% identical to other known lepidopteran PPO-1 sequences. Percent identity decreases as comparisons are made to PPO-1 of more divergent species in the orders Diptera (Aa-48; As-49; and Sb-60%) and Coleoptera (Tm-58; Hd-50%). Paralyzation of host larvae of P. interpunctella by the idiobiont H. hebetor results in an increase in phenoloxidase activity in host hemolymph, a process that may protect the host from microbial infection during self-provisioning by this wasp. Subsequent parasitization by H. hebetor larvae causes a decrease in hemolymph PO activity, which suggests that the larval parasitoid may be secreting an immunosuppressant into the host larva during feeding.

  7. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  8. Parasitism performance and fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): implications in integrated pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control.

  9. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

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    MF. Souza-Filho

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker, N. glaberrima (Wiedemann, N. pendula (Bezzi, N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis, as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, D. brasiliensis (Szépligeti, Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut, and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchôa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years.

  10. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  11. Desenvolvimento de dietas artificiais liofilizadas para Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798), com vistas à produção de Telenomus podisi (Ashmead, 1893) e Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston, 1858)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Cerna Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi desenvolver uma dieta artificial que possa suprir as necessidades nutricionais de Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) para produzir insetos em quantidade, comparáveis aos da natureza e que produzam descendentes, através das gerações, possibilitando a criação dos parasitoides de ovos, Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 e Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston, 1858) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), para a liberação em campo, em Programas de Control...

  12. A new species of the genus Ascogaster Wesmael from China (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae)%中国革腹茧蜂属Ascogaster一新种(膜翅目:茧蜂科:甲腹茧蜂亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季清娥; 陈家骅

    2002-01-01

    本文记述了中国革腹茧蜂属Ascogaster一新种皱纹革腹茧蜂Ascogaster retis Ji et Chen, sp. nov..新种主要特征是:体黑色;触角中部稍膨大;头顶具横向网状皱;背面观,上颊约与复眼等长;额与复眼缘之间具纵向网状皱;脸具粗糙网状皱;唇基具中度密集的刻点,端缘中央具一钝突;盾纵沟甚浅;中胸侧板具孔穴状刻点,无基节前沟;并胸腹节具明显的四齿,侧齿大,中齿小;甲壳末端具与体平行的短棘;产卵器鞘较短,不超出腹末.本新种与Ascogaster fullawayi (Baker) 相似,但新种额两侧边缘中间与复眼缘之间无角状齿,脸下部的网状皱不形成弱纵脊,脸部毛短且稀疏,甲壳末端棘短而钝.该新种模式标本保存于福建农林大学益虫研究室.%A new species of the genus Ascogaster Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae), Ascogaster retis Ji et Chen, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from China. The new species is characterized by black body; antenna slightly dilated medially; vertex with coarse-transversal-areolate rugae; temple almost equal to eye in dorsal view; face coarsely reticulate-rugose; clypeus moderate dense punctate, medial apical border pointed forwards into a dull tooth; notauli rather shallow, mesopleuron lacuno-punctate without precoxal sulcus; propodeum with four teeth, lateral teeth bigger and middle teeth smaller; carapace with a conical spine at apex, ovipositor sheath short and not beyond carapace in lateral view. The new species is similar to Ascogaster fullawayi (Baker), but differs from the latter in: temple about equal to eye in dorsal view, no sharp angulate teeth between frons and eye orbits; no weak longitudinal carina through the lower part of face; carapace apex with a small and dull conical spine. The type specimens are deposited in the Beneficial Insects Laboratory, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

  13. Introducción y producción en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryon i y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae en la Argentina Introduction and laboratory production of Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for the biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae in Argentina

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    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de reanudar la utilización de enemigos naturales contra la especie exótica Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, fueron introducidos a la Argentina en 1999 los agentes de control biológico Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, dos endoparasitoides de larvas de tefrítidos. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se describen los procedimientos de cría en laboratorio del huésped y de ambas especies de parasitoides y, se presentan y discuten los resultados de un año de producción de D. tryoni y D. longicaudata a mediana escala (enero-diciembre/2000. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los datos obtenidos sobre la producción de descendientes, proporción sexual, porcentaje de parasitismo y viabilidad de puparios por jaula de cría durante 15 generaciones entre ambas especies de parasitoides exóticos, utilizando como huésped larvas de C. capitata del tercer estadio de siete días de edad. Además, se discuten las posibilidades para implementar el control biológico aumentativo contra C. capitata y Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann en el país.The biocontrol agents Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, two endoparasitoids of fruit fly larvae, were introduced to Argentina in 1999 with the purpose of renewing the employment of natural enemies against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. For this reason, the general procedure and maintenance of the host and parasitoids rearing in the laboratory are described, and the results of one year insectary production (January-December/2000 of both D. tryoni and D. longicaudata are discussed. Data are presented of the progeny production, offpring sex ratio, host parasitism percentage, and pupal viability per parasitoid rearing cage during 15 generations of D. longicaudata and D. tryoni reared using late third instar larvae of C. capitata. New perspectives are discussed on the establishment of a biological control program for C

  14. 中国新纪录属叉突茧蜂属及二新种记述(膜翅目,茧蜂科,茧蜂亚科)%THE GENUS FURCADESHA QUICKE (HYMENOPTERA, BRACONIDAE,BRACONINAE) IN CHINA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳娟娟; 陈家骅; 杨建全

    2007-01-01

    The genus Fucadesha Quicke of the tribe Adeshini van Achterberg (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) is recorded from China for the first time. Two new species, Furcadesha nanningensis Liu et Chen, sp. nov. and Furcadesha bimaculatus Yang et Liu, sp. nov. are described. A key to species of the genus is provided. The type specimens are deposited in the Benificial Insects Laboratory, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China.%记述中国新纪录属叉突茧蜂属Furcadesha Quicke及2新种:南宁叉突茧蜂Furcadesha nanningensis Liu et Chen,sp.nov.和双斑叉突茧蜂Furcadesha bimaculatus Yang et Liu,sp.nov..文中对叉突茧蜂属及新种进行了详细的描述,新种附有鉴别形态特征图,并与其近似种作了比较.模式标本存放于福建农林大学益虫研究室.

  15. 斑痣悬茧蜂产卵器刺扎寄主经历对刺探行为的影响%Ovipositor drilling behaviors and host selection in Meteorus pulchricornis Wesmael (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯素芳; 孟玲; 李保平

    2014-01-01

    【目的】本文旨在评价斑痣悬茧蜂Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael)刺扎寄主的行为机理。【方法】采用非选择性试验于室内观察了刺扎次序对其产卵决策的影响;并采用双选试验观察了具有刺扎不同寄主(健康的、自身刺扎过的、他蜂刺扎过的寄主)的经历如何影响寄生蜂对自身刺扎与他蜂刺扎过的寄主的选择。【结果】非选择性试验结果表明:当面对健康寄主时,寄生蜂刺扎次序对刺扎耗时在5%概率水平上没有显著影响,但在10%概率水平具有显著影响;刺扎次序对寄生率没有显著影响,第1至5次刺扎的寄生率依次为63.3%、46.7%、76.7%、70.0%和66.7%。双选试验结果发现,刺扎不同寄主的经历处理对刺扎寄主选择性没有显著影响(P>0.05),具有刺扎健康的、自身刺扎过的和他蜂刺扎过的寄主的经历使寄生蜂选择被他蜂刺扎过的寄主的比例分别为65.5%、44.8%和50.0%。但刺扎经历显著影响刺扎耗时(P0.05)。【结论】学习在斑痣悬茧蜂刺扎探测寄主行为的作用很小。%[Objectives] To gain insights into the mechanisms of ovipositor drilling behavior of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). [Methods] Non-choice trails were performed to measure the influence of oviposition sequence on decisions with regard to Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae; dual-choice trails were conducted to detect effects of prior experience on oviposition preferences between self- and conspecific-parasitized hosts. [Results] The non-choice trials did not find significant effects of oviposition sequence on oviposition duration at the 5%level, but did at the 10%level. Oviposition sequence did not have significant effects on parasitization rate, which was 63.3%, 46.7%, 76.7%, 70.0%and 66.7%from the first to fifth host, respectively. The dual-choice trials did not find significant effects of oviposition experience on

  16. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

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    Elijah Talamas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead (Mexico (Tamaulipas and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state, P. armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela, P. convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama, P. dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás, P. gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina, P. gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia, P. invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo, P. isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic, P. lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico, P. minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba, P. nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, P. pallipes (Ashmead (southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo, P. psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela, P. saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica, P. soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela. Paridris brevipennis Fouts, P. laeviceps (Ashmead, and P. nigricornis (Fouts are treated as junior synonyms of P. pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  17. Evaluación de los efectos de la composición de la dieta artificial para la cría de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) y Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen REGUILÓN; Medina Pereyra, Pilar; Ordano, Mariano; Salvatore, Analía; Barros, María Verónica; Morsoletto Santos, Elitamara; Vicente Cano, María Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    El control biológico aumentativo de Diatrae saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) requiere la cría masiva del parasitoide Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) y por ello, es necesario el desarrollo de dietas artificiales eficientes. El objetivo fue examinar los efectos de distintos tipos de dieta sobre parámetros biológicos de D. saccharalis y su impacto en la producción de cocones de C. flavipes. Se sembraron 46136 huevos de D. saccharalis en once combinac...

  18. Karyotypes of parasitic Hymenoptera: Diversity, evolution and taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VLADIMIR E. GOKHMAN

    2006-01-01

    Haploid chromosome numbers (n) of parasitic Hymenoptera (= traditional Parasitica + Chrysidoidea) vary from 2 to 23. However, this range can be subdivided into three intervals with n = 14-23 (less derived parasitic wasps, e.g., some Ichneumonidae and Braconidae as well as Gasteruptiidae), 8-13 (many other parasitic Hymenoptera) and 2-7(Dryinidae, the majority of Chalcidoidea and some advanced Braconidae, e.g. Aphidiinae).The symmetric karyotype with a relatively high chromosome number (n = 14-17) and the prevalence of biarmed chromosomes must be considered as a groundplan feature of parasitic Hymenoptera. Independent reductions of chromosome numbers (n ≤ 10-11) occurred in some groups of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea as well as in the common ancestor of the Proctotrupoidea sensu lato, Ceraphronoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea. Further multiple decreases in chromosome numbers (n ≤ 4-6) took place in some Braconidae, various lineages of the superfamily Chalcidoidea as well as in the family Dryinidae. Two main trends prevailed in the karyotype evolution of parasitic wasps: the reduction of chromosome numbers (mainly due to tandem fusions and less frequently due to centric ones) and karyotypic dissymmetrization (through an increase in size differentiation of chromosomes and/or in the share of acrocentrics in a chromosome set). Although karyotypic features of parasitic Hymenoptera can be used for solving taxonomic problems at various levels, this method is the most effective at the species level.

  19. Relationships between parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants based on 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and ND1 gene sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Yaakop, S.

    2013-11-01

    Opiinae is among the l0 largest subfamilies under the family Braconidae. Opiines species have great potential as natural enemies against fruit fly pests. Before using them as a biological control agent, construction of the phylogenetic trees could facilitate in the molecular identification of individual species and their relationships among members of the Opiines, as well as between Opiines and their host plants. Larval specimens of tephritids were collected from four crop species at five localities throughout the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 44 specimens of opiines had successfully emerged from the hosts, fruit fly larvae. The DNA sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA were obtained for the braconids while the mitochondrial ND1 sequences were obtained for the tephritids species through polymerase chain reaction. Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian trees were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 and MrBayes 3.1.2 to identify the relationships among the taxa. This study illustrates the phylogenetic relationships among parasitoid opiines collected and reared from parasitized fruit flies. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA sequences exhibited similar topology and sequence divergence. The opiines were divided into several clades and subclades according to the genus and species. Each clade also was supported by the similar host plants with high support values. However, their pests were not specific, except for Bactrocera cucurbitae. This study has reconfirmed the associations between Opiinae, tephritids, and host plants based on molecular data.

  20. 9个水稻栽培种和1个水稻组培种对稻螟赤眼蜂和赤眼卵蜂的互利作用%Synomonal effect of nine varieties and one culture of rice on Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead and Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ARCHNA; A. K. SINGH; A. V. N. PAUL; Anju JAIN

    2009-01-01

    采用培养皿法对营养生长期和开花期的9个水稻栽培种(Pusa Sugandh-2, Pusa Basmati-1, Pusa-2511, Pusa Basmati-370, Pusa-1077, Karnal Local, PRR-78, Jaya, Pusa-1238)和1个组培种(Culture No.34)的正己烷提取物进行了生测,以调查它们对稻螟赤眼蜂Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead和赤眼卵蜂Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii)平均寄生活性指数(PAI)和平均寄生百分率的影响.将不同水稻品种的正己烷提取物进行气相-液相色谱,来测定饱和碳氢化合物.其中,营养生长期的Pusa Sugandh-2叶片提取物激发两种寄生蜂产生最大的反应,平均寄生率最大.而开花期的Pusa Basmati-1使两种寄生蜂的平均寄生率最高.对营养生长阶段的叶片提取物进行的气相-液相色谱分析表明:Pusa Sugandh-2 含有25个碳原子(C25) 和29个碳原子 (C29)的2种化合物.对开花期的叶片提取物进行的气相-液相色谱分析也表明:Basmati-1 含有25个碳原子(C25)、26个碳原子(C26)和29个碳原子 (C29)的3种化合物,可激发寄生蜂产生最大的反应.%Bioassays of the hexane extracts of nine varieties viz., Pusa Sugandh-2, Pusa Basmati-1, Pusa-2511, Pusa Basmati-370, Pusa-1077, Karnal Local, PRR-78, Jaya, Pusa-1238 and one culture of rice, Culture No.34 in vegetative and flowering phase were carried out in Petri dish, to observe their synomonal effect on mean parasitoid activity index (PAI) and mean percent parasitism by Trichogramma japonicum, Ashmead and Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii). The hexane extracts of different rice varieties were subjected to gas liquid chromatography to determine the saturated hydrocarbons. Among these, leaf extracts from variety Pusa Sugandh-2 elicited maximum response in vegetative phase for both the parasitoids by way of mean percent parasitism. Whereas in flowering phase variety Pusa Basmati-1 elicited maximum mean percent parasitism. Gas liquid chromatography of the leaf extracts from vegetative phase revealed that Pusa

  1. Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae. Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species

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    Cornelis van Achterberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 (Braconidae: Rogadinae are described and illustrated: A. abraxanae sp. n., A. angustipterus sp. n., A. artesiariae sp. n., A. carminatus sp. n., A. diarsianae sp. n., A. leptofemur sp. n., and A. ryrholmi sp. n. A neotype is designated for each of Aleiodes circumscriptus (Nees, 1834 and A. pictus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, and both species are redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes ochraceus Hellén, 1927 (not A. ochraceus (Curtis, 1834 is renamed as A. curticornis nom. n. & stat. rev., and redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman, 1917, A. nigriceps Wesmael, 1838, and A. reticulatus (Noskiewicz, 1956, are re-instated as valid species. A lectotype is designated for Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman. An illustrated key is given to some distinctive species and the residual species groups along which further parts of an entire revision of western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes and Heterogamus will be organised. Biology, host associations and phenology are discussed for the keyed species (in addition to the above, A. albitibia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, A. apiculatus (Fahringer, 1932, A. arcticus (Thomson, 1892, A. cantherius (Lyle, 1919, A. esenbeckii (Hartig, 1834, A. jakowlewi (Kokujev, 1898, A. modestus (Reinhard, 1863, A. nigricornis Wesmael, 1838, A. pallidator (Thunberg, 1822, A. praetor (Reinhard, 1863, A. seriatus (Herrich- Schäffer, 1838 sensu lato, A. testaceus (Telenga, 1941, A. ungularis (Thomson, 1892, and A. varius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 which are dealt with in full here (with the exception of A. seriatus s.l. which is, however, included in the key. The experimental methodology covering the revision as a whole, which involves some behavioural investigation, is outlined.

  2. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  3. 菜蛾绒茧蜂和小菜蛾对杀虫剂的敏感性及酶学特性的比较研究%Susceptibility to insecticides and enzymetic characteristics in the parasitoid Apanteles plutellae Kurdj.(Hymenoptera:Braconidae) and its host Plutella xylostella (L.)( Lepidoptera:Yponomeutidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚; 江树人

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility to insecticides in the larval parasitoid Apanteles plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)and its host Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae),collected in Fuzhou, China, were detected using residual film and leaf-dip bioassays, respectively. The results showed that organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, avermectins and fipronil were highly toxic to A. plutellae, but chlorfluazuron and Bt were not. However, A. plutellae could survive from the conventional control doses of fipronil, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and acephate if the parasitoid was left in contact with the insecticides only for short time ( 1 h). In A. plutellae, there were obvious synergisms of piperonyl butoxide ( PB), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl maleate (DEM) on methamidophos, carbofuran, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, avermectins and fipronil, but no synergisms on chlorfluazuron were found. The synergism of PB was the highest. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)activity could not be inhibited by PB, TPP and DEM, but strong inhibition could be found in carboxylesterase (CarE) activity by PB and TPP, and in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity by DEM, in vivo. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ( Km ),the maximal velocity (Vmax) of AChE, and the activities of CarE and GST in A. plutellae were 0.22, 2.08, 4.60 and 0.45-fold as those in P. xylostella, respectively. The bimolecular rate constants (Ki ) of AChE to methamidophos, dichlorvos and carbofuran in A. plutellae were 14.7, 10.5 and 26.0-fold as those in P. xylostella, respectively. High inhibition of AChE was found in both species when being incubated with insecticides at high temperature, especially in A. plutellae. The results indicated that the high susceptibilities to organophosphates and carbametes in A. plutellae were related to its high sensitivity of AChE to the insecticides, and the oxidative metabolism might be more effective in tolerance to insecticides than non-oxidative metabolism in A

  4. Seven new species of Allorhogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Martínez; Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón

    2013-01-01

    Seven new Mexican species of the gall associated doryctine genus Allorhogas are described, illustrated and molecularly characterized: A. amuzgo sp. nov., A. coccolobae sp. nov., A. crassifemur sp. nov., A. jaliscoensis sp. nov., A. marshi sp. nov., A. parvus sp. nov., and A. scotti sp. nov. These new species were collected in tropical dry forests situated along the Pacific coast of Mexico in the states of Jalisco, Oaxaca and Guerrero. Allorhogas coccolobae was reared from leaf galls probably ...

  5. Sugar convertibility in the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, C.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Lack of suitable sugar sources for adult parasitic wasps is an important cause of failure in biological control programs, but the metabolic constraints of sugar feeding are poorly understood. Here we investigated the suitability of 11 naturally occurring sugars as energy sources for the parasitoid C

  6. Nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José MARTÍNEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se proveen nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Say de Choele Choel, Río Negro, y de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parte de los ejemplares analizados fueron criados a partir de larvas de Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre nueces almacenadas. Adicionalmente se provee una diagnosis ilustrada de la única especie de Habrobracon presente en el país.

  7. Nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en la Argentina New records of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se proveen nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Say de Choele Choel, Río Negro, y de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parte de los ejemplares analizados fueron criados a partir de larvas de Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre nueces almacenadas. Adicionalmente se provee una diagnosis ilustrada de la única especie de Habrobracon presente en el país.New records of Habrobracon hebetor (Say are reported from Choele Choel, Río Negro and Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Some of the specimens examined were reared from larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on stored nuts. Additionally, an illustrated diagnosis of Habrobracon hebetor is provided.

  8. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera attacking dead wood in southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India, with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of four species of Hymenoptera parasitoids probably of the wood boring beetle Clytocera chinospila Gahan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. Two new hymenopteran species, Eurytoma chinnarensis (Eurytomidae and Foenatopus idukkiensis (Stephanidae are described. Solenura ania Walker (Pteromalidae is reported for the first time from Kerala and Western Ghats with a new host record, and Doryctus sp. (Braconidae is reported here.

  9. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste) São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A G; Silva, R B; Dias, M M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil). Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belonging to 16 genera: Braconidae, Agathidinae (Alabagrus), Braconinae (Bracon), Microgastrinae (Cotesia, Diolcogaster, Glyptapanteles, Pholetesor and Protapanteles), Orgilinae (Orgilus); Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae (Casinaria, Charops and Microcharops); Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Brachymeria and Conura); Eulophidae, Entedoninae (Horismenus), Eulophinae (Elachertus and Euplectrus). From the Lepidoptera larvae collected in the reforestation, emerged 68 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids, belonging to 8 genera: Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Conura); Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae (Neotheronia), Campopleginae (Charops and Microcharops) and Braconidae, Microgastrinae (Apanteles, Diolcogaster, Distatrix, Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles). The results of this study suggest the occurrence of a wide variety of Hymenoptera parasitoids in the studied environments.

  10. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  11. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  12. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  13. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae Uma nova espécie de Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae de uma área de Caatinga e novos registros de ocorrência de outros Heimbrinae

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    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.Os limites geográficos de Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 e H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 são estendidos com base no material examinado das coleções entomológicas do Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brasil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com a única espécie conhecida desse gênero, S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986. Uma chave para os gêneros de Heimbrinae e para as espécies de Symbra é fornecida.

  14. Ocorrência de Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae no Brasil Occurrence of Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae in Brazil

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    Marcus V. Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833, were reared from the mummies of Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli, 1763 collected on Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae at the Campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State on September/2002. This is the first record of B. brevicornis in Brazil.

  15. Longevidad de Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en presencia de diferentes fuentes de alimento Longevity of Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae under the influence of different food sources

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    SANDRA IDE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tácticas implementadas en el control de Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. en Chile fue la introducción en 1987 de Orgilus obscurator Ness., un parasitoide específico. Evaluaciones realizadas entre la VII y X regiones de Chile, entre 1995 y 1997, mostraron diferencias significativas en el establecimiento y porcentaje de parasitismo alcanzados por O. obscurator. Aún cuando son múltiples los factores que inciden en el éxito de un biocontrolador, es importante considerar la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de fuentes de alimento, tales como el néctar de algunas flores y su efecto en la longevidad de los adultos. Este estudio fue realizado en la temporada 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la Provincia de Valdivia, décima región de Chile. Se utilizaron 295 individuos adultos, entre machos y hembras, manteniéndolos con agua, sin agua, agua-miel y con flores de cuatro especies de plantas, tres pertenecientes a la familia Apiaceae y otra a la familia Asteraceae. La mayor longevidad promedio se obtuvo usando agua miel (23 días en machos y 33 días en hembras y flores de Conium maculatum y Daucus carota (14,1 días, las cuales permitieron aumentar dos veces la longevidad respecto al uso sólo de agua. Los resultados encontrados permiten sugerir la incorporación de algunas especies como C. maculatum y D. carota a las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don, especialmente en la séptima y octava regiones del país, como una forma de aumentar la eficiencia de parasitación de O. obscuratorOne of the tactics that improved the control of Rhyacionia buoliana in Chile was the introduction in 1987 of Orgilus obscurator, a specific parasitoid. Evaluations between the regions VII and X of Chile during 1995 to 1997 have shown significant differences in the establishment and parasitism obtained by O. obscurator. Several factors are involved in the success of control strategies, including the availability and access to food sources such as water, flower nectar and honey, and its effect over longevity of adult parasitoids. The objective of this study, conducted during 1996-1997 and 1997-1998 in Valdivia Province, X region, was to consider these factors. For the experiment, 295 males and females of O. obscurator were maintained with water, honey and flowers of four species (three belonging to Apiaceae and one to Asteraceae. The highest longevity was obtained using honey (23 days for males, 33 days for females and flowers of Conium maculatum L. and Daucus carota L. with an average of 14.1 days. These results suggest that increasing the presence of food sources in plantations of Pinus radiata, mainly in the VII and VIII regions, will enhance levels of parasitism by O. obscurator

  16. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae

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    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.

  17. Interactions between Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), larval parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three hymenopteran parasitoids introduced from China are currently being released in Michigan and surrounding states in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmare, an Asian beetle species responsible for widespread mortality of Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North A...

  18. Intraspecific competition between adult females of the hyperparasitoid Trichomalopsis apanteloctena (Hymenoptera: Chelonidae), for domination of Cotesia kariyai (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) cocoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamatsu, Y.; Harvey, J.A.; Tanaka, T.

    2009-01-01

    The development of parasitoid wasps is dependent on the finite resources contained in a single item of resource (=host) that is frequently not much larger than the adult parasitoid. When the costs of egg production are high, and host distribution is highly aggregated, parasitoid females may spend pr

  19. Antennal sensilla of Diachasmimorpha longcicaudata (Ashmead) observed with scanning electron microscopy%前裂长管茧蜂触角感器的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白嘉诚; 陈科伟; 陈丽; 梁广文; 曾玲

    2012-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmea) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an obligate endo-parasitoid of third instar larvae of many fruit flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae). The antennal sensilla of D. longicaudata were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Seven distinct types of sense receptors were observed, including sensilla squamiformia, Bohm bristle, sensillum trichodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensillum styloconicum, sensillum campaniformium, and sensilla placodea. Three forms of sensillum trichodea (ST Ⅰ , STⅡ and ST Ⅲ) ( Str Ⅰ , Str Ⅱ , Str Ⅲ ) and two forms sensillum styloconicum ( SS I and SS Ⅱ ) ( Sst Ⅰ and Sst Ⅱ ) were found. However, SS Ⅱ (Sst Ⅱ ) were only observed on the antennal of female wasps. Sensilla trichodea and sensilla placodea were distributed widely on the antenna with large amount.%前裂长管茧蜂是许多实蝇类害虫幼虫-蛹期的重要寄生性天敌.通过扫描电镜对其触角感受器进行超微观察,结果发现,前裂长管茧蜂雌蜂触角共发现7种感受器,分别为鳞型感器、B(o)hm毛、毛型感器、腔型感器、栓锥型感器、钟型感器及板型感器.其中,毛型感器具有3种形态(毛型感器Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ),锥型感器具有2种形态(锥型感器Ⅰ、Ⅱ),但在雄蜂触角上没发现锥形感器Ⅱ.毛型感器和板型感器是前裂长管茧蜂触角上的主要感器,数量较多,分布较广.

  20. Assessing the suitability of flowering herbs as parasitoid food sources: flower attractiveness and nectar accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.

    2004-01-01

    Eleven insect-pollinated plant species were investigated with respect to their olfactory attractiveness and nectar accessibility for the parasitoid species Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Heterospilus prosopidis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonid

  1. Seven new species of Notiospathius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae from Northwest Venezuela

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    Estefany Karen López-Estrada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe seven new species of the doryctine wasp genus Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh from Northwest Venezuela: N. araguae sp. n., N. bolivari sp. n., N. curvilineatus sp. n., N. dantei sp. n., N. estradae sp. n., N. larensis sp. n., and N. venezuelae sp. n. These represent the first described species of the genus reported for this country. Species boundaries for the above taxa were confirmed using the General mixed Yule-coalescent method with 441 DNA barcode sequences from specimens assigned to Notiospathius and other closely related genera collected in different countries along the Neotropics.

  2. The subfamily Mendesellinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Brazil, with the description of six new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoni, Marco Aurélio; Souza-Gessner, Carolina DA Silva; Penteado-Dias, Angélica Maria

    2016-11-29

    In this paper, we study the Mendesellinae wasps from Brazil deposited at Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil collection. Two new species of Epsilogaster (E. masoni sp. n. and E. whitfieldi sp. n.) and four new species of Mendesella (M. albipleura sp. n., M. itatiaia sp. n., M. japi sp. n., M. yamadai sp. n.) are described and illustrated.

  3. A new species of Aleiodes (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae from Brazil, with biological notes

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    Cássia I. V. de Abreu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aleiodes Wesmael is the most diverse rogadine genus, with koinobiont endoparasitic development in Lepidoptera caterpillars resulting in mummification of the host remains. Aleiodes japi sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Type specimens of the new species were reared from Physocleora grosica and Ischnopteris sp. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae larvae. Host larvae were collected on Alchornea triplinervia (Euphorbiaceae at the Reserva Biológica Municipal da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. This is the second species of circumscriptus/gastritror group described from Brazil.

  4. Cotesia flavipes (CAM (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Supresses Immune Responses In Diatraea flavipennella (BOX (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    ELIANA M. DOS PASSOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to elucidate which aspects of immune responses in Diatraea flavipennella are suppressed by the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes, thus, ensuring parasitism success. We investigated the presence of apoptosis in fat body cells through the TUNEL technique. According to the results, reduced levels of nitric oxide and phenoloxidase activity were observed in larvae parasitized for three days, and reduced total number of hemocytes, after three and seven days. An increase in plasmatocytes and decrease in spherulocytes numbers were observed in the differential count on the third day of parasitism. The number of melanized microspheres in parasitized larvae was low and indicated less intense melanization. The ultrastructural analysis confirmed the immunosuppressive effect of C. flavipes on the encapsulation response of D. flavipennella because only the formation of hemocytes capsules, adhered to the microspheres' surface, was evidenced in non-parasitized caterpillars. The effect of parasitism was also recorded on the third day with the presence of hemocytes and apoptosis in fat body cells, including aspects of degeneration in the latter. We concluded that C. flavipes suppresses cellular and humoral immunological responses in D. flavipennella and drastically affects the host's fat tissue.

  5. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jennifer J; Paine, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid's reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani.

  6. A new species in the newly recorded genus Trachyusa (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junli; Kula, Robert R; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-03-16

    Trachyusa whartoni Yao sp. nov. from Dalian, Liaoning, China is described and illustrated. Trachyusa is a newly recorded genus in China. A key to the species of Trachyusa is provided based on the keys of Belokobylskij (1998), Papp (1967), and van Achterberg and O'Connor (1990). Type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Beneficial Insects Institute, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

  7. Two new brachypterous species of Heterospilus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae from the Nearctic region

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    Robert Kula

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Heterospilus belokobylskiji Kula, sp. n. and Heterospilus vincenti Kula, sp. n., from the Nearctic Region are described and differentiated from all other New World species of Doryctinae that exhibit brachyptery or aptery. They are the first brachypterous species of Heterospilus Haliday known in the New World and increase the total number of brachypterous species in the genus to four worldwide.

  8. Revision of Megascogaster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Cheloninae), with a new species from Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Rebecca N

    2014-09-08

    Megascogaster wallacei sp. n. is described from Sulawesi, Indonesia. This is the first representative south of the Philippines and is only the second species of this rare genus described since the type species, M. elongata Baker, 1926. The presence of Megascogaster in Sulawesi, a part of Wallacea, points to a broader distribution of the genus in Southeast Asia. A redescription of M. elongata and a description of the new species M. wallacei are presented along with a key to separate them. 

