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Sample records for ashkenazi jewish population

  1. A population-genetic test of founder effects and implications for Ashkenazi Jewish diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2004-08-01

    A founder effect can account for the presence of an allele at an unusually high frequency in an isolated population if the allele is selectively neutral and if all copies are identical by descent with a copy that either was carried by a founder individual or arose by mutation later. Here, a statistical test of both aspects of the founder-effect hypothesis is developed. The test is performed by a modified version of a program that implements the Slatkin-Bertorelle test of neutrality. The test is applied to several disease-associated alleles found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jews. Despite considerable uncertainty about the demographic history of Ashkenazi Jews and their ancestors, available genetic data are consistent with a founder effect resulting from a severe bottleneck in population size between a.d. 1100 and a.d. 1400 and an earlier bottleneck in a.d. 75, at the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. The relatively high frequency of alleles causing four different lysosomal storage disorders, including Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher disease, can be accounted for if the disease-associated alleles are recessive in their effects on reproductive fitness. PMID:15208782

  2. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish community: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Manchanda, R.; Loggenberg, K.; Sanderson, S.; Burnell, M.; Wardle, J; Gessler, S.; Side, L.; Balogun, N.; Desai, R; Kumar, A.; Dorkins, H.; Wallis, Y; Chapman, C; Taylor, R.; Jacobs, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population ...

  3. Ashkenazi Jewish population screening for Tay-Sachs disease: the international and Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Delatycki, Martin B; Bankier, Agnes; Aizenberg, Harry; Field, Michael J; Berman, Yemima; Fleischer, Ronald; Fietz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) preconception screening of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals and couples has led to effective primary prevention of TSD. In Australia, adolescent preconception genetic screening programs operate mainly in Jewish community high schools. These existing programs offer an effective means of primary prevention of TSD, are cost effective and safe. However, in the broader Australian community TSD screening is not systematically performed and cases still occur in unscreened AJ individuals. In order to improve the effectiveness of Australian screening, there is a need for definitive guidelines for healthcare professionals to facilitate extension of the proven benefits of preconception TSD screening to all AJ individuals at risk. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature relating to AJ pre-conception and antenatal screening for TSD. The evidence was assessed using an established National Health and Medical Research Council evidence grading system. Evaluations of efficacy of TSD screening programs design and execution, cost-benefit and cost-utility health economic evaluation, and population outcomes were undertaken. The results have been used to propose a model for universal AJ TSD preconception and antenatal screening for the primary care setting. PMID:24923490

  4. Prevalance of Canavan disease heterozygotes in the New York Metropolitan Ashkenazi Jewish population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronn, D.; Oddoux, C.; Phillips, J. [New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Canavan disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease that occurs most commonly in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Previous studies have indicated the carrier frequency to be between 1/59 and 1/45. The disease, now recognized as a deficiency of aspartoacylase, is associated with the pathological finding of spongy degeneration of the brain. Patients are usually normal at birth, but by 2-4 mo they lose milestones and develop seizures, macrocephaly, and hypertonia. Death occurs in early childhood. With the availability of enzymatic testing, an increase in the incidence of newly diagnosed cases has been observed, suggesting that the frequency of the disorder may have been underestimated. In 1993, the cDNA for the aspartoacylase gene was cloned, and an A{yields}C transition at nucleotide 854 was identified in affected individuals. This represents a missense mutation from glutamine to alanine at amino acid residue 285 (E285A). This mutation was found in 73/88 Canavan disease-bearing chromosomes from Ashkenazi patients. In the same study, a C{yields}A transition at nucleotide 693, which results in the conversion from a tyrosine codon to terminator codon at position 231 (Y231X), was found in 13/88 chromosomes. Thus, these two mutations provide a detection rate >97% in this population. The aspartoacylase gene spans 23 kb of DNA and has been mapped to 17p13-ter by FISH. The gene consists of six coding exons. The E285A mutation is located in exon 6 and results in the creation of a new EagI site, whereas the Y231X mutation is found in exon S and creates an MseI site. In this study we have determined the frequency of these two mutations from a panel of unaffected individuals who live in the New York metropolitan area. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Common mutations in the phosphofructokinase-M gene in Ashkenazi Jewish patients with glycogenesis VII - and their population frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, J.B.; Raben, N.; Nicastri, C.; Adams, E.M.; Plotz, P.H. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Argov, Z. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Nakajima, Hiromu (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Eng, C.M.; Cowan, T.M. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. Deficiency of the muscle enzyme is manifested by exercise intolerance and a compensated hemolytic anemia. Case reports of this autosomal recessive disease suggest a predominance in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The authors have explored the genetic basis for this illness in nine affected families and surveyed the normal Ashkenazi population for the mutations found. Genomic DNA was amplified using PCR, and denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis. The polymorphic exons were sequenced or digested with restriction enzymes. A previously described splicing mutation, [Delta]5, accounted for 11 (61%) of 18 abnormal alleles in the nine families. A single base deletion leading to a frameshift mutation in exon 22 ([Delta]C-22) was found in six of seven alleles. A third mutation, resulting in a nonconservative amino acid substitution in exon 4, accounted for the remaining allele. Thus, three mutations could account for an illness in this group, and two mutations could account for 17 of 18 alleles. In screening 250 normal Ashkenazi individuals for all three mutations, they found only one [Delta]5 allele. Clinical data revealed no correlation between the particular mutations and symptoms, but male patients were more symptomatic than females, and only males had frank hemolysis and hyperuricemia. Because PFK deficiency in Ashkenazi Jews is caused by a limited number of mutations, screening genomic DNA from peripheral blood for the described mutations in this population should enable rapid diagnosis without muscle biopsy. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A Population-Genetic Test of Founder Effects and Implications for Ashkenazi Jewish Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2004-01-01

    A founder effect can account for the presence of an allele at an unusually high frequency in an isolated population if the allele is selectively neutral and if all copies are identical by descent with a copy that either was carried by a founder individual or arose by mutation later. Here, a statistical test of both aspects of the founder-effect hypothesis is developed. The test is performed by a modified version of a program that implements the Slatkin-Bertorelle test of neutrality. The test ...

  7. Population-based Tay-Sachs screening among Ashkenazi Jewish young adults in the 21st century: Hexosaminidase A enzyme assay is essential for accurate testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adele; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Keep, Rosanne; Dorsainville, Darnelle; Charrow, Joel; Aleck, Kirk; Hoffman, Jodi; Minkoff, Sherman; Finegold, David; Sun, Wei; Spencer, Andrew; Lebow, Johannah; Zhan, Jie; Apfelroth, Stephen; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Gross, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening, initiated in the 1970s, has reduced the birth-rate of Ashkenazi Jews with TSD worldwide by 90%. Recently, several nationwide programs have been established that provide carrier screening for the updated panel of Jewish genetic diseases on college campuses and in Jewish community settings. The goals of this study were to determine the performance characteristics of clinical TSD testing in college- and community-based screening programs and to determine if molecular testing alone is adequate in those settings. Clinical data for TSD testing were retrospectively anonymized and subsequently analyzed for 1,036 individuals who participated in these programs. The performance characteristics of the serum and the platelet Hexosaminidase assays were compared, and also correlated with the results of targeted DNA analysis. The serum assay identified 29 carriers and the platelet assay identified 35 carriers for carrier rates of 1/36 and 1/29, respectively. One hundred sixty-nine samples (16.3%) were inconclusive by serum assay in marked contrast to four inconclusive samples (0.4%) by the platelet assay. Molecular analysis alone would have missed four of the 35 carriers detected by the platelet assay, yielding a false negative rate of 11.4% with a sensitivity of 88.6%. Based on the results of this study, platelet assay was superior to serum with a minimal inconclusive rate. Due to changing demographics of the Ashkenazi Jewish population, molecular testing alone in the setting of broad-based population screening programs is not sufficient, and biochemical analysis should be the assay of choice. PMID:19876898

  8. Ashkenazi Jewish Centenarians Do Not Demonstrate Enrichment in Mitochondrial Haplogroup J

    OpenAIRE

    Shlush, Liran I.; Atzmon, Gil; Weisshof, Roni; Behar, Doron; Yudkovsky, Guenady; Barzilai, Nir; Skorecki, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Background Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity has been reported in several population subgroups. While studies from northern Italy and Finland, have described a higher frequency of haplogroup J among centenarians in comparison to non-centenarian, several other studies could not replicate these results and suggested various explanations for the discrepancy. Methodology/Principal Findings We have evaluated haplogroup frequencies among Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians using tw...

  9. Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians do not demonstrate enrichment in mitochondrial haplogroup J.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran I Shlush

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity has been reported in several population subgroups. While studies from northern Italy and Finland, have described a higher frequency of haplogroup J among centenarians in comparison to non-centenarian, several other studies could not replicate these results and suggested various explanations for the discrepancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated haplogroup frequencies among Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians using two different sets of matched controls. No difference was observed in the haplogroup J frequencies between the centenarians or either matched control group, despite adequate statistical power to detect such a difference. Furthermore, the lack of association was robust to population substructure in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Given this discrepancy with the previous reported associations in the northern Italian and the Finnish populations, we conducted re-analysis of these previously published data, which supported one of several possible explanations: i inadequate matching of cases and controls; ii inadequate adjustment for multiple comparison testing; iii cryptic population stratification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There does not exist a universal association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity across all population groups. Reported associations in specialized populations may reflect genetic or other interactions specific to those populations or else cryptic confounding influences, such as inadequate matching attributable to population substructure, which are of general relevance to all studies of the possible association of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with common complex phenotypes.

  10. Extended haplotype association study in Crohn's disease identifies a novel, Ashkenazi Jewish-specific missense mutation in the NF-κB pathway gene, HEATR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Hui, K Y; Gusev, A; Warner, N; Ng, S M E; Ferguson, J; Choi, M; Burberry, A; Abraham, C; Mayer, L; Desnick, R J; Cardinale, C J; Hakonarson, H; Waterman, M; Chowers, Y; Karban, A; Brant, S R; Silverberg, M S; Gregersen, P K; Katz, S; Lifton, R P; Zhao, H; Nuñez, G; Pe'er, I; Peter, I; Cho, J H

    2013-01-01

    The Ashkenazi Jewish population has a several-fold higher prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD) compared with non-Jewish European ancestry populations and has a unique genetic history. Haplotype association is critical to CD etiology in this population, most notably at NOD2, in which three causal, uncommon and conditionally independent NOD2 variants reside on a shared background haplotype. We present an analysis of extended haplotypes that showed significantly greater association to CD in the Ashkenazi Jewish population compared with a non-Jewish population (145 haplotypes and no haplotypes with P-value <10(-3), respectively). Two haplotype regions, one each on chromosomes 16 and 21, conferred increased disease risk within established CD loci. We performed exome sequencing of 55 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals and follow-up genotyping focused on variants in these two regions. We observed Ashkenazi Jewish-specific nominal association at R755C in TRPM2 on chromosome 21. Within the chromosome 16 region, R642S of HEATR3 and rs9922362 of BRD7 showed genome-wide significance. Expression studies of HEATR3 demonstrated a positive role in NOD2-mediated NF-κB signaling. The BRD7 signal showed conditional dependence with only the downstream rare CD-causal variants in NOD2, but not with the background haplotype; this elaborates NOD2 as a key illustration of synthetic association. PMID:23615072

  11. Extended haplotype association study in Crohn’s disease identifies a novel, Ashkenazi Jewish-specific missense mutation in the NF-κB pathway gene, HEATR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Hui, Ken Y.; Gusev, Alexander; Warner, Neil; Evelyn Ng, Sok Meng; Ferguson, John; Choi, Murim; Burberry, Aaron; Abraham, Clara; Mayer, Lloyd; Desnick, Robert J.; Cardinale, Christopher J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Waterman, Matti; Chowers, Yehuda; Karban, Amir; Brant, Steven R.; Silverberg, Mark S.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Katz, Seymour; Lifton, Richard P.; Zhao, Hongyu; Nuñez, Gabriel; Pe’er, Itsik; Peter, Inga; Cho, Judy H.

    2013-01-01

    The Ashkenazi Jewish population has a several-fold higher prevalence of Crohn’s disease compared to non-Jewish European ancestry populations and has a unique genetic history. Haplotype association is critical to Crohn’s disease etiology in this population, most notably at NOD2, in which three causal, uncommon, and conditionally independent NOD2 variants reside on a shared background haplotype. We present an analysis of extended haplotypes which showed significantly greater association to Crohn’s disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population compared to a non-Jewish population (145 haplotypes and no haplotypes with P-value < 10−3, respectively). Two haplotype regions, one each on chromosomes 16 and 21, conferred increased disease risk within established Crohn’s disease loci. We performed exome sequencing of 55 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals and follow-up genotyping focused on variants in these two regions. We observed Ashkenazi Jewish-specific nominal association at R755C in TRPM2 on chromosome 21. Within the chromosome 16 region, R642S of HEATR3 and rs9922362 of BRD7 showed genome-wide significance. Expression studies of HEATR3 demonstrated a positive role in NOD2-mediated NF-κB signaling. The BRD7 signal showed conditional dependence with only the downstream rare Crohn’s disease-causal variants in NOD2, but not with the background haplotype; this elaborates NOD2 as a key illustration of synthetic association. PMID:23615072

  12. Ashkenazi-Jewish and non-Jewish adult GM2 gangliosidosis patients share a common genetic defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Navon, R; Kolodny, E H; Mitsumoto, H; Thomas, G H; Proia, R L

    1990-01-01

    The adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, adult GM2 gangliosidosis, is an autosomal recessive neurological disorder caused by a partial deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A. We had previously identified, in Ashkenazi-Jewish adult GM2 gangliosidosis patients, a Gly269----Ser mutation in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit. All of the Ashkenazi patients were found to be compound heterozygotes with an allele containing the Gly269----Ser mutation together with one of the Ashkenazi infantile Tay-Sachs...

  13. Extended haplotype association study in Crohn’s disease identifies a novel, Ashkenazi Jewish-specific missense mutation in the NF-κB pathway gene, HEATR3

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Hui, Ken Y; Gusev, Alexander; Warner, Neil; Evelyn Ng, Sok Meng; Ferguson, John; Choi, Murim; Burberry, Aaron; Abraham, Clara; Mayer, Lloyd; Desnick, Robert J; Cardinale, Christopher J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Waterman, Matti; Chowers, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    The Ashkenazi Jewish population has a several-fold higher prevalence of Crohn’s disease compared to non-Jewish European ancestry populations and has a unique genetic history. Haplotype association is critical to Crohn’s disease etiology in this population, most notably at NOD2, in which three causal, uncommon, and conditionally independent NOD2 variants reside on a shared background haplotype. We present an analysis of extended haplotypes which showed significantly greater association to Croh...

  14. North African Jewish and non-Jewish populations form distinctive, orthogonal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christopher L; Palamara, Pier F; Dubrovsky, Maya; Botigué, Laura R; Fellous, Marc; Atzmon, Gil; Oddoux, Carole; Pearlman, Alexander; Hao, Li; Henn, Brenna M; Burns, Edward; Bustamante, Carlos D; Comas, David; Friedman, Eitan; Pe'er, Itsik; Ostrer, Harry

    2012-08-21

    North African Jews constitute the second largest Jewish Diaspora group. However, their relatedness to each other; to European, Middle Eastern, and other Jewish Diaspora groups; and to their former North African non-Jewish neighbors has not been well defined. Here, genome-wide analysis of five North African Jewish groups (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Djerban, and Libyan) and comparison with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive North African Jewish population clusters with proximity to other Jewish populations and variable degrees of Middle Eastern, European, and North African admixture. Two major subgroups were identified by principal component, neighbor joining tree, and identity-by-descent analysis-Moroccan/Algerian and Djerban/Libyan-that varied in their degree of European admixture. These populations showed a high degree of endogamy and were part of a larger Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish group. By principal component analysis, these North African groups were orthogonal to contemporary populations from North and South Morocco, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. Thus, this study is compatible with the history of North African Jews-founding during Classical Antiquity with proselytism of local populations, followed by genetic isolation with the rise of Christianity and then Islam, and admixture following the emigration of Sephardic Jews during the Inquisition. PMID:22869716

  15. Major histocompatibility complex haplotype studies in Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. R.; Yunis, E J; Khatri, K; Wagner, R; Notani, G.; Awdeh, Z; Alper, C A

    1990-01-01

    Of 26 Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris, 24 (92.3%) carried the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles HLA-DR4, DQw3, of which all were of the subtype DR4, DQw8. From studies of the patients and their families, haplotypes were defined. It was found that, of the patients who carried HLA-DR4, DQw8, 75% carried one or the other (and in one case, both) of two haplotypes [HLA-B38, SC21, DR4] or HLA-B35, SC31, DR4. The former is a known extended haplotype among norm...

  16. The adult polyglucosan body disease mutation GBE1 c.1076A>C occurs at high frequency in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Armistead, Joy; Gushulak, Lara; Kruck, Christa; Pind, Steven; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2012-09-21

    Mutations of the glycogen branching enzyme gene, GBE1, result in glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IV, an autosomal recessive disorder having multiple clinical forms. One mutant allele of this gene, GBE1 c.1076A>C, has been reported in Ashkenazi Jewish cases of an adult-onset form of GSD type IV, adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD), but no epidemiological analyses of this mutation have been performed. We report here the first epidemiological study of this mutation in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish background and find that this mutation has a gene frequency of 1 in 34.5 (95% CI: 0.0145-0.0512), similar to the frequency of the common mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease among Ashkenazi Jews. This finding reveals APBD to be another monogenic disorder that occurs with increased frequency in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. PMID:22943850

  17. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu;

    2011-01-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele fre...

  18. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, Kate M.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y.; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collee, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Pawel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S.; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Klein, Robert J.; Daly, Mark J.; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Altshuler, David M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele freque

  19. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, L S; Szabo, C.I.; Ostermeyer, E A; Dowd, P; Butler, L; Park, T.; Lee, M K; Goode, E.L.; Rowell, S E; King, M C

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning approximately 850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset breast cancer with...

  20. Bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia: a 440-single-nucleotide polymorphism screen of 64 candidate genes among Ashkenazi Jewish case-parent trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, M Daniele; Lasseter, Virginia K; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Wolyniec, Paula S; McGrath, John A; Steel, Gary; Nestadt, Gerald; Liang, Kung-Yee; Huganir, Richard L; Valle, David; Pulver, Ann E

    2005-12-01

    Bipolar, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorders are common, highly heritable psychiatric disorders, for which familial coaggregation, as well as epidemiological and genetic evidence, suggests overlapping etiologies. No definitive susceptibility genes have yet been identified for any of these disorders. Genetic heterogeneity, combined with phenotypic imprecision and poor marker coverage, has contributed to the difficulty in defining risk variants. We focused on families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, to reduce genetic heterogeneity, and, as a precursor to genomewide association studies, we undertook a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping screen of 64 candidate genes (440 SNPs) chosen on the basis of previous linkage or of association and/or biological relevance. We genotyped an average of 6.9 SNPs per gene, with an average density of 1 SNP per 11.9 kb in 323 bipolar I disorder and 274 schizophrenia or schizoaffective Ashkenazi case-parent trios. Using single-SNP and haplotype-based transmission/disequilibrium tests, we ranked genes on the basis of strength of association (Pfive replicate previous associations, and one, GRID1, shows a novel association with schizophrenia. In addition, six genes (DPYSL2, DTNBP1, G30/G72, GRID1, GRM4, and NOS1) showed overlapping suggestive evidence of association in both disorders. These results may help to prioritize candidate genes for future study from among the many suspected/proposed for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. They provide further support for shared genetic susceptibility between these two disorders that involve glutamate-signaling pathways. PMID:16380905

  1. Genetic affinities of the Jewish populations of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Singh, Manvendra; Rai, Niraj; Kariappa, Mini; Singh, Kamayani; Singh, Ashish; Pratap Singh, Deepankar; Tamang, Rakesh; Selvi Rani, Deepa; Reddy, Alla G.; Kumar Singh, Vijay; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of written records or inscription, the origin and affiliation of Indian Jewish populations with other world populations remain contentious. Previous genetic studies have found evidence for a minor shared ancestry of Indian Jewish with Middle Eastern (Jewish) populations. However, these studies (relied on limited individuals), haven’t explored the detailed temporal and spatial admixture process of Indian Jewish populations with the local Indian populations. Here, using large sample size with combination of high resolution biparental (autosomal) and uniparental markers (Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA), we reconstructed genetic history of Indian Jewish by investigating the patterns of genetic diversity. Consistent with the previous observations, we detected minor Middle Eastern specific ancestry component among Indian Jewish communities, but virtually negligible in their local neighbouring Indian populations. The temporal test of admixture suggested that the first admixture of migrant Jewish populations from Middle East to South India (Cochin) occurred during fifth century. Overall, we concluded that the Jewish migration and admixture in India left a record in their genomes, which can link them to the ‘Jewish Diaspora’. PMID:26759184

  2. Genetic affinities of the Jewish populations of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Singh, Manvendra; Rai, Niraj; Kariappa, Mini; Singh, Kamayani; Singh, Ashish; Pratap Singh, Deepankar; Tamang, Rakesh; Selvi Rani, Deepa; Reddy, Alla G; Kumar Singh, Vijay; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of written records or inscription, the origin and affiliation of Indian Jewish populations with other world populations remain contentious. Previous genetic studies have found evidence for a minor shared ancestry of Indian Jewish with Middle Eastern (Jewish) populations. However, these studies (relied on limited individuals), haven't explored the detailed temporal and spatial admixture process of Indian Jewish populations with the local Indian populations. Here, using large sample size with combination of high resolution biparental (autosomal) and uniparental markers (Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA), we reconstructed genetic history of Indian Jewish by investigating the patterns of genetic diversity. Consistent with the previous observations, we detected minor Middle Eastern specific ancestry component among Indian Jewish communities, but virtually negligible in their local neighbouring Indian populations. The temporal test of admixture suggested that the first admixture of migrant Jewish populations from Middle East to South India (Cochin) occurred during fifth century. Overall, we concluded that the Jewish migration and admixture in India left a record in their genomes, which can link them to the 'Jewish Diaspora'. PMID:26759184

  3. Molecular basis of adult-onset and chronic G sub M2 gangliosidoses in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish origin: Substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the. alpha. -subunit of. beta. -hexosaminidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paw, B.H.; Kaback, M.M.; Neufeld, E.F. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Chronic and adult-onset G{sub M2} gangliosidoses are neurological disorders caused by marked deficiency of the A isoenzyme of {beta}-hexosaminidase; they occur in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, though less frequently than classic (infantile) Tay-Sachs disease. Earlier biosynthetic studies had identified a defective {alpha}-subunit that failed to associate with the {beta}-subunit. The authors have now found a guanosine to adenosine transition at the 3{prime} end of exon 7, which causes substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the {alpha}-subunit. An RNase protection assay was used to localize the mutation to a segment of mRNA from fibroblasts of a patient with the adult-onset disorder. That segment of mRNA (after reverse transcription) and a corresponding segment of genomic DNA were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by the dideoxy method. The sequence analysis, together with an assay based on the loss of a ScrFI restriction site, showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote who had inherited the 269 (Gly {yields} Ser) mutation from his father and an allelic null mutation from his mother. The 269 (Gly {yields} Ser) mutation, in compound heterozygosity with a presumed null allele, was also found in fetal fibroblasts with an association-defective phenotype and in cells from five patients with chronic G{sub M2} gangliosidosis.

  4. The population genetics of the Jewish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrer, Harry; Skorecki, Karl

    2013-02-01

    Adherents to the Jewish faith have resided in numerous geographic locations over the course of three millennia. Progressively more detailed population genetic analysis carried out independently by multiple research groups over the past two decades has revealed a pattern for the population genetic architecture of contemporary Jews descendant from globally dispersed Diaspora communities. This pattern is consistent with a major, but variable component of shared Near East ancestry, together with variable degrees of admixture and introgression from the corresponding host Diaspora populations. By combining analysis of monoallelic markers with recent genome-wide variation analysis of simple tandem repeats, copy number variations, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at high density, it has been possible to determine the relative contribution of sex-specific migration and introgression to map founder events and to suggest demographic histories corresponding to western and eastern Diaspora migrations, as well as subsequent microevolutionary events. These patterns have been congruous with the inferences of many, but not of all historians using more traditional tools such as archeology, archival records, linguistics, comparative analysis of religious narrative, liturgy and practices. Importantly, the population genetic architecture of Jews helps to explain the observed patterns of health and disease-relevant mutations and phenotypes which continue to be carefully studied and catalogued, and represent an important resource for human medical genetics research. The current review attempts to provide a succinct update of the more recent developments in a historical and human health context. PMID:23052947

  5. Evidence for a founder effect for the IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T mutation in the Fanconi anemia gene FACC in a Jewish population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlander, P.C.; Kaporis, A.G.; Qian, L. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder defined by hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C(FACC) has been cloned. Two common mutations, IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG, and several rare mutations have recently been reported in affected individuals. We now report the development of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) assays for rapid, non-radioactive detection of these known mutations in FACC. Primer pairs specific for variant sequences were designed, with the 3{prime} terminal base of one primer matching the variant base. PCR products are separated by electrophoresis on 2.5% agarose gels; mutations are indicated by the presence of a band of a specific size. These ARMS assays can be multiplexed to allow screening for all known mutations in two PCR reactions. We have used these assays for detection of FACC mutations in affected individuals in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR), and for carrier detection FACC families. IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is the only FACC mutation found in Jewish FA patients and their families, of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic ancestry. This mutation was not found in any affected individual of non-Jewish origin. In addition, DNA samples from 1596 healthy Jewish individuals primarily of Ashkenazi ancestry were supplied to us by Dor Yeshorim. These samples, ascertained for carrier screening for Tay Sachs, cystic fibrosis, and other genetic diseases with a high frequency in the religious Jewish community served by this organization, were tested for both IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG mutations; seventeen IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T are of Sephardic Jewish ancestry. We hypothesize that IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is a very old mutation, predating the divergence of the Ashkenazi and Sephardic populations. Haplotype analysis with microsatellite markers is in progress.

  6. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, L.S.; Szabo, C.I.; Ostermeyer, E.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning {approximately}850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset bilateral breast cancer and ovarian cancer to late-onset breast cancer without ovarian cancer. Mutation 4184delTCAA occurred independently in two families. In one family, penetrance was complete, with females developing early-onset breast cancer or ovarian cancer and the male carrier developing prostatic cancer, whereas, in the other family, penetrance was incomplete and only breast cancer occurred, diagnosed at ages 38-81 years. Two novel nonsense mutations led to the loss of mutant BRCA1 transcript in families with 10 and 6 cases of early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. A 665-nt segment of the BRCA1 3{prime}-UTR and 1.3 kb of genomic sequence including the putative promoter region were invariant by single-strand conformation analysis in 13 families without coding-sequence mutations. Overall in our series, BRCA1 mutations have been detected in 26 families: 16 with positive BRCA1 lod scores, 7 with negative lod scores (reflecting multiple sporadic breast cancers), and 3 not tested for linkage. Three other families have positive lod scores for linkage to BRCA2, but 13 families without detected BRCA1 mutations have negative lod scores for both BRCA1 and BRCA2. 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L S; Szabo, C I; Ostermeyer, E A; Dowd, P; Butler, L; Park, T; Lee, M K; Goode, E L; Rowell, S E; King, M C

    1995-12-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning approximately 850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset breast cancer without ovarian cancer. Mutation 4184delTCAA occurred independently in two families. In one family, penetrance was complete, with females developing early-onset breast cancer or ovarian cancer and the male carrier developing prostatic cancer, whereas, in the other family, penetrance was incomplete and only breast cancer occurred, diagnosed at ages 38-81 years. Two novel nonsense mutations led to the loss of mutant BRCA1 transcript in families with 10 and 6 cases of early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. A 665-nt segment of the BRCA1 3'-UTR and 1.3 kb of genomic sequence including the putative promoter region were invariant by single-strand conformation analysis in 13 families without coding-sequence mutations. Overall in our series, BRCA1 mutations have been detected in 26 families: 16 with positive BRCA1 lod scores, 7 with negative lod scores (reflecting multiple sporadic breast cancers), and 3 not tested for linkage. Three other families have positive lod scores for linkage to BRCA2, but 13 families without detected BRCA1 mutations have negative lod scores for both BRCA1 and BRCA2. PMID:8533757

  8. Differences in mtDNA haplogroup distribution among 3 Jewish populations alter susceptibility to T2DM complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadon Sarah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genome-wide association studies searching for candidate susceptibility loci for common complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its common complications have uncovered novel disease-associated genes. Nevertheless these large-scale population screens often overlook the tremendous variation in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA and its involvement in complex disorders. Results We have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic variability in Ashkenazi (Ash, Sephardic (Seph and North African (NAF Jewish populations (total n = 1179. Our analysis showed significant differences (p Conclusion Our findings support the possibility that recent bottleneck events leading to over-representation of minor mtDNA alleles in specific genetic isolates, could result in population-specific susceptibility loci to complex disorders.

  9. Canavan disease: Mutations among Jewish and non-Jewish patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, R.; Gao, G.P.; Aloya, M.; Balamurugan, K.; Petrosky, A.; Michals, K.; Matalon, R. (Miami Children' s Hospital, FL (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy caused by the deficiency of aspartoacylase (ASPA). Sixty-four probands were analyzed for mutations in the ASPA gene. Three point-mutations-693C[yields]A, 854[yields]C, and 914C[yields]A-were identified in the coding sequence. The 693C[yields]A and 914C[yields]A base changes, resulting in nonsense tyr231[yields]ter and missense ala305[yields]glu mutations, respectively, lead to complete loss of ASPA activity in in vitro expression studies. The 854A[yields]C transversion converted glu to ala in codon 285. The glu285[yields]ala mutant ASPA has 2.5% of the activity expressed by the wild-type enzyme. A fourth mutation, 433 -2(A[yields]G) transition, was identified at the splice-acceptor site in intron 2. The splice-site mutation would lead to skipping of exon 3, accompanied by a frameshift, and thus would produce aberrant ASPA. Of the 128 unrelated Canavan chromosomes analyzed, 88 were from probands of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. The glu285[yields]ala mutation was predominant (82.9%) in this population, followed by the tyr231[yields]ter (14.8%) and 433 -2(A[yields]G) (1.1%) mutations. The three mutations account for 98.8% of the Canavan chromosomes of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. The ala305-[yields]glu mutation was found exclusively in non-Jewish probands of European descent and constituted 60% of the 40 mutant chromosomes. Predominant occurrence of certain mutations among Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Jewish patients with Canavan disease would suggest a founding-father effect in propagation of these mutant chromosomes. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Bipolar I Disorder and Schizophrenia: A 440–Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Screen of 64 Candidate Genes among Ashkenazi Jewish Case-Parent Trios

    OpenAIRE

    Fallin, M. Daniele ; Lasseter, Virginia K. ; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios ; Nicodemus, Kristin K. ; Wolyniec, Paula S. ; McGrath, John A. ; Steel, Gary ; Nestadt, Gerald ; Liang, Kung-Yee ; Huganir, Richard L. ; Valle, David ; Pulver, Ann E. 