  9. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n. PMID:27408539

  10. Dispersal capacity of fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in irrigated coffee plantations

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    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is an Old World parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies that was widely introduced in the Americas to control pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. Augmentative releases in irrigated coffee plantations in semiarid regions of Brazil are under consideration and dispersal capacity of D. longicaudata in this habitat are important to develop release strategies. Approximately 2,000 individuals of D. longicaudata (5 to 7 days old were released in the center of a fruiting coffee plantation every two weeks from Dec. 2009 to Apr. 2010. Dispersal from the central release point was monitored to the north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest at 11 distances, beginning at 4.6 m and ending at 90 m from the release point. At each point, a parasitism unit (approximately 120 larvae of C. capitata in the 3rd instar wrapped in voile fabric and 10 coffee beans were collected. The average dispersion distance and dispersion area were estimated by the model proposed by Dobzhansky and Wright (1943. The average dispersion distances were 27.06 m (as estimated by fruit collection and 33.11 m (as estimated by oviposition traps. The average dispersion areas were 1,315.25 m2 and 1,752.45 m2 originating from the collection of beans and parasitism units, respectively. Cohorts of 2,000 adult D. longicaudata released at six points ha−1 are estimated to result in sufficient colonization to exert significant control of Ceratitis capitata.

  11. A new species of the genus Xanthomicrogaster Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penteado-Dias, A.M.; Shimabukuro, P.H.F.; Achterberg, van C.

    2002-01-01

    One new Xanthomicrogaster species from Brazil is described, and X. fortipes Cameron, 1911, is redescribed and reported from Brazil and Suriname for the first time. A key to the species is presented as well as data about the geographical distribution in Brazil.

  12. Generic revision of the subfamily Betylobraconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and other groups with modified fore tarsus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1995-01-01

    The genera of the subfamilies Betylobraconinae, Hormiinae, Lysiterminae, Pambolinae-Chremylini, and Doryctinae-Ypsistocerini are revised. A key is given to the genera of groups belonging to the cyclostome grade including species with shortened and/or (partly) widened fore tarsus. Sixteen new genera

  13. The genus Halycaea Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) in the Oriental region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokobylskij, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Oriental species of the genus Halycaea Cameron are revised. Three new species of Halycaea are described and figured: H. rubata spec. nov. (Malaysia, South China (Taiwan)), H. solo spec. nov. (Malaysia) and H. sonata spec. nov. (Vietnam). H. javana (Fullaway) comb. nov. is redescribed and a key t

  14. First record and redescription of Binodoxys brevicornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae from Argentina

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    Leticia ZUMOFFEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday se cita por primera vez en Argentina. Este afidiino se encontró parasitando al pulgón Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini en Foeniculum vulgare (Miller, una especie vegetal de crecimiento espontáneo, comúnmente asociada a los bordes de cultivos de alfalfa. Binodoxys brevicornis se redescribe e ilustra.

  15. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae

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    Helmuth Aguirre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: M. albistigma, M. carolae, M. eurysaccavorus, M. fallacavus, M. flavistigma, M. haimowitzi, M. magnoculus, M. martinezi, M. microcavus, M. noctuivorus and M. orion. Expanded range distributions are recorded for M. andreae, M. farallonensis, M. guineverae, M. jerodi, M. kraussi, M. papiliovorus and M. quimbayensis. The host of M. jerodi is reported for the first time: a noctuid larva feeding on Asteraceae. Meteorus papiliovorus is recorded attacking Papilionidae larvae in Ecuador, therefore displaying a similar host family preference as formerly documented from Costa Rica and Colombia.

  16. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  17. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Andrea Lucchi

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly,Bactrocera oleae (Rossi),and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management.Augmentative releases ofP.concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success.We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues.Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship.Indeed,the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically.

  18. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n.

  19. Revision of the genus Centistes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae: Centistini) of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Helmuth; DE Almeida, Luis Felipe Ventura; Shaw, Scott Richard

    2017-01-03

    This paper provides the first taxonomic revision for the euphorine genus Centistes from a Neotropical country. Twenty-three new species are described: C. achterbergi sp. n., C. acuticaudatus sp. n., C. auricephalus sp. n., C. auristigma sp. n., C. bicaudatus sp. n., C. cabecares sp. n., C. cartagoensis sp. n., C. chorotegus sp. n., C. compactus sp. n., C. curvicaudatus sp. n., C. gauldi sp. n., C. hansoni sp. n., C. hirsutus sp. n., C. janzeni sp. n., C. laticaudatus sp. n., C. longicaudatus sp. n., C. marshi sp. n., C. muertensis sp. n., C. ornamentum sp. n., C. pilosus sp. n., C. puntarenensis sp. n., C. sergeyi sp. n., C. zurquiensis sp. n. A taxonomic key, including the two previously described species, C. epicaeri Muesebeck and C. gasseni Shaw, is presented. As a whole, the Centistes exhibit their highest diversity in the premontane cloud forests.

  20. Cold storage affects mortality, body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sidney, L.A.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Pereira, J.M.; Nomelini, Q.S.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of storing natural enemies at low temperatures is important for the mass production of biological control agents. We evaluated the effect of different periods of cold storage on immature mortality, mummy body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of the parasitoid Praon vo

  1. Larval competition between Aphidius ervi and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Lívia Alvarenga; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Lins, Juracy Caldeira; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Diego Bastos

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific competition between parasitoid larvae may influence the size, structure, and stability of the population, leading to a reduction in total parasitism and thus restricting the pest control. Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and Praon volucre (Haliday) are endoparasitoids that possess a wide host range and present considerable potential for the biological control of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). The larval competition between A. ervi and P. volucre, and the possible intrinsic competitive superiority of one of the parasitoids in M. euphorbiae, have been studied. In single parasitism experiments, mated parasitoid females (n=10) were maintained individually in contact with M. euphorbiae hosts (n=30) inside petri dishes containing lettuce leaf discs and maintained in environmental chamber at 22 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12-h photophase. The multiple parasitism experiments consisted of exposing single parasitized aphids (n=120) to the second parasitoid species. Two oviposition events were performed with a 4-h interval between them, namely the following: sequence A (oviposition by A. ervi, followed by P. volucre) and sequence B (oviposition by P. volucre, followed by A. ervi). Oviposition sequence A generated 24 A. ervi and 55 P. volucre adults, whereas oviposition sequence B generated 23 and 49 adults. P. volucre is an intrinsically superior competitor compared with A. ervi, and the use of the two species simultaneously may result in competitive exclusion and influence the stability of the parasitoid population.

  2. [Quality of different aphids species as hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Lívia A; Bueno, Vanda H P; Lins, Juracy C; Silva, Diego B; Sampaio, Marcus V

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) and Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as hosts for the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday was evaluated by assessing host size, host preference, and host quality. Tests were carried out in an environmental chamber at 22±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 12h photophase. Replicates (11) consisted of one 24h-old mated female of A. ervi without a previous oviposition experience. Female was released into a Petri dish (5 cm) with 20 2nd and 3rd instars of one of each aphid species tested on a leaf disc of the host plant onto a 1% water-agar layer. Parasitoid emergency was lower in A. kondoi (78.7%) compared to M. euphorbiae (92.2%) and A. solani (91.7%). Acyrthosiphon kondoi (0.36 mm) was the smallest host. The parasitoid showed preference (74.0% parasitism) for M. euphorbiae, the largest host (hind tibia length=0.73 mm), which in turn yielded larger A. ervi females (0.75 mm).

  3. [Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Robson J; Bueno, Vanda H P; Sampaio, Marcus V

    2008-01-01

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, RH 70 +/- 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size.

  4. Taxonomic synopsis of Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh, 1973 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Jimenez, Andrea; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2016-06-29

    Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh, 1973 is the second most diverse genus of Doryctinae in the Neotropical region, however, in Colombia only two species have been reported and no studies on the diversity of the genus have been conducted. We present a taxonomic synopsis of the genus from Colombia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) allowed the taxonomic evaluation of morphometric characters used by other authors and those proposed in the present study to differentiate the species. Forty seven of 104 characters studied are useful to discriminate the species. Twenty three species are reported. The following new records for Colombia are: Notiospathius angustus Marsh, 2002; N. badius Marsh, 2002; N. bicolor Marsh, 2002; N. ninae Marsh, 2002; N. rugonotum Marsh, 2002; N. shawi Marsh, 2002; N. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1887) and N. venezuelae López-Estrada & Zaldívar-Riverón, 2012. The following 14 new species are described: N. alejandroi sp. nov., N. amazonensis sp. nov., N. carmenae sp. nov., N. cundinamarcensis sp. nov., N. farallonensis sp. nov., N. julianoi sp. nov., N. magdalenensis sp. nov., N. marshi sp. nov., N. payae sp. nov., N. putumayensis sp. nov., N. quimbayensis sp. nov., N. tayronensis sp. nov., N. utriae sp. nov., N. vallensis sp. nov. Notiospathius ugaldei Marsh, 2002 is the junior synonym of N. columbianus (Enderlein, 1912); Notiospathius mariachi Reséndiz-Flores, Nunes and Zaldívar-Riverón, 2014 is the junior synonym of N. carolinae (Marsh, 2002); and N. chinanteco Reséndiz-Flores, Nunes and Zaldívar-Riverón, 2014 is the junior synonym of N. rugonotum Marsh, 2002. A comprehensive taxonomic key with illustrations is presented.

  5. A new host record and a new combination in Cotesia Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from India

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    A. Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cotesia tiracolae (=Apanteles tiracolae, new combination proposed, is redescribed and illustrated. It is recorded as a larval parasitoid of Phaedyma columella (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae feeding on the host plant Grewia tiliifolia Vahl from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. This is the first record of larval parasitism associated with P. columella from India. P. columella, the Short Banded Sailer, is a species of nymphalid butterfly found in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The present study also represents host range extension of the parasitoid C. tiracolae to Nymphalidae.

  6. New record and new associations of two leaf miner parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae from Iran

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    Žikić V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two braconid species were reared on leaf miners collected from the vicinity of Shahin Dezh, West Azerbaijan province (northwest of Iran. Apanteles corvinus Reinhard was reared on Leucoptera malifoliella (Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetidae on apple and Protapanteles liparidis (Bouchй was reared on Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke on Populus. This is the first report of A. corvinus from Iran and of the new trophic association of P. liparidis with poplar leaf miner, P. populifoliella.

  7. Eleven new species of Athacryvac Braet & van Achterberg from the Neotropical Region (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio; Shaw, Scott Richard; Almeida, Luis Felipe Ventura De

    2016-07-14

    The neotropical genus Athacryvac Braet & van Achterberg was recently described based on two species from French Guiana. Despite the resemblance of these species with the diverse and widespread genus Aleiodes, the authors opted to erect the new genus based on several synapomorphies. With the analysis of more comprehensive morphological and geographical variation we propose reclassifying Athacryvac as a subgenus within Aleiodes. In this paper we describe 11 new neotropical species of the subgenus Athacryvac: Aleiodes (Athacryvac) achterbergi Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) amazoniensis Shimbori & Almeida sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) braeti Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) choco Shimbori sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) donaldquickei Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) gonzalezi Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) paradoxus Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) soaresi Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) tico Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) torresi Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) zaldivari Shimbori & Almeida sp. nov. We also provide new morphological and distributional data for the previously described A. alternatus and A. fuscatus, as well as the description of the male of the later species. The 13 known species of Aleiodes (Athacryvac) stat. nov. are restricted to the Neotropical Region, ranging from southern Mexico to southern Brazil. With our current results, there are 104 described neotropical Aleiodes species.

  8. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  9. Desarrollo de herramientas moleculares para la evaluación de la calidad genética y productividad en la cría artificial de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, agente de control biológico de moscas plaga de los frutos

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide solitario de estadios larvales de moscas de la fruta perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae. Es criado a nivel masivo en bioplantas y utilizado en diversas partes del mundo para las estrategias de control biológico (CB) principalmente de dípteros de importancia económica de los géneros Ceratitis, Anastrepha y Bactrocera. Actualmente, se estudia su implementación en nuestro país para el control de Ceratitis ca...

  10. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

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    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  11. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid.

  12. DNA barcoding reveals diversity of Hymenoptera and the dominance of parasitoids in a sub-arctic environment

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    Stahlhut Julie K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect diversity typically declines with increasing latitude, but previous studies have shown conflicting latitude-richness gradients for some hymenopteran parasitoids. However, historical estimates of insect diversity and species richness can be difficult to confirm or compare, because they may be based upon dissimilar methods. As a proxy for species identification, we used DNA barcoding to identify molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs for 7870 Hymenoptera specimens collected near Churchill, Manitoba, from 2004 through 2010. Results We resolved 1630 MOTUs for this collection, of which 75% (1228 were ichneumonoids (Ichneumonidae + Braconidae and 91% (1484 were parasitoids. We estimate the total number of Hymenoptera MOTUs in this region at 2624-2840. Conclusions The diversity of parasitoids in this sub-Arctic environment implies a high diversity of potential host species throughout the same range. We discuss these results in the contexts of resolving interspecific interactions that may include cryptic species, and developing reproducible methods to estimate and compare species richness across sites and between surveys, especially when morphological specialists are not available to identify every specimen.

  13. 伊朗棒小蜂科昆虫种类(膜翅目:小蜂总科)%A checkList of the Iranian SiGniphoridae(Hymenoptera:ChaLcidoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan GHAHARI; SvetLana N. MYARTSEVA; 黄建; Enrièue RUÍZ-CANCINO; Shaaban ABD-RABOU

    2014-01-01

    本文记述伊朗的棒小蜂科昆虫3个属( Chartocerus MotschuLsky,Thysanus WaLker和Signiphora Ashmead)11种,同时,记述了每一种的异名、寄主和国内外分布情况。%A checkList of the Iranian Signiphoridae( Hymenoptera:ChaLcidoidea)is given. In totaL,eLeven species from three genera,Chartocerus MotschuLsky,Thysanus WaLker and Signiphora Ashmead,have been recorded. Synon-ymies as weLL as host and distribution data in Iran and eLsewhere in the worLd are given for each species.

  14. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera

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    Simon van Noort

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula. Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera.

  15. Biology and natural enemies of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead in corn (Zea mays L., in systems of polycrops

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    Marcos Tulio García González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in Fomento municipality, Sancti Spíritus, in Cuba, from 2011 through 2013 in two ecosystems and in two sowing times (rainy and dry seasons. The objectives were to describe the life cycle of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead and the damage caused to corn (Zea mays L., to identify the main pest bio-regulators naturally occurring in two agro-ecosystems, and to determine the predator-prey relationship. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The data were collected through observation at weekly intervals. In order to estimate the number of pest insects and bio-regulators occurring on the plants, 25 plants per parcel were selected for a total of 100 plants per treatment (maize/squash, maize/beans, maize/ Sesame, maize/sunflower, and maize monoculture. Once the research was accomplished, it was concluded that P maidis had been present since the first week, and reached its population peak in week six. The lower indexes of affectation occurred in the pre-mountain agro-ecosystems, and with more frequency in the maize/sesame and maize/squash polyculture, which depended on the time of the year and the season. Fifteen species of P. maidis control insects of were identified, and Scymnus sp was found in all treatments. The life cycle of P maidis averaged 5.4 days more in the dry season than in rain season. The predator-prey relationship showed relatively superior indexes in the polyculture systems than in monocrops systems.

  16. Sex determination in the Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimpel, George E.; de Boer, Jetske G.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant and ancestral mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, in which diploid females develop from fertilized eggs and haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs. We discuss recent progress in the understanding of the genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms

  17. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae); Qualidade de diferentes especies de pulgoes como hospedeiros do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson J.; Bueno, Vanda H.P. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia]. E-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus V.[Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-03-15

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  18. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae and their associations related to biological control in Brazil Parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae de pulgões e suas interações relacionadas ao controle biológico no Brasil

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    Petr Starý

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the parasitoid-aphid-plant associations in Brazil with the objective of developing a useful research database for further studies of aphid parasitoid ecology and aphid management. The original material was obtained from collections made in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo states. The published information on the Aphidiinae in Brazil is revised. The general features of the target parasitoid fauna of Central and South America is summarized and promising biological control programs of some aphid species in Brazil is discussed.Este trabalho avaliou as interações parasitóides-pulgão-planta no Brasil, com o objetivo de desenvolver um banco útil de dados para estudos subseqüentes em ecologia de parasitóides de afídeos e manejo de pulgões. O material original foi obtido de coletas nos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais e São Paulo, sendo revisadas as informações sobre Aphidiinae publicadas no Brasil. Foram também sumarizadas as caracteristicas gerais da fauna de parasitóides das Américas Central e do Sul e discutidos os programas potenciais de controle biológico de algumas espécies de pulgões no Brasil.

  19. Redescripción de Snellenius bicolor y S. tricolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y nueva distribución en América del Sur Redescription of Snellenius bicolor and S. tricolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and new distribution in South America

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    Emilia C. Perez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se registra por primera vez la presencia de Snellenius bicolor Shenefelt para la Argentina y Bolivia. Estos registros representan la distribución más austral de esta especie. La información referida a la distribución del género también es suministrada. Se redescribe a S. bicolor y S. tricolor Shenefelt sobre la base del material tipo (Paratipo macho y ejemplares hembra. La nueva información referida a la morfología fue incorporada a las descripciones, con dibujos de las especies.In the present paper we report for the first time the presence of Snellenius bicolor Shenefelt in Argentina and Bolivia. These records represent the southernmost occurrence of this species. Information on the distribution of the genus is also provided. Redescriptions of S. bicolor and S. tricolor Shenefelt were made based on male (paratypes and female specimens, including new information on their morphology. Drawings of both species are presented.

  20. Espessura da polpa como condicionante do parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera:Tephritidae por Hymenoptera: braconidae Fruit pulp thickness conditioning fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae parasitism by Hymenoptera: braconidae

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    Eduardo Rodrigues Hickel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as estratégias de manejo integrado de mosca-das-frutas está a manutenção de refúgios, vizinhos aos pomares, para proliferação de inimigos naturais. Objetivando verificar quais hospedeiros de mosca-das-frutas seriam mais adequados para incrementar o controle natural, estabeleceu-se uma correlação entre o nível de parasitismo e a espessura da polpa de frutos. Frutos em maturação de café (Coffea arabica, jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora, cajá-mirim (Spondias lutea e laranja (Citrus aurantium foram coletados e mantidos em bandejas plásticas sobre uma camada de areia. As pupas de mosca-das-frutas retiradas da areia foram mantidas em estufa incubadora para emergência dos adultos. O diâmetro dos frutos e das sementes foi medido para se calcular a espessura da polpa. O café, com 1,8mm de polpa, foi o hospedeiro em que ocorreu maior índice de parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (13,73%. O nível de parasitismo apresentou uma correlação negativa com a espessura da polpa dos frutos, sendo os frutos de polpa fina mais adequados para proliferação de parasitóides de mosca-das-frutas.One of the strategies for fruit fly integrated pest management is the refugee maintenance, near the orchards, for fruit fly natural enemies proliferation. With the aim to check the most suitable fruit fly hosts to increment natural control, a correlation was established between the parasitism level and the fruit pulp thickness. Ripening fruits of coffee (Coffea arabica, jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora, cajá-mirim (Spondias lutea, and orange (Citrus aurantium were collected and maintained in plastic trays over a sand layer. The fruit fly pupae were taken from the sand and put in B.O.D. for adult emergence. The fruit and seed diameter were measure to estimate the fruit pulp thickness. The coffee bean, with 1.8mm of pulp was the fruit fly host with the greatest parasitism level (13.37%. The level of parasitism showed a negative relation with the fruit pulp thickness, and the thin pulp fruits were the most suitable hosts for fruit fly parasitoids proliferation.

  1. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Massive and simultaneous production of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae males and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids

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    Silvia N. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F 1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.In the genetic sexing strain «Cast191», the females of Ceratitis capitata are homozygous for the mutation slow , slowing down their rate of development, and the males are heterozygous, having a normal rate of development. This feature made Cast191 capable of producing sterile males, on one hand, and parasitoids that are reared on the remaining larvae, on the other. The objective of the present work was to do this two thing simultaneously and at a larger scale than previously. Besides, in an attempt to improve malefemale separation under this conditions, a pulse of 15ºC was applied to first stage larva during 1 or 2 days; these larvae were later held either at 20ºC or, at 25ºC until pupation, both groups of pupae being then kept at 25ºC . The best separation between male and female, achieved rearing larvae at 20ºC without any pulse of 15ºC , was then used to evaluate the quality of the parasitoids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata reared on the larvae remaining after male separation. These larvae were exposed to the parasitoid under standard conditions. The rate of parasitism obtained was similar to the one found when parasitoids are exposed to wild strain, and the F1 sex rate was even more biased toward females. The potential use at larger scale of the Cast191 strain of C. capitata for producing sterile males and D. longicaudata parasitoids is discussed.

  2. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  3. Records of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in Northwestern Argentina Presencia de Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en el noroeste argentino

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    Marcelo J. Lizondo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is reported for the first time in Northwestern Argentina.La presencia de Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae fue detectada por primera vez en el noroeste argentino.

  4. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

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    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  5. Multiparasitism by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera:Braconidae): Implication for biological control of the Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific competition among different species of insect parasitoids may affect the establishment or efficacies of these species in biological control of targeted pests. The endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and the ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang, two gregarious larval parasito...

  6. Discrimination by Coptera haywardi (Hymenoptera:Diapriidae) of hosts previously attacked by conspecifies or by the larval parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) is an endoparasitoid of fruit fly pupae that could find itself in competition with other parasitoids, both con- and heterospecific, already resident inside hosts. In choice bioassays, ovipositing C. haywardi females strongly discriminated against conspecifically parasitise...

  7. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  8. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  9. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

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    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  10. Molecular and morphological phylogenetics of chelonine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a critical assessment of divergence time estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Rebecca N; Austin, Andrew D; Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-08-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the subfamily Cheloninae are both species rich and poorly known. Although the taxonomy of Cheloninae appears to be relatively stable, there is no clear understanding of relationships among higher-level taxa. We here applied molecular phylogenetic analyses using three markers (COI, EF1α, 28S) and 37 morphological characters to elucidate the evolution and systematics of these wasps. Analyses were based on 83 specimens representing 13 genera. All genera except Ascogaster, Phanerotoma, and Pseudophanerotoma formed monophyletic groups; Furcidentia (stat. rev.) is raised to generic rank. Neither Chelonus (Chelonus) nor Chelonus (Microchelonus) were recovered as monophyletic, but together formed a monophyletic lineage. The tribes Chelonini and Odontosphaeropygini formed monophyletic groups, but the Phanerotomini sensu Zettel and Pseudophanerotomini were retrieved as either para- or polyphyletic. The genera comprising the former subfamily Adeliinae were confirmed as being nested within the Cheloninae. To estimate the age of the subfamily, we used 16 fossil taxa. Three approaches were compared: fixed-rate dating, node dating, and total-evidence dating, with age estimates differing greatly between the three methods. Shortcomings of each approach in relation to our dataset are discussed, and none of the age estimates is deemed sufficiently reliable. Given that most dating studies use a single method only, in most cases without presenting analyses on the sensitivity to priors, it is likely that numerous age estimates in the literature suffer from a similar lack of robustness. We argue for a more rigorous approach to dating analyses and for a faithful presentation of uncertainties in divergence time estimates. Given the results of the phylogenetic analysis the following taxonomic changes are proposed: Furcidentia Zettel (stat. rev.), previously treated as a subgenus of Pseudophanerotoma Zettel is raised to generic rank; Microchelonus Szépligeti (syn. nov.), variously treated by previous authors, is proposed as a junior synonym of Chelonus Jurine; the following subgenera of Microchelonus - Baculonus Braet & van Achterberg (syn. nov.), Carinichelonus Tobias (syn. nov.) and Scabrichelonus He, Chen & van Achterberg (syn. nov.), are proposed as junior synonyms of Chelonus; a number of new species names are proposed due to homonyms resulting from the above changes and these are listed in the paper.

  11. A new species of the genus Shelfordia Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with very long ovipositor, from NE India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1993-01-01

    A new species of the Indo-Australian genus Shelfordia Cameron, 1902, viz. S longicaudata spec. nov. from Sikkim (India) with an exceptionally long ovipositor is described and illustrated. The Shelfordiagroup is not recognized, and the genus Rostraulax Quicke, 1984, is synonymized with Shelfordia.

  12. Quality of the Exotic Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Does Not Show Deleterious Effects after Inbreeding for 10 Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maíra; De Bortoli, Sergio A.; Vacari, Alessandra M.; Laurentis, Valéria L.; Ramalho, Dagmara G.

    2016-01-01

    Although the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) has proven effective in controlling sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) for many years, concern has arisen over the quality of individuals produced at large scales. The parasitoid has been reared in laboratories in Brazil for more than 40 years, with no new introductions of new populations during that period. Since the quality of the parasitoids was not verified at the time of the species' introduction in Brazil, we do not know if there has been any reduction in quality so far. However, it is possible to determine whether the parasitoid could reduce in quality in future generations. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the quality of these insects over 10 generations and look for evidence of any loss in quality. We used two populations: one from a biofactory that has been maintained in the laboratory for over 40 years, and an inbred laboratory population. Both were bred, and compared for 10 generations. We wanted to determine what happened to the quality of the parasitoid after 10 generations in an extreme inbreeding situation. To assure inbreeding, newly emerged females were forced to mate with a sibling. Individual females were then allowed to parasitize larvae of D. saccharalis. We performed evaluations for each generation until the tenth generation, and recorded the sex ratio, percentage emergence, number of offspring/females, and longevity of both males and females. Results of the measurements of biological characteristics demonstrated random significant differences between populations; best results were obtained intermittently for both the biofactory population and the inbred population. No significant differences across generations for the same population were observed. Thus, rearing of a C. flavipes population subjected to inbreeding for 10 generations was not sufficient to reveal any deleterious effects of inbreeding. PMID:27509087

  13. Capacidade de Busca e de Parasitismo de Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae em Lagartas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Luan Santos

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. The ability of the parasitoid to locate and parasitize the host is directly related to the success of biological control of pests. The effect of Cotesia flavipes Cameron’s age on the ability to quest and parasitism larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in laboratory conditions was evaluated. An amount of 2,000 adults (24 hours aged was released. Fourteen sugarcane borer artificially infested internodes were 5 and 10 m placed apart each other, comprising eighteen stalks in each evaluation, during six days. The higher parasitism rate was observed in the first day after parasitoid release, with significant differences from the fifth day on. Therefore, C. flavipes is able to efficiently parasitize until its first 120 hours of life in laboratory conditions. It makes possible a recommendation of 24-hours aged parasitoid releases, that possibly will be more efficient in the sugarcane borer biological control.

  14. Identification of an aspartylglucosaminidase-like protein in the venom of the parasitic wasp Asobara tabida (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, S J M; Cherqui, A; Doury, G; Dubois, F; Fourdrain, Y; Sabatier, L; Bulet, P; Saarela, J; Prévost, G; Giordanengo, P

    2004-05-01

    This study was designed to identify one of the main components of venomous secretions of the endoparasitic wasp Asobara tabida. By using electrophoretic methods, partial amino acid sequencing and immunostaining, we demonstrated the presence of an aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA)-like protein in the venom of this insect. The enzyme had a polymeric conformation and was formed of 30 and 18 kDa subunits. The relative positions of several amino acids involved in substrate binding and catalytic activity of known AGA-proteins, which are usually lysosomal enzymes, were conserved in the NH(2)-terminal ends of these subunits. Antibodies raised against human AGA recognized the two subunits of the protein and a 44 kDa protein, suggesting the presence of a precursor molecule of the enzyme in the venom. However, no reliable measurement of the AGA activity could be performed on the venom extracts, which could be explained by the fact the enzyme would be stored in the reservoir of the venom apparatus under an inactive form. These results constitute the first description of an AGA-like protein in an insect venom and are discussed with respect to the knowledge acquired on lysosomal and venom enzymes.

  15. Effects of parasitism by Asobara tabida (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the development, survival and activity of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, S J.M.; Dingremont, A; Doury, G; Giordanengo, P

    2002-03-01

    The impact of parasitism by Asobara tabida on Drosophila melanogaster larval development, survival features and larval activity has been investigated using two strains of the parasitoid. The successful parasitism rate of the A1 strain was four times greater than that of the WOPV strain. Both strains induced equivalent mortality rates but hosts parasitized by A1 predominantly died as pupae. The time necessary for the host pupariation and emergence, and the larval weight at 72, 96 and 120 h post-parasitization were measured. Parasitized larvae exhibited longer periods of development and lower weights than controls, especially when parasitized by A1. These results suggest that hosts underwent physiological costs varying with respect to the outcome of the parasitic relationship. Of the parasitoid factors possibly responsible for these costs, we examined venoms for their impact on host mortality. Artificial injections of WOPV venoms induced higher mortality rates than did A1 venoms. Venoms were also found responsible for the induction of a transient paralysis, naturally occuring after parasitization. Again, the strongest effect was observed after parasitization by WOPV or injections of its venoms. This study gives new insights into the intriguing features of A. tabida and constitutes the first report of the paralysing properties of the venoms.

  16. Compatibility of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Hebrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for integrating the application of Heterorhabditis indica and release of Hebrobracon hebetor (in the management of Plodia interpunctella) was investigated. A combination of the nematode and the parasitoid was observed to increase the mortality of Indianmeal moth larvae but the increas...

  17. Impact of Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans on Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghising, Kiran; Harmon, Jason P; Beauzay, Patrick B; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A; Helms, Ted C; Ode, Paul J; Knodel, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    Multiple strategies are being developed for pest management of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura; however, there has been little published research thus far to determine how such strategies may influence each other, thereby complicating their potential effectiveness. A susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) variety without the Rag1 gene and a near isogenic resistant soybean variety with the Rag1 gene were evaluated in the laboratory for their effects on the fitness of the soybean aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan). The presence or absence of the Rag1 gene was verified by quantifying soybean aphid growth. To test for fitness effects, parasitoids were allowed to attack soybean aphids on either a susceptible or resistant plant for 24 h and then aphids were kept on the same plant throughout parasitoid development. Parasitoid fitness was measured by mummy and adult parasitoid production, adult parasitoid emergence, development time, and adult size. Parasitoids that attacked soybean aphids on susceptible plants produced more mummies, more adult parasitoids, and had a higher emergence rate compared with those on resistant plants. Adult parasitoids that emerged from resistant plants took 1 d longer and were smaller compared with those from susceptible plants. This study suggests that biological control by B. communis may be compromised when host plant resistance is widely used for pest management of soybean aphids.

  18. A revision of the Yelicones species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) from Central America, with descriptions of sixteen new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quicke, D.L.J.; Chishti, M.J.K.; Basibuyuk, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Yelicones Cameron, 1887, from North and Central America is revised. Ninteen species are recognized: Y. arizonus spec. nov. from U.S.A. (Arizona) and Mexico; Y. barroci spec. nov. from Panama; Y. bicoloripes spec. nov. from Costa Rica and Panama; Y. canalensis spec. nov. from Panama; Y. con

  19. The parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), influences food consumption and utilization by larval Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Guilherme Duarte; Salvador, Gabriela; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-10-01

    Parasitoids exploit host insects for food and other resources; they alter host development and physiology to optimize conditions to favor parasitoid development. Parasitoids influence their hosts by injecting eggs, along with a variety of substances, including venoms, polydnaviruses, ovarian fluids, and other maternal factors, into hosts. These factors induce profound changes in hosts, such as behavior, metabolism, endocrine events, and immune defense. Because endoparasitoids develop and consume tissues from within their hosts, it is reasonable to suggest that internal parasitization would also influence host food consumption and metabolism. We report on the effects of parasitism by Cotesia flavipes on the food consumption and utilization of its host, Diatraea saccharalis. Cotesia flavipes reduces the host food consumption, but parasitized larvae considered a unit with their parasitoid's attained the same final weight as the nonparasitized larvae. Nutritional indices, midgut activities of carbohydrases, and trypsin of parasitized and nonparasitized D. saccharalis were assessed. Parasitized larvae had reduced relative food consumption, metabolic and growth rates, coupled with higher efficiency for conversion of the digested, but not ingested, food into body mass. Parasitism also affected food flux through the gut and protein contents in the midgut of parasitized larvae. The activity of α-amylase and trehalase in parasitized host was enhanced in the first day after parasitism relative to control larvae. Saccharase activity remained unchanged during larval development. Trypsin activity was reduced from the fifth to ninth day after parasitism. We argue on the mechanisms involved in host food processing after parasitism.

  20. 贵州仁怀斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂研究%Study on Syntretomorpha szaboi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌电周; 曾爱平; 陈绍鹄; 游兰韶; 刘劲军

    2011-01-01

    Syntretomorpha szabói Papp is a harmful solitary endoparasitoid which attack and parasitize the oriential honey bees Apis cerana Fabricius, parasitized bees are sluggish and die young. Similar oviposition and foraging behavior of flower visiting by S.szaboi has been observed, it is certainly that wild and domestic foraging adult oriential honey bees are attacked and parasitized in a rapid movement while visiting flowers in the wild of Renhuai, Guizhou. Genrally, an egg has laid in each bee host by piercing the ovipositor through the membrane between the second and third abdominal segments when the both of wild honey bee and domestic honey bee fled nonstop from wild to hive.The geographical range of the host, Oriental honey bees Apis cerana cerana Fabricius, extends westward as far as Xinjiang in China, and it is certainly that the parasitoids is widely distributed in China (expect Xinjiang), of course the articles and specimens are collected in seven provinces of central, West-South of China, Jiangxi, Hubei, Shanxi, Sichun, Yunan, Guizhou and Taiwan in China. After compare with species of 5. Szaboi from Renhuai and SEM photographs of S. Szaboi from India, it is very probable that in the world geographical range of the parasitoid, Syntretomorphy szabói extends to northern India through import oriential honey bees or nature extension from Western China. Is the conclusion true, there is a need of a experiment of molecular phylogenetic studies of Syntretomorpha szaboi in two countries.%调查发现,在贵州仁怀野外常有斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂快速攻击野生和家养中蜂,并在中蜂体内产卵,中蜂返巢后,体内已有斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂的卵.观察发现,斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂可在野生和家养中蜂巢内完成世代发育.对贵州仁怀斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂(标本)与印度产斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂(电镜照片)形态进行比较,发现并无形态上的差异.由于中蜂起源于中国西南地区,估计印度北部的斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂是随着中蜂携带进入或从中国西部自然传入.

  1. A new species of Phanerotoma Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) parasitoid of the carob moth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Cornelis VAN; Thackeray, Sean R; Hill, Martin P

    2017-01-31

    A new species, Phanerotoma carobivora van Achterberg & Thackeray, sp. nov. is described from South Africa. It is a common endoparasitoid of the carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Pyralidae) on pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and citrus fruits in South Africa. Mean percentage of parasitism varied 2-30% between host plants and sampled localities.

  2. The discovery of the genus Indabracon van Achterberg (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae)in China, with description of one new species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-QUAN YANG; JIA-HUA CHEN; JUAN-JUAN LIU

    2006-01-01

    The genus Indabracon van Achterberg, 1993 was discovered in China, and one new species (I. bicolor sp. nov.) of this genus is fully described and illustrated in the present paper. A key to the species of the genus is provided. The new species is similar to the Indian species I. trimaculatus (Cameron, 1900) structurally, but differs for example by: basal half of pterostigma yellow; apical half dark brown; smooth postero-lateral area of the third tergite rather small; propodeum with belt of setae dorsally and lamelliform carinae posteriorly;ovipositor sheath approximately 0.60 times the forewing, somewhat longer than metasoma;the first tergite surface distinctly carinate and rugose, especially in its medial area and laterally. The type specimens are deposited in the Beneficial Insects Lab, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, China.

  3. Caenopachys hartigii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) confirmed for Italy, with notes on the status of the genus Caenopachys Foerster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, D.; Priore, R.; Battaglia, D.; Achterberg, van C.

    2003-01-01

    The Palaearctic species Caenopachys hartigii (Ratzeburg, 1848) has been collected in the National Park of Pollino (S Italy), which is the first exact confirmation for the Italian fauna. A brief nomenclatural history of the genus Caenopachys Foerster, 1862, is given, its status is discussed and it is

  4. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  5. Un nuevo huésped para Cheiloneurus cupreicollis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, parasitoide de Dryinidae (Hymenoptera en la Argentina A new host for Cheiloneurus cupreicollis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, parasitoid of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de la presente contribución es informar sobre el comportamiento parasitoide del encírtido Cheiloneurus cupreicollis Ashmead sobre Gonatopus chilensis Olmi (Dryinidae: Gonatopodinae, y ampliar su distribución geográfica a la provincia de Catamarca (Santa María.The objective of this contribution is to mention Gonatopus chilensis Olmi (Dryinidae: Gonatopodinae as a new host for the encyrtid Cheiloneurus cupreicollis Ashmead, and enlarge the geographic distribution of the parasitoid to Catamarca province (Santa María.

  6. A comparative cytogenetic study of Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) using DNA-binding fluorochromes and FISH with 45S rDNA probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Govind, Shubha; Muravenko, Olga V

    2016-06-01

    Karyotypes of Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979) (n = 9), L. heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) (n = 10), L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 (n = 10) and Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) (n = 9) (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) were studied using DNA-binding ligands with different base specificity [propidium iodide (PI), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)], and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 45S rDNA probe. Fluorochrome staining was similar between the different fluorochromes, except for a single CMA3- and PI-positive and DAPI-negative band per haploid karyotype of each species. FISH with 45S rDNA probe detected a single rDNA site in place of the bright CMA3-positive band, thus identifying the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). Chromosomal locations of NORs were similar for both L. heterotoma and L. victoriae, but strongly differed in L. boulardi as well as in G. xanthopoda. Phylogenetic aspects of NOR localization in all studied species are briefly discussed.

  7. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE.

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    Darren Ward

    Full Text Available Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE. Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae. However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286, and major differences include: i the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe; and ii the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%. The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36% have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60% compared to Europe (~30%, and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950. Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment.

  8. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha(-1), along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  9. Inventario de Hymenoptera (Hexapoda en El Ventorrillo: un rico enclave de biodiversidad en la Sierra de Guadarrama (España Central

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    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Overall data of the inventory of Hymenoptera from the Biogeological Station of “El Ventorrillo” are presented. The studied site is located at an altitude of 1450 m, on the south face of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Spain, about 60 km NW from Madrid. Between 1988 and 1991 an insect biodiversity inventory was carried out using three sampling methods: Malaise traps, yellow pan traps and sweep nets. Out of the more than 1,000,000 insects trapped, increasing the collections of the MNCN, about 600,000 were sorted to order. We found 83,688 individuals of Hymenoptera (representing 13,8% and the second more abundant group in the samples, after Diptera (450,000 individuals and 77,5% of total. Forty nine families, 518 genera and 1310 species de Hymenoptera has been identified until now. The overall richness of Hymenoptera from El Ventorrillo is estimated in 2700 species and about 13,000 the number of insect species from the study site. An appendix is provided with the list of identified species and its overall abundance in the samples. As results of the inventory, ten new species for science have been described, and several more new species are not yet described; additionally, at least 33 genera and more than 170 species were recorded for the first time for Iberia. The abundance of Hymenoptera, as measured by Malaise trap catches, was very high, comparatively to other published data, reaching a peak of 916 individuals per trap day at the most productive trap and sampling period. The more abundant families were, in decreasing order, Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Apidae and Pteromalidae, represented by numbers of individuals between 12,000, for Braconidae, to near 6000 for Pteromalidae. Among the identified families, the more species rich at the study area were in decreasing order: Pteromalidae (290, Ichneumonidae (217, Sphecidae (107 and Eulophidae (101 species. The richness of the 29 remaining families at the area of study was

  10. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

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    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  11. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  12. Record of Diglyphus walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A R; Bueno, V H P; Silva, D B; Costa, V A

    2011-01-01

    Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are pests of various crops, mainly in greenhouses, and have Diglyphus spp. as important leafminer larval parasitoids. Until recently, only Diglyphus insularis (Gahan) had been reported in Brazil. In here we report the first records of Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), D. intermedius (Girault) and D. isaea (Walker) in Brazil. These parasitoids were found parasitizing leafminer larvae on cultivated and spontaneous plants in some areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  13. The New Record of Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead,an Egg Parasitoid of Chilo suppressalis(Walker)in Jilin,China%吉林省稻螟赤眼蜂的发现和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭震; 阮长春; 臧连生; 张帆; 靳锋云

    2011-01-01

    采用二化螟Chilo suppressalis(Walker)卵田间诱集的方法获得赤眼蜂Trichogramma寄生卵,室内培养羽化后,解剖并观察其雄性外生殖器特征,同时进行rDNA-ITS2序列分析,确定其为稻螟赤眼蜂T.japonicum Ashmead.BLAST分析结果表明,当地采集的供试赤眼蜂ITS2与广东的稻螟赤眼蜂相似性高达99.3%~100%.本研究首次确证吉林省存在寄生水稻二化螟的稻螟赤眼蜂自然种群.%Trichogramma wasps were collected using sentinel eggs of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) in rice fields. Throughmorphological identification of male genitalia and analysis of rDNA-ITS2 sequences, a Trichogramma species collectedwas identified as T. Japonicum Ashmead. The results of sequence alignment of ITS2 region showed that Trichogrammasp. Collected in Jilin had 99.3% - 100% similarity with T. Japonicum originated from Guangdong. The present workdemonstrated for the first time that there are natural populations of T. Japonicum parasitizing C. Suppressalis in Jilin,China.

  14. Thermal development of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoid of the saw-toothed stored product beetles of the genus Oryzaephilus sp. (Coleoptera: Sylvanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, Panagiotis A; Kontodimas, Dimitrios C

    2016-02-01

    The effect of temperature on the development and survival of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), larval ectoparasitoid of beetles of Oryzaephilus sp. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) was studied in the laboratory. Durations of the development of the egg, larva and pupa were measured in eight constant temperatures (15, 17.5, 20, 25, 30, 32.5, 35 and 37.5°C) parasitizing larvae of the saw-toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). The duration of development was decreased with temperature increase within the range 17.5-32.5°C. Survival was higher when immatures were exposed to medium temperatures (20-30°C) compared with those lived in a more extreme temperature regime (30°C). Wasps failed to complete their development at 15 and 37.5°C. Thermal parameters (upper, lower and optimum developmental threshold, thermal constant) were estimated by fitting the linear and a non-linear (Logan I) model to our data. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 35.1-37.0°C and 13.2-13.8°C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated between 33.6°C and 34.6°C. Tests for developmental rate isomorphy (DRI) showed that change in the average proportion of time spent in each developmental stage was marginally significant, proving that development of C. tarsalis is probably incompatible with DRI. However, this conclusion is questionable given that lower developmental thresholds did not differ significantly among various developmental stages (bootstrap test). Thermal constant for total development was calculated 212.4 degree-days. Our results are discussed not only on the basis of thermal biology, but also of improving the efficiency of C. tarsalis as biocontrol agent.

  15. Cytology of Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera : Figitidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, BA; Pijnacker, LP; Zwaan, BJ; Beukeboom, LW; Zwaan, Bas J.; Traut, W.

    2004-01-01

    Parthenogenesis induced by cytoplasmatically inherited Wolbachia bacteria has been found in a number of arthropod species, mainly Hymenoptera. Previously, two different forms of diploidy restoration have been reported to underlie parthenogenesis induction in Hymenoptera by Wolbachia. Both are a form

  16. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

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    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  17. Remarkable range extension of the previously monotypic braconid genus Wushenia Zettel (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae), with description of a second species from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Rebecca N; Austin, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The apparently rare chelonine wasp genus Wushenia Zettel was previously known only from a single species Wushenia nana Zettel, collected by Townes at 1150 m from Wushe, Taiwan in 1983. Here we describe a second species, Wushenia australiensis sp. nov. from coastal New South Wales, Australia. This second species extends the known distribution of the genus from the Oriental into the Australasian region, indicating either an extreme disjunct distribution or that Wushenia may also occur on the landmasses inbetween, e.g. the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and/or Papua New Guinea. In addition to a detailed description of the new species, a re-diagnosis of the genus and type species, and a key to species are presented.

  18. New species of the genera Foenomorpha Szépligeti (Cenocoeliinae) and Chelonus Panzer (Cheloninae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), from French Guiana, Suriname, and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Foenomorpha Szépligeti, 1904, are described (F. rufa spec. nov. from Brazil and F. senlura spec. nov. from French Guiana). A key to the known species is added and notes on the other two species are added. Foenomorpha filicornis (Cameron, 1887) is a new combination for Ce

  19. Lytopylus Förster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae species from Costa Rica, with an emphasis on specimens reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste

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    Michael Sharkey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of Costa Rican Lytopylus are treated; these include all species reared from Lepidoptera caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, over 32 years of caterpillar inventory, as well as two species recorded in the literature as occurring in Costa Rica. Ten new species are described, i.e., Lytopylus bradzlotnicki, Lytopylus colleenhitchcockae, Lytopylus gregburtoni, Lytopylus jessicadimauroae, Lytopylus jessiehillae, Lytopylus mingfangi, Lytopylus rebeccashapleyae, Lytopylus robpringlei, Lytopylus sandraberriosae, Lytopylus vaughntani. The following species are transferred to Lytopylus: Metriosoma flavicalcar Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus flavicalcar comb. n.; Bassus macadamiae Briceño and Sharkey 2000 to Lytopylus macadamiae comb. n.; Metriosoma bicarinatum Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus bicarinatum comb. n.; Metriosoma brasiliense Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus brasiliense comb. n.; Bassus tayrona Campos 2007 to Lytopylus tayrona comb. n.; Microdus femoratus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus femoratus comb. n.; Microdus melanocephalus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus melanocephalus comb. n.; Bassus pastranai Blanchard 1952 to Lytopylus pastranai comb. n.; Agathis nigrobalteata Cameron 1911 to Lytopylus nigrobalteatus comb. n. Two keys to species of Lytopylus are presented, one interactive and the other static.

  20. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  1. Revision of the Oriental genera of Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae with an emphasis on Thailand and interactive keys to genera published in three different formats

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    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The genera of Oriental Agathidinae are revised and a fully illustrated dichotomous key is presented. New generic concepts are proposed for Bassus Fabricius, 1804 and Hypsostypos Baltazar, 1963. Bassus is restricted to a clade with an Old World distribution and the remaining members are divided amongst the resurrected genera Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, and Therophilus Wesmael, 1837. The concept of Hypsostypos is restricted and the new genus Amputostypos Sharkey, gen. n. is proposed to include species formerly included in Hypsostypos that do not have raised antennal bases. Troticus Brullé, 1846 is reported from the Oriental region for the first time. Eighteen genera are recognized for Thailand and neighboring areas, i.e., Agathis Latreille, 1804, Amputostypos, Aneurobracon Brues, 1930, Bassus, Biroia Szépligeti, 1900, Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894, Camptothlipsis, Coccygidium Saussure, 1892, Cremnops Förster, 1862, Disophrys Förster, 1862, Earinus Wesmael, 1837, Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900, Gryochus Enderlein, 1920, Hypsostypos, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, Therophilus, Cremnoptoides van Achterberg & Chen, 2004, and Troticus. Identification keys to the genera are provided as a standard textual dichotomous key, as well as online keys in three different formats (conventional dichotomous, DELTA/Intkey, Lucid, and MX to enable users to choose their prefered platform and to allow direct comparisons of the technologies for producing online keys. Publication of underlying data (data matrices, character states table, and images under the OpenDataCommons license (ODbl (http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/ for DELTA/Intkey files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.1.ik, primary DELTA files (10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.2.ik Lucid3 (LIF3 and Lucid SDD key data files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.3.ik and MX MySQL database files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.4.ik allows future workers to edit keys and to add newly described taxa. The data files for the keys published and stored on the publisher’s website and in e-archives have the rights of “first publication” identified by its bibliography data, location and citation. Readers should cite the first published version and the day of accession in case they use future online versions of the same key. The concept of publication, citation, preservation, and re-use of data files to interactive keys under the open access model is discussed in a forum paper published in the present issue (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.274.

  2. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

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    Silvia N. LÓPEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.

  3. Irradiation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs to Inhibit Fly Emergence in the Mass-Rearing of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. L. Z.; Pacheco, M. G.; Lopes, L. A.; Botteon, V. W.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2016-01-01

    As the incidence of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) has increased in Southern Brazil in the past 3 yr, an initiative to release sterile flies and parasitoids has started. In order to make feasible the mass-rearing of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmed), this study investigated the suitability of A. fraterculus larvae derived from irradiated eggs as host for D. longicaudata. Two different ages of A. fraterculus eggs (24 and 48 h old) were analyzed for hatchability after the exposure to a range of radiation doses. The hatchability of 48-h-old eggs was not affected by radiation, and no fly emerged at doses higher than 27.5 Gy. The larvae derived from irradiated eggs proved to be suitable hosts for the parasitoid development, with observed parasitism rates higher than 70% and sex ratio values above 0.6. The parasitism capability and longevity of D. longicaudata reared on larvae derived from irradiated eggs were also assessed. During the 10 d of parasitism evaluated, D. longicaudata from the treatments were able to parasitize nonirradiated larvae similarly as the parasitoids from controls and the laboratory colony. The longevity of D. longicaudata from the treatments was not affected either, with survival rates higher than 80% after 20 d of evaluation. The age of 48 h and a dose of 30 Gy could be considered the best age and dose for A. fraterculus eggs to be used in the mass-rearing of D. longicaudata. The results of this study will decrease the costs of mass-rearing D. longicaudata on A. fraterculus. PMID:27638956

  4. Potential effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, H; Campan, E D M; Cherqui, A; Saguez, J; Couty, A; Jouanin, L; Giordanengo, P; Kaiser, L

    2005-08-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been shown to cause lethal and sublethal effects on aphids depending on the kind of PI and aphid species. Therefore, these proteins might affect aphid parasitoids directly by inhibiting their digestive proteolysis or indirectly via their development in a less suitable host. In our study, the risk of exposure and the potential effects of soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) and oryzacystatin I (OCI) on the aphid endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi were investigated using artificial diet to deliver PIs. Immunoassays showed that both SbBBI and OCI were detected in the honeydew of aphids reared on artificial diet containing these recombinant proteins at 100 microg/mL. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while this PI could not be detected in adult parasitoids emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of A. ervi predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Bioassays using SbBBI and OCI on artificial diet were performed. A. ervi that developed on intoxicated aphids had impaired fitness. Thus development and parasitism success of parasitoids exposed to OCI were severely affected. On the contrary, SbBBI only altered significantly female size and sex ratio. Direct exposure to PIs through adult food intake did not affect female's longevity, while SbBBI and OCI (100 microg/mL) induced 69% and 30% inhibition of digestive protease activity, respectively. These studies made it possible to estimate the risk of exposure to plant PIs and the sensitivity of the aphid parasitoid A. ervi to these entomotoxins, by combining immunological, biochemical and biological approaches. First it pointed out that only immature stages are affected by PIs. Secondly, it documented two different modes of effect, according to the nature of the PIs and both host and parasitoid susceptibility. OCI prevented the development of A. ervi mainly due to the host susceptibility, whereas SbBBI only induced sublethal effects on the parasitoid, possibly due to both direct action on the parasitoid susceptible proteases, and host-mediated action through size reduction.

  5. Distribution, host range, and climatic constraints on Centistes gasseni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a South American parasitoid of cucumber beetles, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Walsh, G; Athanas, M M; Salles, L A B; Schroder, R F W

    2003-12-01

    The genus Diabrotica includes a large number of pest species, including some of the most important crop pests of the Americas. The parasitoid Centistes gasseni Shaw is the first braconid to be described parasitizing Diabrotica in South America, and high natural infestations are reported. Field and experimental observations on the host range, distribution and biology of this parasitoid are described. Centistes gasseniwas collected in southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in a region comprising humid lowlands and highlands, and cool temperate to warm subtropical climates, with regular rainfall in excess of 1300 mm. Three Diabroticaspecies, D. limitata (Sahlberg), D. speciosa (Germar) and D. viridula (Fabricius) were found to host the parasitoid, with mean percent parasitism of 5.4, 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. Diabrotica speciosa and D. viridula are the two most important pest Diabroticaspecies in South America. Laboratory experiments with field-collected beetles and parasitoid cocoons indicated that C. gasseni overwinters in adult host beetles, remaining dormant in its live host below developmental temperatures. A potential distribution of C. gasseni in North America is proposed based on its known climatic range and the distribution of the main pest species of adult overwintering North American Diabrotica.

  6. Biology and Life History of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a North American Larval Parasitoid Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...

  7. Oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae, Neoneurini and Ichneumonidae, Hybrizontinae, with the description of three new European species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids was observed and filmed for the first time. The movies are available from YouTube (search for Elasmosoma, Hybrizon, Kollasmosoma and Neoneurus. Two of the observed species (Neoneurus vesculus sp. n. and Kollasmosoma sentum sp. n. are new to science. A third species (Neoneurus recticalcar sp. n. is described from Slovakia and Norway. Keys to the Palaearctic species of the genera Neoneurus and Kollasmosoma are added.

  8. Four new species of the Aleiodes compressor Herrich-Schäffer species-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae from South America

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    Lidia Sulca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the Aleiodes compressor (Herrich-Schäffer species-group from the Neotropical Region are described and illustrated: Aleiodes segakiato sp. nov. and A. lamasi sp. nov. from Peru, A. macro sp. nov. from Argentina, and A. palmito sp. nov. from Mexico. With the addition of these new species, the compressor species-group has ten known species; two from Old World, two from Nearctic Region, and six from Neotropical Region. In addition to the descriptions of the new species, a key to known species is presented, and a new distribution record for A. mantiqueirensis Shimbori, Shaw and Penteado-Dias from Ecuador is reported.

  9. Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase (

  10. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae of the mealy plum aphid Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffr. on common reed (Phragmites australis in different types of habitat in Poland

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    Barczak T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the parasitoid guild of the mealy plum aphid Hyalopterus pruni on common reed (Phragmites australis in different types of habitats in central Poland. The investigations were carried out in selected areas of the Salted Kujawy Region (central-northern Poland. To compare the parasitoid guilds of H. pruni from common reed in different types of habitats, species composition, number, domination structure and the percentage of parasitization (effectiveness were evaluated. The primary parasitoid guild of H. pruni on common reed in central Poland comprises three aphidiine braconids, mainly Praon volucre and P. abjectum. The number of the primary parasitoid species and their effectiveness in the aphid colonies were very low. Hence, common reed did not seem to be a good reservoir of the H. pruni parasitoids, but it may play a role as a place of dispersion of these insects, beneficial to orchards. A very low number of the hyperparasitoids were observed in the aphid colonies.

  11. Evaluation of the host specificity of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-specificity determination prior to the introduction of non-native natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) is a critical component of the risk assessment for modern classical biological control programs. In the present study, we assessed the host specificity of a newly described parasitoid,...

  12. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which has killed millions of ash trees since it was first detected in Michigan. A native parasitoid like A. cappaerti...

  13. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks.

  14. Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

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    Emilio Guerrieri

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD, is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among the microgastroid wasps (Hymenoptera: braconidae): combined analysis of 16S and 28S rDNA genes and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, M; Austin, A D

    1998-12-01

    Relationships among the microgastroid complex of braconid wasps were investigated using sequence data from the 16S mitochondrial rDNA and 28S (D2 expansion region) nuclear rDNA genes, as well as morphological data. Parsimony analysis of these gene fragments, both separately and combined, indicated that Neoneurus (Neoneurinae) and Ichneutes (Ichneutinae) were no more closely related to the microgastroids than were a range of helconoid taxa. Combined parsimony analysis of the microgastroids indicated the relationships ((Cardiochilinae + Microgastrinae) + Miracinae) + Cheloninae, with Adeliinae falling inside the Cheloninae. Bootstrap proportions for each of these nodes were greater than 70%. Character reweighting (sensu Farris), using the rescaled consistency index, also recovered these relationships. Mapping of lifestyle traits onto this relatively well supported phylogeny indicated that solitary endoparasitism is ancestral for the microgastroids, with a single origin for egg-larval endoparasitism in the Cheloninae + Adeliinae. Mapping of the radiation of the microgastroids into lepidopteran hosts was less clear, due to the specialized biology of the most basal microgastroid clade, the Cheloninae + Adeliinae. Our data are consistent with attack of concealed lepidopteran hosts as the plesiomorphic lifestyle, at least for the Miracinae + Cardiochilinae + Microgastrinae, with radiation into more exposed hosts in the Cardiochilinae + Microgastrinae.

  16. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906), Ba

  17. PARASITOIDES (HYMENOPTERA DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE NO SEMIÁRIDO DO ESTADO DO CEARÁ, BRASIL

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    ELTON LUCIO ARAUJO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae, Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann, são importantes pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. Para desenvolver um sistema sustentável de manejo integrado para este grupo de pragas, é fundamental conhecer os parasitoides (Hymenoptera que podem regular as populações destes tefritídeos. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi relatar a diversidade, a distribuição geográfica e as relações tritróficas dos himenópteros parasitoides de moscas-das-frutas, na região do Baixo Jaguaribe, no semiárido do Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas de frutos em sete municípios da região, no período de maio de 2010 amaio de 2013. Os frutos foram levados para o laboratório, onde foram contados, pesados, colocados em bandejas plásticas com vermiculita e fechadas com tecido voile. Após sete dias, a vermiculita foi peneirada para a obtenção dos pupários das moscas-das-frutas que, em seguida, foram contados e acondicionados em placas de Petri, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos (moscas e/ou parasitoides. Quatro espécies de parasitoides foram encontradas: Doryctobracon areolatus(Szépligeti, Opius bellus Gahan, Utetes anastrephae(Viereck (Braconidae e Tetrastichus giffardianusSilvestri (Eulophidae,sendo o mais frequente e com maior distribuição geográfica na região, D. areolatus. Doryctobracon areolatusfoi mais comum em associação com espécies de Anastrepha - A. sororcula Zucchi, A. obliqua (Mcquart e A. zenildae Zucchi, em frutos nativos e com C. capitata em frutos exóticos. Tetrastichus giffardianus foi obtido apenas em associação com C. capitata, em frutos nativos e exóticos. Estas informações podem servir de base para inserção de parasitoides em futuros programas de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas, nas condições do Semiárido brasileiro.

  18. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Yoder

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts, 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental

  19. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  20. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

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    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  1. The position of the Hymenoptera within the Holometabola as inferred from the mitochondrial genome of Perga condei (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Pergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda Raquel; Dowton, Mark

    2005-03-01

    We sequenced most of the mitochondrial genome of the sawfly Perga condei (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Pergidae) and tested different models of phylogenetic reconstruction in order to resolve the position of the Hymenoptera within the Holometabola, using mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial genome sequenced for P. condei had less compositional bias and slower rates of molecular evolution than the honeybee, as well as a less rearranged genome organization. Phylogenetic analyses showed that, when using mitochondrial genomes, both adequate taxon sampling and more realistic models of analysis are necessary to resolve relationships among insect orders. Both parsimony and Bayesian analyses performed better when nucleotide instead of amino acid sequences were used. In particular, this study supports the placement of the Hymenoptera as sister group to the Mecopterida.

  2. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places provi

  3. Skeletomusculature of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miko, I.; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Johnson, N.F.;

    2007-01-01

      The skeletomusculature of the head and mesosoma of the parasitoid wasp family Scelionidae is reviewed. Representatives of 27 scelionid genera are examined together with 13 non-scelionid taxa for comparison. Terms employed for other groups of Hymenoptera are reviewed, and a consensus terminology...

  4. Het inventariseren en monitoren van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2008-01-01

    The survey and monitoring of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) The goal of this paper is to encourage the use of ants in monitoring programs and biodiversity surveys. Monitoring is restricted to ground-dwelling ants, because the sexual forms are too erratic in occurrence. For monitoring of ant populati

  5. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom sensitisatio

  6. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  7. Registro de Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasitada por Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae no cerrado de Brasília, DF Record of Peckia (Squamatodes trivittata (Curran (Diptera, Sarcophagidae parasited by Gnathopleura semirufa (Brullé (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae in the cerrado of Brasília, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Meneses de Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Julho de 2004, foram observados adultos de G. semirufa atacando larvas de Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 enquanto estas se alimentavam de carcaça de porco Sus scrofa em área de cerrado. Em Dezembro do mesmo ano, no mesmo local, larvas de terceiro instar de P. trivittata foram coletadas em outra carcaça de porco e levadas ao laboratório. As larvas foram criadas em condições naturais. Das 31 pupas obtidas, emergiram 19 adultos de G. semirufa e seis adultos de P. trivittata, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 61% de parasitismo.In July 2004, adults of G. semirufa were observed attacking maggots of Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 while feeding on a Sus scrofa carcass in a cerrado area. In December of the same year, in the same location, third instar maggots of P. trivittata were collected from another pig carcass and taken to laboratory. They were reared in natural conditions. 19 adults of G. semirufa and six adults of P. trivittata emerged from the 31 pupae we had obtained previously, corresponding to 61% of parasitic prevalence.