    2005-01-01

    Bipolar, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorders are common, highly heritable psychiatric disorders, for which familial coaggregation, as well as epidemiological and genetic evidence, suggests overlapping etiologies. No definitive susceptibility genes have yet been identified for any of these disorders. Genetic heterogeneity, combined with phenotypic imprecision and poor marker coverage, has contributed to the difficulty in defining risk variants. We focused on families of Ashkenazi Jewi...

  11. Genomic microsatellites identify shared Jewish ancestry intermediate between Middle Eastern and European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillel Jossi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies have often produced conflicting results on the question of whether distant Jewish populations in different geographic locations share greater genetic similarity to each other or instead, to nearby non-Jewish populations. We perform a genome-wide population-genetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing 678 autosomal microsatellite loci in 78 individuals from four Jewish groups together with similar data on 321 individuals from 12 non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations. Results We find that the Jewish populations show a high level of genetic similarity to each other, clustering together in several types of analysis of population structure. Further, Bayesian clustering, neighbor-joining trees, and multidimensional scaling place the Jewish populations as intermediate between the non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations. Conclusion These results support the view that the Jewish populations largely share a common Middle Eastern ancestry and that over their history they have undergone varying degrees of admixture with non-Jewish populations of European descent.

  12. Splice junction mutation in some Ashkenazi Jews with Tay-Sachs disease: evidence against a single defect within this ethnic group.

    OpenAIRE

    Myerowitz, R

    1988-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder in which the alpha chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase A bears the mutation. Ashkenazi Jews are found to be carriers for a severe type of Tay-Sachs disease, the classic form, 10 times more frequently than the general population. Ashkenazi Jewish patients with classic Tay-Sachs disease have appeared to be clinically and biochemically identical, and the usual assumption has been that they harbor the same alpha-chain mutation. In t...

  13. Splice junction mutation in some Ashkenazi Jews with Tay-Sachs disease: Evidence against a single defect within this ethnic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder in which the α chain of the lysosomal enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A bears the mutation. Ashkenazi Jews are found to be carriers for a severe type of Tay-Sachs disease, the classic form, 10 times more frequently than the general population. Ashkenazi Jewish patients with classic Tay-Sachs disease have appeared to be clinically and biochemically identical, and the usual assumption has been that they harbor the same α-chain mutation. The author has isolated the α-chain gene from an Ashkenazi Jewish patient, GM2968, with classic Tay-Sachs disease and compared its nucleotide sequences with that of the normal α-chain gene in the promoter region, exon and splice junction regions, and polyadenylylation signal area. Only one difference was observed between these sequences. The alteration is presumed to be functionally significant and to result in aberrant mRNA splicing. Utilizing the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the region encompassing the mutation, the author developed an assay to screen patients and heterozygote carriers for this mutation. Surprisingly, in each of two Ashkenazi patients, only one α-chain allele harbored the splice junction mutation. Only one parent of each of these patients was positive for the defect. Another Ashkenazi patient did not bear this mutation at all nor did either of the subject's parents. The data are consistent with the presence of more than one mutation underlying the classic form of Tay-Sachs disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population

  14. Splice junction mutation in some Ashkenazi Jews with Tay-Sachs disease: Evidence against a single defect within this ethnic group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myerowitz, R. (National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder in which the {alpha} chain of the lysosomal enzyme {beta}-N-acetylhexosaminidase A bears the mutation. Ashkenazi Jews are found to be carriers for a severe type of Tay-Sachs disease, the classic form, 10 times more frequently than the general population. Ashkenazi Jewish patients with classic Tay-Sachs disease have appeared to be clinically and biochemically identical, and the usual assumption has been that they harbor the same {alpha}-chain mutation. The author has isolated the {alpha}-chain gene from an Ashkenazi Jewish patient, GM2968, with classic Tay-Sachs disease and compared its nucleotide sequences with that of the normal {alpha}-chain gene in the promoter region, exon and splice junction regions, and polyadenylylation signal area. Only one difference was observed between these sequences. The alteration is presumed to be functionally significant and to result in aberrant mRNA splicing. Utilizing the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the region encompassing the mutation, the author developed an assay to screen patients and heterozygote carriers for this mutation. Surprisingly, in each of two Ashkenazi patients, only one {alpha}-chain allele harbored the splice junction mutation. Only one parent of each of these patients was positive for the defect. Another Ashkenazi patient did not bear this mutation at all nor did either of the subject's parents. The data are consistent with the presence of more than one mutation underlying the classic form of Tay-Sachs disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  15. HLA polymorphism in a Majorcan population of Jewish descent: comparison with Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza (Balearic Islands) and other Jewish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespí, C; Milà, J; Martínez-Pomar, N; Etxagibel, A; Muñoz-Saa, I; Priego, D; Luque, A; Pons, J; Picornell, A; Ramon, M; Castro, J A; Matamoros, N

    2002-10-01

    'Chueta' was the name given to the Catholic descendants of Jewish victims of the last Spanish Inquisition process in Majorca Island in the western Mediterranean. We have studied the allele distribution of HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci of 103 random, healthy, unrelated individuals belonging to the ancient Majorcan Jewish community, known locally as Chuetas, and 589 individuals from the Balearic population selected because of their typical Balearic - Majorca, Minorca or Ibiza - lineages and according to their ancestor's place of birth. Our aim was to establish the genetic relationship between Majorcan Chuetas, and Balearic and other Jewish and Mediterranean populations. Our results have shown that, to a remarkable extent, they have retained their biological identity, with a unique pattern, in terms of gene and haplotype frequencies, separate from the other populations of Majorca. The Chuetas were found to be more related to Moroccan and Libyan Jews than other Majorcans. Characteristic Jewish haplotypes, A26-B38-DRB1*13, A24-B38-DRB1*11, A1-B52-DRB1*15/16, were found in our study. Some peculiarities were observed in the distribution of common haplotypes among the three main Balearic Islands. The Ibizan population was genetically different from the other Balearic populations, with a high frequency of some haplotypes, for example, A29-Cw*16-B44-DRB1*07-DQB1*03; A1-Cw*07-B8-DRB1*03-DQB1*02. We also found a new haplotype, A25-Cw*12-B39-DRB1*11-DQB1*03(3.5%), in Ibizans and a more limited variability in the HLA alleles that were expressed, perhaps because of genetic isolation. The genetic diversity of the populations from Majorca and Minorca were similar and more related to the mainland Spanish population. PMID:12472657

  16. Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Doron M.; Metspalu, Ene; Kivisild, Toomas; Rosset, Saharon; Tzur, Shay; Hadid, Yarin; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Rosengarten, Dror; Pereira, Luisa; Amorim, Antonio; Kutuev, Ildus; Gurwitz, David; Bonne-Tamir, Batsheva; Villems, Richard; Skorecki, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Jewish Diaspora dates back to the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests in the Levant, followed by complex demographic and migratory trajectories over the ensuing millennia which pose a serious challenge to unraveling population genetic patterns. Here we ask whether phylogenetic analysis, based on highly resolved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenies can discern among maternal ancestries of the Diaspora. Accordingly, 1,142 samples from 14 different non-Ashkenazi Jewish communities were analyzed. A list of complete mtDNA sequences was established for all variants present at high frequency in the communities studied, along with high-resolution genotyping of all samples. Unlike the previously reported pattern observed among Ashkenazi Jews, the numerically major portion of the non-Ashkenazi Jews, currently estimated at 5 million people and comprised of the Moroccan, Iraqi, Iranian and Iberian Exile Jewish communities showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect, which did however characterize the smaller and more remote Belmonte, Indian and the two Caucasus communities. The Indian and Ethiopian Jewish sample sets suggested local female introgression, while mtDNAs in all other communities studied belong to a well-characterized West Eurasian pool of maternal lineages. Absence of sub-Saharan African mtDNA lineages among the North African Jewish communities suggests negligible or low level of admixture with females of the host populations among whom the African haplogroup (Hg) L0-L3 sub-clades variants are common. In contrast, the North African and Iberian Exile Jewish communities show influence of putative Iberian admixture as documented by mtDNA Hg HV0 variants. These findings highlight striking differences in the demographic history of the widespread Jewish Diaspora. PMID:18446216

  17. Genetic diversity of 38 insertion-deletion polymorphisms in Jewish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, J F; Pereira, R; Castro, J A; Ramon, C; Nogueiro, I; Amorim, A; Picornell, A

    2016-03-01

    Population genetic data of 38 non-coding biallelic autosomal indels are reported for 466 individuals, representing six populations with Jewish ancestry (Ashkenazim, Mizrahim, Sephardim, North African, Chuetas and Bragança crypto-Jews). Intra-population diversity and forensic parameters values showed that this set of indels was highly informative for forensic applications in the Jewish populations studied. Genetic distance analysis demonstrated that this set of markers efficiently separates populations from different continents, but does not seem effective for molecular anthropology studies in Mediterranean region. Finally, it is important to highlight that although the genetic distances between Jewish populations were small, significant differences were observed for Chuetas and Bragança Jews, and therefore, specific databases must be used for these populations. PMID:26610303

  18. A Genome-Wide Search for Greek and Jewish Admixture in the Kashmiri Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashi, Tsewang; Lorenzo, Felipe Ramos; Feusier, Julie Ellen; Mir, Hyder

    2016-01-01

    The Kashmiri population is an ethno-linguistic group that resides in the Kashmir Valley in northern India. A longstanding hypothesis is that this population derives ancestry from Jewish and/or Greek sources. There is historical and archaeological evidence of ancient Greek presence in India and Kashmir. Further, some historical accounts suggest ancient Hebrew ancestry as well. To date, it has not been determined whether signatures of Greek or Jewish admixture can be detected in the Kashmiri population. Using genome-wide genotyping and admixture detection methods, we determined there are no significant or substantial signs of Greek or Jewish admixture in modern-day Kashmiris. The ancestry of Kashmiri Tibetans was also determined, which showed signs of admixture with populations from northern India and west Eurasia. These results contribute to our understanding of the existing population structure in northern India and its surrounding geographical areas. PMID:27490348

  19. Cystic fibrosis heterozygote screening in the Orthodox Community of Ashkenazi Jews: the Dor Yesharim approach and heterozygote frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliovich, D; Quint, A; Weinberg, N; Verchezon, G; Lerer, I; Ekstein, J; Rubinstein, E

    1996-01-01

    In the community of the Orthodox Jews most of the marriages are arranged a screening program that is aimed at preventing the marriage of two carriers of autosomal recessive disorders is conducted by the Dor Yesharim organization. A random sample of 6,076 individuals of the Orthodox Jewish Ashkenazi community, were screened for the five mutations common in Ashkenazi patients (delta F508, W1282X, G542X, N1303K, 3849 + 10Kb C-->T). Two hundred thirty-two carriers were identified, giving a heterozygote frequency of 1:26. The relative frequencies of the individual mutations in the general population were comparable to those in the patients. PMID:9043867

  20. Cluster-randomised non-inferiority trial comparing DVD-assisted and traditional genetic counselling in systematic population testing for BRCA1/2 mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Manchanda, R.; Burnell, M.; Loggenberg, K.; Desai, R.; Wardle, J.; Sanderson, S.C.; Gessler, S.; Side, L.; Balogun, N.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Dorkins, H.; Wallis, Y; Chapman, C; Tomlinson, I; Taylor, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newer approaches to genetic counselling are required for population-based testing. We compare traditional face-to-face genetic counselling with a DVD-assisted approach for population-based BRCA1/2 testing. METHODS: A cluster-randomised non-inferiority trial in the London Ashkenazi Jewish population. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Ashkenazi Jewish men/women >18 years; exclusion criteria: (a) known BRCA1/2 mutation, (b) previous BRCA1/2 testing and (c) first-degree relative of BRCA1/2 carrier....

  1. Screening of high-risk groups for breast and ovarian cancer in Europe: a focus on the Jewish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Belkic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low breast cancer screening rates are often found among ethnic minority groups and those born outside the host country. This is of particular concern for high-risk groups, who should benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for breast, as well as ovarian cancer. Both of these issues are germane for Jewish women in Europe. We systematically review the literature concerning breast cancer early detection practices (BCEDP among Jewish women, and examine European surveillance studies of high-risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer that had imaging in the surveillance protocol, in order to assess the likelihood of adequately including women from minority ethnic groups. No studies were found about BCEDP among Jewish women in Europe. Twenty-one research groups from Israel or the US addressed BCEDP among Jewish women. Some Jewish women in the US and Israel, including recent immigrants, are under-screened. Twenty-four research groups reported imaging surveillance of women at increased risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer in Europe. There was a clear benefit to magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening for women with increased breast cancer risk. Some of these surveillance studies considered ethnic minority groups at high risk, including Jewish women, but none provided adequate outreach to ensure that these groups were included in their programs. The specific screening needs of Jewish and other high-risk ethnic minority groups in Europe have not been met regarding breast and ovarian cancer. A European-wide, population-based approach is suggested, with cultural sensitivity being vital for these efforts.

  2. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Taglioli, Luca; Bertoncini, Stefania; Francalacci, Paolo; Klyosov, Anatole; Pagani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes from public genetic genealogical repositories. We verified the reliability of Jewish ancestry prediction based on the Cohen and Levite Modal Haplotypes in their “classical” 6 STR marker format or in the “extended” 12 STR format, as well as four founder mtDNA lineages (HVS-I segments) accounting for about 40% of the current population of Ashkenazi Jews. For this purpose we compared haplotype composition in individuals of self-reported Jewish ancestry with the rest of European, African or Middle Eastern samples, to test for non-random association of ethno-geographic groups and haplotypes. Overall, NRY and mtDNA based motifs, previously reported to differentiate between groups, were found to be more represented in Jewish compared to non-Jewish groups. However, this seems to stem from common ancestors of Jewish lineages being rather recent respect to ancestors of non-Jewish lineages with the same “haplotype signatures.” Moreover, the polyphyly of haplotypes which contain the proposed motifs and the misuse of constant mutation rates heavily affected previous attempts to correctly dating the origin of common ancestries. Accordingly, our results stress the limitations of using the above haplotype motifs as reliable Jewish ancestry predictors and show its inadequacy for forensic or genealogical purposes. PMID:25431579

  3. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the...

  4. No association between germline allele-specific expression of TGFBR1 and colorectal cancer risk in Caucasian and Ashkenazi populations

    OpenAIRE

    Seguí, N; Stevens, K. N.; Guinó, E.; Rozek, L S; Moreno, V R; Capellá, G; Gruber, S B; Valle, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the TGFBR1 gene has been reported as a strong risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) with an odds ratio close to 9. Considering the potential implications of the finding, we undertook the task of validating the initial results in this study. Methods: Allele-specific expression was measured using the highly quantitative and robust technique of pyrosequencing. Individuals from two different populations were studied, one Caucasian-dominat...

  5. Influence of ADH1B polymorphism on alcohol use and its subjective effects in a Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Stewart, Trent; Castelluccio, Peter; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Ting-Kai

    2002-10-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Genetic polymorphism at the ADH1B locus (old nomenclature ADH2) results in isozymes with quite different catalytic properties. The frequency of the ADH1B*2 allele varies among ethnic groups. ADH1B*2 is most often observed in Asian populations, and has been shown to be protective against alcoholism. The Jewish population has a higher frequency of the ADH1B*2 allele and lower rates of alcohol-related problems as compared to other Caucasian populations. Thus, it would be of interest to determine whether the ADH1B*2 allele is associated with alcohol consumption and its subjective effects in this group. Four groups of Jewish subjects (male and female college-age samples, and male and female general samples) were recruited from the same region of the United States. All subjects completed a questionnaire to delineate alcohol consumption and its subjective consequences. Genotype at the ADH1B locus was determined for each participant. ADH1B*2 allele frequencies were similar for the Jewish college-age and general population samples. Men in both the college-age and general population in the ADH1B*2 group reported more unpleasant reactions following alcohol consumption than men in the ADH1B*1 group. Men in the general population in the ADH1B*2 group drank alcohol less frequently than men who were homozygous ADH1B*1; there was a similar trend among the women. The ADH1B polymorphism is associated with unpleasant reactions after alcohol consumption, and frequency of alcohol consumption in these Jewish samples. PMID:12244546

  6. Medical conditions in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A B

    1994-01-01

    To limit the genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia, this study focused on the widely extended pedigrees of Ashkenazi Jewish schizophrenia probands. The hypothesis posed is that the increased prevalence among the Ashkenazim of the rare lysosomal enzyme disorders, Tay Sachs disease (TDS), caused by low levels of hexosaminidase A, and Gaucher's disease (GD), caused by low levels of glucocerebrosidase, might contribute to the demonstrated increased vulnerability to schizophrenia in this ethnic group. Signs and symptoms characterizing the candidate illnesses were systematically queried by the family history method. Rates and relative risks for symptoms characterizing these disorders and for several nonautosomal illnesses associated with TSD and/or GD (i.e., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Hodgkin's disease, leukemia and lymphoma) are significantly elevated in the schizophrenia pedigrees, compared to controls. The conditions with elevated rates and risks have been associated with chromosomal regions 1q21 and 15q23-q24. These areas are suggested as candidate regions for future targeted deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) research in schizophrenia. PMID:7973467

  7. Identification and rapid detection of three Tay-Sachs mutations in the Moroccan Jewish population.

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, L; Proia, R L; Navon, R

    1992-01-01

    Infantile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is caused by mutations in the HEXA gene that result in the complete absence of beta-hexosaminidase A activity. It is well known that an elevated frequency of TSD mutations exists among Ashkenazi Jews. More recently it has become apparent that elevated carrier frequencies for TSD also occur in several other ethnic groups, including Moroccan Jews, a subgroup of Sephardic Jews. Elsewhere we reported an in-frame deletion of one of the two adjacent phenylalanine c...

  8. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 442: Preconception and prenatal carrier screening for genetic diseases in individuals of Eastern European Jewish descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Certain autosomal recessive disease conditions are more prevalent in individuals of Eastern European Jewish (Ashkenazi) descent. Previously, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that individuals of Eastern European Jewish ancestry be offered carrier screening for Tay-Sachs disease, Canavan disease, and cystic fibrosis as part of routine obstetric care. Based on the criteria used to justify offering carrier screening for Tay-Sachs disease, Canavan disease, and cystic fibrosis, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Committee on Genetics recommends that couples of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry also should be offered carrier screening for familial dysautonomia. Individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent may inquire about the availability of carrier screening for other disorders. Carrier screening is available for mucolipidosis IV, Niemann-Pick disease type A, Fanconi anemia group C, Bloom syndrome, and Gaucher disease. PMID:19888064

  9. Measuring, and identifying predictors of, women's perceptions of three types of breast cancer risk: population risk, absolute risk and comparative risk

    OpenAIRE

    Apicella, C.; Peacock, S.J.; Andrews, L.; Tucker, K.; Daly, M B; Hopper, J L

    2009-01-01

    Although a key function of cancer genetics services is to provide risk information, to date there has been little consistency in the way in which breast cancer risk perception has been measured. The aims of the study were to measure estimates of (i) population risk, (ii) absolute risk and (iii) comparative risk of developing breast cancer for Ashkenazi Jewish women, and to determine predictors of breast cancer risk perception. Of 152 women, 107 (70%) completed all questions. The mean (s.d.) e...

  10. The Tay-Sachs disease gene in North American Jewish populations: geographic variations and origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, G M; Rotter, J.I.; Cantor, R.M.; Field, L. L.; Greenwald, S; Lim, J. S.; Roy, C.; Schoenfeld, V; Lowden, J. A.; Kaback, M M

    1983-01-01

    From data collected in a North American Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) heterozygote screening program, the TSD carrier frequency among 46,304 Jewish individuals was found to be .0324 (1 in 31 individuals). This frequency is consistent with earlier estimates based on TSD incidence data. TSD carrier frequencies were then examined by single country and single region of origin in 28,029 Jews within this sample for whom such data were available for analysis. Jews with Polish and/or Russian ancestry const...

  11. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  12. Identification of population substructure among Jews using STR markers and dependence on reference populations included

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutirangura Apiwat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting population substructure is a critical issue for association studies of health behaviors and other traits. Whether inherent in the population or an artifact of marker choice, determining aspects of a population's genetic history as potential sources of substructure can aid in design of future genetic studies. Jewish populations, among which association studies are often conducted, have a known history of migrations. As a necessary step in understanding population structure to conduct valid association studies of health behaviors among Israeli Jews, we investigated genetic signatures of this history and quantified substructure to facilitate future investigations of these phenotypes in this population. Results Using 32 autosomal STR markers and the program STRUCTURE, we differentiated between Ashkenazi (AJ, N = 135 and non-Ashkenazi (NAJ, N = 226 Jewish populations in the form of Northern and Southern geographic genetic components (AJ north 73%, south 23%, NAJ north 33%, south 60%. The ability to detect substructure within these closely related populations using a small STR panel was contingent on including additional samples representing major continental populations in the analyses. Conclusions Although clustering programs such as STRUCTURE are designed to assign proportions of ancestry to individuals without reference population information, when Jewish samples were analyzed in the absence of proxy parental populations, substructure within Jews was not detected. Generally, for samples with a given grandparental country of birth, STRUCTURE assignment values to Northern, Southern, African and Asian clusters agreed with mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data from previous studies as well as historical records of migration and intermarriage.

  13. Germline mutations in BRIP1 and PALB2 in Jewish high cancer risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catucci, Irene; Milgrom, Roni; Kushnir, Anya; Laitman, Yael; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Volorio, Sara; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Friedman, Eitan; Peterlongo, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for ~30 % of inherited breast cancer. BRIP1 and PALB2 are likely genes for breast cancer susceptibility, based on their roles in maintaining cellular integrity. Indeed, few pathogenic germline mutations in both genes are reported in ethnically diverse breast cancer families. There is a paucity of data on the putative contribution of both genes to inherited breast cancer in Jewish high risk families. High risk Jewish women, none of whom was a carrier of the predominant Jewish mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, were screened for BRIP1 germline mutations by combined denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, high resolution melting and sequencing. Direct sequencing of exons and flanking intronic sequences was used for PALB2 mutational analysis. Overall, 149 women, all of high risk, cancer prone families of Ashkenazi origin, were genotyped for BRIP1 mutations: 127 with breast cancer, 22 with ovarian cancer. No truncating mutations were noted and one novel (p.Ala745Thr) and two previously described missense mutations were detected. For PALB2, 93 women were genotyped (87 with breast cancer) of Ashkenazi (n = 32) and non Ashkenazi Jewish origin. Fifteen sequence variants were detected, of these, none was truncating, four were not previously reported, and two (p.Asp871Gly and p.Leu1119Pro) were seemingly pathogenic based on the PolyPhen2 protein prediction algorithm. These missense mutations were not detected in any of 113 healthy Ashkenazi and 109 Moroccan, cancer free controls. In conclusion, germline mutations in BRIP1 and PALB2 contribute marginally to breast cancer susceptibility in ethnically diverse, Jewish high risk families. PMID:22692731

  14. Estimation of the frequency of hexosaminidase a variant alleles in the American Jewish population.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, D A; Kaback, M M

    1982-01-01

    There appear to be several alleles of the hexosaminidase A (HEX A) gene that lead to different clinical syndromes. In addition to the infantile-onset Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), there is a juvenile-onset and an adult-onset form, which are also characterized by low HEX A levels. There are also apparently healthy adults with low HEX A activity. Based primarily on data from population screening for TSD carrier status, we estimate the allele frequency of the combined variant alleles for which data a...

  15. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  16. The presence of two different infantile Tay-Sachs disease mutations in a Cajun population.

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, G A; Mules, E H; Fabacher, P; Shapira, E.; Blitzer, M G

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize the mutation(s) responsible for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) in a Cajun population in southwest Louisiana and to identify the origins of these mutations. Eleven of 12 infantile TSD alleles examined in six families had the beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) alpha-subunit exon 11 insertion mutation that is present in approximately 70% of Ashkenazi Jewish TSD heterozygotes. The mutation in the remaining allele was a single-base transition in the donor splice site of ...

  17. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and class II genes in non-Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. R.; Wagner, R; Khatri, K; Notani, G.; Awdeh, Z; Alper, C A; Yunis, E J

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that HLA-DR4 was markedly increased among Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), almost entirely as the common Jewish extended haplotype [HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8] or as the haplotype HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8, and that HLA-DR4, DQw8 was distributed among patients in a manner consistent with dominant expression of a class II (D-region or D-region-linked) susceptibility gene. In the present study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes...

  18. On the origin and diffusion of BRCA1 c.5266dupC (5382insC) in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamel, Nancy; Feng, Bing-Jian; Foretova, Lenka;

    2011-01-01

    The BRCA1 mutation c.5266dupC was originally described as a founder mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population. However, this mutation is also present at appreciable frequency in several European countries, which raises intriguing questions about the origins of the mutation. We genotyped 245.......5266dupC originated from a single common ancestor and was a common European mutation long before becoming an AJ founder mutation and (2) the mutation is likely present in many additional European countries where genetic screening of BRCA1 may not yet be common practice.European Journal of Human...

  19. On the origin and diffusion of BRCA1 c.5266dupC (5382insC) in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamel, Nancy; Feng, Bing-Jian; Foretova, Lenka;

    2011-01-01

    The BRCA1 mutation c.5266dupC was originally described as a founder mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population. However, this mutation is also present at appreciable frequency in several European countries, which raises intriguing questions about the origins of the mutation. We genotyped 245.......5266dupC originated from a single common ancestor and was a common European mutation long before becoming an AJ founder mutation and (2) the mutation is likely present in many additional European countries where genetic screening of BRCA1 may not yet be common practice....

  20. Beta-hexosaminidase splice site mutation has a high frequency among non-Jewish Tay-Sachs disease carriers from the British Isles.

    OpenAIRE

    Landels, E C; Green, P.M.; Ellis, I H; Fensom, A H; Bobrow, M

    1992-01-01

    In the course of defining mutations causing Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) in non-Jewish patients and carriers from the British Isles, we identified a guanine to adenine change (also previously described) in the obligatory GT sequence of the donor splice site at the 5' end of intron 9 of the hexosaminidase alpha peptide gene. Of 24 unrelated mutant chromosomes from 20 non-Jewish subjects (15 TSD carriers, four TSD patients, and one TSD fetus), five had mutations common in the Ashkenazi Jewish commun...

  1. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and class II genes in non-Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A R; Wagner, R; Khatri, K; Notani, G; Awdeh, Z; Alper, C A; Yunis, E J

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that HLA-DR4 was markedly increased among Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), almost entirely as the common Jewish extended haplotype [HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8] or as the haplotype HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8, and that HLA-DR4, DQw8 was distributed among patients in a manner consistent with dominant expression of a class II (D-region or D-region-linked) susceptibility gene. In the present study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes in 25 non-Jewish PV patients, DR4, DQw8 was found in 12 of the patients and DRw6, DQw5 was found in 15. Only 3 patients had neither. Only 1 of the DR4, DQw8 haplotypes was [HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8] and 2 were HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8; most were the presumed fragments (SC31, DR4, DQw8) or (SC21, DR4, DQw8) or DR4, DQw8 with some other complotype. Of the patients with DRw6, DQw5, all were DRw14, DQw5, and 6 had a rare Caucasian haplotype, HLA-Bw55, SB45, DRw14, DQw5. Four of 6 of these were found in patients of Italian extraction, as was the 1 normal example. The non-Jewish patients were of more Southern European extraction than our controls. This suggests that there are two major MHC susceptibility alleles in American patients with PV. The more ancient apparently arose on a haplotype in the Jews, HLA-B38(35), SC21(SC31), DR4, DQw8, and spread to other populations largely as D-region segments. The other arose in or near Italy on the haplotype HLA-Bw55, SB45, DRw14, DQw5 and has also partially fragmented so that many patients carry only DRw14, DQw5. The available data do not permit the specific localization of either the DR4, DQw8- or the DRw14, DQw5-linked susceptibility genes. Images PMID:1675792

  2. Specific mutations in the HEXA gene among Iraqi Jewish Tay-Sachs disease carriers: dating of founder ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Mazal; Gazit, Ephraim; Goldman, Boleslaw; Frisch, Amos; Colombo, Roberto; Peleg, Leah

    2004-02-01

    The incidence of Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, as defined by enzyme assay, is 1:29 among Ashkenazi Jews and 1:110 among Moroccan Jews. An elevated carrier frequency of 1:140 was also observed in the Iraqi Jews (IJ), while in other Israeli populations the world's pan-ethnic frequency of approximately 1:280 has been found. Recently a novel mutation, G749T, has been reported in 38.7% of the IJ carriers (24/62). Here we report a second novel HEXA mutation specific to the IJ TDS carriers: a substitution of cytosine 1351 by guanosine (C1351G), resulting in the change of leucine to valine in position 451. This mutation was found in 33.9% (21/62) of the carriers and in none of 100 non-carrier IJ. In addition to the two specific mutations, 14.5% (9/62) of the IJ carriers bear a known "Jewish" mutation (Ashkenazi or Moroccan) and 11.3% (7/62) carry a known "non-Jewish" mutation. In 1 DNA sample no mutation has yet been detected. To investigate the genetic history of the IJ-specific mutations (C1351G and G749T), the allelic distribution of four polymorphic markers (D15S131, D15S1025, D15S981, D15S1050) was analyzed in IJ heterozygotes and ethnically matched controls. Based on linkage disequilibrium, recombination factor (theta) between the markers and mutated loci, and the population growth correction, we deduced that G749T occurred in a founder ancestor 44.8 +/- 14.2 generations (g) ago [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.0-72.6 g] and C1351G arose 80.4 +/- 35.9 g ago (95% CI 44.5-116.3 g). Thus, the estimated dates for introduction of mutations are: 626 +/- 426 A.D. (200-1052 A.D.) for G749T and 442 +/- 1077 B.C. (1519 B.C. to 635 A.D.) for C1351G. PMID:14648242

  3. Tay-Sachs disease preconception screening in Australia: self-knowledge of being an Ashkenazi Jew predicts carrier state better than does ancestral origin, although there is an increased risk for c.1421 + 1G > C mutation in individuals with South African heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné

    2011-12-01

    The Australasian Community Genetics Program provided a preconception screening for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) to 4,105 Jewish high school students in Sydney and Melbourne over the 12-year period 1995-2007. By correlating the frequencies of mutant HEXA, MIM *606869 (gene map locus 15q23-q24) alleles with subjects' nominated ethnicity (Ashkenazi/Sephardi/Mixed) and grandparental birthplaces, we established that Ashkenazi ethnicity is a better predictor of TSD carrier status than grandparental ancestral origins. Screening self-identified Ashkenazi subjects detected 95% of TSD carriers (carrier frequency 1:25). Having mixed Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi heritage reduced the carrier frequency (1:97). South African heritage conveyed a fourfold risk of c.1421 + 1G > C mutation compared with other AJ subjects (odds ratio (OR), 4.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-9.62, p = 0.001), but this was the only specific case of ancestral origin improving diagnostic sensitivity over that based on determining Ashkenazi ethnicity. Carriers of c.1278insTATC mutations were more likely to have heritage from Western Europe (OR, 1.65 (95% CI, 1.04-2.60), p = 0.032) and South Eastern Europe (OR, 1.77 (95% CI, 1.14-2.73), p = 0.010). However, heritage from specific European countries investigated did not significantly alter the overall odds of TSD carrier status. PMID:22109873

  4. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  5. Barriers to organ donation in the Jewish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, J; Sherbin, P; Cole, E

    1998-03-01

    It has long been recognized that members of the Jewish community generally do not sign organ donor cards or consent to the donation of the organs of their family members. In order to address this issue, the position of Jewish law on organ donation was examined and a sample of the Jewish population of Toronto was surveyed in an attempt to better understand the reasons for the observed reluctance to donate within this community. The results confirmed that the rate of signing organ donor cards was much lower in the Jewish community than in the general population, and although other reasons do exist, the major barrier to donation was a perception that Jewish law prohibits such action. The study of Jewish law revealed that organ donation is permitted and, in fact, encouraged by all branches of modern Judaism. Finally, in response to these results, a guide titled "Organ Donation: A Jewish Perspective" was compiled to help explain both the religious and medical aspects of organ donation for Jewish people and transplant personnel. PMID:9726215

  6. Jewish Women's Studies: Selected Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Catherine, Comp.

    Included in this annotated bibliography are over 150 books, chapters in books, and journal articles dealing with Jewish women and Jewish feminism. Only English language sources have been cited, and the majority of titles focus on the experience of Jewish women in the United States. Most of the items included were published in the 1970's and…

  7. Considering the Informal Jewish Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Laura Novak

    2007-01-01

    Informal Jewish education can and must put greater focus on the goals of education. While socialization is a key component, it is not its sole goal. Informal Jewish education must make more central deep, serious Jewish learning in which learners can experience moments of transcendence, connection, and transformation. A key to reaching this goal…

  8. Hitler's Jewish Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2014-07-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923

  9. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  10. A genome scan for type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in a genetically isolated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permutt, M A; Wasson, J C; Suarez, B K; Lin, J; Thomas, J; Meyer, J; Lewitzky, S; Rennich, J S; Parker, A; DuPrat, L; Maruti, S; Chayen, S; Glaser, B

    2001-03-01

    A total of 896 individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent were ascertained in Israel from 267 multiplex families, including 472 sib-pairs affected with type 2 diabetes. A genome-wide scan with average marker spacing of 9.5 cM revealed five regions on four chromosomes (4q, 8q, 14q, and 20q) that exhibited nominal evidence for linkage (P families were ranked by BMI (in increasing order) did a subset attain nominal significance, and only for chromosome 4. The findings reported here lend credence to the hypothesis, now supported by four studies of Caucasian populations and most recently by a combined analysis of 1,852 pedigrees, that a type 2 diabetes susceptibility locus resides on chromosome 20q. This population, because of its unique genetic attributes, may facilitate identification of this and other genes contributing to type 2 diabetes. PMID:11246891

  11. Shehitah: Jewish Ritual Slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Gurtman, Ronit

    2005-01-01

    The laws pertaining to shehitah, Jewish ritual slaughter, are explored. The laws derive from the oral law, stemming from the prohibition to eat the flesh of live animals, in combination with the general Biblical obligation for humane treatment of animals. The first part of this paper is an exposition of the origins of shehitah, and the laws for correctly carrying out the process. The second part of this paper addresses the history of the practice of these laws in select European countries and...

  12. Three Moments in Jewish Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Goltzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available I would like to thank the following people for having proofread my text: Noémie Benchimol, Shemuel Lampronti and Georges-Elia Sarfati. The purpose of this article is to offer a new periodization of Jewish philosophy and to reflect on the definition of Jewish philosophy. It will therefore deal with the characteristic style of each Jewish philosophy rather than with their content. I shall identify three moments in the history of Jewish philosophy: the Arab moment, the German moment, and the an...

  13. I am Black AND Jewish: Black Jewish Women’s Experiences in “White” Jewish Communities in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gondek, Abby S.

    2008-01-01

    Afro-Brazilian Jewish women struggle against racism, sexism and classism within their Jewish communities, but they continue to practice Judaism and raise their children Jewish. They affirm their identities as both Black and Jewish in the face of rejection from white Jewish communities as well as their Afro-Brazilian communities. Because Brazil has consistently made efforts to make Jews into symbols of otherness and at the same time rhetorically valued the mulato identity as a symbo...

  14. Osler and the Jewish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D B; Clarfield, A M

    1997-06-01

    In his writings and actions, Sir William Osler betrayed no evidence of anti-Semitism. In his era, this trait was unusual. Two of his articles, "Letter from Berlin" and "Israel and medicine," dealt directly with his thoughts on the Jewish people. In both he spoke out against anti-Semitism. Osler had friendships with Jewish colleagues--an example is the great regard in which he held US pediatrician Dr. Abraham Jacobi. Osler was not a saint, and he had his "rough side," but in his relationships with Jewish colleagues his example remains relevant. PMID:9176423

  15. Undoing Jewish Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyarin Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a long-time resident of the Lower East Side of New York City reflects on his experiences as an adult “learner” in his neighborhood yeshiva. The questions addressed in this narrative autoethnography include: What are the forms of self-making that shared study of Rabbinic texts affords? What is the range of intellectual freedom, and how does this interact with the formal and informal hierarchies of the place? What is the balance, for a mature male Jewish ethnographer, of anthropological fieldwork and study “for its own sake” in this setting? Throughout, the emphasis is on the commonalities shared by the ethnographer and his fellows at the yeshiva, rather than on the putative process of crossing cultural bridges.

  16. Psychoanalysis, Nazism and 'Jewish science'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosh, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    In this paper the author offers a partial examination of the troubled history of psychoanalysis in Germany during the Nazi period. Of particular interest is the impact on psychoanalysis of its 'Jewish origins'--something denigrated by the Nazis but reclaimed by more recent Jewish and other scholars. The author traces the rapid decline of the pre-Nazi psychoanalytic institutions under the sway of a policy of appeasement and collaboration, paying particular attention to the continuation of some forms of psychoanalytic practice within the 'Göring Institute'. He suggests that a feature of this history was the anti-Semitism evidenced by some non-Jewish psychoanalysts, which revealed an antagonism towards their own positioning as followers of the 'Jewish science'. PMID:14633432

  17. Diasporic security and Jewish identity.

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Ilan Zvi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between identity and security through an investigation into Jewish diasporic identity. The paper argues that the convention of treating identity as an objective referent of security is problematic, as the Jewish diaspora experience demonstrates. The paper presents a new way of conceptualizing identity and security by introducing the concept of diasporic security. Diasporic security reflects the geographical experience of being a member of a trans-state com...

  18. Psychoanalysis, Nazism and "Jewish science"

    OpenAIRE

    Frosh, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the author offers a partial examination of the troubled history of psychoanalysis in Germany during the Nazi period. Of particular interest is the impact on psychoanalysis of its 'Jewish origins'--something denigrated by the Nazis but reclaimed by more recent Jewish and other scholars. The author traces the rapid decline of the pre-Nazi psychoanalytic institutions under the sway of a policy of appeasement and collaboration, paying particular attention to the continuation of some...

  19. Prenatal screening in Jewish law.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.

    1990-01-01

    Although prenatal screening is routinely undertaken as part of a woman's antenatal care, the ethics surrounding it are complex. In this paper, the author examines the Jewish position on the permissibility of several tests, including those for Down's syndrome and Tay-Sachs disease, the latter being especially common in the Jewish community. Clearly, the status of the tests depends on whether termination of affected pregnancies is allowed, and contemporary rabbinical authorities are themselves ...

  20. The Ashkenazi Jews of Curaçao, a trading minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abraham-Van der Mark

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available First describes the early Sephardi presence in Curaçao, the arrival of the Ashkenazi in the 20th c., and the relations between these 2 groups. Author goes on to discuss the Ashkenazis' economic success and the exodus of the 1980s. She asks whether the success and the exodus can be attributed to the characteristics of the group itself or whether conditions and developments in Curaçao account for economic fortune and the departure of the Ashkenazi.

  1. Virginia Tech celebrates Jewish Awareness Month

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia Tech community will celebrate its third annual Jewish Awareness Month. Throughout the month of March and beyond, Jewish Awareness Month will offer the Virginia Tech community an opportunity to learn more about the Jewish religion and its people. The theme for this year's Jewish Awareness Month is, "The Power of Our Stories: Judaism Past, Present, and Future." All events are free and open the public, unless otherwise noted.

  2. The Greening of "Informal Jewish Education" Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, Barry

    2007-01-01

    The concept "informal education" is receiving new attention in Jewish education. That is a welcome development since this is an important idea in Jewish life. However, these developments are accompanied by a plethora of loose and sloppy use of terms, concepts, and ideas. Joseph Reimer's article, "Beyond More Jews Doing Jewish: Clarifying the Goals…

  3. Novel mutations and DNA-based screening in non-Jewish carriers of Tay-Sachs disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Akerman, B R; Natowicz, M R; Kaback, M M; Loyer, M.; Campeau, E; Gravel, R A

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using PCR-based mutation screening for non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers identified through Tay-Sachs disease-prevention programs. Although Tay-Sachs mutations are rare in the general population, non-Jewish individuals may be screened as spouses of Jewish carriers or as relatives of probands. In order to define a panel of alleles that might account for the majority of mutations in non-Jewish carriers, we investigated 26 independent alleles from 20 obligat...

  4. Osler and the Jewish people

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, D B; Clarfield, A M

    1997-01-01

    In his writings and actions, Sir William Osler betrayed no evidence of anti-Semitism. In his era, this trait was unusual. Two of his articles, "Letter from Berlin" and "Israel and medicine," dealt directly with his thoughts on the Jewish people. In both he spoke out against anti-Semitism. Osler had friendships with Jewish colleagues--an example is the great regard in which he held US pediatrician Dr. Abraham Jacobi. Osler was not a saint, and he had his "rough side," but in his relationships ...

  5. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M.

    2014-01-01

    The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler. PMID:25120923

  6. Hitler’s Jewish Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mystery behind the behavior of infamous personalities leaves many open questions, particularly when related to the practice of medicine. This paper takes a brief look at two Jewish physicians who played memorable roles in the life of Adolf Hitler.

  7. Heterozygosity for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases in non-Jewish Americans with ancestry from Ireland, Great Britain, or Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, Kelly Johnston; Tomczak, Jerzy; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2004-01-01

    109 (0.92%; 95% CI, 1/400-1/43). This frequency was higher than those for other populations, including those with Irish (1 in 305 or 0.33%; 95% CI, 1/252-1/85), English, Scottish, or Welsh (1 in 161 or 0.62%; 95% CI, 1/1328-1/45), or Ashkenazi Jewish (1 in 281 or 0.36%; 95% CI, 1/1361-1/96) ancestry. Individuals of Irish or Italian heritage might benefit from genetic counseling for TSD and SD, respectively. PMID:15345116

  8. Let my people go (home) to Spain: a genealogical model of Jewish identities since 1492

    OpenAIRE

    Weitz, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish government recently announced an official fast-track path to citizenship for any individual who is Jewish and whose ancestors were expelled from Spain during the inquisition-related dislocation of Spanish Jews in 1492. It would seem that this policy targets a small subset of the global Jewish population, that is, restricted to individuals who retain cultural practices associated with ancestral origins in Spain. However, the central contribution of this manuscript is to demonstrate...

  9. The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman, Yedael Y.; Biddanda, Arjun; Davidson, Natalie R.; Billing-Ross, Paul; Dubrovsky, Maya; Campbell, Christopher L.; Oddoux, Carole; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Ostrer, Harry; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The Bene Israel Jewish community from West India is a unique population whose history before the 18th century remains largely unknown. Bene Israel members consider themselves as descendants of Jews, yet the identity of Jewish ancestors and their arrival time to India are unknown, with speculations on arrival time varying between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. Here, we characterize the genetic history of Bene Israel by collecting and genotyping 18 Bene Israel individuals. Combinin...

  10. The linguistic and economic adjustment of Soviet Jewish immigrants in the United States, 1980 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Barry R; Wenz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the English-language proficiency and labor market earnings of adult male Soviet Jewish immigrants to the United States from 1965 to 2000, using the 2000 Census of Population. Comparisons are made to similar analyses using the 1980 and 1990 Censuses. A consistent finding is that recently arrived Soviet Jewish immigrants have lower levels of English proficiency and earnings than other immigrants, other variables being the same. However, they have a steeper improveme...

  11. Disengagement and engaging citizenship: the everyday reproduction of Jewish democracy by Jewish Israeli youth

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The apparent tension between Israel as a democracy and Israel as a specifically Jewish state has played a central role in much academic and popular debate about the region. Taking an actor-centred perspective of national subject and citizenship formation, this thesis treats Jewish nationalism and democratic citizenship not simply as abstractions, but as categories lived out in the everyday lives of Jewish Israeli youth. The ethnography focuses on secular and religious Jewish Israeli high scho...

  12. Six novel deleterious and three neutral mutations in the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of hexosaminidase A in non-Jewish individuals.

    OpenAIRE

    Mules, E H; Hayflick, S.; Miller, C.S.; Reynolds, L W; Thomas, G H

    1992-01-01

    Initial investigations demonstrated that only 3/34 "Tay-Sachs chromosomes" in 22 unrelated, non-Jewish patients or carriers of some form of GM2-gangliosidosis (7 black and 15 non-Jewish Caucasian) had either of the two mutations commonly found in the Jewish population. To determine the nature and incidence of the alterations in this non-Jewish population we have utilized PCR, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing to detect new mutations in genomic DNA. Fourteen prime...

  13. Jewish Education in Extremis: A Prolegomenon to Postmodern Jewish Educational Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the author argues that for 150 years Jewish education has negotiated the tensions between modernity and Judaism by means of liberal religion, ultra Orthodoxy, and secular Zionism. All three are in crisis today due to the rise of postmodernism. Jewish educational thought therefore needs to create new syntheses between Jewish and…

  14. "Feeling Jewish" and "Knowing Jewish": The Cognitive Dimension of Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamoran, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Joseph Reimer's article titled, "Beyond More Jews Doing Jewish: Clarifying the Goals of Informal Jewish Education." Reimer's essay on the goals of informal education is a welcome contribution to discussions about whether and how Jewish education may contribute to the continuity of Jews and Judaism…

  15. Ancient and Medieval Jewish Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Sacha

    This chapter surveys the history of Jewish calendars from Biblical origins to the later Middle Ages, with reference to their structure, astronomical basis, and cultural context. Special attention is given to the 364-day calendar (third century BCE-first century CE) and the fixed rabbinic calendar (from late Antiquity to the Middle Ages). The chapter concludes with a discussion of attempts to date the institution of the rabbinic calendar on the basis of its minor astronomical discrepancies.

  16. The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Natalie R.; Billing-Ross, Paul; Dubrovsky, Maya; Campbell, Christopher L.; Oddoux, Carole; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Ostrer, Harry; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The Bene Israel Jewish community from West India is a unique population whose history before the 18th century remains largely unknown. Bene Israel members consider themselves as descendants of Jews, yet the identity of Jewish ancestors and their arrival time to India are unknown, with speculations on arrival time varying between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. Here, we characterize the genetic history of Bene Israel by collecting and genotyping 18 Bene Israel individuals. Combining with 486 individuals from 41 other Jewish, Indian and Pakistani populations, and additional individuals from worldwide populations, we conducted comprehensive genome-wide analyses based on FST, principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE, identity-by-descent sharing, admixture linkage disequilibrium decay, haplotype sharing and allele sharing autocorrelation decay, as well as contrasted patterns between the X chromosome and the autosomes. The genetics of Bene Israel individuals resemble local Indian populations, while at the same time constituting a clearly separated and unique population in India. They are unique among Indian and Pakistani populations we analyzed in sharing considerable genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations. Putting together the results from all analyses point to Bene Israel being an admixed population with both Jewish and Indian ancestry, with the genetic contribution of each of these ancestral populations being substantial. The admixture took place in the last millennium, about 19–33 generations ago. It involved Middle-Eastern Jews and was sex-biased, with more male Jewish and local female contribution. It was followed by a population bottleneck and high endogamy, which can lead to increased prevalence of recessive diseases in this population. This study provides an example of how genetic analysis advances our knowledge of human history in cases where other disciplines lack the relevant data to do so. PMID:27010569

  17. The BRCA1 Ashkenazi founder mutations occur on common haplotypes and are not highly correlated with anonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms likely to be used in genome-wide case-control association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinghui

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns at the BRCA1 locus, a susceptibility gene for breast and ovarian cancer, using a dense set of 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 population groups. We focused on Ashkenazi Jews in whom there are known founder mutations, to address the question of whether we would have been able to identify the 185delAG mutation in a case-control association study (should one have been done using anonymous genetic markers. This mutation is present in approximately 1% of the general Ashkenazi population and 4% of Ashkenazi breast cancer cases. We evaluated LD using pairwise and haplotype-based methods, and assessed correlation of SNPs with the founder mutations using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results BRCA1 is characterized by very high linkage disequilibrium in all populations spanning several hundred kilobases. Overall, haplotype blocks and pair-wise LD bins were highly correlated, with lower LD in African versus non-African populations. The 185delAG and 5382insC founder mutations occur on the two most common haplotypes among Ashkenazim. Because these mutations are rare, even though they are in strong LD with many other SNPs in the region as measured by D-prime, there were no strong associations when assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, r (maximum of 0.04 for the 185delAG. Conclusion Since the required sample size is related to the inverse of r, this suggests that it would have been difficult to map BRCA1 in an Ashkenazi case-unrelated control association study using anonymous markers that were linked to the founder mutations.

  18. Teaching Jewish History to the "Other."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course in Jewish history and culture for non-Jewish students. Stresses the importance of understanding and respecting all cultures, eliminating cultural stereotypes, and preventing polarization and xenophobia. Includes a weekly course syllabus and bibliography. Discusses the importance of countering stereotypes before presenting some…

  19. Experiential Jewish Education Has Arrived! Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Experiential Jewish education has been experiencing a time of growth, during which theory development, research, and practice have established a strong voice for the construct. Much of the focus to this point has been on definitions (particularly the distinction between "experiential" and "informal" Jewish education) and on…

  20. The presence of two different infantile Tay-Sachs disease mutations in a Cajun population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, G.A.; Blitzer, M.G. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Mules, E.H. (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Fabacher, P. (Office of Public Health, Shreveport, LA (United States)); Shapira, E. (Tulane Univ. of School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize the mutation(s) responsible for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) in a Cajun population in southwest Louisiana and to identify the origins of these mutations. Eleven of 12 infantile TSD alleles examined in six families had the [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) [alpha]-subunit exon 11 insertion mutation that is present in approximately 70% of Ashkenazi Jewish TSD heterozygotes. The mutation in the remaining allele was a single-base transition in the donor splice site of the [alpha]-subunit intron 9. To determine the origins of these two mutations in the Cajun population, the TSD carrier status was enzymatically determined for 90 members of four of the six families, and extensive pedigrees were constructed for all carriers. A single ancestral couple from France was found to be common to most of the carriers of the exon 11 insertion. Pedigree data suggest that this mutation has been in the Cajun population since its founding over 2 centuries ago and that it may be widely distributed within the population. In contrast, the intron 9 mutation apparently was introduced within the last century and probably is limited to a few Louisiana families. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Teaching Jewish-Christian Relations in the University Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue on "Teaching Jewish-Christian Relations in the University Classroom" is meant to be a resource for those involved in Jewish studies and who teach about Jewish-Christian relations. It offers an introduction to the topics of the Jewish-Christian encounter, Israel, anti-Semitism, Christian Scriptures, the works of Elie Wiesel, and…

  2. JEWISH RUSSIAN-NESS OR RUSSIAN JEWISH-NESS: DINA RUBINA AND THE RUSSIANSPEAKING ALLIYAH IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Treewater-lipes, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the Law of Return was instated on 5 July 1950, Jews from all corners of the globe have immigrated to Israel. In the early 1990s, with the collapse of Communism, the emigration of Russian-speakers to Israel multiplied rapidly. However, just as these individuals were ostracized for their Jewish lineage in the Soviet Union, they would be met with equal discrimination in Israel for being Russian. This cultural identity paradox brings to light many issues of cultural hybridity. Thus one must...

  3. Immigrant Religious Adjustment: An Economic Approach to Jewish Migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Carmel Ullman

    2003-01-01

    An economic theory of immigration and immigrant absorption for a religious minority is developed and applied to Jewish history. Human capital is classified according to whether it is allocative or productive, transferable or location-specific, general or Jewish. Crossclassifying these categories leads to various hypotheses about self-selection among Jewish immigrants and their influence on the Jewish community in their destination. Complementarity between general and Jewish human capital is a...

  4. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon J. Friedman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  5. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N.

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  6. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  7. Jewish themes in the art of belorus artists of jewish origin

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail V. Strelets

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of this Scientific Forum, the ethnographic objects of different ethnic groups are considered. The article is focused on Jewish stories in the art of Belorus artists of Jewish origin. The author’s attention is glued to the tree outstanding artists who lived and worked at time when the Belorus Jewish people were facing no assimilation. Thus, its heritage is highly valued by ethnographers today.

  8. Disease: H00074 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the alleles of Ashkenazi Jewish patients, in which population the disease is hig...hly prevalent(E285A and Y231X in ASPA protein). Mutations in the ASPA gene in non-Jewish patients are differ...entification and characterization of novel mutations of the aspartoacylase gene in non-Jewish patients

  9. Chicago Center for Jewish Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Overview Risk of Hereditary Cancer Hereditary Breast & Ovarian Cancer Colon Cancer Lynch Syndrome Cancer Counseling Other Hereditary Cancer Syndromes Cancer Support Organizations Our Statement on BRCA and Genetic Screening Health & Genetics Through a Jewish Lens Genetic Carrier ...

  10. The Linguistic and Economic Adjustment of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in the United States, 2000 : A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Barry R; Wenz, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the English-language proficiency and labor market earnings of Soviet Jewish immigrants to the United States from 1965 to 2000, using the 2000 Census of Population. Comparisons are made to similar analyses using the 1980 and 1990 Censuses. A consistent finding is that recently arrived Soviet Jewish immigrants have lower levels of English proficiency and earnings than other immigrants, other variables being the same. However, they have a steeper improvement in both ...

  11. Improving accuracy of Tay Sachs carrier screening of the non-Jewish population: analysis of 34 carriers and six late-onset patients with HEXA enzyme and DNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Noh Jin; Morgan, Craig; Sharma, Rajesh; Li, Yuanyin; Lobo, Raynah M; Redman, Joy B; Salazar, Denise; Sun, Weimin; Neidich, Julie A; Strom, Charles M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combining different testing modalities namely beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) enzyme analysis, HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and HEXA gene sequencing could improve the sensitivity for carrier detection in non-Ashkenazi (AJ) individuals. We performed a HEXA gene sequencing assay, a HEXA DNA common mutation assay, and a HEXA enzyme assay on 34 self-reported Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, six late-onset patients with TSD, and one pseudodeficiency allele carrier. Sensitivity of TSD carrier detection was 91% for gene sequencing compared with 91% for the enzyme assay and 52% for the DNA mutation assay. Gene sequencing combined with enzyme testing had the highest sensitivity (100%) for carrier detection. Gene sequencing detected four novel mutations, three of which are predicted to be disease causing [118.delT, 965A-->T (D322V), and 775A-->G (T259A)]. Gene sequencing is useful in identifying rare mutations in patients with TSD and their families, in evaluating spouses of known carriers for TSD who have indeterminate enzyme analysis and negative for common mutation analysis, and in resolving ambiguous enzyme testing results. PMID:19858779

  12. Beyond More Jews Doing Jewish: Clarifying the Goals of Informal Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Why has it been so difficult to define the goals of Jewish informal education? Often informal educators define their work in terms of the goals of Jewish socialization. Those terms have worked to attract funders' support, but also limited the educational creativity of this field. This article argues for a dual defining of goals: socialization and…

  13. [Tay-Sachs disease in non-Jewish infant in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadim, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease, also known as GM2 gangliosidosis or Hexosaminidase A deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic fatal disorder. The disease is known to appear in East European Ashkenazi Jews, North African Jews, and Quebec French Canadians exclusively, but, with different frequency and type of mutation. Its most common variant is the infantile type Tay-Sachs disease. Juvenile and late-onset forms of the disease are infrequent and slowly progressive. At nearly 3 to 6 months old, a baby with Tay-Sachs progressively loses his motor skills and attentiveness. Startle responses and hyperreflexia become prominent, especially on eliciting deep patellar and Achilles reflexes, as a consequence of neurodegeneration of the upper motor neuron. Other systemic damage ensues gradually; seizures, blindness, spasticity of limbs, inability to swallow and breathe, and eventually the baby dies at 1-4 years of age. All Tay-Sachs patients have a "cherry red spot", easily seen in the macula area of the retina, using an ophthalmoscope. The "cherry red spot" is the only normal part of the retina in these sick babies. The case presented here emphasizes that Tay-Sachs disease is sometimes misdiagnosed at first visits even by an experienced clinician, because of his lack of awareness that this disease is not exclusively a Jewish disease. PMID:22670494

  14. Ashkenazi Jews and breast cancer: the consequences of linking ethnic identity to genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I; Raveis, Victoria H; Drummond, Nathan F; Conte, Jill A; Rothman, Sheila M

    2006-11-01

    We explored the advantages and disadvantages of using ethnic categories in genetic research. With the discovery that certain breast cancer gene mutations appeared to be more prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews, breast cancer researchers moved their focus from high-risk families to ethnicity. The concept of Ashkenazi Jews as genetically unique, a legacy of Tay-Sachs disease research and a particular reading of history, shaped this new approach even as methodological imprecision and new genetic and historical research challenged it. Our findings cast doubt on the accuracy and desirability of linking ethnic groups to genetic disease. Such linkages exaggerate genetic differences among ethnic groups and lead to unequal access to testing and therapy. PMID:17018815

  15. Challenges of Pre- and Post-Test Counseling for Orthodox Jewish Individuals in the Premarital Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bajaj, K; Klugman, S; Goldwaser, T

    2016-02-01

    The Jewish community has traditionally taken ownership of its health, and has taken great strides to raise awareness about genetic issues that affect the community, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome. Thanks in part to these heightened awareness efforts, many Orthodox Jewish individuals are now using genetics services as they begin to plan their families. Due to unique cultural and religious beliefs and perceptions, the Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling face many barriers to a successful counseling session, and often seek the guidance of programs such as the Program for Jewish Genetic Health (PJGH). In this article, we present clinical vignettes from the PJGH's clinical affiliate, the Reproductive Genetics practice at the Montefiore Medical Center. These cases highlight unique features of contemporary premarital counseling and screening within the Orthodox Jewish Community, including concerns surrounding stigma, disclosure, "marriageability," the use of reproductive technologies, and the desire to include a third party in decision making. Our vignettes demonstrate the importance of culturally-sensitive counseling. We provide strategies and points to consider when addressing the challenges of pre- and post-test counseling as it relates to genetic testing in this population. PMID:26354339

  16. The rise and fall of the American Jewish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2012-05-01

    American Jewish hospitals were founded, starting in 1854, to serve indigent Jews, to respond to anti-Semitism by creating opportunities for graduate medical education (GME) and medical practice, to provide culturally sensitive care to observant Jews, and to fulfill a religious commitment to healing. Jewish hospitals were governed, administered, staffed, and philanthropically supported predominantly by Jewish communities.In this essay, the author describes the origins of American Jewish hospitals, the purposes they were designed to serve, and why they are disappearing. He estimates that approximately 113 Jewish hospitals were founded in the history of the United States and that there are now about 22 left, some of which are Jewish in name only. Jewish hospitals have been disappearing as a result of the economic pressures facing all community hospitals, a decline in anti-Semitism, open access to GME positions and hospital privileges, the general acceptance of Jews in the American mainstream, and a loss of Jewish community philanthropy. PMID:22450187

  17. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Faure

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

  18. Inspiring Jewish Connections: Outreach to Parents with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald; Rosen, Mark I.

    2008-01-01

    Jewish agencies and organizations in communities across the country have developed a variety of innovative programs for parents with young children. Programs combine Jewish themes with content about parenting and child development, both to provide information and support and to inspire families to become more involved with Jewish religion and…

  19. Saul Bellow’s Adherence and Breakthrough to Jewish Tradition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most significant American Jewish writers in the 20th century, Saul Bellow was influenced by the Jewish tradition and American mainstream thoughts in his writing creations. The conflicts and amalgamation between these two different cultures in his novels indicate that Bellow not only adheres to the Jewish traditional culture, but also breaks through the narrow-mindedness of it.

  20. Pluralism and Its Purposeful Introduction to a Jewish Day School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyer, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Pluralism is an ambiguous term with a multiplicity of meanings. In recent decades there has been a proliferation of a newer category of Jewish Day Schools, the Jewish Community School. Jewish Community Schools distinguish themselves by positioning pluralism as a foundational concept of their school's ethos. Very little is known about how…

  1. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  2. Dissecting life with a Jewish scalpel: a qualitative analysis of Jewish-centered family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semans, M P; Fish, L S

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights findings from a qualitative analysis of the ways in which Jewish families identify how Judaism influences their lives. A theoretical sample of two religious and two cultural families were chosen from a larger sample of 48 Jewish families in Central New York. The qualitative part of this study, which was part of a larger multimethod investigation, was done in order to gather inductively any data that would allow the researchers to build a theory about a particular type of ethnic identity--Jewish identity--and how it affects family dynamics. Eleven categories emerged from this study, which suggest that this particular type of ethnic identity influences many family dynamics, for example, styles of communicating, parenting, values, and family rituals. The participants seem to dissect the world with a "Jewish scalpel." This "scalpel" informs their daily interactions, their parenting styles, and their childrens' self-perceptions. PMID:10742935

  3. Comparison of enzyme and DNA analysis in a Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening program.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, H W; Astrin, K H; Desnick, R J

    1993-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (GM2 gangliosidosis, type 1; TSD) is an autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidosis resulting from the deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A). With a carrier frequency estimated at 1 in 25, it is a common lysosomal disorder in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Tay-Sachs disease has provided the prototype for the prevention of severe recessive genetic diseases. Molecular analysis of the Hex A gene (HEXA) of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals affected ...

  4. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates. PMID:19176977

  5. Tay-Sachs disease in Moroccan Jews: deletion of a phenylalanine in the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Navon, R; Proia, R L

    1991-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by defects in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit gene. The carrier frequency for Tay-Sachs disease is significantly elevated in both the Ashkenazi Jewish and Moroccan Jewish populations but not in other Jewish groups. We have found that the mutations underlying Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews are different. Analysis of a Moroccan Jewish Tay-Sachs patient had revealed an in-frame deletion (delta F) of one o...