  8. Capacidade reprodutiva de fêmeas de Apanteles galleriae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae em lagartas de Galleria mellonella e Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae criadas com dietas diferentes Reproductive capacity of Apanteles galleriae females (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in Galleria mellonella and Achroia grisella larvae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae reared on different diets

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    Giuliano Grici Zacarin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive capacity of females of Apanteles galleriae (Wilkinson, 1932 was evaluated in fifth instar caterpillars of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 and Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1754 fed on standard diet and diets enriched with protein. The reproductive capacity of parasitoid females on fifth instar caterpillars of G. mellonella and A. grisella with variable weight was also evaluated. The host weight interfered in the sex ratio of the obtained parasitoids. In heavier caterpillars, the investment in female descendants was greater than in males, and in lighter caterpillars the inverse occurred.

  9. The parasitic wasp genus Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae), with the description of a new species from Mexico El género de avispas parasíticas Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae), con la descripción de una especie nueva de México

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2009-01-01

    The doryctine wasp genus Hecabolus Curtis and its type species, H. sulcatus Curtis, are redescribed. A new species from Mexico, H. mexicanus sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is distinguished from H. sulcatus and the other known species of the genus, H. costaricensis Marsh, in having a narrower pterostigma, longer discoidal (discal) cell, basal (1M) and recurrent (m-cu) veins diverging posteriorly, first abscissa of mediocubital (M+CU) vein of hind wing as long as the se...

  10. The parasitic wasp genus Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae, with the description of a new species from Mexico El género de avispas parasíticas Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae, con la descripción de una especie nueva de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The doryctine wasp genus Hecabolus Curtis and its type species, H. sulcatus Curtis, are redescribed. A new species from Mexico, H. mexicanus sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is distinguished from H. sulcatus and the other known species of the genus, H. costaricensis Marsh, in having a narrower pterostigma, longer discoidal (discal cell, basal (1M and recurrent (m-cu veins diverging posteriorly, first abscissa of mediocubital (M+CU vein of hind wing as long as the second abscissa (1M, and first metasomal tergite with a very small dorsope. A key for identification of the 3 known species of Hecabolus is provided.Se redescriben el género de avispas doryctinas Hecabolus Curtis y su especie tipo, H. sulcatus Curtis. Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de México, H. mexicanus sp. nov. La nueva especie se distingue de H. sulcatus y de la otra especie conocida del género, H. costaricensis Marsh, por presentar un pterostigma más angosto, una celda discoidal más larga, las venas basal y recurrente divergiendo posteriormente, la primer abscisa de la vena mediocubital del ala posterior tan larga como la segunda abscisa, y el primer tergo metasomal con un dorsopo muy pequeño. Se presenta una clave para identificar las 3 especies conocidas de Hecabolus.

  11. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  12. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

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    Amilcar Perez-Riverol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA and specific immunotherapy (SIT have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  13. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  14. Relações interespecíficas entre parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas e o braconídeo exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata em frutos de 'umbu-cajá' Interespecific relations between native parasitoids of fruit flies and exotic braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in fruits of 'umbu-cajá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzinaide Vidal Bomfim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae são importantes agentes de controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer os efeitos da liberação e as relações de competitividade interespecífica do parasitoide exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead sobre o complexo de parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas associado a frutos de 'umbu-cajá' (Spondias spp. na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Entre os meses de abril e julho de 2006, 8.955 frutos (192,93kg foram coletados antes e após (24 e 48 horas a liberação de 9.600 fêmeas de D. longicaudata em campo. Obteve-se um total de 8.724 pupários de Tephritidae, dos quais emergiram 3.963 adultos de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e 1.115 parasitoides. A maior frequência relativa foi de Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, seguida por Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck e Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck. Após 24 e 48 horas da liberação do parasitoide exótico D. longicaudata em campo, constatou-se que o índice de parasitismo total aumentou de 15,86 para 20,4 e 45,19%, respectivamente. Assim, observou-se que a liberação da espécie exótica D. longicaudata não apresenta efeitos negativos na ocorrência dos parasitoides nativos e contribui para complementar o controle biológico natural de A. obliqua em frutos de 'umbu-cajá', nas condições deste estudo.Wasps parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae biological control important agents. This study aimed to know the effects of the release and interspecific competitive relationships of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on the native parasitoid complex of fruit flies in Spondias spp. in the region of Recôncavo Baiano. From April to July of 2006, 8.955 fruits (192.93kg were collected before and after (24 and 48 hours release of 9.600 females of D. longicaudata. Exactly 8.724 Tephritidae

  15. Contrasting rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution in parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L R; Austin, A D; Dowton, M

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the putative association between the parasitic lifestyle and an accelerated rate of mt genetic divergence, compositional bias, and gene rearrangement, employing a range of parasitic and nonparasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera. Sequences were obtained for the cox1, cox2, 16S, 28S genes, the regions between the cox2 and atp8 genes, and between the nad3 and nad5 genes. Relative rate tests indicated generally that the parasitic lifestyle was not associated with an increased rate of genetic divergence in the Diptera but reaffirmed that it was in the Hymenoptera. Similarly, a departure from compositional stationarity was not associated with parasitic Diptera but was in parasitic Hymenoptera. Finally, mitochondrial (mt) gene rearrangements were not observed in any of the dipteran species examined. The results indicate that these genetic phenomena are not accelerated in parasitic Diptera compared with nonparasitic Diptera. A possible explanation for the differences in the rate of mt molecular evolution in parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera is the extraordinary level of radiation that has occurred within the parasitic Hymenoptera but not in any of the dipteran parasitic lineages. If speciation events in the parasitic Hymenoptera are associated with founder events, a faster rate of molecular evolution is expected. Alternatively, biological differences between endoparasitic Hymenoptera and endoparasitic Diptera may also account for the differences observed in molecular evolution.

  16. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) en la Comunidad de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain) is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 ...

  17. Las avispas bandera (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

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    Zambrano González Giselle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas. Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones  entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y taxonomía de  Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución geográfica de los géneros de la f amilia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  18. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  19. The description of Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), a new species from Joshua Tree National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species, Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), is described and characters separating it from the Nearctic species P. zonatus Weld and P. virginianus Liu are discussed. A discussion of the insect biodiversity survey at Joshua Tree National Park is provided....

  20. Pengaruh Beberapa Ukuran Pupa Penggerek Batang Tebu Terhadap Jumlah Populasi Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Julian Simatupang, “The effect of Pupae Size of Sugarcane Stem Borer on The Tetrastichus sp. Population (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) in Laboratory”, supervised by Ir. Syahrial Oemry, MS. and Ir. Fatimah Zahara. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of some pupae size of sugarcane stem borer on the Tetrastichus sp. population (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) in Laboratory. The research was held at Laboratory of Sugarcane Research and Development Sei Semayang, Binjai...

  1. Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...AND SUBTITLE Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control 6. AUTHOR(S) David F. Williams...TARGETING: REDUCED PESTICIDE USE STRATEGY FOR PHARAOH’S ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) CONTROL DAVID F. WILLIAMS, RICHARD J. BRENNER AND DAVID MILNE

  2. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

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    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ.

  4. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the central plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-08-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in three locations in Colorado and Kansas during 2001-2003 to investigate the potential of combining planting date and foliar and seed treatment insecticide applications to lower insect stalk densities of these three pests. The impact of these strategies on weevil larval parasitoids also was studied. Eight sunflower stem weevil larval parasitoid species were identified. All were Hymenoptera and included the following (relative composition in parentheses): Nealiolus curculionis (Fitch) (42.6%), Nealiolus collaris (Brues) (3.2%) (Braconidae), Quadrastichus ainsliei Gahan (4.2%) (Eulophidae), Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashmead (13.1%) (Eurytomidae), Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead) (33.7%), Chlorocytus sp. (1.6%), Pteromalus sp. (0.5%) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus sp. (1.0%) (Eupelmidae). The results from this 3-yr study revealed that chemical control was often reliable in protecting the sunflower crop from stem pests and was relatively insensitive to application timing. Although results in some cases were mixed, overall, delayed planting can be a reliable and effective management tool for growers in the central Plains to use in reducing stem-infesting pest densities in sunflower stalks. Chemical control and planting date were compatible with natural mortality contributed by C. adspersus larval parasitoids.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the insect order Hymenoptera: apocritan relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, M; Austin, A D

    1994-10-11

    Phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of hymenopteran insects were investigated by using comparative sequence information from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The placement of the ectoparasitic Stephanidae as the sister group to the remaining Apocrita confirmed ectoparasitism as the ground plan biology for the Apocrita. Endoparasitism evolved at least eight times within the Apocrita, and the consequent association with polydnaviruses and virus-like particles evolved at least three times. The Evaniomorpha were consistently placed as basal to the remaining Apocrita but were not resolved as monophyletic. The Gasteruptiidae were resolved as the sister group to the Evaniidae, but the relationship between the Trigonalyoidea and the Evanioidea was unclear. The Proctotrupomorpha (sensu Rasnitsyn) was resolved by topology-dependent permutation tail probability (T-PTP) testing as monophyletic, with strong evidence for a sister group relationship between the Platygastroidea and the Chalcidoidea. Strong evidence was found for the monophyly of the Ichneumonomorpha (Ichneumonidae + Braconidae) and the sister-group relationship between the Aculeata (Vespomorpha) and the Ichneumonomorpha.

  6. Estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera (insecta

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    Jorge F. Genise

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión sobre los estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera plP.- tende destacar la forma tan particular en que la etología es encarada en este grupo de insectos, resaltando ciertas modalidades y conceptos, algunos de ellos de posible aplicación en otros grupos, cspecialmente de invertebrados. Los puntos sobresalientes pueden resumirse así; 1 El estudio de los grupos de Hymenoptera solitarios cercanamente emparentados con los sociales, para rastrear evolutivamente los patrones de comportamiento que ya presentes en las especies no sociales se habrían combinado para dar una conducta social. 2 La división en fases de esta evolución como esquema básico para encarar las investigaciones y la búsqueda de modelos de transición entre fases que permitan ejemplificar sin discontinuidades importantes el proceso evolutivo. 3 El estudio de la filogenia de otros patrones de comportamiento no directamente relacionados con la conducta social, que alcanzan su máxima expresión en grupos no sociales. 4 El estudio del comportamiento de los organismos que posiblemente hayan actuado como agentes selectivos en la evolución. 5 La contribución que los estudios etológicos hacen a la ecología, al esclarecer ciertos aspectos relacionados con la inserción de las especies en los ecosistemas

  7. Higher mast cell load decreases the risk of Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Anrooij, Bjorn; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; van der Heide, Sicco; Kluin-Nelemans, Johanna C.; van Voorst Vader, Pieter C.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased basal serum tryptase (bsT) levels are a well-described risk factor for Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis (HVAn) in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. Increased bsT levels might also indicate the presence of mastocytosis. In this study we evaluated whether the risk of H

  8. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  9. Parasitoid-plant mutualism : parasitoid attack of herbivore increases plant reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Boer, de J.G.; Dicke, M.

    2000-01-01

    We tested whether a plant's life time seed production is increased by parasitization of herbivores in a tritrophic system, Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) plants, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) caterpillars and the solitary endoparasitoid Cotesia rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). We esta

  10. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

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    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  11. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

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    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  12. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-09-21

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available.

  13. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory.

  14. A new scenario of bioprospecting of Hymenoptera venoms through proteomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms represent a huge and essentially unexplored reservoir of bioactive components that may cure diseases that do not respond to currently available therapies. This review select advances reported in the literature from 2000 to the present about the new scenario of Hymenoptera venom composition. On account of new technologies in the proteomic approach, which presents high resolution and sensitivity, the combination of developments in new instruments, fragmentation methods, strategic analysis, and mass spectrometry have become indispensable tools for interrogation of protein expression, molecule interaction, and post- translational modifications. Thus, the biochemical characterization of Hymenoptera venom has become a major subject of research in the area of allergy and immunology, in which proteomics has been an excellent alternative to assist the development of more specific extracts for diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitive patients to Hymenoptera venoms.

  15. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Methods. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. Results. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA. PMID:27924689

  16. Oligonucleotide primers for targeted amplification of single-copy nuclear genes in apocritan Hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hartig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published nucleotide sequence data from the mega-diverse insect order Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants are taxonomically scattered and still inadequate for reconstructing a well-supported phylogenetic tree for the order. The analysis of comprehensive multiple gene data sets obtained via targeted PCR could provide a cost-effective solution to this problem. However, oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of nuclear genes across a wide range of hymenopteran species are still scarce. FINDINGS: Here we present a suite of degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs for PCR amplification of 154 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from Hymenoptera. These primers were inferred from genome sequence data from nine Hymenoptera (seven species of ants, the honeybee, and the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We empirically tested a randomly chosen subset of these primer pairs for amplifying target genes from six Hymenoptera, representing the families Chrysididae, Crabronidae, Gasteruptiidae, Leucospidae, Pompilidae, and Stephanidae. Based on our results, we estimate that these primers are suitable for studying a large number of nuclear genes across a wide range of apocritan Hymenoptera (i.e., all hymenopterans with a wasp-waist and of aculeate Hymenoptera in particular (i.e., apocritan wasps with stingers. CONCLUSIONS: The amplified nucleotide sequences are (a with high probability from single-copy genes, (b easily generated at low financial costs, especially when compared to phylogenomic approaches, (c easily sequenced by means of an additionally provided set of sequencing primers, and (d suitable to address a wide range of phylogenetic questions and to aid rapid species identification via barcoding, as many amplicons contain both exonic and fast-evolving intronic nucleotides.

  17. Sampling and Diversity of Hymenoptera (Insecta) in an Orange Orchard/Brazilian Savannah Fragment Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Rogeria Lara; Daniell Fernandes; Danielle versuti; Maria Tango; Nelson Perioto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the diversity of Hymenoptera in an orange orchard / Brazilian savannah fragment interface in Descalvado, State of São Paulo, Brazil, using Moericke, Malaise and pitfall traps. The sampling was carried out from February to June 2006, when 5,148 specimens of Hymenoptera, from 12 superfamilies and 36 families, were caught: Chalcidoidea (1,885 specimens; 36.6% out of the total; 14 families), Ichneumonoidea (715; 13.9%; 2), Vespoidea (554; 10.8%; 5), Apoid...

  18. Impact of Introduction of Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Classical Biological Control Releases of the Natural Enemy, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on Economically Important Fruit Flies in F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine attraction and feeding propensity of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) to different protein bait mixtures with and without the insecticides spinosad and malathion. The type of protein (GF-120 Fruit ...

  19. Newly Recorded the Genus Nyereria Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from China, with Description of One Species%中国新记录属--莱氏茧蜂属及一新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋东宝; 陈家骅; 席景会

    2005-01-01

    One genus Nyereria Mason and one species Nyereria neavi (Wilkinson) are reported for the first time from China. Four SEM photos are provided. All specimens are deposited in Beneficial Insect Laboratory, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University.

  20. Control Four Species of Aphid on Vegetables with Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)%菜蚜茧蜂对4种蔬菜蚜虫的控制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立猛; 田泽华; 计思贵; 谷星慧; 周文兵; 杨海林

    2016-01-01

    菜蚜茧蜂(Diaeretiella rapae)是蔬菜蚜虫的重要天敌。为了明确菜蚜茧蜂对我国常见4种蔬菜蚜虫的控制作用,通过室内试验,研究了菜蚜茧蜂对萝卜蚜、甘蓝蚜、豌豆蚜和蚕豆蚜的寄生作用。结果表明:菜蚜茧蜂对萝卜蚜和甘蓝蚜具有较好的控制作用,放蜂后21 d,其寄生率多在20%以上;对豌豆蚜的寄生作用较弱,放蜂后21 d,寄生率最高不超过10%;对蚕豆蚜寄生率最低,多在1%左右,只有极少数蚜虫被寄生。%Diaeretiella rapae, an important parasitoid of aphids in the world, was released with 6 ratio to controlLipaphis erysimi, Brevicoryne brassicae,Acyrthosiphon pisum andAphis craccivorain Yuxi City Yunnan Province. The results showed that the parasitoid could controlLipaphis erysimi andBrevicoryne brassicae availably, and the parasitism was above 20% after releasing the parasitoid in 21 days, but the parasitism was only 10% to controlAcyrthosiphon pisum, and only 1% to controlAphis craccivora. The results provided evidence to control the aphids on vegetables by releasingDiaeretiella rapae(McIntosh).

  1. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  2. Effect of selected insecticides on the natural enemies Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), and Bracon mellitor, Cardiochiles nigriceps, and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Mulrooney, J E

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the toxicity of three insecticides (lambda cyhalothrin, spinosad, and S-1812) to the natural enemies Bracon mellitor Say, Cardiochiles nigriceps Viereck, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), Geocoris punctipes (Say), and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, in topical, residual, and field assays. Lambda cyhalothrin exhibited the greatest toxicity to the natural enemies. In topical toxicity tests, lambda cyhalothrin adversely affected each natural enemy species studied. Residues of lambda cyhalothrin on cotton leaves were toxic to B. mellitor, C. nigriceps, C. maculata, and C. punctipes. Interestingly, residues of this insecticide were not very toxic to C. marginiventris and H. convergens. Geocoris punctipes and C. maculata numbers in the field generally were significantly lower for lambda cyhalothrin treatments than for the other four treatments, substantiating the previous tests. Although cotton aphids began to increase over all treatments around the middle of the test period, the number of cotton aphids in the lambda cyhalothrin plots was significantly higher than the number in any of the other treatments. As cotton aphids increased in lambda cyhalothrin field plots, the predator H. convergens also increased in number, indicating that lambda cyhalothrin did not adversely affect it in accordance with the residual tests. Spinosad exhibited marginal to excellent selectivity, but was highly toxic to each parasitoid species and G. punctipes in topical toxicity tests and to B. mellitor in residual tests. Spinosad generally did not affect the number of G. punctipes, H. convergens, and C. maculata in the field except for one day after the second application for G. punctipes. S-1812 exhibited good to excellent selectivity to the natural enemies. Some reduction of G. punctipes occurred for only a short period after the first and second application of this insecticide in the field. H. convergens and C. maculata were affected very little by S-1812.

  3. Influence of temperature on functional response of Habrobracon hebetor(Say) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) attacking larvae of Plodia interpunctella(Hübner)(Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)%温度对麦蛾柔茧蜂功能反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝珠; 许再福; 覃伟权

    2009-01-01

    为明确温度变化在麦蛾柔茧蜂Habrobracon hebetor对印度谷螟Plodia interpunctella寄生作用中的影响,研究了室内17,20,23,26,29,32和35℃条件下,麦蛾柔茧蜂对不同密度的印度谷螟5龄幼虫的麻痹和寄生作用.结果表明:在17~29℃范围内,寄生蜂的寄主处理时间与温度成反比,从17℃的0.341 d到29℃的0.068 d,但温度再升高时,处理时间又延长.寄主搜索率也随温度的改变而变化,17℃时最低,为0.056;29℃时最高,为1.895;当温度升高到32~35℃时,寄主搜索率又下降.温度调节的功能反应模型表明,在26~29℃范围内,寄生率较高.可见,在26~29℃时,麦蛾柔茧蜂对印度谷螟有较好的寄生效果,对寄生蜂繁殖后代有利.

  4. Host discrimination ability and the influencing factors in Meteorus pulchricornis(Hymenoptera: Braconidae)%斑痣悬茧蜂的寄主辨别能力及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 冯素芳; 黄露; 孟玲; 李保平

    2011-01-01

    To gain insights into mechanisms of superparasitization in Meteorus pulchricornis ( Wesmael) , dual-choice tests were performed to observe preferences of the parasitoid between healthy and parasitized hosts, Prodenia litura ( Fabricius) ( healthy: parasitized 2nd instar larvae =5:5), as affected by parasitization experiences ( three levels; no parasitization experience, parasitization once, superparasitization once) and interval-time (1 -7 d) elapsed after single parasitization; a repeated measures design was exercised to observe oviposition stings during three successive visits to host patches of different quality as measured by the proportion of parasitized hosts (2,5, and 8 parasitized hosts among 10 hosts, respectively) in a patch. The analysis results of preferences showed that the probability of superparasitization was significantly affected by parasitization experiences of parasitoids and time interval after single parasitization, and it was decreased with the time interval and parasitization experience. The Cox model was fitted to the discrimination time prior to oviposition, and the results indicated that the hazard of superparasitization diminished both with extending of the interval time after single parasitization and with the parasitoid experience of superparasitization. The trials on parasitization during visits to host-patches of different qualities showed that the number of oviposition stings increased with the quality of host patch. The results suggest that M. Pulchricomis can discriminate not only parasitized hosts, but also host patches with single parasitized hosts.%为评价斑痣悬茧蜂Meteorus pulchricornis(Wesmael)的寄主辨别能力及其影响因素,采用双选试验(斜纹夜蛾2龄寄主幼虫,健康:被寄生=5:5),观察了寄生经历(无寄生经历、有1次寄生经历、有1次过奇生经历)和寄主被首次寄生后的间隔时间(1-7 d)对斑痣悬茧蜂在健康寄主和被寄生寄主之间的选择;为探究斑痣悬茧蜂是否能够辨别寄主斑块质量,观察了斑痣悬茧蜂连续3次访问不同质量寄主斑块(被寄生寄主:健康寄主分别为2:8,5:5和8:2)时的产卵刺扎次数.对选择频次进行的分析表明,寄主被首次寄生后的间隔时间和寄生蜂的寄生经历均对过寄生发生有显著影响(P<0.05),过寄生概率随寄主首次被寄生后的间隔时间延长而降低;有寄生经历的寄生蜂发生过寄生的概率低于无寄生经历的寄生蜂.用Cox比例风险模型对寄主辨别时间进行的分析表明,发生过寄生的风险随寄主被初次寄生后间隔时间的延长而减小,也因寄生蜂具有过寄生经历而减小.斑痣悬茧蜂在连续3次访问不同质量寄主斑块中,产卵刺扎次数随寄主斑块的质量提高而显著增多.据此推论,斑痣悬茧蜂不仅能够辨别被寄生寄主,而且能够辨别含有被寄生寄主的寄主斑块.

  5. Effects of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) expressed in tomato leaves on larvae of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the effect of GNA on the development of the endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M E; Bell, H A; Fitches, E C; Edwards, J P; Gatehouse, A M R

    2006-02-01

    The effect of ingestion of transgenic tomato leaves expressing the plant lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) on development of larvae of Lacanobia oleracea (Linnaeus) was studied under laboratory conditions. When L. oleracea larvae were fed on tomato line 14.1H, expressing approximately 2.0% GNA, significant increases in the mean larval weight and in the amount of food consumed were found. This resulted in an overall reduction in the mean development time to the pupal stage of approximately 7 days. A significant increase in the percentage survival to the adult moth was also recorded when newly hatched larvae were reared on transgenic tomato leaves (72%) compared to larvae reared on untransformed leaves (40%). The effects of ingestion of GNA by L. oleracea larvae, via artificial diet or the leaves of transgenic tomato or potato plants, on the subsequent development of its solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Thunberg) was also studied. No significant effects on the life cycle parameters of M. gyrator developing in L. oleracea fed on GNA-containing diets were observed. Experiments with transgenic potato plants indicated that the stadium of the host larvae at parasitism had a greater influence on M. gyrator development than the presence of GNA. Potential GNA-binding glycoproteins were detected in the gut and body tissues of larval M. gyrator. Despite detection in host tissues, GNA could not be detected in adult M. gyrator and therefore it is likely that at the time of pupation M. gyrator are able to void the GNA in the meconial pellet.

  6. First record of Pyemotes tritici (Lagreze-Fossat et Montagne) as ectoparasite of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)%麦蒲螨寄生麦蛾柔茧蜂初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝珠; 翁丽琼; 许再福

    2007-01-01

    本文对麦蒲螨Pyemotes tritici(Lagreze-Fossat et Montagne)侵染印度谷螟Plodia interpunctella (Hubner)和麦蛾柔茧蜂Habrobracon hebetor(Say,1836)的症状进行了扼要的记述,同时介绍了该螨的主要寄主及分布情况.这是该螨寄生麦蛾柔茧蜂的首次报道.

  7. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  8. The mutillid wasps of the Dasymutilla paradoxa species-group (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, David R; Williams, Kevin A; Bartholomay, Pedro R

    2016-11-15

    The Dasymutilla paradoxa species-group is newly proposed to include taxa formerly included in the genera Dasymutilla Ashmead, 1899, Traumatomutilla André, 1901 and some previously incertae sedis. This species-group now includes the following eight species: D. fasciventris Mickel, D. guanacaste Manley & Pitts, D. naranjo Manley & Pitts, D. paradoxa (Gerstaecker), comb. nov., D. paraparadoxa, sp. nov., D. phya (Cameron), comb. nov., D. relata (Cameron), and D. sliepniri Manley & Pitts. Dasymutilla paraparadoxa Luz, Bartholomay & Williams, sp. nov. (Mexico, Guatemala) is described and illustrated. New synonymy is proposed (valid names are first) for: Dasymutilla fasciventris Mickel, 1938 (=Dasymutilla citromaculosa Manley & Pitts, 2007, syn. nov., =Dasymutilla chamela Manley & Pitts, 2007, syn. nov.); Mutilla paradoxa Gerstaecker, 1874 (=Sphaerophthamla [sic!] icaris Cameron, 1895, syn. nov.); Sphaerophthalma [sic!] phya Cameron, 1895 (=Sphaerophthalma [sic!] melissa Cameron, 1895, syn. nov.). The key to species is given.

  9. Species of Spalangia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae collected from buffalo dung in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. V. Milhomem

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of determining the species of Spalangia in pupae of muscoid Diptera present in buffalo dung, collected in the municipality of Itumbiara, GO, from May to December 2003. The dipterous pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 2.59%. The prevalences of parasitism presented by the parasitoid species Spalangia cameroni (Perkins, Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead, Spalangia endius (Walker, Spalangia nigra (Letraille and Spalangia nigroaenea (Curtis were 0.53%, 1.37%, 0.15%, 0.04% and 0.49%, respectively.

  10. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  11. Campsomerinae (Hymenoptera, Scoliidae) collected in Malawi (Central Africa) between 1968 and 1973

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulten, G.G.M.

    1975-01-01

    A collection of 301 Campsomerinae (Hymenoptera; Scoliidae) was made in Malawi (Central Africa) between 1968 – 1973. The specimens belong to 14 species, 10 subspecies and 4 formae, of which 5 species, 2 subspecies and 3 formae are new to the fauna of Malawi. A description is given of two new species

  12. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae occurring in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolívar Garcete-Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae recorded from Brazil: H. arechavaletae (Brèthes and H. duckei (Bertoni comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  13. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  14. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Katja C; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction.

  15. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja C Seltmann

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology, historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction.

  16. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  17. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  18. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  19. Insect Pupil Mechanisms. I. On the Pigment Migration in the Retinula Cells of Hymenoptera (Suborder Apocrita)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Kuiper, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The pupil mechanism of Hymenoptera (suborder Apocrita) has been studied by simultaneous recordings of transmission and reflection from the compound eye of virtually intact animals. It is confirmed that the light flux in the photoreceptors is controlled by pigment granules in the retinula cells; the

  20. An update on the diversity of Wolbachia in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of Wolbachia bacteria have the potential to improve the efficacy of their host insects as biological control agents. Results of an earlier study documented numerous cases of such infections in a beneficial guild of wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitic on pest flies affecting lives...

  1. De graafwesp Passaloecus brevilabris nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rond, de J.

    2003-01-01

    The diggerwasp Passaloecus brevilabris new to the Dutch fauna (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) In the summer of 2002 a new diggerwasp for the Netherlands was found by the author, north of Herkenbosch (province of Limburg) at the edge of a forest consisting mainly of pine Pinus sylvestris and oak Quercus r

  2. De kortsnuitbloedbij Sphecodes majalis nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.

    2004-01-01

    Sphecodes majalis, a new bee species for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) A population of Sphecodes majalis was found on a limestone grassland near Maastricht (Limburg). On several occasions more than 10 female and several male specimen were observed. Sphecodes majalis is a parasite of Lasioglo

  3. Primeiro relato de Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) no Brasil First report of Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; Miranda, J.M.; V.A Costa

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the first occurrence of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil. Chicken manure samples, collected at two-week interval, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by the method of flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. In the study, ten pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) were obtained, two of which yielded the parasitoid M. raptor...

  4. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charuwat Taekul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe; and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam. Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford, syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee, syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd, syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer, syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia; Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa; and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia.

  5. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  6. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

    2010-06-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America.

  7. Reproductive Biology of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X-L; Huang, Z-Y; Li, J; Yang, Z-D; Yang, X-H; Lu, W

    2017-03-14

    Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations around the world. The successful colonization of L. invasa is possibly related to its reproductive biology. The objective of this study was to examine the reproductive biology of L. invasa. In Guangxi Province, the sex ratio (proportion of female, 0.99) of L. invasa was female-dominant throughout the year based on natural and artificial infestation. This result was similar to the ratios observed for other geographic populations in China, including those in Fujian (0.99), Guangdong (0.98), Hainan (0.95), Jiangxi (0.96), and Sichuan (0.99). The offspring sex ratio favored females. A large number of females emerged from the galls produced by females, with few males found. Galls on the petioles and midribs of Eucalyptus plants could be caused by newly emerged females with mature eggs. The lengths of the ovariole, spermatheca, common oviduct, and reproductive glands did not differ among L. invasa females, but their lateral oviducts showed differences from 0 to 42 h after emergence, indicating that this insect is proovigenic. These results could explain why L. invasa populations can rapidly increase in invaded areas.