  6. Living with Contradiction: Examining the Worldview of the Jewish Settlers in Hebron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Eggen Røislien

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the West Bank city of Hebron the Israeli-Palestinian conflict still overshadows all activities. Despite the tension, friction, and violence that have become integral to the city’s everyday life, the Jewish Community of Hebron is expanding in numbers and geographical extent. Since the Six Day War, the community has attracted some of the most militant groups among the settlers in the West Bank, responsible for severe violence against Palestin- ians, including harassment, car bombs, and attempts to blow up the Dome of the Rock mosque itself. Why do the members of the Jewish Community of Hebron wish to live and raise their children in such a violent setting? Using a series of interviews with members of the Jewish Community of He- bron and related settler communities in the period 2000–05, the article examines the ways the Jewish Community legitimizes its disputed presence. It reveals a deep religious belief, blended with intense distrust of and hatred toward the Palestinian population.

  7. Free economy in a Jewish perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina CALANCE

    2012-01-01

    Science and rationality always excluded religion. However, in his last work, The Fatal Conceit, the great economist Friedrich von Hayek stated that religion has been one of the enduring pillars of the free market economy, through a consistent heritage of practices and beliefs. By making some analogies to the liberal point of view, this paper analyses the way Jews embraced free economy. The research goal is to establish connections between Jewish and liberal thought, concerning wealth and libe...

  8. [Complementary medicine--Jewish medical ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yisrae; Schiff, Elad

    2011-08-01

    In Israel, as in the Western world, the use of different methods of complementary and alternative medicine ICAM) is spreading. CAM raises ethical questions of concern to healthcare providers and to the public: Can physicians recommend a treatment that has no scientific evidence? Should the government include such therapies in the health budget? Can complementary therapists receive protection against lawsuits if their treatment is recognized? The purpose of this article is to present a Jewish perspective on these issues. The fundamental sources that deal with the subject are based on the approach of rabbinic authorities toward unproven medicine, as expressed in the "Mishnah" and "Talmud" (200-500 C.E). The great Jewish scholar who discusses the subject in detail is Maimonides (1135-1204), who defines what "medicine" is and claims that medicine has to rely on reason or experience. Contemporary Jewish commentators present their position based on the interpretation of Maimonides' texts. In this article we claim that treatments can be divided into four groups, each group having a different halachic status: (1) Treatment that might be dangerous--should not be used. (2) Treatment that is safe--can be used, but has no other special status. (3) Treatment recognized by alternative therapists--has consequences for the observant Jew, such as laws of Kashrut and Shabbat. (4) Treatment that was tested and proven using modern medical methods has public significance--the therapist is entitled to legal defense if he made a reasonable mistake; the government can consider funding such treatment using public money. This article presents the Jewish halachic sources upon which we propose an ethical-practical approach to CAM. PMID:21939123

  9. Szmalec and “Jewish gold”

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Molisak

    2015-01-01

    The article recalls two literary texts which signalled the facts denied or marginalized in Polish historical memory: a phenomenon of szmalcownictwo (blackmailing for money of Jews who were hiding) and the search for “Jewish gold”. The context for the study of both narrations is the contemporary historical discourse and its evolution that can be observed in the recent 10-20 years in the Polish public sphere.

  10. [Medicine, physicians and medical ethics in Jewish tradition through the ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-08-01

    Medicine has always had a place of honor in the Jewish heritage. Since Biblical times, the sources of Judaism have valued the physician's activities and seen them as a partnership with God's deeds. Later, in the times of the Mishna and the Talmud, a model of scholars evolved who were not only learned sages but also had extensive medical and scientific knowledge. Their dealings with various issues in medical ethics were the basis for deliberation on questions that appeared throughout history on the advancement of medical science. The various sources from this period show the sages' sensitivity regarding the subject of human life, saving lives and the importance of the availability of medicine for all segments of the population. During the years following the completion of the Talmud, the medical profession was common among the Jews and they excelled in this field. Jewish doctors left behind a Legacy of values in medicine. Hebrew was considered a significant Language in the medical field and was cited in various medical texts such as in the book written by Vesalius, the "father" of modern anatomy. The rapid progress of medicine poses new challenges in bioethics. There is a need for physicians with extensive medical knowledge along with an understanding of ethical issues in order to offer solutions to new situations. Knowledge of the Jewish literature throughout the ages on a variety of subjects and the essential values which are their foundation can contribute to the modern discussion on biomedical questions. This is even more important in Israeli society where many of the laws are formed based on Jewish values. Engagement with Jewish medical ethics can help in educating physicians to have the ability to contribute to public debate and legislation in a way that would balance between the values and needs which an ethical issue raises. PMID:25286644

  11. Segregation of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff alleles in a non-Jewish family.

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, A B; Young, E.; Jenkins, T

    1980-01-01

    A non-Jewish family is presented in which the genes for Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease are segregating. Individuals heterozygous for both alleles have low serum and white cell total hexosaminidase levels together with a proportion of heat-labile hexosaminidase A (HEX A) which falls in the normal range. The individuals would not be detected as carriers of Tay-Sachs disease or Sandhoff disease in a population screening program.

  12. [Debates on the "Jewish nurse" within the Jewish communities in Austro-Hungary around 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleier, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The debate about the organisation of nursing became acute during the last decades of the 19th century when big modern Jewish hospitals were built in several cities of the Habsburg Monarchy. This led to an increase in the demand for nurses and to the initiation of a discussion about the professionalisation of Jewish nursing. In these debates different actors with different intentions were involved. While hospitals were looking mainly for inexpensive and unlimited working nurses, middle-class organisations such as B'nai B'rith emphasised the necessity for women to learn a useful profession to be able to support their husbands economically. Furthermore, feminists and women's associations tried to set new standards for female education, emphasising economic independence and improving the working conditions for women. Jewish feminists such as Henriette Weiss in Vienna, Ida Fuerst in Budapest, and Julie Leipen in Prague tried to build up Jewish nursing schools. The different strategies of implementations and the result of their efforts will be the main focus of this paper. PMID:19830957

  13. "Visions of Jewish Education" as a Primer for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Samuel K.

    2005-01-01

    As part of their requirements, second-year rabbinical students at Hebrew Union College--Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinnati campus, must teach religious school or Hebrew school for a full year in one of the local congregations. At the same time, they take a course in the practices of Jewish education. The students must create a portfolio…

  14. 75 FR 25099 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-11013 Filed 5-6-10; 8:45 am...;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8513 of April 30, 2010 Jewish American Heritage.... During Jewish American Heritage Month we celebrate this proud history and honor the...

  15. 76 FR 25517 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-11063 Filed 5-4-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8660 of April 29, 2011 Jewish American Heritage Month, 2011 By the President of... laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim May 2011 as Jewish American Heritage Month. I call...

  16. 77 FR 26905 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-11134 Filed 5-4-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... 7, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8813--Jewish American Heritage Month, 2012 Proclamation... President ] Proclamation 8813 of May 2, 2012 Jewish American Heritage Month, 2012 By the President of...

  17. New Frontiers: "Milieu" and the Sociology of American Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Bethamie

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century changing circumstances have prompted American Jewish educators to develop new educational strategies to address these needs, and these developments are an important aspect of the sociology of American Jewish education. Using the method of historical sociology, I examine the educational configuration at…

  18. Holocaust Education in Jewish Schools in Israel: Goals, Dilemmas, Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown the Holocaust to be the primary component of Jewish identity (Farago in Yahadut Zmanenu 5:259-285, 1989; Gross in Influence of the trip to Poland within the framework of the Ministry of Education on the working through of the Holocaust. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, 2000; "Herman in Jewish identity:…

  19. Exploring 350 Years of Jewish American History on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Library of Congress exhibition, From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, has sparked renewed interest in the history of Jews in the United States. The collection featured more than 200 documents, images, and artifacts that chronicle the Jewish American experience. In exhibit from September through December 2004, From…

  20. The Jewish-Arab divide in life expectancy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Anson, Jon

    2005-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in Israel in 2001 was 77.7 years for males and 81.6 years for females among Jews, and 74.5 and 77.8 years for males and females, respectively, among Israeli Arabs. In spite of vast improvements in health conditions of the two populations since Israel's statehood in 1948, persistent disparities in life expectancy between the two groups have challenged the Israeli socialized health care system. These disparities are influenced primarily by differences between the two population groups in infant and child mortality rates. This early study suggests that the distribution of life expectancy across localities in Israel reflects the distribution of those localities' socio-economic condition index (not including health and medical care), and the distribution of medical services. The positive association between life expectancy and the index is pronounced, however, only within the Jewish population but not among Arabs. While there may be no significant difference in life expectancy among Jews and Arabs living in poorer communities, there are fewer Arabs living in relatively affluent communities. Thus, persistent higher concentration of poverty among Arabs than among Jews has sufficed to maintain the gap in life expectancy between them. In addition, however, there are population-specific effects: wealth and education are more protective among Jews than among Arabs, while medical services are more protective among Arabs. PMID:15722265

  1. The impact of the Holocaust on the second generation: Norwegian Jewish Holocaust survivors and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, E F

    1996-07-01

    The entire population of Norwegian-born Jews who survived the German concentration camps and their children was examined, and compared to Norwegian-born Jews who escaped to Sweden, and their children. An attempt is made to look for the symptoms described as a "second generation syndrome" by several authors. The present findings do not support the presence of serious psychopathology among the children of Norwegian-born Jewish survivors as a group, but indicate a certain degree of psychological vulnerability among these children. As adults, they are more often engaged in health/social care professions and organizations and also show signs of greater assimilation to their non-Jewish surroundings than the comparison group. PMID:8827648

  2. The dieting experience: A Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Amanda; Bogle, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Considered to be a chronic recidivist condition, obesity places significant burdens on the society. The search for appropriate interventions remains challenging. Research suggests individuals' environments should be considered when addressing eating behaviours. Nomothetic accounts of the dieting experiences of eight self-selected British Jews within a commercially run, community-based weight-management programme adapted to Jewish participants' cultural needs were explored using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were identified: 'Me, myself and I', 'behaviour change', 'structural framework' and 'social interaction'. Emergent aspects were social support and structural flexibility to motivate participants to initiate and sustain behaviour change. Implications for future weight-loss interventions are discussed. PMID:24713157

  3. Jewish pietism of the Sufi type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Loubet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available (Translated by the author The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to a poorly known trend in Judaism that developed in the medieval Jewish community of Cairo, and forms the background for the manuscript that I am in the process of translating. A brief description to the features of this manuscript will serve as an introduction to my approach, which aims at shedding light on a successful encounter between Islam and Judaism. This religious symbiosis, as exemplary as it is surprising, co...

  4. Jewish pietism of the Sufi type

    OpenAIRE

    Mireille Loubet

    2008-01-01

    (Translated by the author) The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to a poorly known trend in Judaism that developed in the medieval Jewish community of Cairo, and forms the background for the manuscript that I am in the process of translating. A brief description to the features of this manuscript will serve as an introduction to my approach, which aims at shedding light on a successful encounter between Islam and Judaism. This religious symbiosis, as exemplary as it is surprising, co...

  5. Karl Mannheim’s Jewish Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kettler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore Karl Mannheim’s puzzling failure (or refusal to address himself in any way to questions arising out of the position of Jews in Germany, either before or after the advent of Nazi rule—and this, notwithstanding the fact, first, that his own ethnic identification as a Jew was never in question and that he shared vivid experiences of anti-Semitism, and consequent exile from both Hungary and Germany, and, second, that his entire sociological method rested upon using one’s own most problematic social location—as woman, say, or youth, or intellectual—as the starting point for a reflexive investigation. It was precisely Mannheim’s convictions about the integral bond between thought grounded in reflexivity and a mission to engage in a transformative work of Bildung that made it effectively impossible for him to formulate his inquiries in terms of his way of being Jewish. It is through his explorations of the rise and fall of the intellectual as socio-cultural formation that Mannheim investigates his relations to his Jewish origins and confronts the disaster of 1933. The key to our puzzle is to be found in the theory of assimilation put forward in the dissertation of his student, Jacob Katz.

  6. Algerian Jewish Sign language: its emergence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Lanesman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    "This book is concerned with Algerian Jewish Sign Language (AJSL) and the Algerian Jewish Sign Language community. AJSL developed naturally in the Jewish quarter of Ghardaia, a town in the sub-Saharan part of Algeria. A high percentage of deaf people lived in this quarter, and because of that a sign language emerged, and was used by both deaf and hearing members of the community. Many members of the AJSL community migrated to Israel in the middle of the twentieth century, where they have cont...

  7. The Economics of Religion, Jewish Survival and Jewish Attitudes Toward Competition in Torah Education

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Dennis W; Avi Weiss

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the attitude of Jewish law to competition in light of the economist's understanding of the benefits of competition and of the beneficiaries from intervention in the competitive process. The punchline of this paper is simple. Although Judaism has used a whole host of restrictions on competition and has had its share of legislation to promote private interests, there has been one area that has generally been a consistent exception to impediments to competition -- the teachin...

  8. The Economics of Religion, Jewish Survival, and Jewish Attitudes toward Competition in Torah Education.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton, Dennis W; Weiss, Avi

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the attitude of Jewish law to competition in light of the economist's understanding of the benefits of competition and the beneficiaries from intervention in the competitive process. The punchline of this paper is simple. Although Judaism has used a whole host of restrictions on competition and has had its share of legislation to promote private interests, there has been one area that has generally been a consistent exception to impediments to competition--the teaching of ...

  9. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  10. The ethics of using Nazi medical data: a Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, M

    1990-07-01

    The notorious experiments on concentration camp prisoners conducted by Nazi scientists produced a body of data still referred to by researchers. The Jewish tradition offers resources for deciding on the morality of using this material. PMID:10105946

  11. Current Jewish pilgrimage tourism: Modes and models of development

    OpenAIRE

    Collins-Kreiner, Noga

    2010-01-01

    Whether in its traditional religious form or its modern secular form, pilgrimage is currently experiencing resurgence the world over. This study analyzes the traits of current Jewish pilgrims to holy sites in Israel and explores the phenomenon of Jewish pilgrimage-tourism in the country. To this end, it employs a variety of methodologies, including a questionnaire completed by 703 pilgrims at seven different pilgrimage sites in Israel; interviews with the pilgrims and staff of organized tours...

  12. Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…

  13. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient’s consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians.

  14. Let my people go (home) to Spain: a genealogical model of Jewish identities since 1492.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish government recently announced an official fast-track path to citizenship for any individual who is Jewish and whose ancestors were expelled from Spain during the inquisition-related dislocation of Spanish Jews in 1492. It would seem that this policy targets a small subset of the global Jewish population, that is, restricted to individuals who retain cultural practices associated with ancestral origins in Spain. However, the central contribution of this manuscript is to demonstrate how and why the policy is far more likely to apply to a very large fraction (i.e., the vast majority) of Jews. This claim is supported using a series of genealogical models that include transmissible "identities" and preferential intra-group mating. Model analysis reveals that even when intra-group mating is strong and even if only a small subset of a present-day population retains cultural practices typically associated with that of an ancestral group, it is highly likely that nearly all members of that population have direct genealogical links to that ancestral group, given sufficient number of generations have elapsed. The basis for this conclusion is that not having a link to an ancestral group must be a property of all of an individual's ancestors, the probability of which declines (nearly) superexponentially with each successive generation. These findings highlight unexpected incongruities induced by genealogical dynamics between present-day and ancestral identities. PMID:24465647

  15. Dilemmas of Minority Politics. Jewish Migrants in Postwar Czechoslovakia and Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina

    Leiden : Brill, 2014 - (Ouzan, F.; Gerstenfeld, M.), s. 63-75 ISBN 978-90-04-27776-2. - (Jewish Identities in a Changing World. 23) Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Jewish migrants * postwar Czechoslovakia * postwar Poland Subject RIV: AB - History

  16. Freud's Jewish identity and psychoanalysis as a science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Arnold D

    2014-12-01

    Ludwik Fleck, the Polish philosopher of science, maintained that scientific discovery is influenced by social, political, historical, psychological, and personal factors. The determinants of Freud's Jewish identity are examined from this Fleckian perspective, as is the impact of that complex identity on his creation of psychoanalysis as a science. Three strands contributing to his Jewish identity are identified and explored: his commitment to the ideal of Bildung, the anti-Semitism of the times, and his "godlessness." Finally, the question is addressed of what it means that psychoanalysis was founded by a Jew. For Freud, psychoanalysis was a kind of liberation philosophy, an attempt to break free of his ethnic and religious inheritance. Yet it represented at the same time his ineradicable relationship with that inheritance. It encapsulated both the ambivalence of his Jewish identity and the creativity of his efforts to resolve it. PMID:25503754

  17. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and

  18. Religion, genetics, and sexual orientation: the Jewish tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2008-06-01

    This paper probes the implications of a genetic basis for sexual orientation for traditional branches of Judaism, which are struggling with how accepting to be of noncelibate gays and lesbians in their communities. The paper looks at the current attitudes toward homosexuality across the different branches of Judaism; social and cultural factors that work against acceptance; attitudes toward science in Jewish culture; and the likelihood that scientific evidence that sexual orientation is at least partly genetically determined will influence Jewish scholars' and leaders' thinking on this issue. PMID:18610782

  19. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tcherkasski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  20. Soviet Jewish Community Strategies, Concerning Memory Perpetuation (Erection of Memorials to Jews-Fascism Victims Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Tcherkasski; Leonid Terushkin

    2013-01-01

    The article, case studying the memorials erection, shows the process of Jews, victims of Nazism memory perpetuation by the Jewish Community within the Soviet Republics in postwar, what difficulties the Jewish Communities and groups of initiators faced, trying to prove the Jewish identity of the graves and gain adoption of Jewish symbols on memorials and memorial signs to fascism victims.

  1. Train up a Child: On the "Maskilic" Attempt to Change the Habitus of Jewish Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Zohar

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Jewish Enlightenment movement and Jewish financial entrepreneurs undertook an active, conscious project to effect significant transformations in the Jewish habitus in German-speaking areas during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A symbiotic relationship allowed these groups to disseminate a new vision of Jewish society…

  2. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  3. 78 FR 26215 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ..., from women's rights to workers' rights to the end of segregation. That story is still unfolding today... wrote a letter to the Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island--one of our Nation's first Jewish houses of worship--and reaffirmed our country's commitment to religious freedom. He noted that...

  4. Reinventing Religion: Jewish Religion Textbooks in Russian Gymnasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Eliyana R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines 10 textbooks used in Jewish religion classes in Russian high schools in the final decades of the 19th century. The textbooks reveal an expectation of a low level of Hebrew background, an interest in promoting the practice of prayer, and two distinct approaches to teaching Judaism. While some of the books introduce students to…

  5. Discovering Jewish Studies Collections in Academic Libraries: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Izabella

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. colleges and universities offering non-sectarian educational programs in Jewish Studies rely on the support of their academic libraries for research materials and library services. For college libraries which use Library of Congress Classification scheme, it is a common practice to integrate "studies" resources into their…

  6. Cultural Transitioning of Jewish Immigrants: Education, Employment and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacore, Ada; Mikhail, Anne-Marie; Kassan, Anusha; Lerner, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the cultural transitioning process that immigrants undergo in order to attain educational, occupational, and social integration within Canadian society. Results of this phenomenological study examining 31 Jewish immigrants from Argentina, Israel, France and the Former Soviet Union, reveal that lack of educational equivalency…

  7. Jewish Holocaust Histories and the Work of Chronological Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jordana

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the ways that, in Holocaust education in Jewish schools in Melbourne and New York at the beginning of the 21st century, knowledge of the Holocaust is transferred to students in chronological form. It begins by asking: What work do chronological narratives do within the Holocaust historical narratives offered within Jewish…

  8. Echoes from Sepharad: signatures on the maternal gene pool of crypto-Jewish descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiro, Inês; Teixeira, João; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The majority of genetic studies on Jewish populations have been focused on Ashkenazim, and genetic data from the Sephardic original source, the Iberian Peninsula, are particularly scarce. Regarding the mitochondrial genome, the available information is limited to a single Portuguese village, Belmonte, where just two different lineages (a single one corresponding to 93.3%) were found in 30 individuals. Aiming at disclosing the ancestral maternal background of the Portuguese Jewry, we enlarged the sampling to other crypto-Jewish descendants in the Bragança district (NE Portugal). Fifty-seven complete mtDNA genomes were newly sequenced and - in contrast with Belmonte - a high level of diversity was found, with five haplogroups (HV0b, N1, T2b11, T2e and U2e) being putatively identified as Sephardic founding lineages. Therefore - in sharp contrast with Belmonte - these communities have managed to escape the expected inbreeding effects caused by centuries of religious repression and have kept a significant proportion of the Sephardic founder gene pool. This deeper analysis of the surviving Sephardic maternal lineages allowed a much more comprehensive and detailed perspective on the origins and survival of the Sephardic genetic heritage. In line with previously published results on Sephardic paternal lineages, our findings also show a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity in the maternal lineages. PMID:25074462

  9. Infertility evaluation and treatment according to Jewish law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G

    1997-02-01

    The Jewish attitude toward infertility can be learned from the fact that the first commandment of God to Adam was "be fruitful and multiply". When evaluating an infertile couple according to the Halakha (Hebrew law), one should first evaluate the female factor. If pathology is found, one may proceed to investigate the male factor, inadequate or abnormal production, ejaculation, or deposition of spermatozoa. The basic fact that allows in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) to be considered in the rabbinical literature at all is that the oocyte and the sperm originate from the wife and the husband, respectively. For many centuries Jewish religious authorities have discussed the principle involved in artificial insemination from a donor. The discussions are based on ancient sources in the Talmud and the codes of Jewish law is prohibited for a variety of reasons e.g. incest, lack of genealogy, and the problem of inheritance. In the case of egg donation the problem that arises is who should be considered the mother, the donor of the oocyte or the one in whose uterus the embryo develops, the one who gives birth. Jewish law states that the child is related to the woman who finished its formation, the one who gave birth. The Jewish religion does not forbid the practice of surrogate motherhood in the case of full surrogacy. From the religious point of view, the child will belong to the father who gave the sperm and to the woman who gave birth. Creating and inducing a preimplantation in embryo in vitro for fertility research should be allowed if there is a real chance that the sperm owner may benefit and have a child as a result of this research. Nowadays, assisted reproductive technology is a common practice in the treatment of infertility. Nevertheless, different religious arguments of the world's religions impose limitations on the therapeutic approach to infertility. PMID:9138953

  10. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M; Antoniou, Antonis C;

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication an...

  11. Teaching Approaches of Beginning Teachers for Jewish Studies in Israeli "Mamlachti" Schools: A Case Study of a Jewish Education Teachers' Training Program for Outstanding Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzin, Ori

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a longitudinal qualitative study that examined teaching approaches of neophyte teachers in Israel during their 4-year exclusive teachers' training program for teaching Jewish subjects and first two years of teaching. The program wanted to promote change in secular pupils' attitudes toward Jewish subjects. We…

  12. Origin and spread of the 1278insTATC mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi Jews: genetic drift as a robust and parsimonious hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Amos; Colombo, Roberto; Michaelovsky, Elena; Karpati, Mazal; Goldman, Boleslaw; Peleg, Leah

    2004-03-01

    The 1278insTATC is the most prevalent beta-hexosaminidase A ( HEXA) gene mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), one of the four lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) occurring at elevated frequencies among Ashkenazi Jews (AJs). To investigate the genetic history of this mutation in the AJ population, a conserved haplotype (D15S981:175-D15S131:240-D15S1050:284-D15S197:144-D15S188:418) was identified in 1278insTATC chromosomes from 55 unrelated AJ individuals (15 homozygotes and 40 heterozygotes for the TSD mutation), suggesting the occurrence of a common founder. When two methods were used for analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between flanking polymorphic markers and the disease locus and for the study of the decay of LD over time, the estimated age of the insertion was found to be 40+/-12 generations (95% confidence interval: 30-50 generations), so that the most recent common ancestor of the mutation-bearing chromosomes would date to the 8th-9th century. This corresponds with the demographic expansion of AJs in central Europe, following the founding of the Ashkenaz settlement in the early Middle Ages. The results are consistent with the geographic distribution of the main TSD mutation, 1278insTATC being more common in central Europe, and with the coalescent times of mutations causing two other LSDs, Gaucher disease and mucolipidosis type IV. Evidence for the absence of a determinant positive selection (heterozygote advantage) over the mutation is provided by a comparison between the estimated age of 1278insTATC and the probability of the current AJ frequency of the mutant allele as a function of its age, calculated by use of a branching-process model. Therefore, the founder effect in a rapidly expanding population arising from a bottleneck provides a robust parsimonious hypothesis explaining the spread of 1278insTATC-linked TSD in AJ individuals. PMID:14727180

  13. From Egypt to Umbria: Jewish Women and Property in the Medieval Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the financial activities of medieval Jewish women in Italy and the Mediterranean. Contrary to Jewish legal tradition, which curtailed women’s financial autonomy, by the later Middle Ages communities across the region increasingly allowed women to manage their own dotal property, inherit property from a variety of sources, and engage in loan banking. An examination of the historical developments of some Jewish communities in Egypt, Spain, and central Italy suggests that t...

  14. Eve in the renegade city: elite Jewish women’s philanthropy in Chicago, 1890–1900

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the philanthropic organisations and projects with which elite Jewish women in Chicago were concerned during the years 1890–1900. It concentrates on the National Council of Jewish Women, which was founded by a group of Chicago women in 1893 after the Jewish Women’s Congress at the World’s Columbian Exposition. The NCJW was this community’s highest-profile philanthropic organisation, bringing them local, national and international attention. The 1890s were a turbulent d...

  15. The Outsider Within: Sense of Self in Jewish Feminist Women

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Phyllis A. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Both Judaism and feminism encompass a wide range of practices and beliefs. Both are often misunderstood in popular media and educational settings. Outcomes of these misrepresentations can vary from social slights to dangerous anti-semitic and sexist behaviors, all of which have potential of interfering with development among Jewish and feminist people. Because religion, culture, and ideology contribute to adult identity in important ways, and because Judaism and feminism are poorly unders...

  16. Infertility in Jewish couples, biblical and rabbinic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The Jewish religion is family orientated, and life is guided by 'Halacha', a code of conduct based on biblical and rabbinic law. There is a duty to have children, in view of the first biblical commandment 'be fruitful and multiply', which sanctions most treatments for infertility. Interpretations vary among Orthodox, Conservative and Progressive rabbis, but it is only rabbis who have authority to advise infertile couples on which procedures concur with Jewish law, and their appraisals tend towards leniency in the interests of domestic happiness. Prohibitions against 'wasting seed', and against marriage to a man with 'wounded testes or severed membrum', may be waived to allow semen collection for analysis and treatment for male infertility. All types of assisted conception are approved, including in vitro and micro-assisted fertilization, provided the gametes are from married couples. In short cycles, artificial insemination can be permitted in the post-menstrual week of 'niddah' when coitus is forbidden. Jewish descent from the mother is automatic but, for Orthodox couples, a technical violation of the law against adultery or incest can spoil the marriage prospects of a child or interrupt the paternal priestly line of Cohen or Levi. Donor gametes are largely unacceptable to Orthodox rabbis, since egg donation confuses the definition of the mother, and because sperm donation creates subterfuge in a child's genealogy and a risk of consanguinity. However, Progressive and Conservative rabbis place more emphasis on the social attributes of parents and frequently approve of gamete donation. The Jewish status of children resulting from surrogacy or adoption can be settled by religious conversion. Objections to treating unmarried couples, single or lesbian women, and to posthumous conception, arise because such households are not traditional families. PMID:11844302

  17. Sexuality, birth control and childbirth in orthodox Jewish tradition.

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines some of the traditional texts that deal with sexuality, birth control and childbirth in the orthodox Jewish tradition and presents the rules governing these areas. For instance, a married woman should avoid being alone with a male physician unless other people are in earshot and have access to the room. A husband and wife must separate during the woman's menses and for the first 7 days afterward. Contraception is permitted if childbearing would endanger a woman's life or h...

  18. Initiating palliative care conversations: lessons from Jewish bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2013-03-01

    What are the ethical responsibilities of the medical staff (doctors, nurses, social workers, and chaplains) regarding the preservation of meaningful life for their patients who are approaching the end of life (EOL)? In particular, what is the staff's ethical responsibility to initiate a conversation with their patient regarding palliative care? By subjecting traditional Jewish teachings to an ethical analysis and then exploring the underlying universal principles, we will suggest a general ethical duty to inform patients of the different care options, especially in a manner that preserves hope. The principle that we can derive from Jewish bioethics teaches that the medical staff has a responsibility to help our patients live in a way that is consistent with how they understand their task or responsibility in life. For some patients, the best way to preserve a meaningful life in which they can fulfill their sense of purpose in the time that remains is to focus on palliation. For this reason, although palliative and supportive care are provided from the time of diagnosis, it is critical we make sure our patients realize that they have the opportunity to make a decision between either pursuing additional active treatments or choosing to focus primarily on palliative therapies to maximize quality of life. The Jewish tradition and our experience in spiritual care suggest the importance of helping patients preserve hope while, simultaneously, honestly acknowledging their situation. Staff members can play a vital role in helping patients make the most of this new period of their lives. PMID:23089233

  19. Alcohol and Substance Use in the Jewish Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of addictions in the Jewish community is becoming increasingly prevalent, and yet, a gap exists in the literature regarding addictions in this community. Knowledge about the prevalence of addictions within Jewish communities is limited; some believe that Jews cannot be affected by addictions. To address this gap, a pilot study was conducted to gather preliminary evidence relating to addictions and substance use in the Jewish community. Results indicate that a significant portion of the Jewish community knows someone affected by an addiction and that over 20% have a family history of addiction. Future research needs are discussed.

  20. In Search of the jüdische Typus: A Proposed Benchmark to Test the Genetic Basis of Jewishness Challenges Notions of “Jewish Biomarkers”

    OpenAIRE

    Elhaik, E.

    2016-01-01

    The debate as to whether Jewishness is a biological trait inherent from an “authentic” “Jewish type” (jüdische Typus) ancestor or a system of beliefs has been raging for over two centuries. While the accumulated biological and anthropological evidence support the latter argument, recent genetic findings, bolstered by the direct-to-consumer genetic industry, purport to identify Jews or quantify one’s Jewishness from genomic data. To test the merit of claims that Jews and non-Jews are genetical...

  1. Jewish Youth in Texas: Toward a Multi-Methodological Approach to Minority Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erik H.; Bar-Shalom, Yehuda

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to examine the religious and ethnic identity of youth attending a Jewish summer camp in Texas. A strong aspect of participants' Jewish identity is formulated in reaction to the surrounding Christian society, with which they negotiate a compromise to live relatively comfortably. The informal…

  2. Parental Coping with Developmental Disorders in Adolescents within the Ultraorthodox Jewish Community in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study compares the coping strategies used by 100 ultraorthodox Jewish parents and 100 secular Jewish parents for dealing with adolescent children with developmental disorders. The parents completed two questionnaires on the sense of stress-related personal growth and the sense of coherence. The ultraorthodox parents reported a…

  3. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  4. Teachable Moments in Jewish Education: An Informal Approach in a Reform Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erik H.; Bar-Shalom, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing "teachable moments" within daily situations to impart knowledge and transmit values is a type of informal education. In a structured camp environment, such teachable moments may be integrated into the educational curriculum. "Jewish teachable moments" may be used to address Judaism and Jewish Peoplehood holistically, as the educators and…

  5. 3 CFR 8379 - Proclamation 8379 of May 12, 2009. Jewish American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Heritage Month, 2009 8379 Proclamation 8379 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8379 of May 12, 2009 Proc. 8379 Jewish American Heritage Month, 2009By the President of the United States of... United States, do hereby proclaim May 2009 as Jewish American Heritage Month. I call upon all...

  6. Living Together Apart: Residential Segregation in Mixed Arab-Jewish Cities in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Ghazi

    1996-01-01

    Examines features of residential segregation in five mixed Arab-Jewish cities in Israel and the role of ideology and state politics among the charter group (Jewish) as a dominant factor in this social process. Findings reveal all five cities exhibit high indices of segregation and hypersegregation--a situation of neighbors without neighborly…

  7. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  8. Building a Community of Young Leaders: Experiential Learning in Jewish Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Benjamin J.; Thomas, Margaret M. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses whether more frequent participation in Jewish activist learning events is associated with higher levels of engagement in social justice-related activities and conceptions of Jewish identity. The study design was cross-sectional and comparative. An online survey was completed by 165 participants in an activist learning program.…

  9. Preparing Jewish Educators: The Research We Have, the Research We Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiman-Nemser, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the research we have and the research we need in both general and Jewish teacher education. First, I discuss three recent efforts to synthesize and assess existing research in teacher education and to identify needed research. Next I review a handful of recent studies in Jewish teacher education which illustrate various…

  10. Theorizing Psychosocial Processes in Canadian, Middle-Class, Jewish Mothers' School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Rasky, Cynthia; Ringrose, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a psychosocial analysis of interview data of three Canadian, middle-class, Jewish mothers engaged in processes and practices of "school choice". We consider how middle-class, white identity intersects with Jewish ethnicity. We also examine how commitments to Canadian ideals of multiculturalism sit in contradiction with…

  11. Student and Teacher Responses to Prayer at a Modern Orthodox Jewish High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Devra

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the attitudes of students and teachers to prayer at an American Modern Orthodox Jewish high school. Relevant data, based on observation and interviews, emerged from a larger study of the school's Jewish and secular worlds. A significant gap in responses became apparent. Students viewed prayer as a challenge to their autonomy,…

  12. Designing a Curriculum Model for the Teaching of the Bible in UK Jewish Secondary Schools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the process of designing a curriculum model for Bible teaching in UK Jewish secondary schools. This model was designed over the period 2008-2010 by a team of curriculum specialists from the Jewish Curriculum Partnership UK in collaboration with a group of teachers from Jewish secondary schools. The paper first outlines the…

  13. March of the living, a holocaust educational tour: effect on adolescent Jewish identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Pham, Phung; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2013-12-01

    March of the Living (MOTL) is a worldwide two-week trip for high school seniors to learn about the Holocaust by traveling to sites of concentration/death camps and Jewish historical sites in Poland and Israel. The mission statement of MOTL International states that participants will be able to "bolster their Jewish identity by acquainting them with the rich Jewish heritage in pre-war Eastern Europe." However, this claim has never been studied quantitatively. Therefore, 152 adolescents who participated in MOTL voluntarily completed an initial background questionnaire, a Jewish Identity Survey and a Global Domains Survey pre-MOTL, end-Poland and end-Israel. Results suggest that Jewish identity did not substantially increase overall or from one time period to the next. PMID:23801019

  14. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust Part 1: Six refugees who fled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bock, Julia; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2016-01-01

    From the times of Moritz Kaposi, Hungarian Jewish physicians have significantly contributed to the development of dermatology. Part 1 of this special report highlights some of the early Jewish dermatologists in Hungary. It also tells the stories of five Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who fled anti-Semitism in Hungary, or other European countries, between 1920 and 1941: Frederick Reiss, Emery Kocsard, Stephen Rothman, Peter Flesch, and George Csonka. A sixth Hungarian dermatologist, Tibor Benedek, was persecuted by the Nazis, because he had a Jewish wife, forcing the couple to flee Germany. Part 2 will focus on the ordeal faced by Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who did not leave their homeland during World War II. PMID:26903191

  15. [Jewish physicians and neophytes in Provence (1460-1525)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu-Agou, D

    1998-11-01

    The legal archives of Provence (France) allows study of the lineage of Jewish physicians and their problems after their expulsion in 1501. This was possible because in Aix, there is much information on their community, trade, family and intellectual interests. Accordingly, we could follow the changes observed in the families of the physicians; these ilim judei who were leading citizens. They were also rationalist and often decided to adopt the religion of the majority. Was their medicine transmitted to the next generation? Which profession was chosen by their sons and their family? What was their heritage? PMID:11638860

  16. [Anti-semitism in medicine and Jewish emancipation - the quarrel between the Gottingen obstetrician Friedrich Benjamin Osiander and his Jewish former student Joseph Jacob Gumprecht (circa 1800)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, E

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the behavior of the renowned professor of obstetrics Friedrich Osiander towards his Jewish former student, the private lecturer Joseph Jacob Gumprecht. In a public academic debate between the two of them, Osiander made use of anti-Semitic arguments. He did so even though his medical ideas and practice were based on concepts of Enlightenment and especially religious tolerance. An analysis of Osiander's behavior shows that his denunciations were hardly emotional outbursts against Gumprecht. Rather, they were sober pedagogic attempts to cleanse Gumprecht from what Osiander saw as his "Jewishness", thereby helping him on his climb into bourgeois academic society. This interpretation fits well with the German "etatistic" version of Jewish emancipation: Jews were able to gain equal standing, but only under the condition of moral "improvement", or ridding themselves of all "Jewish attitudes." Thus, "Enlightened" ideas of Jewish emancipation were partly based on beliefs in Jewish moral inferiority. It is significant that the example under investigation happened in a medical faculty, since this was a prime location for acculturated Jews to meet Gentile scholars who represented the Enlightenment-influenced ideas of the times. PMID:11625665

  17. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  18. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren eSwami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  19. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  20. Bread and orange on a seder plate. Lesbian reinterpretation of Jewish religious tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Kościańczuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analyse of two main strategies which are adopted byfeminist and lesbian activists who reinterpret Jewish tradition and ritual. The textshows that lesbians are excluded in both orthodox (conservative Jewish communityand also in liberal movement. I try to present a deep picture of the excluded groupsituation. However at the same time I present also how lesbian activists reconfigureor reject oppressive patterns and propose their own emancipatory theological ideas.The key question of the text is: if the changes which are presented by feminist andlesbian theology are adopted in different Jewish communities and if they may changethe core of Judaism.

  1. Patient-centered Bedside Education and Traditional Jewish Law and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Shafran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Bedside rounds have long been a time-honored component of medical education. Recently, there have been various recommendations that residency-training programs further incorporate bedside teaching into clinical curricula. Objectives To compare these current attitudes regarding bedside education with the position of traditional Jewish law and ethics. Methods Relevant medical journal articles and traditional Jewish sources were reviewed. Results Halacha (the corpus of traditional Jewish law and ethics gives greater focus to a patient-centered rather than student-centered bedside education experience. Conclusion Residency training programs should give greater consideration to the importance of a patient-centered bedside education experience.

  2. HLA polymorphism in Israel. 9. An overall comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonné-Tamir, B; Bodmer, J G; Bodmer, W F; Pickbourne, P; Brautbar, C; Gazit, E; Nevo, S; Zamir, R

    1978-03-01

    HLA gene frequencies in 11 Israeli populations and nine other relevant populations were used to calculate genetic distances in a quantitative assessment of their similarities and differences. The shortest distance found is between Polish and Rumanian Jews, while the largest is between Russian Jews and Black Africans. Estimates of "average" distances within major population groups suggest that the Ashkenazi Jews (Poles, Russians, Rumanians and Germans) are a more homogeneous population than East European non-Jews or than Middle-Eastern populations (Arabs, Armenians, Lebanese and Turks). A cline of distances between Ashkenazi Jews and other Jewish communities parallels their geographic distribution; however, the relatively large distance between the two North African communities (Libyans and Moroccans) demonstrates that geographic proximity is not necessarily correlated with genetic similarity. The Jewish populations, especially the Ashkenazi, show a clear divergence from their neighboring non-Jewish populations, among whom they have lived for many centuries. There are indications in the HLA data of a common origin for the diverse Jewish populations. PMID:653718

  3. Pig organs for transplantation into humans: a Jewish view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1999-01-01

    In view of the shortage of human organs for transplantation, intense interest has focused on the use of pig organs. Although the early rejection of pig organs by a human recipient has not yet been overcome, scientists are actively seeking to solve this problem. If and when xenotransplantation from pigs or other animals becomes scientifically feasible, Judaism will look with favor upon this procedure to prolong or save the life of a human being who is ill or dying from organ failure. Although Jewish law forbids Jews to raise or eat pigs, no such prohibition exists for the use of pigs to cure human illness or to save human lives by xenotransplantation. PMID:10618731

  4. Surrogate motherhood revisited: maternal identity from a Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan

    2011-12-01

    A new bill regulating ovum donation in Israel is set to pass its second and third readings in the Israel Parliament in the upcoming months. The new law will expand the number of locally donated ova available, as previously Israeli women were prohibited from donating eggs unless they were undergoing fertility treatment. Parallel to this legislative initiative, there has been a change in rabbinical thinking over who is considered the mother in a case of surrogacy. Previously, the consensus has been that the birth mother is to be considered the mother, but over the last few years there has been a change in thinking and the genetic mother is now considered the mother. The purpose of this paper is to present the ethical and legal issues from a Jewish perspective in determining maternal identity. The dilemma also demonstrates some of the difficulties in applying Talmudic law to modern problems and the various methodologies used to overcome these issues. PMID:21503811

  5. [The organization of Jewish dentists in pre-Israel Palestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Kratz, M

    2016-04-01

    The first modern dental institutes were established in Europe and in the USA during the 1840s. At that period there wasn't a single qualified doctor in Palestine, not to mention a professional dentist. A couple of decades later, as the number of Christian pilgrims grew, some modern hospitals were established and a few non-Jewish dentists opened their clinics in Jerusalem, which was then and in the following decades, the region's largest city. In Europe, dentistry became a popular profession among Jews in general and among Jewish women in particular. The first Jewish dentist settled in Jerusalem in the mid-1880s. Other dentists were slow to arrive and their number began to grow only after the turn of the 20th century. Their professional education varied from those who were trained as apprentices by other dentists to those which studied a couple of years in an academic dental school. The devastation caused by WWI prompted American-Zionist organizations to send a special medical unit to Palestine in 1918. Along medical supplies it also brought a small group of doctors and dentists. The two American dentists that decided to remain in Palestine took upon themselves to spread their medical and scientific knowledge. They also organized the dentists, whose number grew considerably during the 1920s, and called the authorities to regulate the dental profession. In 1926 the British authorities issued a decree regulating all medical professions. It demanded that dental practitioners will be licensed after proving their previous studies and professional knowledge. In 1931, local dentists' organizations decided to establish the Palestine Dental Association. Five years later it was accepted as a member by the International Dental Federation (FDI) and was recognized by the local authorities. Since the 1930s, prominent Jewish dentists from abroad were invited to come to Palestine to lecture, and local dentists participated in international conferences. This prompted the first

  6. Jewish community education: continuity and renewal initiatives in British Jewry 1991-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Roy

    2011-01-01

    In the 1990s, the leadership of organised, mainstream British Jewry was preoccupied with the challenge of Jewish continuity. Essentially, there were two narratives: a dominant one emphasising the dangers of assimilation and the decline of the community and a second, emerging narrative highlighting opportunities for, and indicators of, revival. During 1991-2000, attempts were made to establish a centrally-coordinated, national framework for mainstream Jewry: this inquiry focused upon Jewish Co...

  7. The language of racism. Textual testimonies of Jewish-Arab hostility in the Israeli Academia

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Heger; Saba Tufaha

    2015-01-01

    The persistent Jewish Arab conflict is present in every aspect of life in Israeli society and its echoes penetrate the everyday reality of higher educational institutions. Feelings of mutual hostility among Arab and Jewish students, faculty and administration are common experiences on Israeli campuses. This article analyzes two textual expressions of this mutual resentment which were circulated in 2011 in Tel Hai College, Israel. One of the texts was produced by Muslim Arab student associatio...

  8. Panic Emigration: Jewish Agricultural Settlements in Bolivia and the Dominican Republic, 1935-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Anthony August

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE THESISPanic Emigration: Jewish Agricultural Settlements in Bolivia and the Dominican Republic, 1935-1960byAnthony August HoffmanMaster of Arts in Latin American StudiesUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2016Professor Stephen Bell, ChairAlthough Jewish agricultural settlements have had a long history in Latin America, particularly in Argentina and Brazil, those founded as a result of the panic emigration out of Europe on the heels of World War II are unique. Never before in...

  9. Yellow Stars and Trouser Inspections : Jewish Testimonies from Hungary, 1920–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Palosuo, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives of individual Jewish experiences of discrimination and genocidal violence in Hungary during the period of 1920–1945. The aim is to increase our knowledge and understanding of the events through an investigation of survivor testimonies concerning anti-Jewish laws and the Holocaust. The main focus is on how survivors perceived the treatment to which they and their fellow Jews were exposed, and how they responded to the persecution they faced. Perceptions and respo...

  10. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    VirenSwami

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dim...

  11. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single di...

  12. Are Holocaust Victims Jewish?:Looking at Photographs in the Imperial War Museum Holocaust Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Holtschneider, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that the representation of Jewish identifications in the permanent Holocaust exhibition in the Imperial War Museum, London, tries to balance the self-representation of Jewish victims with the demands of a perpetrator-led narrative that by necessity characterises Jews in antisemitic terms. The analysis is based on close readings of the exhibition, in particular of the photographic displays, archival sources and interviews with curators. Ultimately, the exhibition is unable to...

  13. The language choices of the Jewish National Enterprise and the Zionist movement in 1897

    OpenAIRE

    Maslennikova, Aleksandra Innokentievna

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the languages of Jews in Europe and Palestine on the one hand, and the Jewish intelligentsia within the Zionist movement on the other. I compare the linguistic preferences of different social strata within European Jewry. The Zionist movement claimed to address the needs and aspirations of the common people. However, in regard to the language issue, Zionism was far from being rooted in everyday practices of the Jewish common people. The major conclusion from this study is ...

  14. Banks and development: Jewish communities in the Italian Renaissance and current economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pascali, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Do banks affect long-term economic performance? I answer this question by relying on an historical development that occurred in Italian cities during the 15th century. A sudden change in the Catholic doctrine had driven the Jews toward money lending. Cities that were hosting Jewish communities developed complex banking institutions for two reasons: first, the Jews were the only people in Italy allowed to lend for a profit; second the Franciscan reaction to Jewish usury led to the creation of ...

  15. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. PMID:25653550

  16. Radicalization of the Settlers’ Youth: Hebron as a Hub for Jewish Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Boucher Boudreau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Hebron has been a hub for radicalization and terrorism throughout the modern history of Israel. This paper examines the past trends of radicalization and terrorism in Hebron and explains why it is still a present and rising ideology within the Jewish communities and organization such as the Hilltop Youth movement. The research first presents the transmission of social memory through memorials and symbolism of the Hebron hills area and then presents the impact of Meir Kahana’s movement. As observed, Hebron slowly grew and spread its population and philosophy to the then new settlement of Kiryat Arba. An exceptionally strong ideology of an extreme form of Judaism grew out of those two small towns. As analyzed—based on an exhaustive ethnographic fieldwork and bibliographic research—this form of fundamentalism and national-religious point of view gave birth to a new uprising of violence and radicalism amongst the settler youth organizations such as the Hilltop Youth movement.

  17. Philosophical Approaches of Religious Jewish Science Teachers Toward the Teaching of 'Controversial' Topics in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff; Dayan, Aliza; Orion, Nir

    2010-07-01

    This research examines the problems that religious Jewish science teachers in Israeli high schools have in coping with science subjects (such as geological time) which conflict with their religious beliefs. We do this by characterizing the philosophical approaches within Judaism that such teachers have adopted for dealing with such controversy. Thus, we surveyed 56 religious teachers using a Likert-type questionnaire developed for this research, as well as interviewed 11 teachers to more deeply probe their approaches. In addition, we surveyed 15 religious scientists, so that we could both contrast their views with our teacher samples as well as to better understand their coping strategies when confronted by scientific topics that challenge their beliefs. Results indicated that no single philosophical approach earned overwhelming support from the teachers or scientists. Instead, most of the subjects relate separately to each source of possible conflict in accordance with the philosophical approach that appears to be the most fruitful for resolving such conflicts. Moreover, both the scientists and the teachers felt less conflicted toward the specific subject of geological time, in comparison to issues connected to creation of the earth and (especially) evolution. The teachers did differ from the scientists in their preference toward philosophical approaches which help them better integrate the domains of science and religion. Based on our findings, we are able to suggest a set of strategies to help teachers overcome their difficulties in teaching 'controversial' science topics to a religiously oriented student population.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes toward Tay-Sachs disease among a college student population.

    OpenAIRE

    Austein, C. F.; Seashore, M. R.; Mick, S S

    1981-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of screening the single Jewish population for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), a questionnaire examining the knowledge of and attitudes toward TSD and genetic screening was sent to 348 Yale University Jewish undergraduates. Of those students responding (63 percent), 78 percent were able to answer general genetic questions correctly while only 1.9 percent could answer specific Tay-Sachs questions correctly. A majority of the students (93.9 percent) indicated some concern abou...

  19. Inscribing Authority: Female Title Bearers in Jewish Inscriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates representations of gender in the material culture of the ancient synagogue. The pertinent data are numerous dedicatory and funerary inscriptions linking individual Jews, men and women, with titles seemingly associated with leadership in Late Antique synagogues (ca. 200–600 CE. Bernadette Brooten’s influential 1982 monograph argued against the prevailing tendency to characterize these titles as indications of power, authority, and responsibility when associated with men but as meaningless flattery when applied to women. She suggests that synagogue titles denote power, authority and responsibility on all title bearers equally, both men and women. I question the continued utility of proffering female title-holders as enumerable examples of powerful women rescued from their forgotten place in history. Using theoretical insights developed by historians Elizabeth Clark and Gabrielle Spiegel, this paper will engage a comparative analysis with the work of Riet van Bremen and Saba Mahmood to develop new methods of conceptualizing women’s authority in early Jewish communities. I propose that viewing women’s synagogue titles as culturally constructed representations allows for a fruitful inquiry into how women’s titles were used by male-dominated synagogue communities in their self-articulation and public presentation of Judaism.

  20. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. PMID:22038841

  1. Antisemitism and Jewish Children and Youth in Australia’s Capital Territory Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ben-Moshe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Issues pertaining to religion and Australian schools have generated a significant amount of controversy and scholarly attention in recent years, and much of the attention in the religion and schools debate has focused on Muslim and non-religious children’s experiences (Erebus International, 2006; Halafoff, 2013. This article, by contrast, explores the manifestations of antisemitism as experienced by Jewish children and youth in Canberra schools. It considers the characteristics of antisemitism; when and why it occurs; its impact on the Jewish children and young people; and also the responses to it by them, the schools and the Jewish community. Based on focus groups with the Jewish students and their parents, the study reveals that antisemitism is common in Canberra schools, as almost all Jewish children and youth in this study have experienced it. The findings from this study suggest that there is a need for more anti-racism education. Specifically there is an urgent need for educational intervention about antisemitism, alongside education about religions and beliefs in general, to counter antisemitism more effectively and religious discrimination more broadly in Australian schools.

  2. Jewish Survivors. Drei Publikationen über das Überleben Jewish Survivors. Three Publications on Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kittel

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Drei Bücher aus den USA werden vorgestellt, die sich mit den Erinnerungen und Erzählungen jüdischer Überlebender und dem Leben nach dem Überleben befassen. Alle drei Autoren haben Interviews mit Überlebenden durchgeführt. Jede der Publikationen trägt der Individualität der Erfahrungen der Überlebenden und der Unbeschreibbarkeit ihrer Erlebnisse heute Rechnung. Die Autoren gehen mit unterschiedlichem Blickwinkel an die erzählten Erinnerungen heran: William Helmreich ist Soziologe, Henry Greenspan ist Psychologe und Theater-Schriftsteller, der in der Soziologie lehrt, Jared Stark kommt von der Literaturwissenschaft.Three US-American publications are being discussed, all of them dealing with the memories and narratives of Jewish survivors and their lives after their rescue. All three authors have interviewed survivors and take into account their individual experiences and the ultimate impossibility of describing those experiences. Every author approaches the subject from a different point of view: William Helmreich is a sociologist, Henry Greenspan a consulting psychologist and playwright who also teaches sociology, while Jared’s Stark’s field is American literature.

  3. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Effects of Political Violence: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Israeli Jewish and Arab Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury

    2012-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…

  4. A Culturally Appropriate School Wellness Initiative: Results of a 2-Year Pilot Intervention in 2 Jewish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Maureen R.; Whitman, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing number of school-based interventions designed to reduce childhood obesity or otherwise promote health, no models or materials were found for Jewish schools. The current study describes an effort within a Jewish school system in Chicago to create, implement, and evaluate a school-based intervention tailored to the…

  5. A man of his country and his time: Jewish influences on Lev Semionovich Vygotsky's world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik-Friedgut, Bella; Friedgut, Theodore H

    2008-02-01

    Lev Semionovich Vygotsky created the cultural-historical school of psychology, yet all too few of those writing about his work take into account the family, education, and cultural tradition from which he came. The authors contend that the Jewish nature of these elements was of some importance in forming his personality and his consciousness. The 1st part of the article traces his early upbringing, describes the Jewishness of his environment, notes 3 instances in which his "otherness" was imprinted on his consciousness, and points to the sources of his determination to forge a harmonious synthesis with his environment. The 2nd part examines his writings, both earlier journalistic and mature psychological, and points to evidence of the influence of his Jewish upbringing and environment on his work. PMID:19048956

  6. Quelques conceptions juives de l’individu Some Jewish Conceptions of the Individual

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    Alessandro Guetta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Is there a Jewish conception of the individual subject? The issue is quite problematic, for several reasons: 1 it is difficult to speak of Judaism in a monolithic manner, because Judaism is a multifaceted reality, varying according to different epochs and places, to the point that we should speak of “Judaisms”, in the plural; 2 if the question of the individual subject is connected to the vision that the Western (meaning, European, essentially Christian culture has constructed, Judaism can hardly be defined as “Occidental” or “Oriental”. After a short analysis of these two points, we present the conceptions of the individual subject as developed by two major Jewish thinkers of the twentieth century: Martin Buber (1878-1965 and Erich Fromm (1900-1980. Both based their visions on traditional Jewish sources (Bible, Talmud but attributed them a universal value.

  7. Premigration ethnic and national identities: Jewish adolescents planning emigration from Russia and Ukraine to Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The ethnic and national identities of Jewish high-school adolescents planning emigration from Russia and Ukraine to Israel were investigated about six months before their emigration. The national identities of adolescent emigrants (n = 243) were compared with those of non-emigrant Russian and Ukrainian adolescents (n = 740). The emigrants' attitude to their country of origin was less positive and their identification with Russians and Ukrainians was weaker as compared with the non-emigrant adolescents. In addition, the attitude of the emigrants towards Israel was more positive than their attitude to Russia or Ukraine. Finally, the emigrants' strongest identification was with the Jewish people, followed by identification with Israelis, while their weakest identification was with Russians and Ukrainians. Israeli and Jewish identities of the emigrant adolescents were positively correlated, and they were independent of the Russian and Ukrainian identities. Perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with the emigrants' attitude to Russia or Ukraine, and it was positively correlated with the emigrants' identification with Israelis and with the Jewish people. Jewish ethnicity was correlated with identification with Jewish people; however, it was not correlated with any component of the Israeli or Russian/Ukrainian identities. The study results indicate that in the premigration period emigrants form a multidimensional system of ethnic and national identities, which reflects their partial detachment from their homeland and affiliation with the country of provisional immigration. This premigration identity system may be termed "anticipatory" (cf. Merton, 1968), because it is not based on real contact with the country of provisional immigration, but rather on the emigrants' expectations. On the other hand, the premigration identities are reactive, in the sense that they reflect the emigrants' reaction to the perceived discrimination they experience in their

  8. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; Poverprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; Poverprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  9. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2012-01-01

    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  10. Jewish Family and Children's Services: a pioneering human service organization (1850-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Jewish Family and Children's Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties is a pioneering nonprofit human service organization that has delivered services for 157 years. Over the course of its history, the organization has transformed itself from an all-volunteer agency delivering aid to immigrant families during the Gold Rush era to a $30 million nonprofit human service organization offering a full-range of services to adults, children, and families. The history of Jewish Family and Children's Services sheds light on the importance of strong leadership, strategic planning, external relationships, and strong donor support. PMID:21416438

  11. The centrality of guilt: working with ultra-orthodox Jewish patients in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Esther

    2014-09-01

    The ultra-orthodox Jewish (Haredi) community in Israel is characterized by strict observance of the requirements of orthodox Jewish life. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy within this community brings us into contact with guilt as a central emotion throughout the therapeutic process. The exposure to new concepts, ways of thought and a previously unknown space, together with increased awareness of internal wishes and drives, are experienced as forbidden areas that arouse an awakening of conscience and a sense of guilt. The author's cases illustrate these conflicts. PMID:25117784

  12. Comparison of the Jewish and Roma holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia during World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Jarolinová, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the bachelor thesis is to compare the Jewish and Roma holocaust during the Second World War. The first part of the work serves as an introduction to the political career of Adolf Hitler who rendered racism a national ideology and the anti-Jewish and anti-Roma measures that followed his appointment to the office, first in Germany and later in all the annexed territories. The main part is devoted to the description of preparation, execution and subsequent acknowledgement o...

  13. Heterozygote screening for Tay-Sachs disease: past successes and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natowicz, M R; Prence, E M

    1996-12-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A activity. Mass screening for TSD heterozygotes has been routine in the Ashkenazi Jewish population since the early 1970s. Recent advances in the molecular genetics and epidemiology of TSD require a reevaluation of heterozygote screening practices. The use of DNA-based analyses for a panel of common mutations detects about 98% of TSD mutations found in the Ashkenazi Jews and about 50% of TSD mutations found in the general non-Jewish population; enzyme-based analysis has nearly 100% sensitivity for all populations. We recommend 1) that members of several ethnic groups and persons with a family history consistent with TSD be offered testing for TSD heterozygosity and 2) that assays of enzyme activity be used as the primary screening tool, with mutation analysis used as an adjunct tool in certain cases. PMID:9018448

  14. Once Upon a Time: How Jewish Children's Stories Impact Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitcher, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Research studies demonstrate the efficacy of the story-sharing experience on children's moral development. This article explores how the triadic relationship between a Jewish children's story, the child, and the parent storyteller can impact the youngster's moral growth. Using examples from two leading projects in Jewish…

  15. Digital Dreams: The Potential in a Pile of Old Jewish Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Rebecca; Taylor, Laurie; Santamaria-Wheeler, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Judaica at the University of Florida, the Price Library launched the first stage of a project to digitize an important, special collection of anniversary editions of Jewish newspapers from around the world. This article provides the history of the collection, need for…

  16. Empire, Nationalism and the Jewish Question: Victor Adler and Otto Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Maderthaner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the life and thought of two important figures in the history of Austrian socialism—Victor Adler and Otto Bauer—as a prism through which to examine the complex relationship between German nationalism, the Jewish Question and pro-Habsburgism among the early leadership of the Austrian Social Democratic Party.