  8. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  9. 手性氟虫腈对意大利蜜蜂和稻螟赤眼蜂的急性毒性及安全评价%Acute Toxicities and Safety Evaluation of Chiral Fipronil to Apis mellifera L.and Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苍涛; 王新全; 王彦华; 吴长兴; 吴声敢; 陈丽萍; 俞瑞鲜; 赵学平

    2012-01-01

    手性农药多以外消旋体形式用于农业生产和卫生害虫防治中.但手性农药对映体通常具有不同的生物活性和毒性,这种现象在农药环境风险评价过程中往往被忽视.本研究以氟虫腈为例,首先用高效液相色谱-手性固定相(HPLC-CSP)技术拆分出氟虫腈的S型和R型2种对映体,分别采用点滴法和药膜法测定了氟虫腈对映体及外消旋体对意大利蜜蜂(A pis mellifera L.)和稻螟赤眼蜂(Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead)的急性毒性.结果显示,S(+)-氟虫腈、R(-)-氟虫腈和外消旋体对意大利蜜蜂的48 h-LD50分别为0.00341、0.00396和0.00383 μg·蜂-1,对稻螟赤眼蜂的24 h-LR50分别为7.56×10-7、8.06×10-7和7.29 ×10-7 mg·cm-2.研究表明,氟虫腈对意大利蜜蜂具有高毒性风险,对稻螟赤眼蜂有极高毒性风险,且氟虫腈对意大利蜜蜂和稻螟赤眼蜂的急性毒性无明显的对映体选择性.因此,使用氟虫腈单一对映体不会降低其对环境生物的毒害风险.%Most of the chiral pesticides were used as racemic forms in agricultural production and health pest control.However,differences existed in the biological activity and toxicity of the enantiomers of chiral pesticides,and the phenomena were usually ignored during the process of environmental risk evaluation of chiral pesticides.In this study,fipronil was selected as a model chiral pesticide,and its two enantiomers were isolated using an HPLC chiral stationary phase method (HPLC-CSP).The acute toxicities of S(+ )-fipronil,R(-)-fipronil and racemic fipronil to Apis mellifera L.and Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead were investigated by the standard drop method and drug membrane method.Results showed that the 48 h-LD50 of S( + )-fipronil,R( - )-fipronil and racemic fipronil to A .mellifera were 0.00341,0.00396 and 0.00383 μg· bee-1,respectively.The 24 h-LR50 of S( + )-fipronil,R( - )-fipronil and racemic fipronil to T.japonicum were 7.56 × 10-7,8.06× 10-7 and 7

  10. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 Ormyridae, 33 Pteromalidae, 9 Eupelmidae and 17 Eulophidae. Ormyrus rufimanus Mayr, 1904 and Idiomacromerus semiaeneus (Szelenyi, 1957 are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. For each family and genus of Chalcidoidea data are given on biology, diversity and distribution in Comunidad de Madrid. The composition of the chalcid wasp parasitoid community associated with gall wasps in Comunidad de Madrid is discussed and compared to the same community data from the Iberian Peninsula and the Western Palaearctic. Species from the Iberian community of chalcid parasitoids that are missing from Madrid region, exclusive species and potentially present species are also commented upon. Finally two appendices are presented as follows: a list of the Chalcidoidea species reared from 73 different galls made by 71 cynipid species from Madrid with associated parasitoid records, and a final appendix with full record data of all studied material, including information on the sampling localities with X, Y georeferenced coordinates, host galls and host plants.

    Se compila y actualiza la información existente sobre la comunidad parasitoide de Chalcidoidea, asociada a agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos corresponden a más de 1000 registros, tanto de datos publicados, como inéditos, correspondientes a colectas en 80 localidades de Madrid efectuadas por el equipo investigador a lo largo de 23 a

  11. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M T; Ewan, P W; Diwakar, L; Durham, S R; Frew, A J; Leech, S C; Nasser, S M

    2011-09-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research.

  12. 89 Is Basophil Specific Response to Hymenoptera Venom Related to T Regulatory Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Petr; Hulikova, Katarina; Cvackova, Milada; Planska, Daniela; Riegerova, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    Background The exact mechanism of systemic hypersensitivity to venom is not exactly understood. It is suggested T cells with regulatory potential can downregulate other T cell subsets and effector cells, ex. mast cell or basophils. We focused on relationship of specific basophil reactivity in relationship to proportion of regulatory T cells. Methods Forty-five patients with history of systemic symptoms of allergy to Hymenoptera venom were included. Basophil reactivity before the treatment and...

  13. Description and biological features of a new species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae

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    F. Nugnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus lindberginae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, an egg par- asitoid of the leafhopper Lindbergina aurovittata (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, is described from Italy. It is included in the atomus group of Anagrus Haliday and compared with the allied known taxa. The parasitoid’s life cycle is characterized by a long larval diapause from spring to fall, which allows for synchronization with its leafhop- per host; other biological traits of A. lindberginae on the evergreen plant Quercus ilex are discussed.

  14. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brian; Hash, John; Hartop, Emily; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton

    2017-01-01

    Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema h...

  15. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  16. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  17. The description of Alloxysta chinensis, a new Charipinae species from China (Hymenoptera, Figitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Dávid; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja; Pénzes, Zsolt; Melika, George

    2013-01-01

    A new figitid species, Alloxysta chinensis Fülöp & Mikó sp nova, based on females, is described from China and South Korea. The functional morphology and the phylogenetic implication of some anatomical structures frequently used in Charipinae and the validity of the genus Carvercharips is discussed. This manuscript is the first of its kind linking descriptive terminology to Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology classes, which provides persistent links to definitions for terms used within this manuscript.

  18. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-01-01

    Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise), Coccidae (sagtedopluise) en Kerriidae (lakdopluise) is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhoudi...

  19. A Gynandromorph and Teratological Case in Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae

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    Emerson Comério

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Este estudo relata a ocorrência de antenas com características femininas e masculinas em um exemplar fêmea de Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae coletado no Parque Estadual Intervales, Ribeirão Grande, São Paulo, Brasil, assim como malformações em uma das antenas, que são aqui descritas e ilustradas.

  20. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  1. Occurrence of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus caria and F. microcarpa in Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanlar, Mikdat

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), considering that only 2 fig wasp species, Blastophaga psenes (L.) and Philotrypesis caricae (L.) (new record) are associated with Ficus carica in Turkey. Five fig wasps species, namely Eupristina verticillata Waterston, Walkerella microcarpae Boucek, Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes, Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen, and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi were found on Ficus microcarpa (L.), which is an Asian fig tree, and has been ornamentally ...

  2. Morphology and function of the ovipositor mechanism in Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita

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    Andrew Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ovipositor of apocritan Hymenoptera is an invaluable source of phylogenetically relevant characters, and our understanding of its functional morphology stands to enlighten us about parasitoid life history strategies. Although Ceraphronoidea is one of the most commonly collected Hymenoptera taxa with considerable economic importance, our knowledge about their natural history and phylogenetic relationships, both to other apocritan lineages and within the superfamily itself, is limited. As a first step towards revealing ceraphronoid natural diversity we describe the skeletomuscular system of the ceraphronoid ovipositor for the first time. Dissections and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 3D media files were used to visualize the ovipositor complex and to develop character concepts. Morphological structures were described in natural language and then translated into a character-character state format, whose terminology was linked to phenotype-relevant ontologies. Four unique anatomical phenotypes were revealed: 1. The first valvifer (gonangulum of the genus Trassedia is composed of two articulating sclerites, a condition present only in a few basal insect taxa. The bipartition of the first valvifer in Trassedia is most likely secondary and might allow more rapid oviposition. 2. Ceraphronoids, unlike other Hymenoptera, lack the retractor muscle of the terebra; instead the egg laying device is retracted by the seventh sternite. 3. Also unlike other Hymenoptera, the cordate apodeme and the anterior flange of the second valvifer are fused and compose one ridge that serves as the site of attachment for the dorsal and ventral T9-second valvifer muscles. Overall, the ceraphronoid ovipositor system is highly variable and can be described by discrete, distinguishable character states. However, these differences, despite their discrete nature, do not reflect the present classification of the superfamily and might represent parallelisms driven by host

  3. Primeiro relato de Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae no Brasil First report of Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first occurrence of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil. Chicken manure samples, collected at two-week interval, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by the method of flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. In the study, ten pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae were obtained, two of which yielded the parasitoid M. raptorellus . The percentage of parasitism was 5.0%.

  4. Las “Avispas Bandera” (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

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    Serna Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del
    orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas.
    Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y Taxonomía de Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo
    capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución Geográfica de los Géneros de la Familia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores
    de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  5. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-10-28

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.).

  6. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

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    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  7. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  8. Origin and phylogeography of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera : Cephidae): implications for pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    he wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage by this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are not very effective and uncertainties regarding its origin and i...

  9. A revision of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) with a description of a new genus and six new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus of Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is described based on material reared from an unidentified Ophelimus species (Eulophidae: Ophelimini) on Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae). Mikeius Buffington n. gen. includes six species: M. berryi Buffington n. sp., M. hartigi (G...

  10. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  11. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  12. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

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    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  13. Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) : A critical consideration of models and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Kamping, Albert; van de Zande, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Sex determining mechanisms are highly diverse. Like all Hymenoptera, the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy: males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex in Nasonia is not determined by complementary alleles at sex loci. Evidence for several alternative models is consid

  14. Developmental time, sex ratio and longevity of Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on the greenhouse whitefly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzano, M.R.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Cardona, C.; Drost, Y.C.

    2000-01-01

    Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) is being evaluated as a potential biological control agent of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on bean crops in Colombia. The life history of this natural enemy is presented in this paper. The developmen

  15. [Level of histamine in supernatants from the basophil activation test: applications to hymenoptera allergy and drug allergy--preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamim, S; Lauret, M G; Drouet, M; Sabbah, A

    1999-02-01

    Histamine Release technic consists in calculating histamine liberated by blood cells in touch with an allergen. To this day, this method is only used in Hymenoptera venom allergy diagnosis. The principle of this study is to measure histamine released by activated basophils in surnageons of Basophil Activation Test (BAT) for different allergens: Hymenoptera venoms: Bee, White Faced Hornet, Vespula Wasp. Drugs: Cefaperos, Clamoxyl, Alfatil, Rapifen, Diprivan, Nesdonal, Mivacron. A threshold of positivity (amplification factor in comparison with the control) is determined for these two classes of allergens: 45 for Hymenoptera venoms and 9 for drugs. These results, compared to the other diagnosis technics (Histamine Release, Basophil Activation Test, Prick Tests) discloses very high correlation rates in each case. This method seems to be a reliable method for Hymenoptera venom allergy diagnosis and for drugs allergy diagnosis too. However, this study is based on a few number of patients, so a significant statistic conclusion can't be expressed but it opens an interesting way of research.

  16. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  17. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Bulgaria

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    MIROSLAV ANTOV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  18. Pictorial key for females of Decevania Huben (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae and description of a new species

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    Ricardo Kawada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decevania Huben currently comprises 13 species, the females of which are known for only four. Herein an additional Neotropical Decevania is newly described: Decevania feitosai Kawada, sp. n. from Colombia. The description and identification key were made using the DELTA program. A pictorial key to females of Decevania is provided. Anatomical terminology follows the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology project with an atlas for terminologies used for recognition of Decevania species. The distribution maps can be accessed in Google Maps or through of Dryad (repository of data.

  19. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  20. A new species of Paraphaenodiscus Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae from India parasitizing Coccus sp. (Hemiptera: Coccidae

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    Sudhir Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri Singh sp. nov., has been described and illustrated with automontaged photographs of both male and female. Species parasitized scale insects on the leaves of Pterygota alata which were weaved into nest of red weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Species is compared with P. chrysocomae Prinsloo and P. pedanus Prinsloo & Mynhardt. Key to world species of Paraphaenodiscus except European species is also given. Types are deposited with National Forest Insect Collection, Entomology Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India (NFIC-FRI.

  1. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  2. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

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    Villa Lopera Antonio

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  3. Review of the Mexican species of Erythmelus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), with description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Huber, John T; González-Hernández, Alejandro

    2015-05-07

    The Mexican species of Erythmelus Enock (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) are revised. A key to females of 13 species is provided in both English and Spanish. Two new taxa are described--E. maya Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. and E. tigres Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. Six species are newly recorded from Mexico--E. angustatus Ogloblin, E. cingulatus Ogloblin, E. clavatus Ogloblin, E. gracilis (Howard), E. nanus Dozier, and E. noeli (Dozier), besides new geographic records for E. miridiphagus Dozier, E. picinus (Girault), E. psallidis Gahan, and E. rex (Girault) which were previously known from the country.

  4. Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae, new to Korea and the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer

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    Jongok Lim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is newly recognized from South Korea. The genus can be easily recognized from other genera in Scleroderminae by having the head wider than it is long, the antenna with 10 flagellomeres, the clypeus with short projected median lobe, and the metasomal tergite II longer than the combined length of remained tergites. Description and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of Pararhabdepyris paradoxus Gorbatovskii are provided. In addition, the present paper provides the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer of Scleroderminae from the world. A revised key to genera and species of South Korean Scleroderminae is also presented.

  5. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  6. Description of a new species of Euderus Haliday from the southeastern United States (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae): the crypt-keeper wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Scott P.; Weinersmith, Kelly L.; Liu, Sean; Ridenbaugh, Ryan D.; Zhang, Y. Miles; Forbes, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Euderus Haliday, Euderus set sp. n., is described and illustrated from the southeastern United States, where it parasitizes the crypt gall wasp, Bassettia pallida Ashmead, 1896, on live oaks in the genus Quercus (subsection Virentes). This is the 1st species of the genus reported from the southeastern United States to parasitize cynipid gall wasps and the 3rd species of the genus reported to attack cynipids in North America. Modified sections of the identification keys to subgenera and species of Euderus (Yoshimoto, 1971) are included to integrate the new species. PMID:28228666

  7. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015–2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  8. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farache, Fernando H A; Cruaud, Astrid; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Pereira, Rodrigo A S

    2017-01-01

    Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae) in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In this paper we reviewed the Idarnes incertus species-group and provide detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the species belonging to this group. Three previously described species were redescribed: I. brasiliensis (Mayr, 1906) comb. nov., I. hansoni Bouček, 1993, and I. incertus (Ashmead, 1900). Seventeen new species are described by Farache and Rasplus: I. amacayacuensissp. n., I. amazonicussp. n., I. americanaesp. n., I. badiovertexsp. n., I. brevissp. n., I. brunneussp. n., I. comptonisp. n., I. cremersiaesp. n., I. dimorphicussp. n., I. flavicrussp. n., I. flaviventrissp. n., I. gibberosussp. n., I. gordhisp. n., I. maximussp. n., I. nigriventrissp. n., I. pseudoflavussp. n. and I. ramirezisp. n. We provided keys for the identification of the species as well as for recognising the different species-groups of Idarnes and a closely related genus (Sycophaga Westwood, 1840). Additionally, phylogenetic relationships among 13 species of the I. incertus species-group were inferred using four molecular markers and discussed in the light of Ficus taxonomy and host specificity.

  9. A Short History Regarding the Taxonomy and Systematic Researches of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera

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    O. A. Popovici

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the most important and best-known works that were the subject of taxonomy or systematics Platygastroidea superfamily. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part of the research surprised the early period can be placed throughout the XIXth century between Latreille and Dalla Torre. Before this period, references about platygastrids and scelionids were made by Linnaeus and Schrank, they are the ones who described the first platygastrid and scelionid respectively. In this the first period work entomologists as: Haliday, Westwood, Walker, Forster, Ashmead, Thomson, Howard, etc., the result of their work being the description of 699 scelionids species which are found quoted in Dalla Torre's catalogue. The second part of the paper is devoted to early 20th century. This vibrant work is marked by the work of two great entomologists: Kieffer and Dodd. In this period one publish the first and only global monograph of platygastrids and scelionids until now. In this monograph are twice the number of species than in Dalla Torre's catalogue which shows the magnitude of the systematic research of those moments. The third part of the paper refers to the late 20th and early 21st century. This period, which continues today, is the period of modern systematics and taxonomy research about platygastrids and scelionids. During this period these two families become a distinct Superfamily which differs by Proctotrupoidea Superfamily. A great contribution in taxonomic and systematic Platygastroidea Superfamily brought Masner and Kozlov, the presentation of their work occupying the largest space of this 3rd party.

  10. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H.A. Farache

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In this paper we reviewed the Idarnes incertus species-group and provide detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the species belonging to this group. Three previously described species were redescribed: I. brasiliensis (Mayr, 1906 comb. nov., I. hansoni Bouček, 1993, and I. incertus (Ashmead, 1900. Seventeen new species are described by Farache and Rasplus: I. amacayacuensis sp. n., I. amazonicus sp. n., I. americanae sp. n., I. badiovertex sp. n., I. brevis sp. n., I. brunneus sp. n., I. comptoni sp. n., I. cremersiae sp. n., I. dimorphicus sp. n., I. flavicrus sp. n., I. flaviventris sp. n., I. gibberosus sp. n., I. gordhi sp. n., I. maximus sp. n., I. nigriventris sp. n., I. pseudoflavus sp. n. and I. ramirezi sp. n. We provided keys for the identification of the species as well as for recognising the different species-groups of Idarnes and a closely related genus (Sycophaga Westwood, 1840. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships among 13 species of the I. incertus species-group were inferred using four molecular markers and discussed in the light of Ficus taxonomy and host specificity.

  11. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

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    Daniel S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea, suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny.

  12. Genes underlying reproductive division of labor in termites, with comparisons to social Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All social insects are characterized by a reproductive division of labor. Within a colony only a few individuals reproduce (queens and in termites, also a king while the large majority (workers and soldiers forgo reproduction, at least temporarily. The evolution of such reproductive altruism can ultimately be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, I will review the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying this altruism in termites. As social cockroaches they evolved eusociality independently from the social Hymenoptera, which makes them interesting test cases to look for common underlying mechanisms of eusociality and lineage specific idiosyncrasies. First, I will provide a summary of the genes and their function that have been identified to underlie reproductive division of labor - so called 'queen genes,' - in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus, an emerging model to study termite social evolution. Second, I outline how widespread these queen genes are across the termite phylogeny, using also evidence from recent genome analyses. I will provide hypotheses about the evolutionary origin of these queen genes, aiming to link proximate mechanisms with ultimate functions. Finally, I will draw comparisons to social Hymenoptera to indicate potential common underpinnings that warrant further testing.

  13. A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

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    Katja Seltmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO and its associated applications. These resources are designed to facilitate accessible and extensible research on hymenopteran phenotypes. Outreach with the hymenopterist community is of utmost importance to the HAO project, and this paper is a direct response to questions that arised from project workshops. In a concerted attempt to surmount barriers of understanding, especially regarding the format, utility, and development of the HAO, we discuss the roles of homology, “preferred terms”, and “structural equivalency”. We also outline the use of Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs and posit that they are a key element necessary for increasing the objectivity and repeatability of science that references hymenopteran anatomy. Pragmatically, we detail a mechanism (the “URI table” by which authors can use URIs to link their published text to the HAO, and we describe an associated tool (the “Analyzer” to derive these tables. These tools, and others, are available through the HAO Portal website (http://portal.hymao.org. We conclude by discussing the future of the HAO with respect to digital publication, cross-taxon ontology alignment, the advent of semantic phenotypes, and community-based curation.

  14. Antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of the web-spinning sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiujie; Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiangbo; Wang, Hongbin; Shen, Gengchen; Zhang, Haijun

    2013-07-01

    Acantholyda posticalis (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) is an important pine pest with a world-wide distribution. To clarify the olfactory receptive mechanism of A. posticalis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the morphology, ultrastructure, and distribution of antennal sensilla of adults from two sites in China. The antennae were filiform, and the flagella comprised 32-35 flagellomeres. Six sensillum types were found. Sensilla chaetica were straight setae with sharply pointed tips and without dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla trichodea were characterized by a parallel-grooved wall and one terminal pore and were innervated by four dendrites at the base. Sensilla basiconica I possessed longitudinally grooved surfaces and multiple terminal pores, with five dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla basiconica II not only had a distinct terminal pore but also had numerous tiny wall pores and many dendritic branches within the sensillum lymph. Sensilla coeloconica had deep longitudinal grooves, one terminal pore and six dendrites, while sensilla campaniformia were thick-walled with a terminal opening and sensory nerve bundles in the lumen. Sensilla chaetica and s. trichodea were most abundant and distributed over the entire antennae, while s. basiconica I and II, s. coeloconica, and s. campaniformia were restricted to the ventral flagellar surfaces. Although the shape and structure of antennae were similar in males and females, females had significantly longer antennae than males, and males had significantly more s. basiconica I than females. We compared the morphology and structure of these sensilla to other Hymenoptera and discussed their possible functions.

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of a mitochondrial rearrangement "hot spot" in the Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, M; Austin, A D

    1999-02-01

    The arrangement of tRNA genes at the junction of the cytochrome oxidase II and ATPase 8 genes was examined across a broad range of Hymenoptera. Seven distinct arrangements of tRNA genes were identified among a group of wasps that have diverged over the last 180 Myr (suborder Apocrita); many of the rearrangements represent evolutionarily independent events. Approximately equal proportions of local rearrangements, inversions, and translocations were observed, in contrast to vertebrate mitochondria, in which local rearrangements predominate. Surprisingly, homoplasy was evident among certain types of rearrangement; a reversal of the plesiomorphic gene order has arisen on three separate occasions in the Insecta, while the tRNA(H) gene has been translocated to this locus on two separate occasions. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene translocation is real and is not an artifactual translocation resulting from the duplication of a resident tRNA gene followed by mutation of the anticodon. The nature of the intergenic sequences surrounding this region does not indicate that it should be especially prone to rearrangement; it does not generally have the tandem or inverted repeats that might facilitate this plasticity. Intriguingly, these findings are consistent with the view that during the evolution of the Hymenoptera, rearrangements increased at the same time that the rate of point mutations and compositional bias also increased. This association may direct investigations into mitochondrial genome plasticity in other invertebrate lineages.

  16. Três espécies novas do gênero Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae coletadas em ninhos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera do Estado do Acre, Brasil Three new species of the genus Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae collected in Sphecidae nests (Hymenoptera from Acre State, Brazil

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    Sonia Maria Lopes

    Full Text Available Three new species of Chorisoneura Brunner, 1865 from Acre State, Brazil collected in nests of Podium Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae are described. Illustrations of genitalia are presented.

  17. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  18. Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.

  19. Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori

    2007-01-01

    This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.

  20. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae) em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: fanniidae) no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Vanessa Alves Alvarenga

    2008-01-01

    Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae), no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Cur...

  1. Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes. Geometrid larvae are the only prey known for larvae of the Neotropical potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 was amplified from geometrid larvae collected from cells of H. andeus in the Azapa Valley, Arica Province, and used to provide taxonomic identifications. Two species, Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 and Macaria mirthae Vargas, Parra & Hausmann, 2005 were identified, while three others could be identified only at higher taxonomic levels, because the barcode reference library of geometrid moths is still incomplete for northern Chile.

  2. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii...

  3. Recombinant phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom for improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity

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    Grunwald Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Proper diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivities. Although non-glycosylated marker allergens would facilitate the identification of the culprit venom, the major allergen phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom (YJV remained unavailable so far. Methods Expression of Ves v 1 as wild type and enzymatically inactivated mutant and Ves v 5 in insect cells yielded soluble proteins that were purified via affinity chromatography. Functionality of the recombinant allergens was assessed by enzymatic and biophysical analyses as well as basophil activation tests. Diagnostic relevance was addressed by ELISA-based analyses of sera of YJV-sensitized patients. Results Both major allergens Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 could be produced in insect cells in secreted soluble form. The recombinant proteins exhibited their particular biochemical and functional characteristics and were capable for activation of human basophils. Assessment of IgE reactivity of sera of YJV-sensitized and double-sensitized patients emphasised the relevance of Ves v 1 in hymenoptera venom allergy. In contrast to the use of singular molecules the combined use of both molecules enabled a reliable assignment of sensitisation to YJV for more than 90% of double-sensitised patients. Conclusions The recombinant availability of Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom will contribute to a more detailed understanding of the molecular and allergological mechanisms of insect venoms and may provide a valuable tool for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy.

  4. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Thailand.

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    Sirikarn Sanpa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  5. Additions to the Knowledge of the Genus Phimenes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

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    Lien Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solitary wasp genus Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae was reported to occur in Vietnam by van der Vecht (1959, represented by one taxon, Phimenes flavopictus continentalis (Zimmermann, which was synonymized under nominotypical Phimenes flavopictus (Blanchard, 1849 by Kumar (2013. A note on gender of this genus is made in the text. One more species, Phimenes indosinensis (van der Vecht, 1959 is recorded in this study from Dak Lak in the southern and Son La in the northwestern parts of Vietnam for the first time. Detailed descriptions of the female and male of the latter are provided with figures. A key to the two species from Vietnam is also provided.

  6. Nesting Biology and Behavior of Euodynerus dantici (Rossi, 1790 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae in Central Mongolia

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    Batchuluun Buyanjargal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting biology of Euodynerus dantici (Rossi, 1790 was studied in the Khugnu- Khaan Mountains of Khugnu-Tarna National Park, central Mongolia in 2014 using nest traps. Euodynerus dantici is univoltine in the study site, with one generation per growth season. Nest architecture and its structural parts were described in details. The inner cells of the nests were longer and contained a proportionately larger amount of food than the shorter outer cells. Females developed in inner cells and males developed in outer cells. Developmental stages of E. dantici is studied with details of pupation period. All basic behavioral elements of nesting females are described. A nest parasitoid, Chrysis ignita (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae was reared from E. dantici nests for the fi rst time. For provisioning, caterpillars of the family Noctuidae (Lepidoptera were hunted by females. Diversity in nest architecture is possibly a result of nest parasite pressure

  7. New records and three new species of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea from Iran

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    Franco Strumia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of 52 cuckoo wasp species (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae from Iran are given. One genus and 27 species (including 3 new species: 52% of the captured material are new records for the country. In addition, three new species, Chrysis gianassoi sp. nov., Chrysis majidi sp. nov. and Chrysis unirubra sp. nov. are described and illustrated, and diagnostic characters are provided to identify them. Chrysis turcica du Buyson, 1908 is removed from synonymy with Chrysis peninsularis du Buysson, 1887. Chrysis bilobata Balthasar, 1953 is confirmed as valid species and illustrated. The composition of the Iranian Chrysididae fauna is compared with that of South Palaearctic countries. The large proportion of new record and new species (≈52% indicates that the fauna of Iranian Chrysididae is rich and diverse but has not yet been thoroughly studied. The majority of new record were obtained from mountainous sites above 1000 m above sea level, indicating the rich biodiversity of this biotope.

  8. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  9. New species of the plesiomorphic genus Nixonia Masner (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae from South Africa

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    Simon van Noort

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Nixonia Masner (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Scelioninae, Nixonia masneri sp. n. and Nixonia mcgregori sp. n. are described from South Africa and further records of Nixonia corrugata Johnson & Masner, Nixonia lamorali Johnson & Masner, Nixonia stygica Johnson & Masner are documented. Johnson and Masner’s 2006 identification key is modified to include the newly described species. Online interactive Lucid matrix and Lucid Phoenix dichotomous keys are available on WaspWeb at http://www.waspweb.org/Platygastroidea/Keys/index.htm. Lucid data files in lif and sdd format are available at: doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.112.app.1.ik and doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.112.app.2.ik.

  10. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  11. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae - Erratum

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    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In: Alvarado M. 2014. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae. Revista peruana de biología 21(1: 003 - 060 (Mayo 2014, doi: http://doi.org/10.15381/rpb.v21i1.8245The following information on depository of the type material was not provided: Holotype of Alophophion atahualpai is housed in the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru (MUSM; and, the holotype of A. carcanchoi, A. coquimboensis and A. yestay are housed in the American Entomological Institute, USA (AEIC.I thank Gavin Broad for bringing this problem to my attention.

  12. The maxillo-labial complex of Sparasion (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea

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    Ovidiu Popovici

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hymenopterans have evolved a rich array of morphological diversity within the maxillo-labial complex. Although the character system has been extensively studied and its phylogenetic implications revealed in large hymenopterans, e.g. in Aculeata, it remains comparatively understudied in parasitoid wasps. Reductions of character systems due to the small body size in microhymenoptera make it difficult to establish homology and limits the interoperability of morphological data. We describe here the maxillo-labial complex of an ancestral platygastroid lineage, Sparasion, and provide an ontology-based model of the anatomical concepts related to the maxillo-labial complex (MLC of Hymenoptera. The possible functions and putative evolutionary relevance of some anatomical structures of the MLC in Sparasion are discussed. Anatomical structures are visualized with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

  13. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  14. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation

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    Patricia Mullins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and E. rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under E. rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented with E. tibialis and E. rafaeli as sister to the remaining Evaniscus species. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other relevant biomedical ontologies are employed to create semantic phenotype statements in Entity-Quality (EQ format for species descriptions. This approach is an early effort to formalize species descriptions and to make descriptive data available to other domains.

  15. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Patricia L; Kawada, Ricardo; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented with Evaniscus tibialis and Evaniscus rafaeli as sister to the remaining Evaniscus species. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other relevant biomedical ontologies are employed to create semantic phenotype statements in Entity-Quality (EQ) format for species descriptions. This approach is an early effort to formalize species descriptions and to make descriptive data available to other domains.

  16. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  17. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  18. First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Bulgaria

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    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecophilous fungi Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Rickia wasmannii was found on Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in South-eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798, C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and C. pilicornis (Roger, 1859. Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna.

  19. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

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    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  20. Parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae eggs at 15, 20, 25, 28, 31, and 35°C, aiming to use this natural enemy in biological control programs in crops where S. frugiperda was considered pest. The parasitism during the first 24 h was 60.90, 81.65, 121.05, 117.55 and 108.55 parasited eggs per female from egg masses of approximately 150 eggs, at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 31°C, respectively. Females of T. remus reached parasitism higher than 80% at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 31ºC at 5, 27, 8, 2, and 2 days, respectively. At 35ºC, there was no parasitism. The highest parasitism rates occurred at 20, 25, 28 and 31°C. T. remus female longevity varied from 15.7 to 7.7 days from 15 to 31°C. The highest tested temperature (35°C was inappropriate for T. remus development. At that temperature, female longevity was greatly reduced (1.7±0.02 and egg viability was null. All T. remus survival curves were of type I, which showed an increase in mortality rate with time.Este trabalho estudou a capacidade de parasitismo de Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28, 31 e 35ºC objetivando usar esse inimigo natural em programas de controle biológico em culturas onde S. frugiperda é considerada praga. O parasitismo ocorrido nas primeiras 24 h foi de 60,90; 81,65; 121,05; 117,55 e 108,55 ovos parasitados por fêmea em massas ovos com aproximadamente 150 ovos, nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC. Fêmeas de T. remus causaram mais de 80% do parasitismo dos ovos nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC aos 5, 27, 8, 2 e 2 dias, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 35ºC não houve parasitismo. As maiores taxas de parasitismo ocorreram nas temperaturas de 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC. A longevidade média de fêmeas de T. remus nas temperaturas compreendidas entre 15

  1. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  2. Aprendizagem e memória de Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Tognon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O parasitoide de ovos Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 é um importante agente de controle natural de percevejos e seu sucesso de parasitismo está associado à habilidade para a localização do hospedeiro, sendo a aprendizagem e a memória um dos fatores que podem influenciar esta interação. O trabalho avaliou a capacidade de aprendizagem e tempo de retenção da memória de T. podisi ao extrato de capim-limão [Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. (Poales, Poaceae], em diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento da fase imatura. Ovos de Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798 (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae parasitados por T. podisi foram individualizados em tubos de vidro contendo papel filtro com extrato de capim-limão ou solvente acetona (controle e mantidos em diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento jovem dos parasitoides. Após a emergência, fêmeas de T. podisi foram testadas em olfatômetro tipo "Y" aos odores de ambos tratamentos. Fêmeas inexperientes foram submetidas aos mesmos odores das experientes. Para avaliar a memória, fêmeas oriundas de ovos que permaneceram em contato com o extrato de capim-limão por todo o desenvolvimento do estágio imaturo, foram testadas, após 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas de idade ao odor de capim-limão e acetona. Fêmeas que permaneceram em contato com o capim-limão por toda a fase jovem, direcionaram-se preferencialmente para este extrato, diferente das inexperientes ou das expostas à acetona, as quais preferiram o solvente. A presença do capim-limão, durante todo o estágio do desenvolvimento imaturo, alterou a orientação quimiotáxica de T. podisi, desencadeando aprendizagem nestes organismos, a qual se manteve por até 72 horas.