  17. Individualism, Nationalism, and Universalism: The Educational Ideals of Mordecai M. Kaplan's Philosophy of Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ari

    2008-01-01

    This article will examine educational ideals by exploring the relation between the individual, the collective, and humanity in Kaplan's Jewish and educational philosophy. Generally the goals of individualism, nationalism, and universalism are seen as mutually exclusive. By contrast, Kaplan argues for the symbiotic relationship between…

  18. Understanding Anti-Semitism and Its Impact: A New Framework for Conceptualizing Jewish Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald-Dennis, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    While a great deal of research has been done on identity development around awareness of racism and heterosexism, little has been conducted on understanding how Jews come to make sense of the impact of anti-Semitism (anti-Jewish oppression) on their lives. This article, based on my qualitative dissertation (MacDonald-Dennis, 2005) that explores…

  19. Jews and mental illness: medical metaphors, anti-semitism, and the Jewish response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S L

    1984-04-01

    The idea that Jews were prone to a specific set of illnesses is as old as the Middle Ages. In the nineteenth century the view that the Jew was especially prone to developing mental illnesses became an accepted part of medical discourse. Jewish doctors, too, believed this and had to evolve a means of dealing with their own potential madness. PMID:6373911

  20. Forms and Patterns of Parent Participation at a Jewish and Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Renee Rubin

    2012-01-01

    Given that all schools solicit parent participation, an important question is whether and how this varies by school. I draw on observation and interviews with parents, teachers, and administrators at a Jewish day school and Catholic school to identify forms and patterns of participation. I found that communicating and volunteering were similar at…

  1. Culture and Character Education in a Jewish Day School: A Case Study of Life and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso, Calvin G.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses how to teach character comprehensively by studying ways a school's concurrent curricula (the official curriculum, the operational curriculum, the extra curriculum, and the hidden curriculum) can be used to teach character to students. A single case study analyzes the curriculum at a Jewish day school by examining school…

  2. The Guide with the Tourist Gaze: Jewish Heritage Travel to Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon Kangisser

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, travel to Poland for youth and young adults has become increasingly popular, to the extent that it is even seen as a "rite of passage" for members of many Jewish communities. For these groups, the accompanying guides or educators are central to their educational experience. Based on a series of interviews…

  3. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  4. Significance of a Bar/Bat Mitzvah Ceremony for Parents of Jewish Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Gila; Reiter, Shunit

    2004-01-01

    In the Jewish religion, a bar or bat mitzvah ceremony is the rite of passage from childhood towards adulthood. Twenty-one youngsters who attended two special education schools in Israel participated in group bar/bat mitzvah ceremonies. Parents were interviewed both before the learning process and after the ceremony. Findings showed that the…

  5. Shalom. Salaam. Peace Child Uses Theatre To Bring Israeli Arab and Jewish Teenagers Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ezra

    2003-01-01

    Describes a drama written by students that helps them achieve an understanding and an empathy that eludes most of the inhabitants of Israel. Discusses how Arab and Jewish students collaborate to compose their drama. Concludes that at its best, the teenage participants in Peace Child Israel find that delicate balance point between using theatre to…

  6. Tradition versus Egalitarianism in the Thinking of Jewish-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charme, Stuart Z.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes results from interviews with Jewish teenagers about the tension between adherence to tradition and commitment to egalitarianism in relation to issues like women in the rabbinate, women wearing ritual garments like "kipot" and "talitot", and gender separation at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. For many teens, egalitarian…

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Style among Jewish and Arab Mothers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Parental modeling of behavior has long been considered a major socialization process for children. In this piece, the author explores how parenting behavior is passed from one generation to the next, focusing on parenting styles among Jewish and Muslim mothers in Israel. The results indicate that young mothers tend to reproduce their parents'…

  8. Religion as a Source of Stress, Coping, and Identity among Jewish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Pargament, Kenneth I.; Boxer, Paul; Tarakeshwar, Nalini

    This study examined the degree to which religion is perceived as a source of stress and as a coping resource among Jewish students. Subjects, 75 sixth- through eighth-grade students in a Midwestern city, completed a survey in Sunday school. Twenty of the students also responded to a structured interview about their stressors and coping strategies.…

  9. No Religion Is an Island: Teaching World Religions to Adolescents in a Jewish Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    What is the place of teaching about other world religions in a Jewish educational curriculum for adolescents? This article explores a course in world religions that has been taught at the Genesis Program at Brandeis University since 2001. Based on a participant observational study during 2002 and 2012, the author traces how the teachers construct…

  10. Experiential Learning of History through Youth Journeys to Poland: Israeli Jewish Youth and the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Shlomo; Lev, Michal

    2007-01-01

    National history and collective memory and their impact on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes are the topic of this article. A follow-up study, it examines the long-term impact of a journey to historical monuments. Israeli Jewish high-school students have the option of experiential study, visiting cities and death camps in Poland. The first…

  11. Attitudes and Psycholinguistic Aspects of First Language Maintenance among Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the social attitudes toward the Hebrew language and Israeli society and the academic skills in Russian and Hebrew of 60 Russian-Jewish immigrant high school students in Northern Israel. Addresses the linguistic social context in Israel and provides a literature review. Presents and discusses the results. Includes references. (CMK)

  12. Reshaping Conflicts through School Ceremonial Events in Israeli Palestinian-Jewish Coeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Describes a joint Hanukkah/Id'l Fitter/Christmas celebration to examine Arab-Jewish coeducation aimed at encouraging students to take pride in their cultural heritage while experiencing and respecting others' heritages. Interviews with students, parents, teachers, and administrators indicated that the ritual highlighted alternative social…

  13. Neve Shalom/Wahat Al-Salam: A Jewish-Arab School for Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerverger, Grace

    1998-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews and participant observation, the paper explores the social and psychological dimensions of a peace-education program for Jewish and Arab students in a small Israeli village. The program stressed conflict resolution and awareness of the need to live together in everyday circumstances while maintaining important…

  14. Making Sense of Social Justice in Education: Jewish and Arab Leaders' Perspectives in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid Husny; Oplatka, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to understand the way in which high school principals' perceptions of social justice (SJ) are implemented in their daily educational work. A qualitative study employed in-depth semi-structured interviews to collect the narratives of two high school principals in Israel--one Arab-Muslim and one Jewish. The interview transcripts…

  15. In Search of the Orange Blossom and the Olive Branch: Reflections on Latin American Jewish Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosin, Marjorie

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on the traditions of Jewish Latin American literature, with its roots in the culture of Sephardic Jews who left Europe. One of the central themes of this literature, which is frequently written in the traditional Judeo-Spanish "ladino," is migration. (SLD)

  16. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy the risk of dying of breast cancer is reduced by 90%, the risk of dying of ovarian cancer is reduced by 95%, and the risk of dying of any cause is reduced by 77%. The risk of breast cancer is further reduced by prophylactic mastectomy. Prophylactic oophorectomy and prophylactic mastectomy pose several challenges within Jewish law that call into question the permissibility of surgery, including mutilation of a healthy organ, termination of fertility, self-wounding, and castration. A growing number of Jewish legal scholars have found grounds to permit prophylactic surgery among BRCA carriers, with some even obligating prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy. Conclusion: Current data suggest a significant reduction in mortality from prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in BRCA carriers. While mutilation of healthy organs is intrinsically forbidden in Jewish law, the ability to preserve human life may contravene and even mandate prophylactic surgery.

  17. Stuck in the Middle with Jews: Religious Privilege and Jewish Campus Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have examined religious privilege in society and on campus, evidencing the privileged place Christianity generally enjoys and the marginalization that Jews often encounter, regardless of the school they attend. That said, in considering the Jewish higher education experience, something else is at play here. When juxtaposed with…

  18. Mucolipidosis Type IV: A Subtle Pediatric Neurodegenerative Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Geer, Joseph S.; Skinner, Steve A.; Goldin, Ehud; Holden, Kenton R.

    2010-01-01

    The mucolipidoses are a heterogenous group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders. Mucolipidosis type IV is rare, is seen predominantly in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and usually presents with global neurodevelopmental delays in infancy, subtle corneal opacifications or clouding, and very slowly progressive neurodegeneration over many years. Elevation of serum gastrin is reported while x-rays of bone and joints and lysosomal studies are normal. We report two...

  19. Primer System for Single Cell Detection of Double Mutation for Tay-Sachs Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ming Cheng; Drury, Kenneth C.; Kipersztok, Simon; Zheng, Wenrong; Williams, R. Stan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Nearly 100% of infantile Tay-Sachs disease isproduced by two mutations occurring in the alpha chain ofthe lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HEXA)in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Although others havedescribed primer systems used to amplify both sitessimultaneously, few discuss the allele dropout problems inherent inthis test. Our goal was to construct a more robust testenabling stronger signal generation for single cellpreimplantation genetic diagnosis and to investigat...

  20. IKAP expression levels modulate disease severity in a mouse model of familial dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Paula; Alli, Shanta; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Dragatsis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) encompass a group of genetically inherited disorders characterized by sensory and autonomic dysfunctions. Familial dysautonomia (FD), also known as HSAN type III, is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. The disease is caused by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous systems and is inevitably fatal, with only 50% of patients reachi...

  1. Exclusion of familial dysautonomia from more than 60% of the genome.

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenfeld, A; Axelrod, F. B.; Trofatter, J A; Maayan, C; Lucente, D E; Slaugenhaupt, S A; Liebert, C B; Ozelius, L J; Haines, J. L.; Breakefield, X O

    1993-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a recessive neurological disorder that affects the development of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. The gene defect appears to be limited to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, where the carrier frequency is 1 in 30. One hundred and ninety-one marker loci representing all autosomes were tested for linkage with the FD genetic defect in 23 families. A combination of pairwise and multipoint analyses excluded the FD gene from at least 60% of the autosomal genome...

  2. Screening Jews and genes: a consideration of the ethics of genetic screening within the Jewish community: challenges and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M

    1999-01-01

    Screening for genetic disorders, particularly Tay-Sachs Disease, has been traditionally welcome by the Jewish community. I review the history of genetic screening among Jews and the views from the Jewish tradition on the subject, and then discuss ethical challenges of screening and the impact of historical memories upon future acceptance of screening programs. Some rational principles to guide future design of genetic screening programs among Jews are proposed. PMID:10464669

  3. In God's Name: Jewish Religious and Traditional Peace and Human Rights Movements in Israel and in the Occupied Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana Calabrese

    2013-01-01

    The peace-building activities of several dozens peace and human rights activists from Israeli-Jewish religious and traditional milieus has not received enough attention either from the Israeli and international media or in the academia. Actually, following the Six-day war and the beginning of the Israeli military occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, a certain number of Orthodox Israelis committed to peace and justice founded a Jewish religious peace movement called ‘Oz Ve Shalom’ (...

  4. Pride and prejudice: using ethnic-sounding names and inter-ethnic marriages to identify labor market discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Dror; Rubinstein, Yona

    2012-01-01

    We use non-random sorting into interethnic marriage and salient differences between Sephardic and Ashkenazi surnames to evaluate the causal impact of Sephardic affiliation on wages. Using the 1995 Israeli Census, we estimate the effect of a Sephardic affiliation on wages. We first compare the wages of Israeli Jewish males born to Sephardic fathers and Ashkenazi mothers (SA), who are more likely to carry a Sephardic surname, with the wages of Israeli Jewish males born to Ashkenazi fathers and ...

  5. Travel- and Community-Based Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Shigella sonnei Lineage among International Orthodox Jewish Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate S; Dallman, Timothy J; Behar, Adi; Weill, François-Xavier; Gouali, Malika; Sobel, Jeremy; Fookes, Maria; Valinsky, Lea; Gal-Mor, Ohad; Connor, Thomas R; Nissan, Israel; Bertrand, Sophie; Parkhill, Julian; Jenkins, Claire; Cohen, Dani; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-09-01

    Shigellae are sensitive indicator species for studying trends in the international transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Orthodox Jewish communities (OJCs) are a known risk group for shigellosis; Shigella sonnei is cyclically epidemic in OJCs in Israel, and sporadic outbreaks occur in OJCs elsewhere. We generated whole-genome sequences for 437 isolates of S. sonnei from OJCs and non-OJCs collected over 22 years in Europe (the United Kingdom, France, and Belgium), the United States, Canada, and Israel and analyzed these within a known global genomic context. Through phylogenetic and genomic analysis, we showed that strains from outbreaks in OJCs outside of Israel are distinct from strains in the general population and relate to a single multidrug-resistant sublineage of S. sonnei that prevails in Israel. Further Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain emerged approximately 30 years ago, demonstrating the speed at which antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens can spread widely through geographically dispersed, but internationally connected, communities. PMID:27532625

  6. Religious Coping Strategies and Mental Health Among Religious Jewish Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men. PMID:26324183

  7. Reconstructing Jewish Identity on the Foundations of Hellenistic History: Azariah de' Rossi's Me'or 'Enayim in Late 16th Century Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg-Wohl, David Michael

    2014-01-01

    AbstractReconstructing Jewish Identity on the Foundations of Hellenistic History:Azariah de' Rossi's Me'or `Enayim in Late 16th Century Northern ItalybyDavid Michael Rosenberg-WohlDoctor of Philosophy in Jewish Studiesandthe Graduate Theological UnionProfessor Erich S. Gruen, ChairMe'or `Enayim is conventionally considered to be early modern Jewish history. Recent scholarship tends to consider the work Renaissance historiography, Counter-Reformation apology or some combination of the two. The...

  8. Reframing Race And Jewish/Christian Relations In The Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dorothy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates Jewish-Christian difference in the constantly shifting terrain of thirteenth-century medieval England. It reframes this difference in relation to theories of embodiment, feminist materialism, and entanglement theory. To conceptualize how Jews can be marked by race vis-à-vis the body, the article uses the example of Christian Hebraists discussing the Hebrew alphabet and its place in thirteenth-century English bilingual manuscripts.

  9. Jewish terrorist activities and the British government in Palestine, 1939-1947

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    From 1939 to 1947 two Jewish terrorist organizations, the Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Lohamei Herut Israel (known to Jews by its Hebrew acronym, Lehi, and to the British as "The Stern Gang") challenged Britain's rule over Palestine. Those eight years began with the publication of the White Paper in May 1939 and ended in September 1947 with the decision taken by the British Government to surrender its League of Nations Mandate and withdraw from Palestine. This thesis examine...

  10. Club Theory and The Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Community (in Hebrew)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Rosenberg

    2001-01-01

    This paper applies club theory to the behavior of the ultra-orthodox Jewish community in Israel by using different assumptions than those that have been employed by Berman (1998, 2000). Berman's model explains the extraordinarily length of the period years that ultra-orthodox Jews devote to studying in yeshiva (and thereby do not enter the labor force). He views this as sacrifice (commitment) required by the community in order to prevent outsiders from free riding on the highly subsidized ser...

  11. Mos Christianorum: The Roman Discourse of Exemplarity and the Jewish and Christian Language of Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Petitfils, James Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prompted by recent research on "example" in the field of Classics, this dissertation sets out to better understand the various ways in which Jewish and Christian authors writing, for the most part, in the Imperial west participated in the ubiquitous Roman discourse of exemplarity as they contended for what they understood to be native ancestral leadership ideals. I first introduce the form, function, and broad popularity of the Roman discourse of exemplarity (chapter 1), and propose five prev...

  12. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prop...

  13. Comparative Religion: Correspondences Between Jewish Mysticism and Indian Religion - Philosophy. Some Significant Relations to Science

    OpenAIRE

    Randrup, Dr. Axel; Bagchi, Dr. Tista

    2006-01-01

    In the literature we have found correspondence of several significant traits of Jewish mysticism with traits of Buddhism and other systems of Indian religion-philosophy. Among the corresponding traits is the fundamental idea of emptiness or nothingness, shuunyataa in Sanskrit, ayin in Hebrew. Also corresponding are attempts to harmonize the idea and experience of emptiness with fullness, and with the experience of the secular world with its many things and concepts. We list eight significant ...

  14. THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDYING OF RADON INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION IN THE JEWISH AUTONOMOUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Surits

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents the results of radon indoor air concentration estimations for dwellings and public buildings of the Jewish Autonomous region in 2000–2011. More than 15 000 measurements were carried out in all areas of the region during the entire observation period. Areas with an enhanced radon content in indoor air were revealed. The maximum values are registered in Obluchensky area, in separate buildings reaching 2 000 Bq/m3.

  15. Middle-class Gothenburg, Jewish Participation, and the Limits of Liberal Tolerance 1870-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Leiska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the extent and conditions of Jewish participation in Swedish society c. 1870-1900. Whereas earlier research on Jewish history in Sweden had pictured this period as a time of peaceful integration, recent studies have stressed the continuities of cultural representations of ‘the Jew’ as essentially different from ‘the Swede’. Taking the city of Gothenburg as an example, this article offers a new approach by discussing the role of conflicting national and urban elements within liberal self-identification. With regard to urban identities, attitudes of toleration and religious pluralism went side by side with the liberal representation of Gothenburg as being different – different from its rural hinterland, but also from the capital Stockholm. These images of Gothenburg as being exceptionally progressive and open-minded facilitated Jewish participation in the city’s communal politics and associational life. On a national level, however, the ambiguities of Swedish liberal thinking persisted: An increasingly politicised discussion about national identity from the 1880s onwards reveals that the protagonists of Gothenburg liberalism had far greater difficulties in including Jews into their vision of the Swedish nation than the imagined liberties of Gothenburg city culture would suggest.

  16. Erich Langer: the last Jewish dermatologist in Nazi Berlin. 532-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hoenig, Leonard J; Plewig, Gerd; Kohl, Peter K

    2014-01-01

    Nazi anti-Semitism had a considerable impact on dermatology during the period 1933 to 1945. Before World War II, dermatology in German-speaking lands was at the forefront of medicine, and about 25% of the dermatologists were Jewish. Many perished during the Holocaust; others emigrated from Germany and played a major role in advancing dermatology in their new homes, especially in the United States. Erich Langer (1891-1957) was almost unique, because he survived the entire period in Berlin. Langer had been chief of dermatology at Berlin-Britz, a large city hospital, before 1933 but was discharged almost immediately after the Nazi takeover because of his Jewish roots. In June 1945 he returned to his old department and resumed charge. He became one of the key figures in rebuilding German dermatology in the immediate postwar years. He served as first chair of dermatology at the new Free University in Berlin, started two journals, and wrote several books. Until recently, very little was known about Erich Langer's mysterious tale of survival and how he evaded Nazi roundups. Fortunately, we have discovered considerable archival material that has allowed us to piece together, for the first time, a detailed account of Langer's courageous and remarkable story as the last Jewish dermatologist inNazi Berlin. PMID:25144942

  17. Spirituality, depression, and loneliness among Jewish seniors residing in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mychal B; Newman, Avraham; Weaver, Andrew J; Siritsky, Nadia; Linderblatt, Chaim; Flannelly, Kevin J; Naditch, Beth; VandeCreek, Larry

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the results of research that examined a randomized group of 118 Jewish seniors who were clients of one of three Jewish social service agencies in New York City. They were interviewed by four Clinical Pastoral Education residents at the Jewish Institute for Pastoral Care. During the interview, participants were asked to respond to the questions contained in the Brief Depression Scale, Version 3 of the UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the Index of Core Spiritual Experience--INSPIRIT. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the depression and loneliness scores, r(116) = .56, p higher among women, among people who had physical impairments and those who had been victims of Nazi persecution. Depression and loneliness were inversely related to participants' ability to venture out of their house and to their relationship with their families. Having a sense of meaning or purpose in life was also inversely related to depression and loneliness. Spirituality tended to be higher among women, those participants, with more years of religious education, and those with physical impairments, but only the gender effect was statistically significant. PMID:14579632

  18. [Self endangerment to save life--competing Jewish legal and moral obligations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Wygoda, Michael; Rosenzweig, Joshua P; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-11-01

    The obligation to help others often involves personal risk. Consequently, the scope and boundaries of this obligation can present a complex dilemma, which has practical and moral implications, even in the world of medicine. In Jewish medical ethics, the dilemma stems from a confrontation between the duty to help others according to the biblical commandment: "Do not stand idly by your fellow's blood" on the one hand, and between the right and duty of man to defend himself, which is anchored in Jewish law. This article surveys the sources of this quandary in Jewish texts throughout the ages such as the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, and responsa literature in various contexts. The discussion highlights the essential difference between the formal demands of the law, which protects human rights of self-preservation, and the moral requirement to help others even if it may include personal risk. The sources suggest distinguishing between various levels of risk ranging from high-risk to reasonable or low risk. In this way, the classic sources, provide the foundation and the tools for grappling with modern contemporary Halachic questions such as organ transplantation, and generate a Torah value-based framework to deal with new situations that may arise in the future. It is critical to assess the level of risk and the chances for success, along with other subjective considerations, in order to ensure the optimal ethical course of action. PMID:25563020

  19. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P anemia were iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Two types of anemia were proportionally higher among Jewish women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P deficiency (3.3 vs. 2.2 %, P > 0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.295, P anemia, and adherence to treatment for anemia is very low in both groups. These findings should be addressed in a national program to reduce health inequalities. PMID:26211919

  20. The language of racism. Textual testimonies of Jewish-Arab hostility in the Israeli Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Heger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The persistent Jewish Arab conflict is present in every aspect of life in Israeli society and its echoes penetrate the everyday reality of higher educational institutions. Feelings of mutual hostility among Arab and Jewish students, faculty and administration are common experiences on Israeli campuses. This article analyzes two textual expressions of this mutual resentment which were circulated in 2011 in Tel Hai College, Israel. One of the texts was produced by Muslim Arab student association and the other by a Zionist Jewish organization. Both groups are present on every campus in Israel. Despite the significant difference of the political location occupied by each organization in the Israeli power structure, we argue that these texts share similar attitudes to the conflict and parallel operational strategies. The paper demonstrates the attempts by these texts to encourage the mutual hostility between Jews and Arabs by employing racist and violent discourse. The article tries to explain the silence of the college administration and faculty in the face of these racist acts, subsequently outlining a vision of a responsible academia which will banish any acts of racism.

  1. Mind/Body, Jewish/Russian: Identity Fragmentation in Isaac Babel's "Story of My Dovecote"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Yael Jacobowitz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will examine the child-protagonist's identity fragmentation through the original Russian text. I argue that this fragmentation is embodied in three ways. First, through conflicting images and interpretations of Jewish and Russian bodies and intellects, the boy's identity is broken up into mind/body and Jewish/Russian oppositions. These dichotomies gain practical meaning as he learns that the Jewish body, as seen by Russians, renders Jews powerless in Russian society. Second, this fragmentation is exhibited by associations between the narrator and other characters, achieved by the repetition of words and phrases to describe seemingly opposite individuals. These associations effectively splinter the boy's identity into multiple characters. Third, the boy's identity fragmentation is manifested by the text's two narrators, a primary adult-narrator and a child-narrator. The relationship between these two narrators adds another layer of fragmentation to the text, as the primary narrator both separates himself from and identifies with the child-narrator.

  2. What is Jewish (If Anything about Isaiah Berlin’s Philosophy?

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    Arie M. Dubnov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two central aims: First, to reappraise Isaiah Berlin’s political thought in a historically contextualized way, and in particular: to pay attention to a central conceptual tensions which animates it between, on the one hand, his famous definition of liberalism as resting on a negative concept of liberty and, on the other, his defense of cultural nationalism in general and Zionism in particular. Second, to see what do we gain and what do we lose by dubbing his philosophy Jewish. The discussion will proceed as follows: after describing the conceptual tension (Section 1, I will examine Berlin’s discussion of nationalism and explain why comparisons between him and Hans Kohn as well as communitarian interpretations of him are incomplete and have limited merit. I will continue with a brief discussion of Berlin’s Jewishness and Zionism (Section 3 and explain why I define this position “Diaspora Zionism”. The two concluding sections will discuss Berlin’s place within a larger Cold War liberal discourse (Section 5 and why I find it problematic to see his political writings as part of a Jewish political tradition (Section 6.

  3. “Rather More than One-Third Had No Jewish Blood”: American Progressivism and German-Jewish Cosmopolitanism at the New School for Social Research, 1933–1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bessner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The New School for Social Research’s University in Exile accepted more German and European exiled intellectuals than any other American institution of higher education. This paper argues that transnational, cosmopolitan ideological and interest-based affinities shared by left-leaning American progressives and German-Jewish intellectuals enabled the predominantly Jewish University in Exile to become a vibrant intellectual space accepted by the community of largely anti-Semitic American academics. These affinities also illuminate why, despite the fact that the émigrés’ exile was in large part the result of National Socialist hatred of Jews, Alvin Johnson (the founder of the University in Exile and the faculty members that comprised it seldom discussed the University’s Jewish demographics. The Jewish faculty members ignored the relationship between their ethnicity and exile because to focus on it would have been to admit that the cosmopolitan project they had embraced in Central Europe had failed. Johnson ignored the faculty’s Jewish heritage for two reasons. First, he endorsed a cosmopolitan American nationalism. Second, he understood that the generally anti-Semitic community of American academics would have rejected the University in Exile if he stressed the faculty’s Jewishness. In ignoring the University in Exile’s Jewish demographics, Johnson and the University’s faculty successfully adhered to a strategy designed to foster the exiles’ entrance into the American intellectual community. Thus, while cosmopolitanism failed in Germany and Central Europe, the exiles’ later influence on the American academy indicates that it partially succeeded in the United States.

  4. Differences in prevalence of parasites in stool samples between three distinct ethnic pediatric populations in southern Israel, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Greenberg, David

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing populations. At least three pediatric populations reside in southern Israel: the Bedouin population, the general Jewish population and Jewish children of Ethiopian origin. Our aim was to compare intestinal parasite prevalence between the three pediatric populations in southern Israel. This is a retrospective, laboratory, population-based surveillance. Most ova and parasite (O&P) tests in southern Israel (hospital and community obtained) are performed by the hospital parasitology laboratory. All pediatric stool O&P tests examined by the hospital laboratory between 2007 and 2011 were included. Overall, 45,978 samples were examined; 27,354, 16,969 and 1655 from Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. 16,317 parasites were identified in 12,325 (26.8%) positive samples. Total prevalences were 36%, 11% and 46% for Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba species were the most common parasites identified, constituting ≥80% of positive samples in all groups. Hymenolepis nana was rarely identified in non-Ethiopian Jewish children (0.04% of isolates compared with 2.6% and 0.5% in Bedouin and Ethiopian children, respectively). Other helminths, excluding H. nana and Enterobius vermicularis, were identified almost exclusively in Ethiopian children ≥5years of age. In conclusion, the Bedouin and Ethiopian children were characterized by higher parasite prevalence in stool, compared with the non-Ethiopian Jewish children, probably reflecting higher intestinal parasitic disease rates. Certain helminthic infections were identified almost exclusively in the Ethiopian children. These differences may be associated with lifestyle differences between the three populations. PMID:24201297

  5. "Like a Distant Cousin": Bi-Cultural Negotiation as Key Perspective in Understanding the Evolving Relationship of Future Reform Rabbis with Israel and the Jewish People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat-Barkan, Michal; Grant, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the impact of a year studying in Israel on Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR) rabbinical students' emotional connection toward and knowledge about the State of Israel and the Jewish People. We want to better understand the students' beliefs, ideas, and behaviors that emerge from their experience…

  6. Confronting the Languages of Statehood: Theoretical and Historical Frameworks for the Analysis of the Multilingual Identity of the Russian Jewish Intelligensia in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheimets, Nina G.; Epstein, Alek D.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews sociological analysis of the transformation of the link between language and identity among Soviet Jewish immigrants in Israel, focusing on their common desire for Russian language maintenance after their immigration to Israel. Argues that although the immigrants acquire fast, the former Jewish intelligensia's perception of the dominant…

  7. ‘Playing Deaf’: Jewish Women at the Medical Missions of East London, 1880–1920s

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    Ellen Ross

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations whose fundamentalist eschatology inspired them to attempt to convert Jews to Christianity had existed from early in the nineteenth century, but with the intensification of Jewish emigration to Britain in the 1880s dozens opened stations in East London. Historians today correctly continue to stress the insult and annoyance the missionaries represented to the struggling Jewish immigrants. This essay focuses on the specialized medical missions - at least a dozen, at times more - attached to the major East London missionary organizations, and designed to exchange good health care (for free for a hearing of the ‘Gospel truth’. These have received less attention from historians than have the general missions, though they proved extremely popular with poor Jews, so much so that many urged the Jewish Board of Guardians to provide rival dispensaries. This study thus places the medical missions within the extensive health care systems of the district. ‘Playing Deaf’ also seeks to position the medical missions within Jewish immigrant social and family life. Mission dispensaries were among the several Christian spaces that Jewish women would have to negotiate as they tried to organize work and family life in a state with an established Protestant church, so women’s behaviour in mission spaces may exemplify other kinds of interactions with the Christian world. Jewish mothers used the missions’ free doctors and nurses to stretch their household budgets, so the majority of patients were women and children - yet women as a group were less susceptible to conversionist rhetoric than men, especially single men. A major primary source for this study is the missionary press, with its extensive coverage of the largest of the medical missions, the Mildmay Medical Mission to the Jews. Mildmay’s reports depict encounters inside the medical missions and provide insight into the subjective lives of the mission doctors, whose efforts to

  8. [Mementos of the Berlin-Jewish ophthalmologist Oskar Fehr (1871-1959)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, M; Holubar, K

    1999-06-18

    Anti-Semitism and National Socialism destroyed the existence of many individuals. Their names and biographies disappeared into oblivion. The bequest of ophthalmo--historical papers by Ms. Jutta Lauber, daughter of the Austrian ophthalmologist Hans Lauber (1876-1952), allowed us to trace the fate of the Jewish ophthalmologist Oskar Fehr (1871-1959). In the first decades of the 20th century Oskar Fehr was an internationally renowned ophthalmic surgeon and pathologist. Disregarding political adversities and ignoring personal losses and hardships he dedicated his life to the service of human health. PMID:10420508

  9. Principles and concepts of brain death and organ donation: the Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Z H; Rappaport, I T

    1999-01-01

    The harvesting of organs for transplantation is dependent on a stringent definition of brain death. Different societies have had to struggle with their cultural heritage, adapting it to conform to the advances in medical science and the need of the sick. In this article, the development of the concept of brain death as it applies to organ transplantation in Judaism is outlined. The ability of traditional Jewish values to address themselves to the challenges of modern medicine can serve as a basis for cultural cross-fertilization and comparison in modern societies. PMID:10549346

  10. The French Manuscript Collection at the Jewish National and University Library of Jerusalem

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Bourel

    2008-01-01

    All great national libraries have their manuscript department – a veritable researcher’s treasure trove – and the Hebrew University is no exception to the rule. The growth of the collection has paralleled the development of its supporting institution, the Jewish National and University Library. This article presents a brief history of the national library before discussing its major collections. The latter part of the article reproduces some of the author’s lucky finds – designed to whet rese...

  11. The French Manuscript Collection at the Jewish National and University Library of Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bourel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available All great national libraries have their manuscript department – a veritable researcher’s treasure trove – and the Hebrew University is no exception to the rule. The growth of the collection has paralleled the development of its supporting institution, the Jewish National and University Library. This article presents a brief history of the national library before discussing its major collections. The latter part of the article reproduces some of the author’s lucky finds – designed to whet rese...

  12. Introduction to "Digital Humanities in Ancient Jewish, Christian and Arabic Traditions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Clivaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This special JRMDC number brings together articles based on eight papers presented at the Digital Humanities (DH consultation of the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL. These eight articles focus on Digital Humanities (DH in Ancient Jewish, Christian and Arabic traditions. The first part of this introduction focuses on general considerations concerning the encounter between digital culture and biblical and religious studies, and introduces the first article by Caroline Schroeder. The second part of this introduction maps a number of key issues across the Digital Humanities which appear in the seven specific case studies presented in the other articles in this issue.

  13. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kershen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  14. The emerging Jewish views of the messiahship of Jesus and their bearing on the question of his resurrection

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    David Mishkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the beliefs of Jewish scholars who have written about the historical Jesus. Specifically, it explores the modern Jewish scholarship on the person and role of the Messiah and how this relates to the study of the resurrection of Jesus. Many of the traditional beliefs about the messiah preclude a discussion of the resurrection of Jesus. However, with more understanding of the background of Second-Temple Judaism, many long-held beliefs about the messiah are being re-evaluated. The three main issues discussed in this article are the concept of a pagan messiah, the death of the messiah and the possibility of a divine messiah.

  15. Blood and Ink: Russian and Soviet Jewish Chroniclers of Catastrophe from World War I to World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Zavadivker, Polly

    2013-01-01

    This study is about three wars that took place in Eastern Europe between 1914 and 1945 and how Russian and Soviet Jews wrote about them. It focuses on the figures S. An-sky (1863-1920), Simon Dubnov (1860-1941), Isaac Babel (1894-1940), and Vasily Grossman (1905-1964). During the First World War, An-sky provided humanitarian relief to Jewish civilians along the Eastern Front, and Dubnov was a historian and Jewish national rights activist. In 1920 Babel was a propagandist with the Red Army dur...

  16. Caring for parents with Alzheimer's: comparing perceptions of physical and mental health in the Jewish and Arab sectors in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, A

    1999-03-01

    This study examines the effects of demographic, ethnic, personal and familial resources on well-being--perceptions of physical and mental health--of children caring for parents with Alzheimer's, comparing Jewish and Arab caregivers. Two groups of 64 Jewish and 50 Arab caregivers were selected from a cognitive diagnostic unit operating in a geriatric rehabilitative hospital in the north of Israel. The theoretical base was family systems and stress theories, using the ABCX model. The results show that ethnicity and parent-child relations were the strongest predictors of physical and especially mental health of these caregivers, followed by employment status of the caregivers and patient's functioning. PMID:14617896

  17. Reducing disparities in mammography-use in a multicultural population in Israel

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    Friedman Nurit

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past mammography-use has been reported to be low in Israel compared to other western countries. The objectives of this study were (1 to assess the increase in mammography-use during the years 2002 to 2007 in four population groups in Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS, Israel: non-immigrant non-ultraorthodox, ultraorthodox, and immigrant Jewish women and Arab women; (2 to assess ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in mammography-use. Methods A random telephone survey of 1,550 women receiving healthcare services from MHS was performed during May-June 2007. Information from MHS claims-records database regarding mammography-use was obtained for each woman for the period 2002 to 2007. Since mammography-use serves as a quality assurance measure for primary care, MHS sent mail and telephone invitations for mammography to all women since the end of 2004. Results At the beginning of the follow-up period (2002 mammography-use among Jewish non-immigrant non-ultraorthodox and ultraorthodox women was higher than among Arab and Jewish immigrant women. During the 5 year follow-up these disparities decreased significantly. In 2007, mammography-use by Arab women was only slightly lower compared to all groups of Jewish women. In 2007, after adjustment for socioeconomic factors there was only a borderline significant difference between Jewish and Arab women. The socioeconomic variables were not associated with mammography-use in 2002 and 2007 in any of the groups except for marital status in immigrant women in 2002. Conclusion The interventions implemented by MHS may have increased mammography-use in all population groups, decreasing disparities between the groups, however the differences between Jewish and Arab women have not been completely eliminated and indicate a need for further targeted interventions. No significant socioeconomic disparities in mammography-use were observed.

  18. Psychological distress among Ethiopian and Russian Jewish immigrants to Israel: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, A; Ginath, Y; Durst, R; Wondimeneh, B; Safro, S; Minuchin-Itzigson, S; Ritsner, M

    1998-01-01

    A community survey was conducted examining the differences in levels of psychological distress and its symptomatology, comparing 110 Ethiopian-Jewish and 400 Russian-Jewish immigrants to Israel. Psychological distress was measured by the Talbieh Brief Distress Inventory. Russian immigrants were found to be more distressed than their Ethiopian counterparts and this between-group difference can be attributed to the greater relative number of females, older immigrants and those with longer duration of stay in Israel in the Russian sample. The highest levels of distress were observed for paranoid ideation in the Ethiopian sample and anxiety and hostility in the Russian sample. These symptoms were independent of gender and time since immigration. Russians with longer duration of stay demonstrated higher scores signifying adjustment difficulties than their Ethiopian counterparts. These results suggest that the differences in levels and symptom expression of psychological distress are determined, to a considerable extent, by demographic factors (sex, age) and the differing cultural backgrounds of the two immigrant groups. PMID:9574850

  19. Secondary Guilt Syndrome May Have Led Nazi-persecuted Jewish Writers to Suicide

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    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Feelings of guilt have tormented Holocaust survivors, ranging from immediately after the liberation to later in life, for shorter or longer periods, and persisting for some throughout their entire post-war lives. Descriptions of the guilt experienced by survivors of the Nazi camps occupy an impressive amount of literature: “Why me?” was the question, when a younger and more able family member perished; “Why me?” when more productive members of the community perished; “Why me?” when a million and a half children were deprived of their lives. Many found the answer by retelling their stories, witnesses of what happened. This type of guilt is much different from the recently described phenomenon of survivor syndrome, namely the secondary guilt felt by Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers. Despite successes in all aspects of their life, these writers developed a self-incriminating guilt due to their perceived inadequacy of communicating, particularly in light of the resurging anti-Semitism worldwide. This paper deals with the survival and suicides of Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers and offers a possible explanation for their late selfdestructive acts

  20. A pseudodeficiency allele common in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs carriers: Implications for carrier screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.L.; Akerman, B.R.; Gravel, R.A. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Mules, E.H.; Thomas, G.H.; Dowling, C.E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, J.S.T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Natowicz, M.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)); Grebner, E.E. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Navon, R.R. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Kfar-Sava (Israel)); Welch, J.P. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova, Scotia (Canada)); Greenberg, C.R. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    Deficiency of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity typically results in Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy subjects found to be deficient in Hex A activity (i.e., pseudodeficient) by means of in vitro biochemical tests have been described. The authors analyzed the HEXA gene of one pseudodeficient subject and identified both a C[sub 739]-to-T substitution that changes Arg[sub 247][yields]Trp on one allele and a previously identified Tay-Sachs disease mutation of the second allele. Six additional pseudodeficient subjects were found to have the C[sub 739]-to-T but for none of 36 Jewish enzyme-defined carries who did not have one of three known mutations common to this group. The C[sub 739]-to-T allele, together with a [open quotes]true[close quotes] Tay-Sachs disease allele, causes Hex A pseudodeficiency. Given both the large proportion of non-Jewish carriers with this allele and that standard biochemical screening cannot differentiate between heterozygotes for the C[sub 739]-to-T mutations and Tay-Sachs disease carriers, DNA testing for this mutation in at-risk couples is essential. This could prevent unnecessary or incorrect prenatal diagnoses. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Secondary Guilt Syndrome May Have Led Nazi-persecuted Jewish Writers to Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-01-01

    Feelings of guilt have tormented Holocaust survivors, ranging from immediately after the liberation to later in life, for shorter or longer periods, and persisting for some throughout their entire post-war lives. Descriptions of the guilt experienced by survivors of the Nazi camps occupy an impressive amount of literature: "Why me?" was the question, when a younger and more able family member perished; "Why me?" when more productive members of the community perished; "Why me?" when a million and a half children were deprived of their lives. Many found the answer by retelling their stories, witnesses of what happened. This type of guilt is much different from the recently described phenomenon of survivor syndrome, namely the secondary guilt felt by Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers. Despite successes in all aspects of their life, these writers developed a self-incriminating guilt due to their perceived inadequacy of communicating, particularly in light of the resurging anti-Semitism worldwide. This paper deals with the survival and suicides of Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers and offers a possible explanation for their late self-destructive acts. PMID:26886769

  2. From the Constitution to the Classroom: Educational Freedom in Antwerp's Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how the constitutional right to educational freedom penetrates to the schools of the ultra-Orthodox Jewish (Haredi) community in Antwerp, which is one of the largest Haredi communities in the world. The findings indicate that the constitutional educational freedom is altered by various legal rules, social norms, and…

  3. Role Salience, Social Support, and Work-Family Conflict among Jewish and Arab Female Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2009-01-01

    Conceptualizing career development in a cultural and contextual framework, this study examined within-gender differences in role salience and work-family conflict (WFC) among 101 Jewish and 99 Arab female teachers (aged 23-64 years) from central Israel. The contribution of social support to women's conflict was also examined. Results highlighted…

  4. Perceptions of the Narrative of the "Other" among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel: Between Peace Talks and Violent Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Shifra; Ayalon, Ariel; Diab, Khansaa

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges for the process of peace building is to overcome the rigid structure of the socio-psychological repertoire that accompanies it. Our longitudinal study examined one element of this repertoire among Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel: the cognitive legitimacy and the emotional reactions toward the historical narrative…

  5. Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Eshach, Haim; Orion, Nir; Alamour, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    The present research aims at pinpointing differences in spontaneous and non-spontaneous mental models of water cycle conceptions of two 4th grade student groups: the Jewish residents of a small provincial town and a group of students from an indigenous Bedouin community. Students' conceptions were elicited using the Repertory Grid technique as…

  6. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  7. "What Do These Stones Mean?" Inscriptions on Stone from an Ancient Monastery in Ireland that Address Jewish-Christian Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, V. George

    2013-01-01

    Etched on a stone from a monastery from the Middle Ages at a small village in County Roscommon in Ireland is a combination of Jewish and Christian symbols. The Menorah sits atop a cross. At the base of the cross and at both ends of the crossbar are three small extensions. The image is one of religious integration. Augustine, whose argument for the…

  8. GM2 gangliosidosis in Saudi Arabia: multiple mutations and considerations for future carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Namik; Al-Owain, Mohammad; Abudheim, Nada; Al-Zahrani, Jawaher; Colak, Dilek; Al-Sayed, Moeen; Milanlioglu, Aysel; Ozand, Pinar T; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2011-06-01

    The GM2 gangliosidose, Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, are a class of lysosomal storage diseases in which relentless neurodegeneration results in devastating neurological disability and premature death. Primary prevention is the most effective intervention since no effective therapy is currently available. An extremely successful model for the prevention of GM2 gangliosidosis in the Ashkenazi Jewish community is largely attributable to the very limited number of founder mutations in that population. Consistent with our previous observation of allelic heterogeneity in consanguineous populations, we show here that these diseases are largely caused by private mutations which present a major obstacle in replicating the Ashkenazi success story. Alternative solutions are proposed which can also be implemented for other autosomal recessive diseases in our population. PMID:21567908

  9. Body Weight Dissatisfaction Among Israeli Jewish and Arab Women With Normal or Overweight-Obese Body Mass Index, Israeli INHIS-1, 2003-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Niskar, Amanda; Baron-Epel, Orna; Garty-Sandalon, Noga; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In Israel, 58.9% of Jewish and Arab Israeli women aged 25 to 64 years are overweight or obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2). The objective of this analysis is to describe body weight dissatisfaction differences between Jewish and Arab Israeli women with normal or overweight-obese body mass index. Methods This analysis included 1,393 Jewish and Arab women who participated in the Israeli National Health Interview Survey, 2003-2004. The survey covered a random sample of the Israeli ge...

  10. “Relief is a political gesture:” The Jewish Labor Committee’s interventions in war-torn Poland, 1939-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Collomp, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the role of an American organization, the Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), in the support of Jewish people in Poland during World War II. In the context of the division and occupation of Poland by the USSR and by Nazi Germany, the JLC’s help materialized in two ways: relief (generally in kind) was sent to Jewish refugees in Russia; money was sent for relief and for weapons to Jews in the General Government region under German rule. In the latter situation, the JLC contribute...

  11. “Exile” as a Theologico-Political Principle in Leo Strauss’s Jewish Thought

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    Martin Yaffe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available I consider the recent attempt by Professor Eugene Sheppard to follow the development of Strauss’s thought within the parameters of Strauss’s biographical circumstance as a German-Jewish “exile.” I sketch Sheppard’s approach to Strauss in a preliminary way so as to bring out something of its historicist character. After that, I test the soundness of Sheppard’s approach by looking at a statement of Strauss’s on “exile” which is found in his most autobiographical writing. My purpose in doing so is to discover whether Strauss’s statement when understood in its own terms warrants being placed within Sheppard’s historicist parameters.

  12. Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

    2009-11-01

    This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance. PMID:19809096

  13. Sacred practices in highly religious families: Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Loren

    2004-06-01

    Quantitative research examining linkages between family relationships and religious experience has increased substantially in recent years. However, related qualitative research, including research that examines the processes and meanings behind recurring religion-family correlations, remains scant. To address this paucity, a racially diverse sample (N = 24) of married, highly religious Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim parents of school-aged children were interviewed regarding the importance of religious family interactions, rituals, and practices in their families. Mothers and fathers discussed several religious practices that were meaningful to them and explained why these practices were meaningful. Parents also identified costs and challenges associated with these practices. Interview data are presented in connection with three themes: (1) "practicing [and parenting] what you preach," (2) religious practices, family connection, and family communion, and (3) costs of family religious practices. The importance of family clinicians and researchers attending to the influence of religious practice in the lives of highly religious individuals and families is discussed. PMID:15603505

  14. Results of the analysis of the blood lymphocyte proliferation test data from the National Jewish Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    From, E.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Newman, L.S.; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A new approach to the analysis of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) was presented to the Committee to Accredit Beryllium Sensitization Testing-Beryllium Industry Scientific Advisory Committee in April, 1994. Two new outlier resistant methods were proposed for the analysis of the blood LPT and compared with the approach then in use by most labs. The National Jewish Center (NJC) agreed to provide data from a study that was underway at that time. Three groups of LPT data are considered: (1) a sample of 168 beryllium exposed (BE) workers and 20 nonexposed (NE) persons; (2) 25 unacceptable LPTs, and (3) 32 abnormal LPTs for individuals known to have chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The LAV method described in ORNL-6818 was applied to each LPT. Graphical and numerical summaries similar to those presented for the ORISE data are given. Three methods were used to identify abnormal LPTs. All three methods correctly identified the 32 known CBD cases as abnormal.

  15. Leon Volovici – istoric al vieţii intelectuale evreieşti din România/ Leon Volovici - Historian of Jewish Cultural Life in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Ursutiu

    2008-01-01

    There are seminal works in historiography which, while significantly furthering our comprehension of a certain age or topic, have also the merit of opening new avenues for research. The books and studies of Professor Leon Volovici dedicated to modern anti-Semitism and Jewish cultural life in Romania do represent such fundamental works, bringing key contributions to the knowledge and understanding of intellectual anti-Semitism and the debates circumscribed to the Jewish-Romanian circles. The w...

  16. Tay-Sachs disease and HEXA mutations among Moroccan Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M; Grinshpun-Cohen, J; Karpati, M; Peleg, L; Goldman, B; Akstein, E; Adam, A; Navon, R

    1997-01-01

    Moroccan Jewry (N>750,000) is the only non-Ashkenazi Jewish community in which Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is not extremely rare. Previous studies among Moroccan Jewish TSD families identified three HEXA mutations. In this study, extended to enzyme-defined and new obilgate TSD carriers, we found four additional mutations. One of them is a novel, IVS5-2(A-->G) substitution, resulting in exon skipping, and it was found only among enzyme-defined carriers. The seven HEXA identified mutations among Moroccan Jews are: deltaF(304/305), R170Q, IVS-2(A-->G), Y180X, E482K, 1278+TATC, and IVS12+1(G-->C). Their respective distribution among 51 unrelated enzyme-defined and obligate carriers is 22:19:6:1:1:1:1. The mutation(s) remain unknown in only three enzyme-defined carriers. Five of the seven Moroccan mutations, including the three most common ones, were not found among Ashkenazi Jews. Compared with the much larger and relatively homogeneous Ashkenazi population, the finding among Moroccan Jews probably reflects their much longer history. PMID:9338583

  17. Same-sex sexual attraction, behavior, and practices of Jewish men in Israel and the association with HIV prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to efficiently direct efforts and resources required for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Israel, it is necessary to define their particular behaviors, estimate their size, and asses the HIV-burden. This cross-sectional study included a sub-sample from a random representative National study performed in Israel, which included Jewish males aged 18–44 who completed online anonymous questionnaires regarding ...

  18. Designing Citizenship. The “Jewish Question” in the Debates of the Romanian Parliament (1866-1869

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    Silvia Marton

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the debates in the Romanian Constituent Assembly of 1866 on article 7 of the Constitution that excludes non-Christians (notably Jews from political rights. By drawing mainly on the parliamentary archives and the press, it also examines governmental regulations, legislation, questions to ministers and parliamentary deliberations on the discriminations and violence against Jews during the years 1867-1869. The legislative and administrative measures following the adoption of article 7 of the Constitution create the ‘Jewish question’, that is anti-Jewishness as expression of anti-alien sentiment and of national preservation, elevate it to an international issue, and account for much of the internal governmental instability of the period. Anti-Semitism in that period is as much about Romanians and how they can consolidate their nation-state, as it is about the Jews and those who hate them. The paper holds that during the 1860s-1870s, anti-Jewish sentiment, not yet coherent and programmatic, tells less about anti-Semitism, and more about the nature of Romanian nationalism, as a modern variant of state-led xenophobia, eager to demonstrate state capacity. Romanian politicians want to build very quickly both the state and a homogenous nation, and the Jews (and other foreigners are there to show that none is yet ready.

  19. [Recall of traumatic life events at the time of national socialism in (former) Jewish emigrants and concentration camp prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, A; Schmitt, E

    1998-04-01

    Semi-structured interviews with 248 (former) Jewish emigrants and extermination camp survivors in Germany and three destination countries of Jewish emigration (Argentina, Israel, United States) indicate that reminiscence of traumatic experiences suffered from National Socialist Germany occurs in numerous daily contexts. In later life, traumatic memories do not only occur spontaneously and unexpectedly; moreover, they are an essential part of the people's frame of reference for questions about personal identity, perceptions of social relationships, society and societal development, and coping with specific themes. Following a pilot study on subjective reconstruction of the life course in (former) Jewish emigrants and extermination camp survivors, different phases of post-holocaust development are distinguished. Self-ratings for intensity of traumatic reminiscence for these phases of personal development support the hypothesis that traumatic reminiscence increased in old age. People highly differ in coping with stressful reminiscence. Some study participants react with depression, anxiety, feelings of survivor guilt, and withdrawal from social relationships. Others, however, are highly engaged in social relationships, especially with the following generations. They want to give a contribution to the educational work of their society and to prevent discrimination, racism, and xenophobia. PMID:9610507

  20. The Association between Land-Use Distribution and Residential Patterns: the Case of Mixed Arab-Jewish Cities in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran GOLDBLATT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of GIS and the availability of high resolution geographic data have improved our ability to investigate the residential segregation in cities and to identify the temporal changes of the spatial phenomena. Using GIS, we have quantitatively and visually analyzed the correspondence between land-use distribution and Arab residential patterns and their changes in the period between 1983 and 2008 in five mixed Arab-Jewish Israeli cities. Results show a correspondence between the dynamics of Arab/Jewish residential patterns and the spatial distribution of various land-uses. Arab residential patterns diffused faster towards areas with relatively inferior land-uses than towards areas with more attractive land-uses, in which a gentrification process occurred. Moreover, large-scale non-residential land-uses act as spatial partitions that divide between Arab and Jewish residential areas. Understanding the association between the urban environment and residential patterns can help in formulating an appropriate social and spatial policy concerning planning of land-uses and design of the built environment in mixed cities.

  1. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

  2. The City, the Ghetto and Two Books. Venice and Jewish Early Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Facchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1638 two books written by two Venitian rabbis were published in Venice. They were both destined successfully to reach wide circulation over the following decades. This article aims at exploring the intimate connection between Venice, a city which deeply influenced the imagination of European culture during the early modern period, and its Jewish ghetto, the first of its kind to be founded within Catholic lands.The author suggests that it was here in Venice, within the liminal space of the ghetto, that the theory of Jews as merchants, marked by undertones of utilitarianism was finally drafted. It also suggests that, in conjunction with this well-known theory, other theories based on religious tolerance were elaborated.The paper also invites the reader to view the ghetto as a space capable of enacting special religious encounters, mainly driven by an interest in religion and rituals. Therefore, the very specific local and tangible conditions of the urban environment – the city and the ghetto – performed a very important undertaking, for example, debates over the place and role of Jews in Christian society.

  3. A Doctor's Testimony: Medical Neutrality and the Visibility of Palestinian Grievances in Jewish-Israeli Publics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Guy

    2016-06-01

    This paper follows the testimony of Izzeldin Abuelaish, a Palestinian physician who bears witness to his experiences working, living, and suffering under Israeli rule. He presents his story as a doctor's story, drawing on his identity as a medical professional to gain credibility and visibility and to challenge the limited legitimacy of Palestinian grievances. In this paper, I explore his testimony as a medical voice that at once recounts the suffering and loss endured by the Palestinian people and also struggles to negotiate the values associated with being a "reliable" witness. Consequently, I ethnographically examine the social life and reception of his story in Jewish-Israeli publics. In comparison with most Palestinian narratives, Abuelaish's testimony achieved an extremely rare degree of visibility and sympathy, a phenomenon that calls out for analysis. I identify the boundaries that typically render Palestinian grievances invisible to Israeli publics and suggest how medicine's self-proclaimed ethos of neutrality served as a channel for crossing them. Finally, I reflect on the political possibilities and limitations of medical witnessing to render suffering visible and arouse compassion toward those construed as a dangerous/enemy Other. PMID:26374749

  4. Working with Jewish ultra-orthodox patients: guidelines for a culturally sensitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilu, Y; Witztum, E

    1993-06-01

    The epistemological gap between the medical reality of mental health practitioners and the sacred reality of their Jewish ultra-orthodox patients poses a major challenge for therapy. Based on our work with psychiatric patients from the ultra-orthodox community of northern Jerusalem, we propose a set of guidelines to cope with this challenge. Basically, we seek to incorporate religiously congruent elements, composed of metaphoric images, narratives and actions, into the wide range of our "secular" treatment modalities in order to respond to the patient's suffering, often expressed through distinctively religious idioms of distress. This endeavor calls for "a temporary suspension of disbelief" on both sides. The guidelines presented include three sets of factors which appear pertinent to working with ultra-orthodox patients. The first set is contextual in nature, dealing with the image of the clinic and its physical setting; the second discusses the necessary role requisites of the therapists; and the third one, accorded a central importance, deals on various levels with the therapeutic interventions administered in terms of form and content. Several case vignettes are presented to illustrate three classes of religiously informed interventions: healing rituals, dream interpretation, and the use of culturally congruent metaphors and stories. In the concluding part we discuss ethical and instrumental issues that the proposed therapeutic guidelines may raise. PMID:8222706

  5. Accounting for Ribith/Riba-Usury in Jewish and Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Seyam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The loaning of money on interest is a fundamental part of modern Capitalism. Almost all businesses in existence at one time or another use other people money to finance their activities. Most of these loans involve the charging of interest, which is defined as a certain percentage of money given back to the lender as consideration for being allowed to use the principle. Jewish law (Halacha and Islamic law (Shari’a add a major complication to the loaning of money. Both religions prohibit, to differing degrees with differing nuances, the charging of interest, which is called ribith in Hebrew and riba in Arabic. If such a prohibition were to apply to any monetary transaction where one person made money passively while someone else used their money, it would be highly unlikely that many people would be willing to put their capital at risk. This is not the case, and in both religions there are limitations on what types of passive income activities are prohibited. However, because of the nuances in how the transactions are constructed, the typical accounting of the financing activities of borrowing and paying back are not sufficient to capture the activities taking place.

  6. [Truth telling to patients--A discussion of Jewish sources (corrected)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Wygoda, Michael; Rosenzweig, Joshua P; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-10-01

    Defining truth and truth-telling to patients are central topics in philosophy, law, and psychology, with many implications in medicine. In the last hundred years, with the transition from paternalistic medicine to a system in which the patient's autonomy is emphasized, the decision on the quantity and quality of medical information to be disclosed to the patient has become more complicated and requires careful consideration and special sensitivity on the part of the doctor. The Israeli Patients' Rights Act (1996] established guidelines for medical staff about telltting the truth to patients with occasional special authority delegated to the doctor to decide for the benefit of the patient at his discretion and with the approval of the institutional ethics committee, but in practice there are difficulties in implementing the Law. This article reviews a selection of sources from Jewish tradition throughout the ages that deal with truthtelling or concealing the truth in medical contexts and other contexts. Sources are drawn from the Bible, Mishna-Talmud, and halachic Literature, from which.conclusions can be drawn regarding this issue. In our opinion, these sources yield messages and values that are also relevant to the modern medical world. This is especially true in a multi-cultural environment such as Israel that requires the physician to consider the patient's background and to communicate information in accordance with his/her will, in an efficient and sensitive manner. PMID:25518082

  7. Coming out of the Hasidic closet: Jiří Mordechai Langer (1894–1943) and the fashioning of homosexual-Jewish identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Shaun Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This essay inaugurates the historical study of the modern homosexual Jewish experience before Stonewall. I begin with a historiographic introduction to the emerging subfield of gay Jewish history. I then turn to reintroduce Jiri Langer, a homosexual and Hasidic writer affiliated with the interwar "Prague circle" (and friend of Franz Kafka and Max Brod) into the purview of modern Jewish Studies. I take up two questions: first, how Langer reconciled his homosexual and Orthodox religious identity; and second, why Langer"s homosexuality became exigent as a Jewish question at this particular historical moment. In his key text, Die Erotik der Kabbala, Langer engages with the dominant interwar debates on homosexuality, but most directly with the work of Hans Blüher, the major theoretician of the German Wandervogelbewegung. In the course of correcting Blüher's antisemitic claims about Jews and homosexuality, Langer managed to delineate a specifically homosexual Jewish identity by renegotiating the relationship between homosexuality and Judaism and by adumbrating a history of "gay" Jews. I contextualize this long-neglected text within Langer's fascinating biography; the debates in the early homosexual rights movement; the particular cultural features of the "Prague circle" in which Langer wrote; and the dislocation and devastation of Langer's beloved eastern-European Hasidic communities caused by World War I—communities that Langer experienced as deeply homoerotic. PMID:21961190

  8. Tay-Sachs disease in an Arab family due to c.78G>A HEXA nonsense mutation encoding a p.W26X early truncation enzyme peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Alireza; Masri, Amira; Kornreich, Ruth; Desnick, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), a pan-ethnic, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, lysosomal disease, results from deficient β-hexosaminidase A activity due to β-hexosaminidase α-subunit (HEXA) mutations. Prenatal/premarital carrier screening programs in the Ashkenazi Jewish community have markedly reduced disease occurrence. We report the first Jordanian Arab TSD patient diagnosed by deficient β-hexosaminidase A activity. HEXA mutation analysis revealed homozygosity for a nonsense mutation, c.78G>A (p.W26X). Previously reported in Arab patients, this mutation is a candidate for TSD screening in Arab populations. PMID:21967858

  9. Reducing disparities in mammography-use in a multicultural population in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman Nurit; Baron-Epel Orna; Lernau Omri

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the past mammography-use has been reported to be low in Israel compared to other western countries. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the increase in mammography-use during the years 2002 to 2007 in four population groups in Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), Israel: non-immigrant non-ultraorthodox, ultraorthodox, and immigrant Jewish women and Arab women; (2) to assess ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in mammography-use. Methods A random telephone sur...

  10. Italiens Geschichte der Judenverfolgung – neu geschrieben Italy’s History of Jewish Persecution—Written Anew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Brentzel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available War auch Italien ein Land des Antisemitismus und der Judenverfolgung? Der in der Forschung liebgewordene Unterschied zwischen den beiden faschistischen Systemen im Europa des 20. Jahrhunderts wird in der vorliegenden Aufsatzsammlung mit präzisen Forschungsergebnissen hinweggefegt. Es geht den Autor/-innen nicht um Gleichsetzung von Nationalsozialismus und Faschismus. Doch das von Renzo De Felice entworfene, verharmlosende Bild eines den Juden freundlich und solidarisch gesonnenen Volkes und einer lax agierenden Bürokratie ist bei näherer Prüfung unhaltbar geworden. Die Forscher/-innen haben dabei nicht nur die Jahre der Judengesetzgebung in Italien ab 1938 im Blick, sondern gehen den Befunden vom Mittelalter mit der unseligen Tradition des katholischen Antijudaismus bis in das heutige Italien nach, verfeinern ihr Urteil insbesondere mit Blick auf die Lage der Jüdinnen und stellen einige bedeutende Repräsentantinnen sowie die weibliche Erfahrungsliteratur aus den Lagern vor.Was Italy also a country of anti-Semitism and Jewish persecution? The precise research results of this essay volume sweep away the difference between the two fascist systems in Europe of the 20th century, a theme that research has come to adore. The authors do not seek to equate National Socialism and fascism. And yet the non-threatening image of a people who are Jewish friendly and who stand in solidarity against a lax bureaucracy, an image perpetuated by Renzo De Felice, can no longer stand the test. The researchers not only focus on the years of Jewish legislations in Italy after 1938 but also examine findings on the unholy tradition of Catholic anti-Judaism in the Middle Ages to contemporary Italy. They sharpen their thesis through their specific examination of the situation of female Jews. They introduce select important female representatives and present literary experiences from the camps.

  11. Characters and ambivalence in Luke: An emic reading of Luke’s gospel, focusing on the Jewish peasantry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbengu D. Nyiawung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish peasantry as a character group in the Gospel of Luke has, thus far, not really attracted much attention in Lukan scholarship. In cases where it has been studied, scholars have often treated ὄχλος [crowd] and λαὸς [people] as synonymous characters. But the question of Jesus’ identity, as depicted in the New Testament, was crucial to the early church and it is this exact question that animates the relationship between Jesus and the various ‘systems’ functioning as part of Luke’s Gospel. From an etic viewpoint, the context of Luke’s Gospel indicates that Jesus’ leadership was characterised by conflict, opposition and rejection. Therefore, this article attempted, through an emic reading of Luke, to differentiate between (and describe the role played by each of these character groups in Luke’s narrative, focusing on the relationship between Jesus and the Jewish peasantry – with special reference to the ambivalent attitude of the latter. It was argued that each Lukan character group has to be read and understood in terms of their attitude, as well as in the broader context of Luke’s intention with their inclusion and specific description. Therefore the various terminologies used when referring to the Jewish peasantry were also discussed; for any analysis of a biblical character group should begin with a reading of the Greek text, because working only with translations can lead to a misappropriation of the text. In order to attain the goals as set out above, this study used a character group which seemed ambivalent and hypocritical in their attitude to analyse Jesus’ leadership approach.

  12. The Jewish Experience in Poland (2006-2012. Updating A Tentative Bibliography (“Studi Slavisti- ci”, III, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Quercioli Mincer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography updates a previous work mirroring the image of Polish Jewry in the Italian editorial and cultural panorama. The main part of the bibliography covers books translated from Polish (and Yiddish and essays (books and short articles which concern our theme. However its structure differs from that of the previous paper as a short section, devoted to literary works written in different languages (mainly English and Hebrew, but also Italian and one in French has been added. In the Introduction, starting from an article published by Pietro Marchesani in 1979, the author traces a short story of the success of the Polish Jewish theme in Italian Slavic Studies.