  3. 以麦二叉蚜和麦长管蚜为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂生理生化特性比较研究%Comparative Studies of the Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead Parasitizing Schizaphis graminum and Macrosiphum avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋修超; 郑方强; 戴凤宾; 墨铁路; 许永玉

    2012-01-01

    In the laboratory (22 ℃, RH 40%, a photoperiod of L : D=16h : 8h), the adult physiological and biochemical characteristics of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead were compared after reared on the two species of wheat aphid, Schizaphis graminum and Macrosiphum avenae. The results showed that, compared with those reared on S. graminum, both female and male adult wasps had wider head width (0.67 mm, 0.62 mm), longer longevity (5.0 d, 4.6 d), lower supercooling points (-25.7 ℃, -25.3 ℃) and freezing points (-24.9 ℃, -24.8 ℃), and higher water, protein and carbohydrate contents when reared on M. avenae. However, there were no differences in fat content between those reared on two different host plants, and no differences in all previous parameters between female and males reared on the same host plants. There were no differences in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase between those reared on two host plants, and between female and male adult wasps reared on the same host plants, with exceptions of that male adult wasps reared on M. avenae had higher activities of catalase than those reared on S. graminum and that female adult wasps reared on M. avenae had higher activities of peroxidase than those reared on S. graminum. The results indicated that A.gifuensis from M. avenae gets higher potential of anti-adversity than those from S. graminum.%在22 ℃,相对湿度 40%和光周期16L:8D条件下,对以麦二叉蚜Schizaphis graminum和麦长管蚜Macrosiphum avenae为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead雌、雄成蜂生理生化特性进行了比较研究.结果发现,与以麦二叉蚜为寄主时相比,以麦长管蚜为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂雌、雄成蜂头壳更宽、寿命更长(雌蜂 5.0 d,雄蜂 4.6 d)、过冷却点(雌蜂 -25.7 ℃,雄蜂 -25.3 ℃)和结冰点(雌蜂 -24.9 ℃,雄蜂 -24.8 ℃)更低,体内水分、蛋白质和糖类含量更高,但脂肪含量无显著差异.在同一寄主上雌雄蜂间,前

  4. Functional response and life history parameters of Apanteles taragamae, a larval parasitoid of Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamò, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a serious pest of cowpea in West-Africa. The parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) that originates from Taiwan is a potential candidate for biological control of M. vitrata. We investigated under lab

  5. Maize plants sprayed with either jasmonic acid or its precursor, methyl linolenate, attract armyworm parasitoids, but the composition of attractants differs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozawa, R.; Shiojiri, K.; Sabelis, M.W.; Takabayashi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of both uninfested and armyworm-infested maize plants with jasmonic acid (JA) is known to attract the parasitic wasp, Cotesia kariyai Watanabe (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Here, we show that treatment with a methyl ester of a JA precursor, methyl linolenate (MeLin), also causes maize plants

  6. Performance of the parasitoid Praon volucre in Aulacorthum solani at five temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos Silva, D.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature on biological parameters of Praon volucre (Haliday) (Hymenoptera Braconidae) and to determine its thermal requirements with the aphid Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Rhynchota Aphididae) as host. Tests were carried out at 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26

  7. SEARCHING AND PARASITISM OF Diatraea saccharalis (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE BY Trichospilus diatraeae (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizangela Leite Vargas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian and Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae to search and parasitize Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae pupae in sugarcane stalks was evaluated. To analyze the ability for search and parasitism were used stalks of sugarcane (20 cm where it was introduced a pupa of D. saccharalis (T1; a pupa and a caterpillar (T2 or a pupa and fecal matter (T3. Each stalk was placed in a transparent plastic bottle with 21 females of T. diatraeae. These pupae were isolated, after 72 h, in glass tubes at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10 % relative humidity, 14:10 light/dark. The experiment was developed in an entirely casualized design with three treatments and 12 repetitions. Percentage of D. saccharalis pupa parasitized by T. diatraeae was 50.00 %, 83.33 % and 16.66 % in the T1, T2 and T3, respectively (c2 = 3.896, p=0.04. The presence of D. saccharalis caterpillars favored searching and parasitism of this host.La capacidad de Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian y Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae para buscar y parasitar las pupas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en los tallos de la caña de azúcar fue estudiada. Para analizar la habilidad de búsqueda y parasitismo fueron utilizados tallos de la caña de azúcar (20 cm donde se introdujo una pupa de D. saccharalis (T1; pupas y orugas (T2 o pupa y residuos fecales (T3. Cada tallo fue colocado en una botella plástica transparente con 21 hembras de T. diatraeae. Esas pupas fueron individualizadas, luego de 72 h, en tubos de vidrio a 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10 % UR y 14 h de foto período. El experimento se desarrolló en un diseño completamente al azar, con tres tratamientos y 12 repeticiones. Los porcentajes de pupas de D. saccharalis parasitados por T. diatraeae fueron del 50,00 %, 83,33 % y 16,66 % en el T1, T2 y T3, respectivamente (c2 = 3.896, p = 0,04. La presencia de D. saccharalis en los tallos de ca

  8. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto S. Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on ovigeny in parasitoids is important for basic studies on physiology and applied biological control. The ovigeny pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied in newly-emerged females at seven, 14, 24 and 48 h intervals after their emergence from Tenebrio molitor L. pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Females of P. elaeisis presented ovaries composed by four ovarioles of the meroistic polytrophic type. The yolk accumulation and chorionogenesis in P. elaeisis were concluded 24 h after the female emergence. The 48 h-old females show a high quantity of egg ready for oviposition. These findings can help to improve the mass production of P. elaeisis and the augmentative biological control by using this natural enemy.O conhecimento da ovigenia em parasitóides é importante para estudos básicos em fisiologia e para o controle biológico aplicado. O padrão de ovigenia e OVIGENY OF Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE o tipo de ovaríolo do parasitóide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenopera: Eulophidae foram estudados em fêmeas recém-emergidas e em intervalos de sete, 14, 24 de 48 horas após a emergência em pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de P. elaesis apresentaram o ovário composto por quatro ovaríolos do tipo meroístico politrófico. A deposição de vitelo e corionogênese em P. elaeisis foram concluídas 24 horas após a emergência. Fêmeas com 48 horas de idade apresentam grande quantidade de ovos prontos para a oviposição. Esses resultados podem ajudar a melhoria da produção massal de P. elaeisis e o controle biológico aplicado com esse parasitóide.

  9. Description of the male Hymenoepimecis japi Sobczak et al. 2009 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae parasitoid of Leucauge roseosignata Mello-Leitão 1943 (Araneae: Tetragnathidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF. Sobczak

    Full Text Available The male of Hymenoepimecis japi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae is described and illustrated. The specimen was collected in a modified web (cocoon web of Leucauge roseosignata (Araneae, Tetragnathidae made in a laboratory. Both, host and parasitoid were collected in Reserva Biológica Serra do Japi, located in Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

  10. First host record of the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea along with the first description of a male from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Gupta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Euthalia aconthea meridionalis Fruhstorfer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae is documented as the first host record for the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea from Karnataka, India. The male of this species is recorded for the first time and described. Illustrations of both the female and male, and host details are given.

  11. Functional anatomy of the ovipositor clip in the parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma (Thompson) (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae): a structure to grip escaping host larvae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Isidoro, N.; Bin, F.

    1998-01-01

    Observations on the host attack behaviour of the parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera : Eucoilidae) led to the supposition that this wasp should possess a structure on its ovipositor by which it can hold a host larvae in a fixed position until the larva is paralyzed. The ovipositor was stu

  12. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein;

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited...

  13. Added sensitivity of component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated serum tryptase and/or mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, J B; Brockow, K; Darsow, U;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis caused by hymenoptera venom allergy is associated with elevation of baseline serum tryptase (sBT) and/or mastocytosis in about 5% of patients. Up to now, no information has become available on single venom allergen sIgE reactivity and the usefulness of component-resolved a......BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis caused by hymenoptera venom allergy is associated with elevation of baseline serum tryptase (sBT) and/or mastocytosis in about 5% of patients. Up to now, no information has become available on single venom allergen sIgE reactivity and the usefulness of component......-resolved approaches to diagnose this high-risk patient group. To address the component-resolved sIgE sensitization pattern and diagnostic sensitivity in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated sBT levels and/or mastocytosis, a panel of yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens was applied on a widely used...... IgE immunoassay platform. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with mastocytosis and/or elevated sBT tryptase level and systemic reactions to hymenoptera venoms were analyzed for their IgE reactivity to recombinant yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens by Immulite3 g. RESULTS: sIgE reactivity to Ves v...

  14. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  15. De vuurspindoder Eoferreola rhombica, een voor Nederland nieuwe spinnendoder, en haar bijzondere waard: de Lentevuurspin Eresus sandaliatus (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae; Araneae: Eresidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.P.; Helsdingen, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Eoferreola rhombica, a pompilid new to the Dutch fauna, and its remarkable host, Eresus sandaliatus (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae; Araneae: Eresidae) In 1998 a female specimen of Eoferreola rhombica (Christ, 1791) was collected in a road-verge on the Veluwe. The nearest populations of this species are fo

  16. Levantamento da fauna de Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) em cultivo de coqueiro anão verde associado à plantas invasoras

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Comério; Helena Onody; Vera Benassi

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar um levantamento da fauna de Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) em cultivo de coqueiro anão verde e avaliar a influência de plantas invasoras sobre esta fauna. As amostragens foram realizadas semanalmente durante o período de março/2008 a fevereiro/2009, utilizando armadilhas Möericke em uma área mantida roçada e outra com a presença de plantas invasoras. Foram obtidos 569 exemplares pertencentes a 11 subfam...

  17. ¿MULTIPLICAR Tetrastichus howardi (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE) EN LA ORUGA DE LA SEDA AFECTA SU BIOLOGÍA?

    OpenAIRE

    Nahara Gabriela Piñeyro; Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; Felipe Luis Gomes Borges; Camila Rossoni; Antonio de Souza Silva; Samir Oliveira Kassab

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENLa multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pup...

  18. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  19. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  20. A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae species from the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahari Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the Encarsia and Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae from Arasbaran and its vicinity (Northwestern Iran is studied in this paper. A total of 16 Encarsia species, including E. acaudaleyrodis Hayat, E. aleurochitonis (Mercet, E. aurantii (Howard, E. azimi Hayat, E. berlesei (Howard, E. citrina (Craw, E. elegans (Masi, E. elongata (Dozier, E. fasciata (Malenotti, E. formosa Gahan, E. inaron (Walker, E. lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli, E. lutea (Masi, E. luteola Howard, E. mineoi Viggiani, E. perniciosi (Tower, and 4 Eretmocerus species (Eretmocerus cadabae Viggiani, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, Eretmocerus nikolskajae Myartseva, Eretmocerus serius Silvestre were collected.

  1. Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) and redescription of C. abdominis Huang and C. furviflagellatus Huang from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are described from China, Coccobius bimaculatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Coccobius jinshanensis Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Coccobius leptocerus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Coccobius abdominis Huang 1994 and Coccobius furviflagellatus Huang 1994, originally described in Chinese, are redescribed in English and illustrated by macrophotography based on newly collected material. All five species were reared from Diaspididae (Hemiptera) scale insects on bamboo. Both the male of C. furviflagellatus and the diaspidid host association of C. abdominis and C. furviflagellatus are recorded for the first time.

  2. Discovery of the genus Formosiepyris Terayama, (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae in Vietnam, with a description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Tsujii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formosiepyris vietnamensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is described based on material collected from Da Lat, southern Vietnam. This is the first record of Formosiepyris Terayama from Vietnam. The new species can be distinguished from other Formosiepyris species by a narrow and rounded clypeus; a mandible with three teeth; a second metasomal tergite having small, sparsely distributed punctures and smooth interspaces, except for anterior 2/5, which is microreticulate; and a head length : width aspect ratio of 10 : 11. A key to the Oriental species of Formosiepyris is provided.

  3. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  4. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  5. Two new Aprostocetus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), fortuitous parasitoids of invasive eulophid gall inducers (Tetrastichinae) on Eucalyptus and Erythrina.

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    Yang, Man-Miao; Lin, Yu-Che; Wu, Yaojun; Fisher, Nicole; Saimanee, Titiporn; Sangtongpraow, Benjakhun; Zhu, Chaodong; Chiu, William Chien-Hsien; La Salle, John

    2014-08-01

    Two closely related new species of Aprostocetus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are described as fortuitous parasitoids of invasive gall inducers in two other genera of Tetrastichinae, Leptocybe Fisher & LaSalle and Quadrastichus Girault. Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu is a parasitoid of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle on Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) in China and Thailand, and A. felix La Salle, Yang & Lin is a parasitoid of Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan. Epitetrastichus nigriventris Girault, 1913 is removed from synonymy from Aprostocetus gala (Walker), and treated as the valid species A. nigriventris (Girault). 

  6. Occurrence of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae parasitizing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B nymphs on cotton plants was observed during a research on resistance of cotton genotypes to this whitefly. The experiment was set in a greenhouse at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of the parasitized nymphs were collected and maintained in laboratory to monitor the parasitism and obtain the adult parasitoids. A total of 129 adult parasitoids were obtained, including one Encarsia inaron (Walker, 13 En. lutea (Masi, and 115 Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. This is the first report of Er. mundus in Brazil.

  7. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

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    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  8. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

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    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  9. Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria ectosymbionts from Acromyrmex subterraneus brunneus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

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    Zucchi, Tiago D; Guidolin, Aline S; Cônsoli, Fernando L

    2011-01-20

    The ectosymbiont actinobacterium Pseudonocardia was isolated from the integument of Acromyrmex leaf-cutter ants and seems to play a crucial role in maintaining asepsis of the nest. Currently, there has been an intensive search for Pseudonocardia associated with several attine species, but few studies have indicated that other actinobacteria may be associated with these ants as well. We therefore characterized the culturable actinobacteria community associated with the integument of the fungus-growing ant Acromyrmex subterraneus brunneus Forel, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ectosymbionts were isolated using four different media and characterized by morphological and molecular (16S rDNA) methods. A total of 20 strains were isolated, of which 17 were characterized as Streptomyces spp., and one isolate each as Pseudonocardia, Kitassatospora and Propionicimonas. Unlike other Acromyrmex species, A. subterraneus brunneus is associated with a diversity of actinobacteria. Even though Pseudonocardia is present on this leaf-cutting ant's integument, the number and diversity of Streptomyces spp. found differs from those of previous studies with other attine ants and suggest that different culturing approaches are needed to characterize the true diversity of microbes colonizing the integument of attine ants. Moreover, understanding the diversity of the culturable actinobacteria associated with A. subterraneus brunneus should increase our knowledge of the evolutionary relationship of this intricate symbiotic association.

  10. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

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    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008).

  11. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

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    Geden, C J; Johnson, D M; Kaufman, P E; Boohene, C K

    2014-12-01

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) using house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Muscidifurax raptor had a significant impact on M. raptorellus when hosts were limiting in sequential parasitism tests. Fewer than six M. raptorellus adult progeny emerged from groups of 50 fly pupae that were parasitized by M. raptor at the same time or when M. raptor parasitism preceded M. raptorellus by 48 h, respectively, compared with 42-55 M. raptorellus progeny produced when this species was tested alone. Production of M. raptor was significantly lower when parasitism by this species was preceded by M. raptorellus (25) than when M. raptor was tested alone (43). When the two species parasitized hosts at the same time in different proportions at low host:parasitoid densities (5:1), M. raptorellus produced 13 progeny per parent female when it was the sole species present and fewer than two when M. raptor was present. No negative impact of M. raptorellus on M. raptor was observed. Neither species had a substantial effect on the success of the other at higher host:parasitoid densities.

  12. Revision of world species of the genus Oreiscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

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    Elijah Talamas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The world species of the genus Oreiscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae are revised. Nineteen species are recognized, of which four were previously named and are redescribed: O. sechellensis Kieffer (Seychelles, O. turneri Nixon (Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, O. alluaudi (Risbec (Madagascar and O. rugosus Sundholm (South Africa. The following species are described as new: O. aequalis Talamas, n. sp. (Central African Republic; O. badius Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Botswana; O. coracinus Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe; O. cultrarius Talamas, n. sp. (Tanzania; O. gryphus Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Cameroon, Central African Republic; O. iommii Talamas, n. sp. (South Africa; O. magnipennis Talamas, n. sp. (Kenya, Uganda; O. majikununuensis van Noort, n. sp. (Tanzania; O. megadontus Talamas, n. sp. (Tanzania; O. naevus Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Madagascar; O. paradoxus Talamas, n. sp. (Uganda, Zimbabwe; O. rostratus Talamas & Masner, n. sp. (Madagascar; O. scapularis Talamas, n. sp. (Madagascar; O. zulu Talamas & Polaszek, n. sp. (South Africa; O. zuzkae Talamas & Johnson, n. sp. (Benin, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. An electronic version of the identification key is available at WaspWeb.

  13. The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China

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    Chen Huayan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China is revised. Seventeen species are recognized based on 502 specimens, all of which are new records for China. Seven new species are described: M. carinigena sp. n. (China, M. flava sp. n. (China, M. gracilis sp. n. (China, M. salebrosa sp. n. (China, M. semicircula sp. n. (China, M. spinitibia sp. n. (China and M. striatipleuron sp. n. (China. Ten species are redescribed: M. boriviliensis Saraswat (China, India, Thailand, M. crawfordi Kiefer, stat. n. (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, M. dolichopa Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. emarginata Dodd (China, Malaysia, M. indica Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, M. livingstoni Saraswat (China, India, M. peliades Kozlov & Lê (China, Vietnam, M. rufa Szelényi (China, Egypt, Georgia, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and M. striativentris Crawford (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. The following five new synonyms are proposed: M. crates Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. demades Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. crawfordi Kieffer; M. cebes Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. dones Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. indica Saraswat & Sharma; M. dores Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.

  14. Single-locus complementary sex determination in the inbreeding wasp Euodynerus foraminatus Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

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    Stahlhut, J K; Cowan, D P

    2004-03-01

    The Hymenoptera have arrhenotokous haplodiploidy in which males normally develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, while females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Multiple sex determination systems are known to underlie haplodiploidy, and the best understood is single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) in which sex is determined at a single polymorphic locus. Individuals heterozygous at the sex locus develop as females; individuals that are hemizygous (haploid) or homozygous (diploid) at the sex locus develop as males. sl-CSD can be detected with inbreeding experiments that produce diploid males in predictable proportions as well as sex ratio shifts due to diploid male production. This sex determination system is considered incompatible with inbreeding because the ensuing increase in homozygosity increases the production of diploid males that are inviable or infertile, imposing a high cost on matings between close relatives. However, in the solitary hunting wasp Euodynerus foraminatus, a species suspected of having sl-CSD, inbreeding may be common due to a high incidence of sibling matings at natal nests. In laboratory crosses with E. foraminatus, we find that sex ratios and diploid male production (detected as microsatellite heterozygosity) are consistent with sl-CSD, but not with other sex determination systems. This is the first documented example of sl-CSD in a hymenopteran with an apparent natural history of inbreeding, and thus presents a paradox for our understanding of hymenopteran genetics.

  15. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones

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    Verónica LOETTI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Las larvas de N. oligospilus se alimentaron de las hojas de los cuatro clones. Sin embargo, consumieron una proporción significativamente mayor de las hojas de S. babylonica var sacramenta. Estos resultados indican que todos los clones utilizados en los ensayos fueron palatables para el insecto y que S. babylonica var sacramenta es el hospedador preferido para la herbivoría de las larvas.

  16. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Lisa M; Fell, Richard D; Saacke, Richard G

    2008-08-01

    We conducted research to examine the potential impacts ofcoumaphos, fluvalinate, and Apilife VAR (Thymol) on drone honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), sperm viability over time. Drones were reared in colonies that had been treated with each miticide by using the dose recommended on the label. Drones from each miticide treatment were collected, and semen samples were pooled. The pooled samples from each treatment were subdivided and analyzed for periods of up to 6 wk. Random samples were taken from each treatment (n = 6 pools) over the 6-wk period. Sperm viability was measured using dual-fluorescent staining techniques. The exposure of drones to coumaphos during development and sexual maturation significantly reduced sperm viability for all 6 wk. Sperm viability significantly decreased from the initial sample to week 1 in control colonies, and a significant decrease in sperm viability was observed from week 5 to week 6 in all treatments and control. The potential impacts of these results on queen performance and failure are discussed.

  17. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

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    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation.

  18. Function of the Dufour’s gland in solitary and social Hymenoptera

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    Aniruddha Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.

  19. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2010-06-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Both immobilization and mortality occurred most quickly with bifenthrin, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with three ratios of topically treated donor ant corpses to live recipients (5, 10, or 20% donors). Bifenthrin had the greatest horizontal activity of the chemicals tested. For chlorfenapyr, the only treatments having higher mortality than controls were the highest percentage donors at either 10 or 30 degrees C. Horizontal activity of fipronil was temperature dependent only with the highest proportion of donors and was lower than that ofbifenthrin but higher than that of chlorfenapyr or thiamethoxam. Mean mortality due to thiamethoxam was similar to that with chlorfenapyr. Significant mortality occurred in all of the 20 and 30 degrees C thiamethoxam treatments, but none of the 10 degrees C treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control bridge. Mortality data suggest that a reduction in recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  20. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2009-12-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam. After 2 h, the number of fipronil-treated ants unable to walk out of test arenas did not differ from control ants. Median lethal time (LT50) after topical treatment was lowest in the bifenthrin treatment, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and then fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with topically treated ant corpses serving as donors. There was low to moderate horizontal activity in bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr treatments, with no temperature effect in bifenthrin treatments and a positive temperature effect in chlorfenapyr treatments. Mortality in the fipronil treatments was highest and was positively correlated with temperature. Thiamethoxam treatments did not differ from controls at 10 degrees C, but mortality increased with temperature. To evaluate contact activity, either all of 20% of the ants in a cohort were exposed to insecticide-treated pine needles. In both tests, mortality was highest in fipronil and bifenthrin treatments, followed by thiamethoxam, with lowest mortality in chlorfenapyr treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control. Mortality data suggest that lack of recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  1. Tipos polínicos coletados por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Carvalho Carlos Alfredo Lopes de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos polínicos coletados no mesmo pasto apícola por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae foram estudados e comparados durante dois meses em Piracicaba-SP, (22o43'S; 47o25'W; altitude: 580m. As massas de pólen foram obtidas através da captura de operárias que retornavam à colônia das 5:00 às 19:00 horas nos meses de outubro e novembro de 1996. Trinta e um tipos polínicos pertencentes a 22 famílias foram identificados, dos quais 22,58% foram coletados exclusivamente por N. testaceicornis, 35,48% por T. angustula e 41,94%, por ambas as espécies. As famílias Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Mimosaceae e Myrtaceae e as espécies Bulbine frutescens, Eucalyptus spp., Leucaena leucocephala e Tipuana tipu foram as mais freqüentes e constantes durante os trabalhos. O índice de similaridade entre as fontes de pólen explorada pelas abelhas foi igual a 0,78.

  2. Desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, submetido a inseticidas e fungicidas em dois hospedeiros

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    Vinícius Pereira dos Santos

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes inseticidas e fungicidas, sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, em diferentes hospedeiros. Os testes foram realizados com adultos de T. pretiosum nos hospedeiros Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Helicoverpa zea (Boddie, 1850 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Os resultados mostraram que os agrotóxicos estudados tiveram efeitos diferentes sobre T. pretiosum, em função do hospedeiro. Os inseticidas IMIDACLORIPRIDO + BETA-CIFLUTRINA e METHOMYL foram os mais agressivos, reduzindo o parasitismo dos adultos de T. pretiosum em ambos os hospedeiros, enquanto, para os fungicidas, DIMETOMORPH + MANCOZEB e MANCOZEB foram os mais influentes. Diante dos resultados, conclui-se que o hospedeiro pode influenciar na ação seletiva dos inseticidas e fungicidas sobre parasitoides do gênero Trichogramma, visto que T. pretiosum foi mais susceptível ao inseticida METHOMYL e ao ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL, quando criado em A. kuehniella, e ao fungicida DIMETOMORPH + MANCOZEB, quando criado em H. zea. Não houve reduções expressivas dos percentuais de emergência dos descendentes, quando os fungicidas foram aplicados.

  3. Highly effective bacterial agents against Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): isolation of bacteria and their insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Filiz Ozkan; Ozgen, İnanc; Bolu, Halil; Erbas, Zeynep; Demirbağ, Zihni; Demir, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) is one of the serious pests of almonds in Turkey and worldwide. Since there is no effective control application against this pest, it has been a serious problem up to now. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective bacterium that can be utilized as a biocontrol agent against C. quadrimaculatus in pest management. We isolated seven bacteria from dead and live C. quadrimaculatus larvae, and evaluated the larvicidal potency of all isolates on the respective pest. Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular properties (partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene), the isolates were identified to be Bacillus safensis (CQ1), Bacillus subtilis (CQ2), Bacillus tequilensis (CQ3), Enterobacter sp. (CQ4), Kurthia gibsonii (CQ5), Staphylococcus sp. (CQ6) and Staphylococcus sciuri (CQ7). The results of the larvicidal activities of these isolates indicated that the mortality value obtained from all treatments changed from 58 to 100 %, and reached 100 % with B. safensis (CQ1) and B. subtilis (CQ2) on the 3rd instar larvae within 10 days of application of 1.89 × 10(9) cfu/mL bacterial concentration at 25 °C under laboratory conditions. Findings from this study indicate that these isolates appear to be a promising biocontrol agent for C. quadrimaculatus.

  4. Interactions Among Latitude, Nematode Parasitization, and Female Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorn, Jessica A; Chase, Kevin D; Galligan, Larry D; Riggins, John J; Stephen, Fred M

    2016-12-01

    Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an innocuous pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America, utilizing dead or dying pine trees as hosts. Although S. nigricornis F. does not cause economic damage, a closely related species, Sirex noctilio, was discovered in New York in 2004 and has continually spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, threatening the multi-billion-dollar pine timber industry of the southeastern United States and raising interest about potential interactions with native woodwasps and associated mortality agents. A non-sterilizing strain of the biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae), was introduced along with S. noctilio but is not inhibiting the spread or establishment of S. noctilio A North American congener, Deladenus proximus Bedding, has been recently isolated from S. noctilio and shows promise as a biological control agent. To better understand the potential of D. proximus as a control agent for S. noctilio, we measured and dissected nearly 1,200 S. nigricornis females from Arkansas and Mississippi and evaluated differences among collection location with regard to nematode virulence, woodwasp body size, and egg load. Body size and egg load were related to collection location, and nematode infestation resulted in significantly smaller females who produced significantly fewer eggs. Female woodwasps, especially those collected in Arkansas, were often fully sterilized by nematodes, and a higher percent sterilization was inversely related to body size and fewer eggs. We propose field studies to test the nematode's ability to sterilize S. noctilio in the northeastern United States.

  5. Potential fecundity of a highly invasive gall maker, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Rieske, Lynne K

    2014-08-01

    Fecundity is a key factor in modulating population growth rate, and is of particular significance when considering the invasiveness of introduced species. In insects, fecundity is affected by body size, age, and nutrition. We investigated the potential fecundity of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), an introduced parthenogenetic gall former of Asian origin and a global pest of chestnut (Castanea spp.), to better understand its invasiveness. We compared ovarian, egg, and body metrics of adult wasps of different age. We evaluated insect weight, body length, mesosomal and metasomal lengths and widths, hind femur length, number of eggs, and size of eggs in wasps from four age cohorts. Adult weight and metasomal width were positively correlated with number of eggs. Egg load decreased with wasp age, and egg size initially increased before decreasing. Our findings suggest that adult D. kuriphilus, previously reported as proovigenic, may be resorping eggs in the absence of suitable hosts, and reallocating nutritive resources for body maintenance and egg quality to increase fitness, implicating a plasticity in its reproductive strategy. D. kuriphilus may be able to vary its potential fecundity in response to nutrition and host availability, thus increasing its invasiveness.

  6. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  7. Morphology and Food Plants of Cuckoo Bees (Apidae: Hymenoptera From Indian Himalayas

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    Rifat H. Raina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuckoo bees belong to the genus Bombus (Apidae: Hymenoptera under sub genus Psythrus Lepeletier and is widely distributed subgenus from the oriental region represented by 17 valid species. This subgenus is represented by eight valid species from Indian Himalayas viz. B. ferganicus B. novus, B. morawatizianus, B. cornutus, B. branickii, B. skorikovi, B. tibetanus and B. turneri. Due emphasis has been laid on their altitudional distribution, food plants, taxonomy, synonymy, and illustrations. Being their parasitic nature these species lack worker caste and has negligible role in pollination ecology although they have got preference to forage on different host plants. The species were observed feeding sluggishly on flower heads of Rosa weibbiana, Cirsium spp. and Trifoium spp. Many new food plants of these species have been recorded for the first time from the area under study. During the present studies six species of the cuckoo bees were collected and identified and one species viz. B. turneri which could not found during the present study were procured on exchanged from BMNH, London.

  8. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  9. Differential gene expression profiles in the venom gland/sac of Orancistrocerus drewseni (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Woo, Tae Ha; Kim, Chang Bae; Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Hyojoong; Lee, Seunghwan; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2009-08-01

    To determine differential gene expression profiles in the venom gland and sac (gland/sac) of a solitary hunting wasp species, Orancistrocerus drewseni Saussure (1857), a subtractive cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 498 expressed sequence tags (EST) were clustered and assembled into 205 contigs (94 multiple sequences and 111 singletons). About 65% (134) of the contigs had matched BLASTx hits (E< or =10(-4)). Among these, 115 contigs had similarity to proteins with assigned molecular function in the Gene Ontology database, and most of them (112 contigs, 83%) were homologous to genes from Hymenoptera, particularly to Apis mellifera (98 contigs). The contigs encoding hyaluronidase and phospholipase A2, known to be main components of wasp venoms, were found in high frequencies (27 and 4%, respectively, as judged by the number of ESTs) in the gene ontology category of catalytic activity. Full-length open reading frames of hyaluronidase and phospholipase A2 were characterized and their abundance in the venom gland/sac was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Several contigs encoding enzymes, including zinc-metallopeptidases that are likely involved in the processing and activation of venomous proteins or peptides, were also identified from the library. Discovery of venom gland/sac-specific genes should promote further studies on biologically active components in the venom of O. drewseni.

  10. Fitness of Encarsia sophia(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Luo; Tong-Xian Liu

    2011-01-01

    Fitness and efficacy of Encarsia sophia(Girault & Dodd)(Hymenoptera:Aphelinidae)as a biological control agent was compared on two species of whitefly(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)hosts,the relatively smaller sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)biotype 'B',and the larger greenhouse whitefly,Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood).Significant differences were observed on green bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in the laboratory at 27± 2℃,55% ± 5% RH,and a photoperiod of 14 : 10 h(L : D).Adult parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum were larger than those emerging from B.tabaci,and almost all biological parameters of E.sophia parasitizing the larger host species were superior except for the developmental times of the parasitoids that were similar when parasitizing the two host species.Furthermore,parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum parasitized more of these hosts than did parasitoids emerging from B.tabaci.We conclude that E.sophia reared from larger hosts had better fitness than from smaller hosts.Those from either host also preferred the larger host for oviposition but were just as effective on smaller hosts.Therefore,larger hosts tended to produce better parasitoids than smaller hosts.

  11. The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, Andreas; París, Mercedes; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2014-04-16

    The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) housed in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, were examined. Lectotypes are designated and illustrated for the following 32 nominal taxa (preserved in the MNCN collection if not stated otherwise): Tenthredo acutiscutis Konow, 1908; Tenthredo aericeps Konow, 1907; Allantus albipectus Konow, 1907; Athalia bolivari Dusmet, 1896; Tristactus punctatus var. candidatus Konow, 1899; Tenthredo capistrata Konow, 1907; Megalodontes capitalatus Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo casta Konow, 1908; Clydostomus cestatus Konow, 1908; Miocephala chalybea Konow, 1907 (coll. SDEI); Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907; Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945 (coll. NHRS); Allantus dusmeti Konow, 1894 (coll. SDEI); Megalodontes dusmeti Enslin, 1914 (coll. ZSM); Megalodontes escalerai Konow, 1899; Tenthredo flavitarsis Konow, 1908; Sciopteryx galerita Konow, 1907; Tenthredo habenata Konow, 1907; Allantus inguinalis Konow, 1908; Clydostomus merceti Konow, 1908; Megalodontes merceti Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo mordax Konow, 1908; Megalodontes mundus Konow, 1904; Tenthredo nimbata Konow, 1906; Tenthredo oculissima Konow, 1907; Peus pannulosus Konow, 1907; Tenthredo podagrica Konow, 1907; Arge segmentaria var. rufiventris Konow, 1899; Tenthredo rugiceps Konow, 1908; Tenthredo segrega Konow, 1908; Peus splendidus Konow 1907; Tenthredo suta Konow, 1906. Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907, is considered to be a valid species. New synonymy is proposed for Tenthredo (Metallopeus) cupreiceps (Konow, 1907), comb. nov., spec. rev. (=Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.; =Metallopeus inermis Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.). 

  12. Ultrastructural features of the hypopharyngeal glands in the social wasp Polistes vsrsicolor (Hymenoptera:Vespidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fábio Barros Britto; Flávio Henrique Caetano

    2008-01-01

    The wasps of the genus Polistes have been considered the key to understanding the evolution of social behavior in Hymenoptera.Several studies have shown that the development of organized insect societies was accompanied by the evolution of structures like exocrine glands,which became specialized to perform specific functions.This article investigates the ultrastructural and cytochemical features of the hypopharyngeal glands of Polistes versicolor.These glands have been studied in depth in social bees,where they occur only in nurses and produce the royal jelly.Our results revealed that these glands basically did not vary among individuals or between sexes.They are constituted by spherical cells,each with a large nucleus and well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum.Secretion vesicles are abundant,but lipid droplets were not observed,indicating that these glands may not have a role in pheromone synthesis.Acid phosphatase was detected in lysosomes,and also free in the cytosol,but did not seem to be related with cell death.Thus,our results suggest that the hypopharyngeal glands ofP.versicolor may not have a specialized social role,but could produce digestive enzymes.

  13. Caste fate conflict in swarm-founding social hymenoptera: an inclusive fitness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, T; Ratnieks, F L W; Billen, J

    2003-07-01

    A caste system in which females develop into morphologically distinct queens or workers has evolved independently in ants, wasps and bees. Although such reproductive division of labour may benefit the colony it is also a source of conflict because individual immature females can benefit from developing into a queen in order to gain greater direct reproduction. Here we present a formal inclusive fitness analysis of caste fate conflict appropriate for swarm-founding social Hymenoptera. Three major conclusions are reached: (1) when caste is self-determined, many females should selfishly choose to become queens and the resulting depletion of the workforce can substantially reduce colony productivity; (2) greater relatedness among colony members reduces this excess queen production; (3) if workers can prevent excess queen production at low cost by controlled feeding, a transition to nutritional caste determination should occur. These predictions generalize results derived earlier using an allele-frequency model [Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (2001) 50: 467] and are supported by observed levels of queen production in various taxa, especially stingless bees, where caste can be either individually or nutritionally controlled.

  14. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as an indicator of toxicity of herbicides registered for corn in Brazil

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    Claubert W.G de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants in agricultural systems benefits natural enemies. Herbicides are used in weed management in corn (Zea mays L. to reduce competition and productivity losses, but they can impact natural enemies and contaminate the environment. The objective was to evaluate toxicity of herbicides on pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. The treatments were represented by the host pupae Tenebrio molitor L., 1785 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, paraquat, and tembotrione in commercial doses compared to a control treatment with water. Pupae of T. molitor were immersed in the solution of herbicides and exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis each. The herbicides atrazine and paraquat were highly toxic and, therefore, not selective to P. elaeisis. Nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of P. elaeisis (0.20 ± 0.03, which may affect subsequent generations. Moreover, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis, showing results comparable to the control. Floristic diversity of weeds can increase food source, habitat, shelter, breeding places and microclimates for insect parasitoids but herbicides formulations can be toxic and these products can affect P. elaeisis or its hosts by direct or indirect contact, showing the importance of selectivity studies for this natural enemy. However, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis and it can be recommended for programs of sustainable management of weeds in corn crop with this parasitoid.

  15. Higher-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera inferred from mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Higher-level hymenopteran relationships remain unresolved in both morphological and molecular analyses. In this study, we present the most comprehensive analyses of hymenopteran relationships based on 48 mitochondrial (mt) genomes. One complete and two nearly complete mt genomes representing three hymenopteran superfamilies were newly sequenced. We assessed the influence of inclusion/exclusion of 3rd codon positions, alignment approaches, partition schemes and phylogenetic approaches on topology and nodal support within the Hymenoptera. The results showed that the topologies were sensitive to the variation of dataset and analytical approach. However, some robust and highly supported relationships were recovered: the Ichneumonomorpha was monophyletic; the Trigonalyoidea+Megalyroidea and the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea were consistently recovered; the Cynipoidea was generally recovered as the sister group to the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea. In addition, the monophyletic Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha were recovered in some analyses. Several gene rearrangements were detected in each of the three newly sequenced mt genomes. Specifically, the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome harbors a large inversion of a gene block from trnE to trnS2. Inverted, duplicated A+T rich regions were detected in the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome, which probably played an important role during the formation of the large gene block inversion via recombination.

  16. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  17. Comparative Study of the Morphology of the Ovipositor of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae and Aprostocetus procerae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Two Parasitoids Associated with the African Rice Gall Midge, Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    Souleymane Nacro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the morphology of the ovipositor of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae and Aprostocetus procerae (= Tetrastichus pachydiplosisae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, two parasitoids associated with the African rice gall midge (AFRGM, and Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. Scanning electron microscope techniques were used for this study. The ovipositor of P. diplosisae was short (40 μm, and most of the sensillae found on it were mechanoreceptors and located on the distal portion of the 3rd valvulae. These sensillae may be involved in selection of an egg or larval host. The shortness of this ovipositor may be an adaptation to a host whose egg envelope thickness is not more than 0.7 μm. The ovipositor of A. procerae was 30 times (1.2 mm the length of the P. diplosisae ovipositor. It was not only well equipped with mechanoreceptive sensillae, but these sensillae were very diverse and distributed along the length of the valvulae. The 10 denticulations of the lancet of this ovipositor allow this parasitoid to exploit hosts that are not otherwise readily accesible. These two parasitoids share the same resource by infesting different life stages of the host. The ovipositor of each species of parasitoid enhanced resource sharing, due to its length and its sensillae type and distribution.

  18. First successful case of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with venom immunotherapy for hymenoptera sting allergy

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    Tucker Michael J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe immune and endocrine responses in severe hymenoptera hypersensitivity requiring venom immunotherapy (VIT during in vitro fertilization (IVF. Case presentation A 39-year old patient was referred for history of multiple miscarriage and a history of insect sting allergy. Four years earlier, she began subcutaneous injection of 100 mcg mixed vespid hymenoptera venom/venom protein every 5–6 weeks. The patient had one livebirth and three first trimester miscarriages. Allergy treatment was maintained for all pregnancies ending in miscarriage, although allergy therapy was discontinued for the pregnancy that resulted in delivery. At our institution ovulation induction incorporated venom immunotherapy (VIT during IVF, with a reduced VIT dose when pregnancy was first identified. Serum IgE was monitored with estradiol during ovulation induction and early pregnancy. Response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was favorable while VIT was continued, with retrieval of 12 oocytes. Serum RAST (yellow jacket IgE levels fluctuated in a nonlinear fashion (range 36–54% during gonadotropin therapy and declined after hCG administration. A healthy female infant was delivered at 35 weeks gestation. The patient experienced no untoward effects from any medications during therapy. Conclusion Our case confirms the safety of VIT in pregnancy, and demonstrates RAST IgE can remain

  19. 中红侧沟茧蜂嗅觉受体MmedOr2基因的克隆及组织表达谱%Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis of an Olfactory Receptor MmedOr2 in Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera:Braconidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙; 王山宁; 路子云; 刘泽文; 张永军; 郭予元

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction plays a vital role in host-seeking, enemy-defending, mating and immigration in natural enemies. Olfactory receptors are an important class of functional proteins in insect olfactory system. In this study, a sequence fragment of olfactory receptor gene MmedOr2 in Microplitis mediator was identified from the antenna cDNA library, and the full-length sequence of this gene was obtained by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Further, expression profiles of this gene in different tissues along the developmental stages, as well as before and after mating was analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. It was found that the receptor gene was specifically expressed in antenna, and expression level was significantly higher in female than in male. In female, MmedOr2 expression reached the highest level on the 3rd day after emergence while the highest expression in male appeared on the 4th day after emergence. After peak expression, MmedOr2 expression level declined gradually in both male and female adults. In addition, expression level of MmedOr2 in female adults was notably decreased after mating. According to above findings, we speculate that MmedOr2 may be a sex pheromone receptor and plays an important role in mate-searching.%嗅觉在天敌昆虫寻找寄主、躲避敌害、交配、转移等行为中发挥关键作用。嗅觉受体是昆虫嗅觉系统中一类重要的功能蛋白。本文选取从中红侧沟茧蜂触角cDNA文库鉴定一个嗅觉受体基因MmedOr2序列片段,采用RACE技术克隆获得中红侧沟茧蜂嗅觉受体基因MmedOr2的全长序列。通过实时荧光定量PCR解析了该基因在中红侧沟茧蜂不同发育阶段、不同组织部位以及交配前后的转录表达谱。结果表明, MmedOr2在触角中特异性表达,且在雌蜂触角中表达量显著高于雄蜂触角。雌、雄蜂羽化后分别在第3 d和第4 d MmedOr2表达量达到最高,该基因转录表达量达到最高后逐渐下降。另外,交配后雌蜂MmedOr2表达量显著下降。根据以上研究结果,我们推测 MmedOr2可能是性信息素受体,在中红侧沟茧蜂寻找配偶等行为中发挥功能。

  20. 正己烷处理对菜蛾盘绒茧蜂滞育预蛹过氧化氢及抗氧化酶的影响%Effects of N-hexane on Hydrogen Peroxide Content and Activities of Three Antioxidant Enzymes in Diapausing Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) Prepupae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佳秀; 徐登兰; 贺宜鹏; 陈超; 施祖华

    2014-01-01

    在27~29℃温度下,用1.5 mL/L的正己烷蒸气处理菜蛾盘绒茧蜂滞育蛹10~15 min后可以解除其滞育。为探讨解除滞育的机制,测定了正己烷处理后菜蛾盘绒茧蜂滞育预蛹体内的过氧化氢含量(H2O2)和3种抗氧化酶(SOD、POD和CAT)活性。结果表明正己烷处理后,滞育预蛹体内H2O2含量、SOD和POD活性均迅速上升,CAT活性则下降。就5个取样点的平均值而言,H2O2含量和SOD活性显著高于非滞育预蛹和未经处理的滞育预蛹,POD活性低于非滞育预蛹而高于未经处理的滞育预蛹,CAT活性则低于未经处理的滞育预蛹而高于非滞育预蛹。3种抗氧化酶活性的变化与体内H2O2含量的平衡有关,而H2O2含量的变化可能与体内激素水平的调节有关。%Exposure of the diapause individuals to 27-29 ℃ and 1.5 mL/L n-hexane for 10-15 min can effectively terminate diapause in Cotesia vestalis (Haliday). To unravel the mechanism of diapause termination, hydrogen peroxide content and activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), were quantified in diapause prepupae of C. vestalis. Results showed that, in the n-hexane-exposed diapause individuals, hydrogen peroxide content and activities of SOD and POD increased sharply, while activity of CAT declined. On average, hydrogen peroxide content and SOD activity were significantly higher in the exposed diapause prepupae than those in unexposed both diapause and non-diapause prepupae;POD activity was significantly lower than that in non-diapause prepupae but significantly higher than that in unexposed diapause prepupae; CAT activity was significantly lower than that in the unexposed diapause prepupae but significantly higher than that in non-diapause prepupae. Hydrogen peroxide content depends on activities of the three antioxidant enzymes, while the former can regulate hormone level in diapause prepupae, which may be the reasons for diapause termination by n-hexane.

  1. OCORRÊNCIA DE Gryon gallardoi (BRETHES (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE PARASITANDO OVOS DE Leptoglossus zonatus (DALLAS (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE EM ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRASIL OCCURRENCE OF Gryon gallardi (BRETHES (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE PARASITING EGGS OF Leptoglossus zonatus (DALLAS (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE IN ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, em Goiás, de Gryon gallardoi (Bréthes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae parasitando ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, em milho cultivar Dekalb 601, no município de Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hymenoptera; Hemiptera; parasitóides; controle natural.

    This work reports the first occurrence in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil, of Gryon gallardoi (Bréthes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae parasitizing eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae in maize.

    KEY-WORDS: Hymenoptera; Hemiptera; parasitoids; natural controle.

  2. Famílias de Hymenoptera (Insecta como ferramenta avaliadora da conservação de restingas no extremo sul do Brasil

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    Cristina Maria Loyola Zardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar e comparar a diversidade e flutuação populacional das famílias de Hymenoptera em área de restinga foi realizado um levantamento faunístico em duas áreas de restinga com diferentes níveis de conservação. Foram coletados 5.518 himenópteros distribuídos em 30 famílias. Os picos populacionais na flutuação das famílias ocorreram no verão confirmando a alta correlação da temperatura com a distribuição das famílias. Constatou-se na restinga em sucessão maior riqueza, porém, com alta dominância, abrigando representantes dos três grupos ecológicos (antófilos, generalistas e parasitóides em alta abundância. A restinga preservada, com 17 famílias, verificou-se mais diversa e homogênea, onde verificou-se maior abundância dos parasitóides, devido à maior estabilidade do sistema. A riqueza de famílias de Hymenoptera em áreas de restinga pode ser utilizada como parâmetro indicativo de qualidade ambiental, para este tipo de bioma.Hymenoptera Families (Insecta as Evaluation Tool of the Conservation of Sandbanks in Southern BrazilAbstract. With aim to estimate and compare the diversity and population of the Hymenoptera families in a sandbank area was carried out a wildlife survey in two areas of sandbank with different levels of conservation. We collected 5 518 Hymenoptera distributed in 30 families. The peaks in the families fluctuation occurred in the summer confirmed the high correlation of temperature with the distribution of families. The sandbank in succession had the highest richness, however with high dominance, hosting representatives of the three ecological groups (anthophilous, generalists and parasitoids in high abundance. The sandbank preserved, with 17 families, was more diverse and homogeneous, where the parasitoids showed greater abundance due to greater system stability. The richness of Hymenoptera families in sandbanks can be used as a parameter indicative of environmental quality.

  3. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  4. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  5. Attraction of Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to its host frass volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Xuéreb, Anne; Thiéry, Denis

    2006-12-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a polyphagous insect able to develop on grapes and wild plants. We tested the hypothesis that the parasitoid Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) uses the larval frass in its host search. A two-armed olfactometer was used to measure the attractiveness of L. botrana larvae, their silk, or their frass after larvae were fed on different host plants. Frass of three Lepidoptera (L. botrana, Eupoecillia ambiguella, Sphinx ligustri) and one Orthoptera (Chorthippus brunneus) was assayed, but only L. botrana was used to test an effect of the larval host plant (two grape cultivars and three other plant species) to D. cavus females. Larvae without frass did not attract D. cavus whatever their origin, but their frass was attractive at a dose of 2-3 days equivalent of larval frass production. The silk produced by a single larva (L. botrana) was not attractive to D. cavus. The parasitoid was most attracted to the odor of S. ligustri; the frass of L. botrana was more attractive than that of E. ambiguella, irrespective of the species on which D. cavus had been reared. There was no difference in attractiveness of frass collected from L. botrana raised on food containing different plants. Chemical extracts using five different polarity solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, hexane, methanol, and water) differed in attractiveness to D. cavus. Water and dichloromethane were the most attractive. This suggests that a complex volatile signal made from intermediate to polar volatiles may be involved in attraction. D. cavus used frass to discriminate between different potential host species. Our results revealed that the larval food of L. botrana did not modify frass attractiveness, but that the moth species did.

  6. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Fraser, Ivich

    2010-08-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endo-parasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T. planipennisi involves presenting the wasps with artificially infested ash sticks made by placing field-collected larvae into shallow grooves beneath flaps of bark. Although third and fourth instars are readily accepted by T. planipennisi in these exposures, the suitability of younger or older developmental stages, which are often more readily available in the field, has not been tested. In this study, we used both artificially infested ash sticks and naturally infested ash logs to test which emerald ash borer developmental stages (second to fourth instars, J larvae [preprepupae], prepupae, and pupae) are most suitable for rearing T. planipennisi. T. planipennisi parasitized all stages except for pupae, but parasitized fewer J larvae and prepupae in naturally infested logs than in artificially infested ash sticks. This is probably because, in naturally infested ash logs, these stages were confined to pupal chambers excavated in the sapwood and may have been largely beyond the reach of ovipositing T. planipennisi. The number of T. planipennisi progeny produced was positively correlated (logarithmic) with host weight, but this relationship was stronger when J larvae and prepupae were excluded from the data set. Fourth instars yielded the most parasitoid progeny, followed by, in approximately equal numbers, J larvae, prepupae, and third instars. Second instars yielded too few parasitoid progeny to benefit rearing efforts.

  7. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesieur, Vincent; Martin, Jean-François; Weaver, David K; Hoelmer, Kim A; Smith, David R; Morrill, Wendell L; Kadiri, Nassera; Peairs, Frank B; Cockrell, Darren M; Randolph, Terri L; Waters, Debra K; Bon, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management.

  8. Expression of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, Robert G; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2011-06-01

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), whose breeding incorporated the trait of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman by enhancing the ability of the bees to hygienically remove mite-infested brood. VSH production queens (i.e., queens commercially available for use in beekeepers' production colonies) from the six sources were established in colonies which later were measured for VSH. Their responses were compared with those of colonies with three other types of queens, as follows: VSH queens from the selected closed population maintained by USDA-ARS for research and as a source of breeding germplasm, queens from the cooperating commercial distributor of this germplasm, and queens of a commercial, mite-susceptible source. The reduction of mite infestation in brood combs exposed to test colonies for 1 wk differed significantly between groups. On average, colonies with VSH production queens reduced infestation by 44%. This group average was intermediate between the greater removal by pure ARS VSH (76%) and the cooperators' breeding colonies (64%), and the lesser removal by susceptible colonies (7%). VSH production colonies from the different sources had variable expression of hygiene against mites, with average reduced infestations ranging from 22 to 74%. In addition, infertility was high among mites that remained in infested cells in VSH breeder colonies from ARS and the commercial distributor but was lower and more variable in VSH production colonies and susceptible colonies. Commercial VSH production colonies supply mite resistance that generally seems to be useful for beekeeping. Resistance probably could be improved if more VSH drones sources were supplied when VSH production queens are being mated.

  9. Toxicity of some insecticides used in maize crop on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae immature stages

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    Jander R Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize (Zea mays L. crops in Brazil. The effects of beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, spinosad, etofenprox, triflumuron, alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae immature stages were evaluated. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, containing immature stages of the parasitoid were dipped in water solution pesticides, to evaluate their effects on emergence and sex ratio of F1 parasitoids. For F2 parasitoids, emergence, parasitism capacity, and sex ratio were evaluated. Beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and spinosad affected the emergence success of F1 T. pretiosum. Insects exposed to etofenprox and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron during the egg-larval period and to lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam during the pupal stage also suffered reduction in the emergence. Beta-cypermethrin affected the sex ratio of F1 T. pretiosum from host eggs treated during the egg-larval period; spinosad affected it during the egg-larval period and the pupal stage, whereas chlorpyrifos did the same when applied during the pupal stage. Chlorpyrifos also affected the sex ratio of F2 parasitoids, but only when applied during the egg-larval period, whereas chlorfenapyr reduced this trait when applied during the pre-pupal phase. Chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron affected the parasitism capacity of F1 females from eggs treated during the egg-larval period. Considering the overall effects, only etofenprox and triflumuron were selective on T. pretiosum when applied on parasitized A. kuehniella eggs. Further studies need to be carried out to verify the toxicity of the other pesticides under semi-field and field conditions.

  10. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in the fungus-gardening ant Mycocepurus smithii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

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    Christian Rabeling

    Full Text Available The general prevalence of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction among organisms testifies to the evolutionary benefits of recombination, such as accelerated adaptation to changing environments and elimination of deleterious mutations. Documented instances of asexual reproduction in groups otherwise dominated by sexual reproduction challenge evolutionary biologists to understand the special circumstances that might confer an advantage to asexual reproductive strategies. Here we report one such instance of asexual reproduction in the ants. We present evidence for obligate thelytoky in the asexual fungus-gardening ant, Mycocepurus smithii, in which queens produce female offspring from unfertilized eggs, workers are sterile, and males appear to be completely absent. Obligate thelytoky is implicated by reproductive physiology of queens, lack of males, absence of mating behavior, and natural history observations. An obligate thelytoky hypothesis is further supported by the absence of evidence indicating sexual reproduction or genetic recombination across the species' extensive distribution range (Mexico-Argentina. Potential conflicting evidence for sexual reproduction in this species derives from three Mycocepurus males reported in the literature, previously regarded as possible males of M. smithii. However, we show here that these specimens represent males of the congeneric species M. obsoletus, and not males of M. smithii. Mycocepurus smithii is unique among ants and among eusocial Hymenoptera, in that males seem to be completely absent and only queens (and not workers produce diploid offspring via thelytoky. Because colonies consisting only of females can be propagated consecutively in the laboratory, M. smithii could be an adequate study organism a to test hypotheses of the population-genetic advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction in a social organism and b inform kin conflict theory.For a Portuguese translation of the

  11. Seletividade de produtos naturais comerciais a Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Daiane Luckmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de produtos naturais a parasitoides é pouco conhecida. Em vista disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a seletividade de produtos naturais comerciais a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Os produtos utilizados foram Baicao®, Orobor® e Topneem®, nas concentrações recomendadas pelos fabricantes, e pulverizados sobre cartelas contendo ovos esterilizados de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Teste com chance de escolha para parasitismo foi realizado, confinando-se uma fêmea de T. pretiosum com duas cartelas, uma pulverizada com o produto e outra considerada testemunha, avaliando-se a percentagem de parasitismo. O teste sem chance de escolha consistiu na pulverização dos tratamentos, em cartelas, previamente ou posteriormente ao parasitismo. Em ambos os testes, avaliaram-se o número de ovos parasitados, a percentagem de emergência e a longevidade de adultos. No teste com chance de escolha, os produtos Topneem® e Baicao® provocaram redução do parasitismo de T. pretiosum. No teste sem chance de escolha, Baicao®, pulverizado previamente sobre cartelas contendo ovos de A. kuehniella, interferiu negativamente na emergência de T. pretiosum. Houve redução do número de ovos parasitados quando Baicao® foi pulverizado no tratamento pré-parasitismo. Orobor® é seletivo a T. pretiosum nas condições de realização do experimento e não afetou negativamente os parâmetros avaliados. Baicao® não foi seletivo para T. pretiosum, afetou a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados e foi classificado como levemente nocivo quanto à toxicidade aos adultos do parasitoide, em condições de laboratório.

  12. Effects of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

    2007-02-01

    The parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) has been used successfully for the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The development of UV-blocking plastic films has added a new component to future integrated pest management systems by disrupting insect pest infestation when UV light is excluded. Because both T. vaporariorum and E. formosa are reported to have similar spectral efficiency, there was a need to identify the impact of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of both the pest and the natural enemy. In field studies, using choice-chamber experiments, E. formosa showed some preference to disperse into compartments where less UV light was blocked. However, further studies indicated that the effect was primarily attributable to the different light diffusion properties of the films tested. Thus, unlike its whitefly host, when the UV-absorbing properties of the films were similar, but the light diffusion properties differed, E. formosa adults preferred to disperse into compartments clad with films that had high light diffusion properties. When the plastic films differed most in their UV-absorbing capacity and had no light-diffusion capability, the initial dispersal of E. formosa between treatments was similar, although a small preference toward the environment with UV light was observed over time. When parasitoid dispersal was measured 3 h after release, more parasitoids were found on plants, suggesting that the parasitoids would search plants for whitefly hosts, even in a UV-blocked light environment. The potential for the integration of UV-blocking films with E. formosa in an advanced whitefly management system is discussed.

  13. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  14. Selectivity of organic compounds to the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Plastygastridae

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    Débora Mello da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of insecticides, bio-protective mixtures, and biofertilizers used in organic soybean production was evaluated for adults and pupae of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae under laboratory conditions in accordance with protocols proposed by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC. The products sprayed (dosage/180L of water were: 1 Baculovírus anticarsia 140x109 cpi; 2 Bacillus thuringiensis 16.8g; 3 Azadirachtin-A, azadirachtin-B, nimbina and salamina 9.6 ppm; 4 Rotenoids 4 liters; 5 Nitrogen 1.3%, phosphorus 3.0% and total organic carbon 8.0% 3 liters; 6 Sodium silicate 2% 4 liters; 7 Copper 7% + calcium 3.3% 1.8 liters; 8 Sulfur 20% + quicklime 10% 1.8 liters; 9 Chlorpyrifos 384g (positive control; 10 Distilled H2O (negative control. The results of experiments using pupae indicate that the organic compounds were classified as harmless (Class 1, except for the copper 7% + calcium 3.3% and sulfur 20% + quicklime 10%, which were classified as slightly harmful (Class 2. The contact bioassay with adults showed that all products were classified as harmless (Class 1. Only chlorpyrifos (384g was classified as harmful (Class 4 for both stages of the parasitoid. However, the use of this product (chlorpyrifos is not permitted in organic farming, and even in conventional farming is recommended, where feasible, replacement of the product with one compatible with the preservation of T. remus in nature. Thus, the products tested and used in organic soybean production were considered compatible with the parasitoid eggs of T. remus.

  15. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Implications for Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesieur, Vincent; Martin, Jean-François; Weaver, David K.; Hoelmer, Kim A.; Smith, David R.; Morrill, Wendell L.; Kadiri, Nassera; Peairs, Frank B.; Cockrell, Darren M.; Randolph, Terri L.; Waters, Debra K.; Bon, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management. PMID:27959958

  16. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B. thuringienesis, chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin, and tebufenozide safe to T. chilonis, suggesting that these insecticides are compatible with this parasitoid when being used in the field. However, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, and avermectins were very harmful to T. chilonis. Timing of application of these insecticides was critical.

  17. A new species and new records of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae of wood boring beetles from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India

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    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitising wood boring beetles, Cleonymus kamijoi, and two species of Pteromalidae, Trigonoderus pulcher Walker and male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan are reported for the first time from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala. The genus Trigonoderus Westwood is reported for the first time from India and the male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan is reported and described for the first time.

  18. Primer registro de Acerophagus griseus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae como parasitoide de Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae en el Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina

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    Daniel A. AQUINO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez la presencia de Acerophagus griseus (De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae como parasitoide de ninfas y adultos de Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae y se registra la zona de Alto Valle de Río Negro como nuevo registro de distribución en Argentina. Se brinda una diagnosis y se ilustran los caracteres morfológicos de A. griseus.

  19. Additions to the checklist of Scoliidae, Sphecidae, Pompilidae and Vespidae of Peru, with notes on the endemic status of some species (Hymenoptera, Aculeata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Grandinete, Yuri Campanholo; Noll, Fernando Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The first checklist of the Peruvian Hymenoptera listed 1169 species and subspecies of aculeate wasps, including 173 species of Pompilidae, seven of Scoliidae, 39 of Sphecidae and 403 of Vespidae. Herein are reported 32 species as new for Peru based mainly on the collection of the Natural History Museum, London. The loss of the endemic status of two species is also reported: Entypus peruvianus (Rohwer) (Pompilidae: Pepsinae) and Omicron ruficolle schunkei Giordani Soika (Vespidae: Eumeninae). PMID:26448706

  20. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitismo de colônias da vespa social Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 por fêmeas de Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 foram registrados em uma área rural no município de Dourados estado de Mato Grosso do Sul no Brasil. Em todos os casos monitorados a invasão ocorreu na fase colonial de pré-emergência, e em geral foi executado por uma única fêmea de M. consimilis. O período de estabelecimento da fêmea estrangeira na colônia hospedeira foi marcado por comportamentos antagônicos entre as fêmeas interespecíficas. Em geral, a arquitetura do ninho parasitado foi modificada em relação à arquitetura típica do ninho da espécie hospedeira.

  1. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile

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    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.

  2. Check-list of Anteoninae R. Perkins, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) of South Korea, with description of a new species.

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    Kim, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2014-05-26

    The subfamily Anteoninae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) was represented in South Korea by fifteen species belonging to the genus Anteon Jurine, 1807. In this paper, further eighteen species belonging to two genera are recognized for the first time from South Korea: Anteon worakense Kim & Lee, sp. nov., A. albonigrum Olmi, 1995; A. autumnale Olmi, 1991; A. devriesi Olmi, 1998; A. exiguum (Haupt, 1941); A. gaullei Kieffer, 1905; A. hikense Olmi, 1995; A. ingenuum Olmi, 1984; A. japonicum Olmi, 1984; A. metuendum Olmi, 1987; A. nanlingense Xu, Olmi & He, 2011; A. peterseni Olmi, 1984; A. songyangense Xu, He & Olmi, 1998; A. sulawesianum Olmi, 1991; A. wushense Olmi, 1991; A. yuani Xu, He & Olmi, 1998; Lonchodryinus infuscatus Xu, Olmi & He, 2009; L. ruficornis (Dalman, 1818). A. exiguum (Haupt, 1941) is also recorded from Russian Far East (new record). A check-list and a key to South Korean species of Anteoninae are presented.

  3. Levantamento da fauna de Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera em cultivo de coqueiro anão verde associado à plantas invasoras

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    Emerson Comério

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to survey the Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera fauna in coconut palm crop and analyze the influence of invasive plants on this fauna. From February 2008 to March 2009 weekly samples were performed using Möericke traps in areas with and without invasive plants. A total of 569 specimens were identified in 11 subfamilies. Cryptinae corresponded to more than 50% of the total ichneumonids collected in the two studied areas and, among the ophioniformes subfamilies, 9 genera were identified, being Dusona and Anomalon the most abundant. The area with invasive plants presented a higher number of subfamilies and abundance of specimens. However, significant differences in abundance were observed only to Cryptinae and Ichneumoninae.

  4. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  5. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

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    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  6. Saltbush-associated Asphondylia species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the Mediterranean Basin and their chalcidoid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).

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    Dorchin, Netta; Mifsud, David; Askew, Richard

    2014-10-02

    Numerous species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been recorded from saltbush (Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex) around the world but only 11 of them belong to the large cecidomyiid genus Asphondylia. Of these, two species were described in the late 19th century from complex bud galls on Atriplex halimus in the Mediterranean Basin. In the present study Asphondylia punica is redescribed, A. conglomerata is synonymized with it, and Asphondylia scopuli is described from Atriplex lanfrancoi, an endemic plant to the Maltese Islands. Descriptions are accompanied by information about the galls and life history of the gall midges, and a review of the parasitic Hymenoptera associated with A. scopuli is provided. Four species of parasitoids were found and attributed to the families Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae, of which the pteromalid Mesopolobus melitensis is described as new.

  7. Seasonal ecology and thermal constraints of Telenomus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

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    Legault, Simon; Hébert, Christian; Blais, Julie; Berthiaume, Richard; Bauce, Eric; Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-12-01

    We describe seasonal patterns of parasitism by Telenomus coloradensis Crawford, Telenomus droozi Muesebeck, Telenomus flavotibiae Pelletier (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), and Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), after a 3-yr survey of defoliated stands in the lower St. Lawrence region (Quebec, Canada). Results from sentinel trap sampling indicate that T. coloradensis and T. droozi are the most common species, whereas parasitism by T. flavotibiae and Trichogramma spp. is rare. Telenomus coloradensis and T. droozi show similar seasonal periods of parasitism, both species being active in early spring (late April) at temperatures as low as 4°C. Using thermal threshold (T(0)) and thermal constant (K) for immature development of T. coloradensis males and females from egg to adult emergence, we estimated that the spring progeny emerges in the middle of the summer while hemlock looper eggs are absent from the forest environment. Parasitoid females would then mate and remain in the environment to 1) exploit alternate host species, 2) enter into quiescence and later parasitize eggs laid by hemlock looper females in the fall, 3) enter into a reproductive diapause and parasitize hemlock looper eggs only the next spring, or all of these. Although previous studies have shown that T. coloradensis can overwinter in its immature form within the host egg, our field and laboratory results indicate that in the lower St. Lawrence region, this species principally enters diapause as fertilized females, with a mean supercooling point of -30.6°C in the fall.

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing of Two Mitochondrial Genomes from Family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea Reveal Novel Patterns of Gene Arrangement

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    Peng-Yan Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal mitochondrial genomes have provided large and diverse datasets for evolutionary studies. Here, the first two representative mitochondrial genomes from the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea were determined using next-generation sequencing. The sequenced region of these two mitochondrial genomes from the species Auplopus sp. and Agenioideus sp. was 16,746 bp long with an A + T content of 83.12% and 16,596 bp long with an A + T content of 78.64%, respectively. In both species, all of the 37 typical mitochondrial genes were determined. The secondary structure of tRNA genes and rRNA genes were predicted and compared with those of other insects. Atypical trnS1 using abnormal anticodons TCT and lacking D-stem pairings was identified. There were 49 helices belonging to six domains in rrnL and 30 helices belonging to three domains in rrns present. Compared with the ancestral organization, four and two tRNA genes were rearranged in mitochondrial genomes of Auplopus and Agenioideus, respectively. In both species, trnM was shuffled upstream of the trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster, and trnA was translocated from the cluster trnA-trnR-trnN-trnS1-trnE-trnF to the region between nad1 and trnL1, which is novel to the Vespoidea. In Auplopus, the tRNA cluster trnW-trnC-trnY was shuffled to trnW-trnY-trnC. Phylogenetic analysis within Vespoidea revealed that Pompilidae and Mutillidae formed a sister lineage, and then sistered Formicidae. The genomes presented in this study have enriched the knowledge base of molecular markers, which is valuable in respect to studies about the gene rearrangement mechanism, genomic evolutionary processes and phylogeny of Hymenoptera.

  9. Compatibility of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae with Commercial Products Under Laboratory Conditions

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    Jennifer Barrera Mojica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum one of the major pests of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions, but, Its mainly controlled with chemical insecticides. However, there are alternative control strategies as entomopathogens fungi and parasitoids (Encarsia formosa. In this study we evaluated the compatibility of commercial product with adults and pupae of E. formosa under laboratory conditions. Eight treatments were evaluated for adults and pupae of the parasitoid, including two concentrations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (5 x 107 and 5 x 109 conidia/ml, commercial doses of four chemical products commonly used to control pests on tomato crops and two controls. These treatments were applied directly on parasitoids, and their mortality rate on adults and pupae were recorded daily. There was no difference in E. formosa pupae among relative with the Bacillus thuringiensis products (p > 0.05, indicating that its compatible with the parasitoid pupae under laboratory conditions. Finally, it was found that products with active ingredients of Tiocyclam hidrogenoxalato and B. thuringiensis are incompatibles with E. formosa adults under laboratory conditions.COMPATIBILIDAD DE Encarsia formosa (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE CON PRODUCTOS COMERCIALES EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, es una de las principales plagas de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero y es controlada principalmente con insecticidas químicos. Sin embargo, existen estrategias alternativas de control como hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana y enemigos naturales como parasitoides (Encarsia formosa. En el presente estudio se evaluó la compatibilidad de productos comerciales con adultos y pupas de E. formosa bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos para pupas y adultos del parasitoide, incluyendo dos concentraciones del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria

  10. Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidaeem Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh., 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae e Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae foram de 4,3, 1,5 0,9 e 0,6%, respectivamente. A porcentagem total de parasitismo observada foi de 7,4%. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de S. nigra em pupas de F. pusio no Brasil.The aim of this study was to report the insect species parasitizing Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, between August 2003 and May 2004. Flies were attracted to baits consisting of human feces, bovine liver and fish, with the pupae being isolated by the flotation method, in water, and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The parasitism percentages presented by Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae were 4.3, 1.5, 0.9 and 0.6%, respectively. The total percentage of parasitism was 7.4%. This study reports the first occurrence of S. nigra in pupae of F. pusio in Brazil.

  11. Primeiro registro de ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae em ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae no Brasil First record of occurrence of the parasitoid Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae in eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho registra a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitando ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivar de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A porcentagem de parasitismo foi de 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitue-se em ectoparasitóide de larvas de coleópteros e de outros hospedeiros no interior de tecidos de plantas.This work reports, for the first time, of parasitoid Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitizinf eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae in maize cultivate in Itumbiara, GO, Brazil. The percentage of parasitizing was 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitutes ectoparasitoid of beetle larvae and other hosts concealed in plant tissue.

  12. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Ptilotrigona Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero neotropical de abelhas sem ferrão, Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951, é revisado. Três espécies são reconhecidas: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endêmica do NW da América do Sul - do NW do Equador até o sul de Darién -, e com uma população isolada na Península de Osa - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endêmica do oeste da Amazônia, e P. lurida (Smith, 1854, amplamente distribuída na Amazônia. Ptilotrigona lurida e P. pereneae são as únicas abelhas sem ferrão que estocam pólen em associação com leveduras (Candida sp. e produzem pouco ou nenhum mel. Ninhos são descritos e ilustrados. Holótipos de Trigona suffragata Cockerell, 1922 (sin. de P. occidentalis e Trigona manni Cockerell, 1912, e exemplares de Trigona heideri Friese, 1900 (sins. de P. lurida, identificados por Friese, e um parátipo de Trigona (Tetragona heideri pereneae Schwarz, 1943, são estudados. Novo sinônimo: Ptilotrigona lurida (Smith, 1854 = Trigona mocsaryi lutea Friese, 1903 syn. nov. Na análise cladística, espécies de Camargoia Moure, 1989, e Tetragona Lepeletier & Serville, 1828, foram incluídas como grupos externos; a hipótese apresentada é a seguinte: ((((Ptilotrigona lurida, P. pereneae P. occidentalis((Camargoia nordestina, C. pilicornis C. camargoi Tetragona goettei. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies e outros aspectos bionômicos também são apresentados.Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Ptilotrigona Moure, (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae. The Neotropical stingless bees genus Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951 is revised. Three species are recognized: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endemic to NW South America - from NW Ecuador to southern Darién -, and with one isolated population in Osa Peninsula - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endemic to the western Amazon; and P. lurida (Smith, 1854, largely distributed in the Amazon region. Ptilotrigona lurida and P. pereneae are the only known stingless bees

  13. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfl y Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones Preferencias alimentarias de la avispa sierra de los sauces Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae por clones de Salix comerciales

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    Verónica Loetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae is a willow sawfly native to the Northern Hemisphere which became a serious defoliator in willow plantations (Salix spp. of the Southern Hemisphere after being introduced in the early 1980´s. Studies on host preferences provide useful information for the development of pest management strategies where the willow sawfly may produce tree damage and economic loss. Feeding preferences of N. oligospilus larvae were evaluated in laboratory trials by simultaneously offering leaves from four willow tree clones commonly used in commercial plantations in Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Larvae of N. oligospilus fed on leaves from the four clones. However, insects consumed a significantly higher proportion of S. babylonica var sacramenta leaves than of leaves from the other clones. Results indicate that all clones used in the trials were palatable to the insect, and that S. babylonica var sacramenta is the preferred host for larval herbivory.Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13

  14. Ocorrência de Aprostocetus hagenowii (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoide de ootecas da barata americana, no Rio Grande do Sul Occurrence of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of the american cockroach oothecae at Rio Grande do Sul

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    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência do parasitoide Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg, 1952 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae em ooteca de Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattodea: Blattidae, no extremo Sul do Brasil. As ootecas foram coletadas no mês de dezembro de 2007, no campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (31°48'34"S, 52°25'42"O, Município do Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. Após a coleta, as ootecas foram acondicionadas individualmente em tubos de ensaio, sendo posteriormente mantidas em câmara climatizada a 25°C, com umidade relativa =70%, até a eclosão das ninfas ou emergência dos parasitoides. Uma das ootecas estava parasitada e apresentou 89 parasitoides (79 fêmeas e 10 machos; a referida ocorrência constitui o primeiro registro para o Sul do Brasil. O conhecimento das regiões de ocorrência dos inimigos naturais de P. americana é de grande importância para se traçar uma estratégia de controle das populações desse blatódeo.It is reported the occurrence of the parasitoid Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg, 1952 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in oothecae of Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattodea: Blattidae at the extreme southern Brazil. The oothecae were collected in December of 2007 at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas (31°48'34"S, 52°25'42"W, city of Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. After the collection the oothecae were placed individually in glass vials maintained in acclimatized chamber at 25°C, with relative air humidity =70% until the eclosion of the nymphs or the emergence of the parasitoids. The infested ootheca presented 89 parasitoids (79 females and 10 males. The referred occurrence represents the first report to southern Brazil. Knowing the regions of occurrence of the natural enemies of P. americana is of great importance when developing a control strategy to the populations of the blatod.

  15. Dinâmica populacional do parasitoide de ovos erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae em clone de seringueira, em Itiquira, MT Population dynamic of egg parasitoid erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae in rubber tree clone in Itiquira, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-de-renda Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae é uma das mais importantes pragas da heveicultura no Brasil, principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Devido ao seu hábito sugador, na face abaxial das folhas, esta praga leva à senescência precoce das mesmas e a reduções na produção de látex em até 30%. Dentre os inimigos naturais de L. heveae está o parasitoide de ovos Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulando suas populações em condições naturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a dinâmica populacional deste parasitoide, bem como correlacioná-la com os fatores meteorológicos temperatura e pluviosidade, em plantio comercial de seringueira do clone PB 217, em Itiquira, MT. Semanalmente foram coletadas quatro folhas maduras por árvore, no terço inferior da copa de 40 árvores, totalizando 160 folhas por amostragem, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. Houve correlação positiva entre a dinâmica populacional e os fatores meteorológicos, sendo o pico populacional do parasitoide observado no mês de novembro e declinando até janeiro na área estudada.The lace bug Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae is one of the most import heveiculture pests in Brazil, mainly in the southeast and central-west regions. Due to its sucking habit on the abaxial surface, this pest causes precocious senescence in leaves, and leads to the reduction in latex production in up to 30% of them. Among the natural enemies of L. heveae is the egg parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulating populations of L. heveae in natural conditions. The objective of this work was to verify the population dynamics of this parasitoid, as well as to correlate it with meteorological factors such as temperature and rainfall, in a commercial plantation of rubber trees of the PB 217 clone, in Itiquira, in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Four

  16. Platigástridos (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae parasitoides de Pentatomidae en Córdoba. Caracterización de las masas de huevos parasitoidizadas y aspectos biológicos

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    Norma LA PORTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizan las masas de huevos parasitoidizadas de pentatómidos per - tenecientes a cinco especies, cuatro fitófagas y una depredadora. Además, se analizan aspectos biológicos de esas oviposturas (abundancia y parasitoidismo y de sus para - sitoides (proporción sexual y emergencia: cinco especies de microhimenópteros plati - gástridos pertenecientes a los géneros Trissolcus Ashmead, Telenomus Haliday y Gryon Haliday . El análisis de las masas de huevos de pentatómidos en el campo apor ta indi - cadores exomorfológicos para determinar si están o no parasitoidizadas y, en algunos casos, conocer la especie de parasitoide emergente. Los altos niveles de parasitoidismo registrados en ambos sitios muestreados –Marcos Juárez y zona periurbana de Córdoba, sugieren que los parasitoides oófagos inciden de manera importante en las poblaciones de hemípteros presentes en el cultivo de soja. Las especies parasitoides mostraron una proporción de sexos marcadamente sesgada hacia las hembras, con un comportamiento similar respecto a cada huésped con el que interactuaron. Los porcentajes de emergencia resultaron más variables dependiendo de la especie parasitoide, del huésped y del sitio. El multiparasitoidismo fue registrado en todas las especies con excepción de Nezara viridula L. Telenomus podisi Ashmead fue el parasitoide común en las combinaciones observadas, resultando T. podisi-Trissolcus urichi Crawford la más frecuente.

  17. ¿MULTIPLICAR Tetrastichus howardi (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE EN LA ORUGA DE LA SEDA AFECTA SU BIOLOGÍA?

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    Nahara Gabriela Piñeyro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pupas del hospedero natural Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. Las informaciones obtenidas en este estudio pueden mejorar y facilitar el control biológico de plagas, principalmente, con la utilización de parasitoides, debido a que T. howardi parasita y se desarrolla en pupas de B. mori. De forma general, la multiplicación de T. howardi durante tres generaciones en pupas del hospedero alternativo B. mori no compromete las características biológicas de este parasitoide cuando se multiplica en su hospedero natural D. saccharalis a los efectos de su utilización en programas de control biológico.ABSTRACTThe successive multiplication of parasitoids in alternative hosts can affect the biological characteristics and compromise the systems for massive rearing. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the multiplication of Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in pupae of the alternative host Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae for three generations, affects its reproductive performance, when are reared, then in pupae of the natural host Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. The information obtained in this study can improve and facilitate the biological control of pests, mainly with the use of parasitoids, due to the fact that T. howardi parasite and develops into pupae of B. mori. In general, the multiplication of T. howardi for three generations in the alternative

  18. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  19. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  20. Long-term monitoring of the introduced emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) egg parasitoid, oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyridae), in Michigan, USA and evaluation of a newly developed monitoring technique

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    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced as a biological control agent of this pest in Michiga...

  1. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  2. Revision of the Neotropical genus Eschatocerus Mayr (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Eschatocerini) with biological notes and the first description of the terminal larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; San Blas, Germán

    2015-09-02

    The gall wasp genus Eschatocerus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Eschatocerini), a cynipid genus of gall inducers on Prosopis and Acacia species (Fabaceae), endemic to southern South America, is revised. Complete descriptions of the external morphology of the genus and its three known species, illustrated with scanning electron photographs, are given for the first time, and an updated key for the identification of the species is provided. The biology of the species of Eschatocerus and their galls is described. Host plant associations are given, and the terminal larva of Eschatocerus niger is described for the first time. Preliminary notes on the inquiline and parasitoid community associated with the galls of Eschatocerus species are also given.

  3. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management.

  4. Distribution and abundance of mymarid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) of Sophonia rufofascia Kuoh and Kuoh (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Foote, D.; Alyokhin, A.V.; Lenz, L.; Messing, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species, and Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and those of Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but led to a twofold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  5. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  6. Sexual dimorphism in antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of a pupal endoparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Zheng, Lixia; Liao, Yonglin; Wu, Weijian

    2016-05-01

    Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a pupal parasitoid of a great number of Lepidoptera pests, has a great potential for biological control. To investigate the olfactory system of this parasitoid, we examined the morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of both male and female T. howardi using scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Antennae of male and female T. howardi were geniculate in shape, which consisted of scape, pedicel and flagellum with 5 and 4 flagellomeres, respectively. The sexual differences were recorded in the types, structure, distribution and abundance of antennal sensilla of T. howardi. Fourteen morphologically distinct types of antennal sensilla were found on the female antennae, while seventeen on the male antennae. They were: multiporous plate sensilla (MPS1-4), chaetica sensilla (CH1-3), multiporous trichodea sensilla (MTS), aporous trichodea sensilla (ATS1-5), multiporous grooved peg sensilla (MGPS), coeloconic sensilla (COS), campaniform sensilla (CAS), terminal finger-like hairy sensilla (TFI), cuticular pore (CP), and ventral sensory plaque (VSP). MPS4, ATS (3-5), and VSP only occurred on the male antennae, while MPS2 and MPS3 only on the female antennae. The MPSs, MTS, MGPS, TFI, and CP may function as olfactory sensilla involving in detecting odor stimuli whereas the ATSs, CHs, and CAS may serve as mechanoreceptors. COS were presumed to play a role as chemo-, thermo- or hygro-receptor. The results could facilitate future studies on the biology of olfaction in T. howardi.

  7. Transcriptome immune analysis of the invasive beetle Octodonta nipae (Maulik (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae parasitized by Tetrastichus brontispae Ferriere (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae.

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    Baozhen Tang

    Full Text Available The beetle Octodonta nipae (Maulik (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a serious invasive insect pest of palm plants in southern China, and the endoparasitoid Tetrastichus brontispae Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a natural enemy of this pest that exhibits great ability in the biocontrol of O. nipae. For successful parasitism, endoparasitoids often introduce or secrete various virulence factors to suppress host immunity. To investigate the effects of parasitization by T. brontispae on the O. nipae immune system, the transcriptome of O. nipae pupae was analyzed with a focus on immune-related genes through Illumina sequencing. De novo assembly generated 49,919 unigenes with a mean length of 598 bp. Of these genes, 27,490 unigenes (55.1% of all unigenes exhibited clear homology to known genes in the NCBI nr database. Parasitization had significant effects on the transcriptome profile of O. nipae pupae, and most of these differentially expressed genes were down-regulated. Importantly, the expression profiles of immune-related genes were significantly regulated after parasitization. Taken together, these transcriptome sequencing efforts shed valuable light on the host (O. nipae manipulation mechanisms induced by T. brontispae, which will pave the way for the development of novel immune defense-based management strategies of O. nipae, and provide a springboard for further molecular analyses, particularly of O. nipae invasion.

  8. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed.

  9. ¿MULTIPLICAR Tetrastichus howardi (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE EN LA ORUGA DE LA SEDA AFECTA SU BIOLOGÍA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahara Gabriela PIÑEYRO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pupas del hospedero natural Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. Las informaciones obtenidas en este estudio pueden mejorar y facilitar el control biológico de plagas, principalmente, con la utilización de parasitoides, debido a que T. howardi parasita y se desarrolla en pupas de B. mori. De forma general, la multiplicación de T. howardi durante tres generaciones en pupas del hospedero alternativo B. mori no compromete las características biológicas de este parasitoide cuando se multiplica en su hospedero natural D. saccharalis a los efectos de su utilización en programas de control biológico.

  10. Comparative performance of two mite-resistant stocks of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama beekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth; Danka, Robert; Ward, Rufina

    2008-06-01

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared with that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Truman (Acari: Varroidae), were measured twice each year, and colonies that reached established economic treatment thresholds (one mite per 100 adult bees in late winter; 5-10 mites per 100 adult bees in late summer) were treated with acaricides. Infestations of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), were measured autumn and compared with a treatment threshold of 20% mite prevalence. Honey production was measured in 2005 and 2006 for colonies that retained original test queens. Throughout the three seasons of measurement, resistant stocks required less treatment against parasitic mites than the Italian stock. The total percentages of colonies needing treatment against varroa mites were 12% of VSH, 24% of Russian, and 40% of Italian. The total percentages requiring treatment against tracheal mites were 1% of Russian, 8% of VSH and 12% of Italian. The average honey yield of Russian and VSH colonies was comparable with that of Italian colonies each year. Beekeepers did not report any significant behavioral problems with the resistant stocks. These stocks thus have good potential for use in nonmigratory beekeeping operations in the southeastern United States.

  11. Effect of ionizing (gamma and non-ionizing (UV radiation on the development of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Tuncbilek Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using gamma and ultraviolet radiation as an alternative treatment to increase the efficiency of Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault 1911 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was investigated in the laboratory. The developmental and adult stages of T. euproctidis were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses (0-30 Gy and ultraviolet radiation of 254 nm wavelengths (UV-C for different durations (0-10 min to assess their effect on each of the instars and their potential in breaking the developmental cycle of the egg parasitoid. The LD50 values for eggs, prepupae, pupae and adults were 8.1, 10.0, 22.7 and 9.5 Gy for gamma radiation and 9.5, 0.12, 2.0 and 11.9 min for UV radiation, respectively. The pupa and adult stages were more radioresistant to both gamma and UV radiation. The most interesting and unexpected result obtained for the prepupal stage was that UV radiation has a greater effect on prepupal stages than gamma radiation.

  12. Seed Selection by the Harvester Ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Coastal Sage Scrub: Interactions With Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C M; Redak, R A

    2016-08-01

    Harvester ants can be the dominant seed predators on plants by collecting and eating seeds and are known to influence plant communities. Harvester ants are abundant in coastal sage scrub (CSS), and CSS is frequently invaded by several exotic plant species. This study used observations of foraging and cafeteria-style experiments to test for seed species selection by the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in CSS. Analysis of foraging behavior showed that P. rugosus carried seeds of exotic Erodium cicutarium (L.) and exotic Brassica tournefortii (Gouan) on 85 and 15% of return trips to the nest (respectively), and only a very few ants carried the native seeds found within the study areas. When compared with the availability of seeds in the field, P. rugosus selected exotic E. cicutarium and avoided both native Encelia farinosa (Torrey & A. Gray) and exotic B. tournefortii. Foraging by P. rugosus had no major effect on the seed bank in the field. Cafeteria-style experiments confirmed that P. rugosus selected E. cicutarium over other available seeds. Native Eriogonum fasciculatum (Bentham) seeds were even less selected than E. farinosa and B. tournefortii.

  13. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions.

  14. Thermal requirements and estimate number of generations of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in different Eucalyptus plantations regions

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    FF Pereira

    Full Text Available To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb and the thermal constant (K of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD, respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  15. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

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    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  16. Repellent efficacy of formic acid and the abdominal secretion of carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; Verderane, Michele P; De Resende, Briseida D; Izar, Patrícia; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2007-07-01

    Formic acid is a substance produced by some ants for defense, trail marking, and recruitment. Some animals are known to rub ants or other arthropods on parts of their plumage or fur to anoint themselves with released substances. A recent study with a semifree-ranging group of capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella L., in the Tietê Ecological Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil, an area of occurrence of the tick species Amblyomma cajennense (F.), revealed that "anting" with carpenter ants, Camponotus rufipes F. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), occurs frequently, especially during the A. cajennense subadult season. Based on these observations, we tested the repellent effect of the formic acid and the ants themselves against A. cajennense and Amblyomma incisum Neumann nymphs, and Amblyomma parcum Aragdo adult ticks in the laboratory. The results revealed a significant repellent effect of formic acid and ant secretion, and a significant duration of the repellent effect. The results suggest that the anting behavior of capuchin monkeys, and other vertebrates, may be related with repellence of ticks and other ectoparasites.

  17. Natural enemies of Atta vollenweideri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutter ants negatively affected by synthetic pesticides, chlorpyrifos and fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillade, Andrea C; Folgarait, Patricia J

    2014-02-01

    In southern South America, Ada vollenweideri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a significant pest of several crops and forestry, also considered to reduce the carrying capacity of pastures. The most usual control method used in Latin America is the application of synthetic pesticides, mainly chlorpyrifos and fipronil. However, no studies have assessed the effects of these agrochemicals on natural enemies of ants. We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of these pesticides on leaf-cutter ants' control and to test their effect on phorid fly parasitoids. Chlorpyrifos failed to exert complete control over ant colonies in the field and was gravely detrimental to specific parasitoids, reducing their percentage of parasitism, pupal survivorship, and adult longevity. Fipronil, however, exerted complete control over the treated colonies. Laboratory tests using both pesticides, either on ants from foraging trails or on pupariae, showed that chlorpyrifos and fipronil decreased larval and pupal survivorship, as well as adult longevity of parasitoids, in comparison to controls. In conclusion, these pesticides will likely affect parasitoids with regard to their reproductive capacity, leading to the decreased levels of natural parasitism observed in the field after treatments. We discuss why neither pesticide should be taken into account for integrated pest management programs.

  18. Molecular approaches identify known species, reveal cryptic species and verify host specificity of Chinese Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Jiao; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Yan-Wei; Niu, Li-Ming; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Shan; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Philotrypesis, a major component of the fig wasp community (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is a model taxon for studying male fighting and mating behaviour. Its extreme sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism render species identification uncertain and in-depth research on its ecology, behaviour and other evolutionary topics challenging. The fig wasps' enclosed habitat within the syconia makes their mating behaviour inaccessible, to the extent of matching conspecific females and males. In this study, we combine morphological and molecular analyses to identify species of Philotrypesis sampled from south China and to associate their extraordinarily dimorphic genders and labile male morphologies. Morphological evaluations of females identify 22 species and 28 male morphs. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 data detect 21 species using females, and 15 species among the males. Most of the males match the species as delimited by females. Both markers reveal cryptic species in P. quadrisetosa on Ficus vasculosa. Most species of wasps live on one species of fig but three species co-occur in two hosts (F. microcarpa and F. benjamina), which indicates host switching.

  19. Antennal sensilla of female Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a nymphal parasitoid of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Wei-Jian; Niu, Li-Ming; Fu, Yue-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a minute, obligate endoparasitoid against the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus nymph. The external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of female E. guadeloupae were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of female E. guadeloupae were geniculate in shape, which consist of scape with a radicula, pedicel, and flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in the females: nonporous sensilla chaetica (CH-NP) and nonporous sensilla trichodea (ST-NP); uniporous sensilla chaetica (CH-UP) and uniporous sensilla trichodea (ST-UP) with a tip pore, basiconic capitate peg sensilla with numerous pores open at the bottom of the grooves; multiporous sensilla placoid (MSP) with the multiporous cuticular structure; uniporous rod-like sensilla (RO-UP) with robust grooved surfaces and the tremendous apical hole; nonporous finger-like sensilla (FI-NP) with abundant pimples at the bulgy, mortar-shaped short stalk. In order to further explore the host location mechanisms and courtship behavior of E. guadeloupae, the possible roles of the antennal sensilla of this species were discussed.

  20. LEAF-CUTTING ANTS Acromyrmex niger SMITH, 1858 (HYMENOPTERA; FORMICIDAE USED AS BIOINDICATORS OF AGROTOXICS RESIDUES

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    Liriana Belizário Cantagalli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Despite the condition of leaf-cutting ant pests in agroecosystems, it is undeniable the benefits they can bring in certain situations or environments. The leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex attack mainly leaves of vegetables and fruit trees exposing not only to the agrochemicals used for their control as well as to those used for the control of other pests. Due to the bioindicator potential of environmental quality of the ants and their frequent exposure to agrochemicals such as organophosphates, neonicotinoids and growth regulators insecticide used for pest control, it is necessary to study the sublethal effects that these pesticides may cause. The electrophoresis technique was used to study the activity of esterase isozymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics of A. niger, combined with changes in the expression of isozymes after contamination by pesticides. A. niger  showed eight regions of esterase activity, which were called EST-1, EST-2, EST-3, EST-4, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7 and EST-8 according to the electrophoretic mobility. As the specificity to α  and β -naphthyl acetate substrates, the Est-7 and Est-8 may be classified as α -esterase and the others as αβ  esterases. EST-5 is considered an enzyme of the type cholinesterase II and the others are of the type carboxilesterase. The electrophoretic analysis showed partial inhibition to all esterases subjected to the contact with Malathion organophosforate at the concentrations 1 x10-3  % and 5 x 10-3  %, which may be considered as a biomarker for the presence of residues of this insecticide in the environment. The regression analysis for sublethal effects of the tested pesticides demonstrated correlation between dose and mortality only for Thiametoxam neonicotinoid pesticide. Utilización de hormigas cortadoras Acromyrmex niger Smith,1858 (Hymenoptera; Formicidae como bioindicadoresde residuos