  13. Caloric Intake on the Sabbath: A Pilot Study of Contributing Factors to Obesity in the Orthodox Jewish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Deborah A; Swencionis, Charles; Segal-Isaacson, C J

    2016-10-01

    The American Orthodox Jewish community has specific cultural factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. This study aimed to look at caloric intake on the Sabbath and its contribution to overweight and obesity. Twelve married or previously married women who identify themselves as Orthodox Jews were recruited to do 24-h food recalls over the phone. The participants were divided into three weight groups (normal, overweight, and obese) based on their BMI. The overweight and obese participants' data were combined into one group for the purposes of statistical testing. Paired t tests looking at the data for all participants showed significantly great caloric intake during an average Sabbath day than an average weekday [t(4) = 7.58, p obese women compared to the normal weight women [F(1) = 7.83, p = 0.02]. No statistical difference was seen between the weekday energy intake of the normal weight women as compared to the combined group of overweight-obese women [F(1) = 0.501, p = 0.499]. These results support the hypotheses that all groups eat significantly more on the Sabbath than on weekdays, and overweight and obese individuals eat significantly more on the Sabbath than normal weight individuals. This supports the theory that caloric intake on the Sabbath is a contributing factor to overweight and obesity within the American Orthodox Jewish community. PMID:26613588

  14. [The Belgian and French medicine and the "Ordres" facing the "jewish question" during the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2014-01-01

    The attitude of the medical community and the "Ordres" to the "jewish question" differs in Belgium and France. This difference originates before the Second World War. Xenophobia and antisemitism were stronger in France. In addition, the Belgian capitulation of May 1940 and the armistice of June 22 in France do not represent the same situation. In France, a legal government, under the direction of Marshal Pétain, took a series of xenophobic measures of which the Jews were the first victims. In Belgium, in the absence of any government, the General Secretaries in Ministries were the ones who had to apply the antijewish measures dictated by the German occupant. By law, they could not legislate on the political level. The "Ordre", of French physicians was created in late 1940 by the Vichy government. In Belgium, the "Ordre " had existed since 1938 but had been unable to meet in the absence of implement decrees. An "Ordre bis" was created in late 1941, the legality of which was questioned by many lawyers and physicians. The French "Ordre" was to apply the antijewish measures by taking responsibility for the selection of Jewish physicians entitled to practice. In Belgium, the "Ordre" frowned upon by the physicians, played no official role in this regard. It simply applied the antijewish measures dictated by the Germans without protesting. After the conflict, the leaders of the "Ordres" had a different fate in both countries. In France, they escaped sentences. In Belgium, they were heavily condemned. PMID:24908952

  15. Dermatologic relationships between the United States and German-speaking countries: part 2--the exodus of Jewish dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2013-09-01

    The rise to power of the National Socialist (Nazi) party led by Adolf Hitler and the subsequent tumultuous 12 years of their rule in Germany resulted in catastrophes including World War II, the most destructive war ever, and the premeditated and systematic murder of 5 to 6 million European Jews. Despite their notable contributions to the academic excellence that existed in German-speaking countries at that time, Jewish physicians were particularly vulnerable to persecution and death. Between 1933 and 1938, a series of repressive measures eliminated them from the practice of medicine in Germany and other countries. Although some died in concentration camps and others committed suicide, many were able to emigrate from Europe. Dermatology in the United States particularly benefited from the influx of several stellar Jewish dermatologists who were major contributors to the subsequent flowering of academic dermatology in the United States. A number of representative biographies of these immigrants are briefly recounted to illustrate their lasting influence on our specialty. PMID:23986294

  16. Positive weighing of the other's collective narrative among Jewish and Bedouin-Palestinian teachers in Israel and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Teachers play a pivotal role in the educational discourse around collective narratives, and especially the other's narrative. The study assumed that members of groups entangled in a conflict approach the different modules of the other's narrative distinctively. Jewish and Palestinian teachers, Israeli citizens, answered questionnaires dealing with the narrative of the other, readiness for interethnic contact, negative between-group emotions and preferences for resolutions of the Israeli-Palestinian (I-P) conflict. Positive weighing of the other's narrative among Jewish teachers correlated with high levels of readiness for interethnic contact and low levels of negative between-group emotions, across the various modules of the Palestinian narrative. Preferences for a peaceful resolution of the I-P conflict and rejection of a violent one were noted in two of the modules. Among Palestinian teachers, positive weighing of the other's collective narrative was exclusively noted for the Israeli narrative of the Holocaust, and this stance negatively related to negative between-group emotions and preference for a violent solution of the I-P conflict, and positively related to readiness for interethnic contact and preference of a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Practical implications of these findings for peace education are discussed. PMID:25684161

  17. Insights into the oral health beliefs and practices of mothers from a north London Orthodox Jewish community

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    Wright Desmond

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to explore oral health knowledge and beliefs and access to dental care in a culturally distinct Orthodox Jewish community in North London, with a view to informing local health policy. Methods A dual method qualitative approach to data collection was adopted in this study utilising semi-structured face to face interviews and focus groups with women from this North London orthodox Jewish community. In total nine interviews and four focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of thirty three mothers from the community aged 21-58 years. The data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology Results Cultural influences, competing pressures and perceptions of hereditary influences, together with a lack of contemporary oral health knowledge are the main factors affecting oral health knowledge and beliefs. This supported an overall perspective of disempowerment or a perceived lack of control over oral health behaviours, both for mothers and their children. Community signposting pointed mothers to dental services, whilst family pressures together with inadequate capacity and capability and generic barriers such as fear and cost acted as barriers. Mothers from this community welcomed community development initiatives from the NHS. Conclusions The results of this study provide insight into the challenges of a culturally isolated community who would welcome community support through schools and expanded culturally appropriate opening hours to improve access to dental care.

  18. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  19. "Vive la Differance": Jewish Women Teachers' Constructions of Ethnicity and Identity and Their Experiences of Anti-Semitism in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Explores the experiences of racism and anti-Semitism in Jewish women teachers working in nondenominational, inner city schools and discusses how they construct ethnicity. Themes of difference, 'differance,' differing, and deferring surface, interweaving themselves in the women's understandings of their lives. The women had chosen to work in…

  20. [A ''humanitarian duty and a matter of honour for German Jewry": "feeble-minded" Jewish children and the Institution in Beelitz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In 1908, in collaboration with the Bnei Briss, the German Association of Israelite Communities founded an institution for intellectually disabled Jewish children in Beelitz with the aim of educating 7-14-year-olds, using therapeutic pedagogy. The institution was part of the philanthropic efforts undertaken by German Jewry in that period. It was set up in the wake of the German Kaiser's call to found more philanthropic institutions, and its establishment is indicative of the efforts at integration being made by German Jewry. In their fund-raising material, the German Association of Israelite Communities stressed the "loyalty and patriotism" of German Jewry and described the establishment of the institution as "a humanitarian duty" and "a matter of honour for German Jewry". It was, therefore, demands from the non-Jewish world that led to the foundation of a Jewish institution; however, its establishment was also symbolic of the struggle against anti-Semitism and indicative both of German Jewry's dissimilation and their efforts at integration. The article investigates the struggle of Jewish parents to have their children admitted to the institution, the philosophy and teaching methods of the director Sally Bein (1881-1942) and his wife Friederike Rebeka Bein (1883-1942), the background of the students, the causes of intellectual disability, as well as the disagreements that occurred between parents, teachers and the director. The article also discusses the successes and failures of therapeutic pedagogy. PMID:25134256

  1. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  2. Population policies vary in Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1993-04-01

    The Middle East's fast-growing population not only puts constraints on the environment and natural resources but also on governments by increasing the demand for education, housing, health care, and jobs. Cairo has 9 million inhabitants, Tehran, 7 million, and Istanbul, 7 million. These countries have 253 million people, and the number is expected to grow to 400 million by 2010. Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, yemen, Oman, Jordan, and the West Bank and Gaza have an annual rate of growth of 3%. Iran has 60 million people, Iraq, 18 million, Saudi Arabia, 16 million, and Yemen, 10 million, totalling 126 million people. Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates comprise 123 million people growing at a rate of 2-3% per year. Only Israel with 5 million and Cyprus with less than 1 million people have a rate of natural increase of 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The total fertility rate (TFR) for the region is close to 5 children. In 1991/1992, women in rural Yemen averaged more than 8 children; in contrast, Cyprus has a TFR of 2.4, and Jewish women in Israel have a TFR of 2.7. About half of the people of the region are under 20. Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Turkey have policies to lower fertility and subsidize family planning services. Yemen recently adopted a national population policy to reduce the TFR to 4.0 by 2018. Iraq, Kuwait, Israel, and Cyprus want to raise fertility by providing incentives to families, such as child allowances, greater access to housing, and tax breaks. Kuwait provides cash child allowances, maternity benefits, and subsidies to families of government workers. Israel has social welfare policies to increase the size of the Jewish population, although it provides contraceptive information. Saudi Arabia restrict access to contraceptives by banning their advertising. PMID:12318175

  3. Epidemiological data of 290 pemphigus vulgaris patients: a 29-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sharon; Astman, Nadav; Berco, Efraim; Solomon, Michal; Trau, Henri; Barzilai, Aviv

    2016-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disease involving the skin and mucosa, is traditionally considered to be prevalent among Jews, particularly those of Ashkenazi origin. Israel, where the Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jewish population live alongside a large Arab minority, is a particularly interesting place for epidemiological studies of PV. To characterise the epidemiological and clinical parameters of PV patients from a single tertiary medical centre in Israel. Data was retrieved retrospectively from the medical records of newly diagnosed PV patients referred to the Sheba Medical Center between 1980 and 2009. A total of 290 PV patients were diagnosed during the study period. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.7 years (range: 10-92 years) and a female predominance was identified (1.54:1; pcountries reveal variations in the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease. The epidemiology of PV in Israel, a Middle-Eastern country with a Western lifestyle and a diverse ethnic population, shows some characteristics that represent an "admixture" between European and Middle-Eastern or Asian countries. The associated comorbidities of PV emphasize the need for dermatologists to keep a high index of suspicion and actively evaluate patients to determine their presence. PMID:27300747

  4. Autosomal dominant congenital cataract in a Libyan Jewish family: cosegregation with a reciprocal chromosomal translocation [t(3;5)(p22.3; p15.1)

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer, Emre; Meck, Jeanne; Gerrad, Liora; Pras, Elon; Frydman, Moshe; Reish, Orit; Avni, Isaac; Pras, Eran

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe a Jewish family of Libyan ancestry in which autosomal dominant congenital cataract segregates with an apparently balanced reciprocal chromosomal translocation. Methods Detailed family history and clinical data were recorded. Cytogenetic studies were performed on 13 family members. Results Embryonal cataracts cosegregated through three generations with a balanced chromosomal translocation [t(3;5)(p22.3; p15.1)] while the unbalanced translocation product, 46,XY,-5,+der(5)t(3...

  5. Russian Jewish Immigrants in the United States: The Adjustment of their English Language Proficiency and Earnings in the American Community Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Barry R; Larsen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Compared to other immigrants to the United States, recent Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union have achieved high levels of English language proficiency and earnings. They experience disadvantages in both dimensions at arrival, but because of steeper improvements with duration in the United States, they reach parity or surpass the English proficiency and earnings of other immigrants. This pattern is seen in the most recent data, the American Community Survey, 2005 to 2009, which is ...

  6. How welcome do Iranian-Americans feel in their homeland? Perceptions of social distance among Muslim, Jewish, and Non-Religious Iranian-American adults

    OpenAIRE

    Paige, Shari; Hatfield, Elaine; Liang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Recent political events in the United States have created a political climate that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim people. In this study, we were interested in investigating two questions: (1) How welcome do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation) feel in their new homeland (specifically, how much social distance (affective distance) do they think their Euro-American neighbors feel toward th...

  7. [Co-editors and editors with Jewish origins of the first German journals for anaesthesia. Their fate under National Socialism and an attempt at a biographical appreciation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, M; Goetz, A E

    2010-09-01

    The decision to publish the journals Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie in 1928 was an important step towards the professionalization of anaesthesiology in Germany. The appearance of both journals, which for economic reasons merged into Schmerz - Narkose - Anaesthesie 1 year later, was initiated and vehemently supported by Jewish physicians. As editors and co-editors they were deeply involved with the editorial tasks of the journals for years from the early beginnings. When the National Socialistic Party took over the government in Germany many of the Jewish colleagues were forced to quit their editorial tasks, were eliminated and replaced by "Arians", they were persecuted and often arrested, forced to emigrate or decided to commit suicide due to inhumane personal circumstances. It is our intention to recall the biography and the terrible fate of the nearly unknown Jewish members of the editorial board of the first German anaesthesia journals. Moreover the biographic sketches promote a continuous discussion about the victims of an inhumane and barbarous ideology. PMID:20842476

  8. Attitudes of Bedouin and Jewish Physicians Towards the Medical Care for Persons with Intellectual Disability in the Bedouin Negev Community. A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Change in the attitudes of staff or the public towards people with intellectual disability (ID can impact their life and health, but that change has not been studied among physicians who belong to an ethnic minority undergoing dramatic social and economic transition. The goal of this study was to explore the change of attitudes of Negev Bedouin physicians serving their community and their satisfaction with policy, care, and knowledge in the field of ID. Seventeen community physicians (7 Bedouins and 10 Jewish were interviewed using a simple questionnaire that consisted of items measuring attitude and satisfaction. The vast majority of the Bedouin and Jewish physicians had positive attitudes toward inclusion of those in the community with ID and were ready to provide the care needed in the community with special assistance. There was a need for further education in ID and more resources. There was a belief that there is discrimination between the Bedouin and Jewish community in the provision of care to people with ID. General dissatisfaction was expressed about the policy, resources, care provision, and expertise offered to Bedouins with ID. More efforts must be directed to empower the physicians with knowledge, expertise, and resources to handle the care of Bedouins with ID in a culturally appropriate way.

  9. On the Jewish Nation's Ghetto Spirit from Singer's Works%由辛格作品看犹太民族的格托精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2015-01-01

    面对非犹太人的迫害与异质文化的强烈冲击,犹太人仍坚定固守着自己的民族信仰,表现出坚定的格托精神。正是由于格托精神的存在,犹太文化才并未被湮灭,反而得以传承与发扬。艾·巴·辛格是当代著名的美籍犹太作家,于1978年荣获诺贝尔文学奖。他的作品多取材于犹太人的日常生活,诠释了格托精神对犹太传统传承的重要意义。%Facing the persecution of non -Jews and the intense shock of heterogeneous culture,Jews still hold on to their na-tional belief,showing steadfast ghetto spirit.It is because of the existence of ghetto spirit that Jewish culture is not annihilated, but inherits and develops.Isaac Bashevis Singer was a well -known contemporary American Jewish writer,and was awarded Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978.Most of his works are taken from Jewish daily life.

  10. Les penseurs du néant The Thinkers of Non-being. Heidegger and the Jewish Mystical Tradition

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    Cristina Ciucu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article does not attempt to trace a possible influence of the Jewish mystical tradition on Heidegger’s Seinsdenken, but to provide a general survey of the role played in both Cabbalistic tradition and Heideggerian ontology by the notion/concept of non-being (Nichts/Nichtlichkeit and Ayn as well as of the place held by the two systems of thought in the history of meontology (the doctrine of non-being. Notwithstanding the fact that the Heideggerian “question of the sense of being” excludes any “question of God”, there are noteworthy ‘affinities’ between his reflection on being/origin – conceivable exclusively in their tension with non-being – and the Cabbalistic reflection on the groundless origins (of being and of God. In terms of ‘affinity’ rather than of ‘influence’, Heidegger’s a-theistic quest of a primordial thinking of being could be seen as carrying to its ultimate consequences the very paradox underlying this type of mystical approach.

  11. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  12. BRCA1 185delAG MUTATION CAN BE EASILY DETECTED BY AN ADAPTED ALLELE-SPECIFIC PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Negura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 gene accounts for a majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Germinal deleteriousmutations within this gene are directly responsible for the disease, with a lifetime risk of cancer for mutations carriers ofabout 80%. While outbred and western populations usually show a heterogeneous profile of unique and familialmutations, in isolated and eastern European populations some recurrent mutations can be afforded the most responsibilityfor familial hereditary cases. In Ashkenazi Jewish and most Slavic eastern population, the BRCA1 185delAG is one of themost frequent mutations. Therefore, rapid screening by PCR-based methods can be useful in oncogenetic diagnosis. Herewe present implementation of an adapted allele-specific PCR for the detection of 185delAG, with wide applications indiagnosis and genotyping for large population groups.

  13. The Ups and Downs of Yiddish Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董菲菲

    2014-01-01

    The Yiddish language originated in Ashkenazi culture and is spoken by Ashkenai Jewish who are thought to be the de-scendants of Rhineland Jews. For years, it was carried to many parts of the world with the migration of these Ashkenazi Jewish and a real version of ups and downs of the people. It was once considered as a dialect of German rather than an independent lan-guage, which many scholars of Ashkenazi Jewish origin managed to get rid of. It aims to give a brief introduction to this language and try to trace back its origin and development so as to bring a brief senario of the Ashkenazi Jewish ’s striving for their identity. Having read and study literatures about this language, a conclusion can be reached that Yiddish language means“the mother tongue of Jewish people”which reflects Jewish cultural life and finally prove its value that it deserved in fields of linguistics and lit-erature through centuries-long wax and wane.

  14. 论伊拉克犹太社团的兴衰及其对犹太文明的贡献%Analyzing the Rise and Decline of Jewish Community in Iraq and Its Contribution to Jewish Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉龙

    2015-01-01

    Iraqi Jews belong to Mizrahi Jews group and is the very important part of Israeli Jews today. The history of Iraqi Jews can be divided into two periods. From the Babylonian Exile to the western expedition of Hulagu’ s Mongols in the 13th century was the first period. During this time, the Babylonian Tamlud compiled by them which made a notable contribution to Jewish culture. Ot-toman empire and modern Iraqi kingdom reigned the Mesopotamia in the 16-20th century was the second period, In this period the Baghdad Jews community achieved revival via the peace situation. However, as the Arab-Israeli conflict intensified in the 1940s, the spillover effect and other reasons shocked the Iraqi Jews`survival in Arab world. They were forced to immigrate to Israel in 1941-1951 and the ancient community went to the end.%伊拉克犹太史可分为两个时段:第一时段从巴比伦囚虏时期到13世纪中叶蒙古西征为古史时期,期间巴比伦犹太人编撰的《巴比伦塔木德》对犹太文明做出了杰出贡献;第二时段是16世纪到20世纪中叶奥斯曼帝国和伊拉克王国统治下的近现代时期,巴格达犹太社团借此和平统治迎来复兴。20世纪40年代随着阿以冲突加剧带来的外溢效应等内外部原因,伊拉克犹太人被迫移民以色列,古老的社团也随之终结。

  15. Pionierin der deutsch-jüdischen Geschichtsschreibung. Leben und Werk Selma Sterns A Pioneer of German-Jewish Historiography: The Life and Work of Selma Stern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Schaser

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Im Spannungsfeld von deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung sowie Wissenschafts- und Exilgeschichte untersucht Marina Sassenberg die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Selma Sterns Werk und Leben. Seit 1916 verstärkt mit den Auswirkungen von Antisemitismus und Antifeminismus konfrontiert, spiegelt sich in Sterns autobiographischen Schriften und in ihrem wissenschaftlichen Werk zur deutsch-jüdischen Geschichte zunächst ihre Suche als Frau und Intellektuelle nach einem Ort in der deutschen Gesellschaft und im Wissenschaftsbetrieb wider. Ihre Erfahrungen im Nationalsozialismus, in der Emigration in den USA und nach der Rückkehr nach Europa führten zunächst zu einer deutlichen Zäsur in ihrem Werk, bevor sie fünf Jahre nach Kriegsende zu einer Neukonzeption deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte überging, mit der sie an ihre alten Geschichtsentwürfe anknüpfen sollte.Within the tense areas of German-Jewish historiography, women and gender research, and scientific and exile history, Marina Sassenberg examines the interaction between Selma Stern’s work and life. Having been increasingly confronted with effects of anti-Semitism and antifeminism since 1916, Stern’s autobiographical writings and her scientific work on German-Jewish history initially reflect her search for a place in German society and in the scientific community as a woman and an intellectual. Her experiences in National Socialism, in immigration in the USA, and after her return to Europe led at first to a clear break in her work before, five years after the end of the war, she turned to a new conception of German-Jewish history which would tie into her previous historical ideas.

  16. Babel’s Dawn and the Primeval Language. Between Translation and Narrative, or the Syriac Version of an Old Jewish Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala

    2012-01-01

    The story of the Tower of Babel in Gn 11:1–9 gave rise to a rich literary tradition, in which the topos of the primeval language emerged. Whereas the interpretative tradition originating among the Jewish commentators upheld that the original language was Hebrew, in the heart of the Eastern Christian communities some authors supported this theory, but others stated it to be Aramaic. The aim of the present article is to show how a celebrated chronicler like Michael the Syrian (12th c. CE) compo...

  17. Analysis on Jewish Distinctiveness Through Integration into American Society%犹太移民在美国社会中的特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高帆; 曹文皓

    2008-01-01

    The history of American Jews is the history of immigration and integration. This thesis mainly depicts the distinctiveness of American Jewish after the immigrant history from 1880 to 1924 through the integration and assimilation of Jews to American society.%犹太人的历史就是移民的历史.此论文主要阐述1880年到1924年期间犹太人移民美国后融入美国社会并确立美国犹太人在教育、经济和宗教方面的独特性.

  18. Further investigation of the HEXA gene intron 9 donor splice site mutation frequently found in non-Jewish Tay-Sachs disease patients from the British Isles.

    OpenAIRE

    Landels, E C; Green, P.M.; Ellis, I H; Fensom, A H; Kaback, M M; Lim-Steele, J; Zeiger, K; Levy, N; Bobrow, M

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study we found that a Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) causing mutation in the intron 9 donor splice site of the HEXA gene occurs at high frequency in non-Jewish patients and carriers from the British Isles. It was found more frequently in subjects of Irish, Scottish, and Welsh origin compared with English origin (63% and 31% respectively). We have now tested, in a blind study, 26 American TSD carriers and 28 non-carriers who have British ancestry for the intron 9 splice site mutation. S...

  19. Mendelian diseases among Roman Jews: implications for the origins of disease alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddoux, C; Guillen-Navarro, E; Ditivoli, C; Dicave, E; Cilio, M R; Clayton, C M; Nelson, H; Sarafoglou, K; McCain, N; Peretz, H; Seligsohn, U; Luzzatto, L; Nafa, K; Nardi, M; Karpatkin, M; Aksentijevich, I; Kastner, D; Axelrod, F; Ostrer, H

    1999-12-01

    The Roman Jewish community has been historically continuous in Rome since pre-Christian times and may have been progenitor to the Ashkenazi Jewish community. Despite a history of endogamy over the past 2000 yr, the historical record suggests that there was admixture with Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews during the Middle Ages. To determine whether Roman and Ashkenazi Jews shared common signature mutations, we tested a group of 107 Roman Jews, representing 176 haploid sets of chromosomes. No mutations were found for Bloom syndrome, BRCA1, BRCA2, Canavan disease, Fanconi anemia complementation group C, or Tay-Sachs disease. Two unrelated individuals were positive for the 3849 + 10C->T cystic fibrosis mutation; one carried the N370S Gaucher disease mutation, and one carried the connexin 26 167delT mutation. Each of these was shown to be associated with the same haplotype of tightly linked microsatellite markers as that found among Ashkenazi Jews. In addition, 14 individuals had mutations in the familial Mediterranean fever gene and three unrelated individuals carried the factor XI type III mutation previously observed exclusively among Ashkenazi Jews. These findings suggest that the Gaucher, connexin 26, and familial Mediterranean fever mutations are over 2000 yr old, that the cystic fibrosis 3849 + 10kb C->T and factor XI type III mutations had a common origin in Ashkenazi and Roman Jews, and that other mutations prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews are of more recent origin. PMID:10599695

  20. Tay-Sachs disease: current perspectives from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew RM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raelia M Lew,1,7 Leslie Burnett,2,3,4 Anné L Proos,2 Martin B Delatycki5,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, The University of Sydney, Australia; 2NSW Health Pathology North, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Australia; 3SEALS, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia; 4Sydney Medical School-Northern, Royal North Shore Hospital E25, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Clinical Genetics, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; 6Bruce Lefroy Centre for Genetic Health Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia; 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation. The majority of Jewish individuals of reproductive age outside of the high school screening program setting in Australia have not accessed screening. Recent recommendations advocate supplementing the community high school screening programs with general practitioner- and obstetrician-led genetic screening of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals for TSD and other severe recessive diseases for which this group is at risk. Massively parallel DNA sequencing is expected to become the testing modality of choice over the coming years. Keywords: Tay-Sachs disease, genetic screening, Australia

  1. Tay-Sachs disease as a model for screening inborn errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzer, M G; McDowell, G A

    1992-09-01

    In the absence of treatments for most inborn errors of metabolism, the goal of both geneticists and health care providers has been the prevention of disease through identification of at-risk couples. When the enzyme deficiency responsible for a disorder is known, heterozygotes can frequently be identified by enzyme assay. The presence or absence of specific mutations in the genes coding for these enzymes may be determined directly if the gene of interest has been identified and characterized. Because the inherited metabolic disorders are rare, these approaches are useful only for individuals with a family history of a specific disease or for populations in which the gene frequency for a specific disease is increased. Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal, autosomal recessive, metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme Hex A. Although it is rare in the general population, in which the heterozygote frequency is approximately 1/167, it is elevated in a few populations, including the Ashkenazi Jewish community, in which the heterozygote frequency is 1/30. The ability to detect TSD heterozygotes reliably and to diagnose TSD prenatally using a simple and rapid enzyme assay has made prevention of this disorder possible through education and carrier screening. The identification of specific TSD mutations at the DNA level enables laboratories to provide more accurate screening and diagnosis in some families. The success of TSD screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population has made it the prototype for screening among the inborn errors of metabolism. The TSD example becomes increasingly relevant as heterozygote detection becomes possible for other genetic disorders that are increased in well-defined populations. Cystic fibrosis is such a disease in the caucasian population. PMID:1355703

  2. Women with shaved heads: western Buddhist nuns and Haredi Jewish wives: polysemy, universalism and misinterpretations of hair symbolism in pluralistic societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Niculescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female hair, or rather the absence of hair: it compares the symbols attached to shaved heads for Western Buddhist nuns and for Jewish married women from various Haredi or ‘ultra-orthodox’ groups, and the (mainly negative representations of these in the external, secular society.The comparison is based on fieldwork research undertaken by the author. When interviewing Western nuns of Jewish origin, it appeared that their shaved heads had been very difficult to cope with for their families, to whom it was a reminder of the Holocaust. The same body treatment can thus represent, on one side, bliss (for the Buddhist nun for whom it is a symbol of libertation and spiritual engagement, and on the other side, horror (for her family and sometimes, out of a Buddhist context, society. Also, the same body treatment can be used to express celibacy for the Buddhist nun, or marriage for the Haredi, or ultra-orthodox woman. Therefore the meaning of head shaving seems to be fluctuating and contextual: it can mean either­ religious commitment, or punishment, or disease.

  3. The exon 55 deletion in the nebulin gene--one single founder mutation with world-wide occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Greenleaf, Rebecca S; DeChene, Elizabeth T; Kellinsalmi, Mutsumi; Pelin, Katarina; Laing, Nigel G; Beggs, Alan H; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, Anderson et al. reported a homozygous 2502 bp deletion including exon 55 of the nebulin gene in five Ashkenazi Jewish probands with nemaline myopathy. We determined the occurrence of this deletion in a world-wide series of 355 nemaline myopathy probands with no previously known mutation in other genes and found the mutation in 14 probands, two of whom represented families previously ascertained by Anderson et al. Two of the families were not of known Ashkenazi Jewish descent but they had the haplotype known to segregate with this mutation. In all but two of eight homozygous patients, the clinical picture was more severe than in typical nemaline myopathy. PMID:19232495

  4. The exon 55 deletion in the nebulin gene - one single founder mutation with world-wide occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Greenleaf, Rebecca S.; DeChene, Elizabeth T; Kellinsalmi, Mutsumi; Pelin, Katarina; Laing, Nigel G.; Beggs, Alan H.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Anderson and co-workers (2004) reported a homozygous 2,502 bp deletion including exon 55 of the nebulin gene in five Ashkenazi Jewish probands with nemaline myopathy (NM) [1]. We determined the occurrence of this deletion in a world-wide series of 355 NM probands with no previously known mutation in other genes and found the mutation in 14 probands. Two of the families were not of known Ashkenazi Jewish descent but they had the haplotype known to segregate with this mutation. In all but two o...

  5. Prevalence of the BRCA1 founder mutation c.5266dupin Brazilian individuals at-risk for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Ingrid P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 5-10% of breast and ovarian carcinomas are hereditary and most of these result from germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In women of Ashkenazi Jewish ascendance, up to 30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas may be attributable to mutations in these genes, where 3 founder mutations, c.68_69del (185delAG and c.5266dup (5382insC in BRCA1 and c.5946del (6174delT in BRCA2, are commonly encountered. It has been suggested by some authors that screening for founder mutations should be undertaken in all Brazilian women with breast cancer. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of three founder mutations, commonly identified in Ashkenazi individuals in a sample of non-Ashkenazi cancer-affected Brazilian women with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC syndrome. Among 137 unrelated Brazilian women from HBOC families, the BRCA1c.5266dup mutation was identified in seven individuals (5%. This prevalence is similar to that encountered in non-Ashkenazi HBOC families in other populations. However, among patients with bilateral breast cancer, the frequency of c.5266dup was significantly higher when compared to patients with unilateral breast tumors (12.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.023. The BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del mutations did not occur in this sample. We conclude that screening non-Ashkenazi breast cancer-affected women from the ethnically heterogeneous Brazilian populations for the BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del is not justified, and that screening for BRCA1c.5266dup should be considered in high risk patients, given its prevalence as a single mutation. In high-risk patients, a negative screening result should always be followed by comprehensive BRCA gene testing. The finding of a significantly higher frequency of BRCA1 c.5266dup in women with bilateral breast cancer, as well as existence of other as yet unidentified founder mutations in this population, should be

  6. National Jewish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders. Learn about our programs For Professionals Allergy Asthma Cancer Cardiology COPD Critical Care and Hospital Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Environmental & Occupational Health Gastroenterology Immunology Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) Mycobacterial & ...

  7. Recurrent germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in high risk families in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitman, Yael; Simeonov, Monica; Herskovitz, Liron; Kushnir, Anya; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Kaufman, Bella; Zidan, Jamal; Friedman, Eitan

    2012-06-01

    The spectrum of germline mutations among Jewish non Ashkenazi high risk breast/ovarian cancer families includes a few predominant mutations in BRCA1 (185delAG and Tyr978X) and BRCA2 (8765delAG). A few additional recurring mutations [A1708E, 981delAT, C61G (BRCA1) R2336P, and IVS2 + 1G > A (BRCA2)] have been reported in Jewish non Ashkenazi families. The 4153delA*BRCA1 C61G*BRCA1 and the 4075delGT*BRCA2 has been reported to recur in Russian/Polish non Jews and Ashkenazim, respectively. The rate of these recurring mutations has not been reported in Israeli high risk families. Genotyping for these recurring mutations by restriction enzyme digest and sequencing method was applied to high risk, predominantly cancer affected, unrelated Israeli individuals of Ashkenazi (n = 827), non Ashkenazi (n = 2,777), non Jewish Caucasians (n = 193), and 395 of mixed ethnicity. Jewish participants included 827 Ashkenazi, 804 Balkans, 847 North Africans, 234 Yemenites, and 892 Asians (Iraq and Iran). Age at diagnosis of breast cancer (median ± SD) (n = 2,484) was 47.2 ± 9.6 for all women participants. Males (n = 236) were also included, of whom 24 had breast cancer and 35 had pancreatic cancer. Overall, 8/282 (2.8%) of the Balkan cases carried the BRCA1*A1708E mutation, 4/180 (2.2%) the R2336P mutation, and 0/270 the IVS2 + 1G > A BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Of North Africans, 7/264 (2.65%) carried the BRCA1*981delAT mutation. The BRCA1*C61G mutation was detected in 3/269 Ashkenazi, non Ashkenazi, and non Jewish Russians; the BRCA1*Tyr978X mutation was detected in 23/3220 individuals of non Ashkenazi origin, exclusively of Asian ethnicity (23/892, 2.6% of the Asians tested). The BRCA1*4153delA mutation was noted in 2/285 non Jewish Caucasians, and none of the Ashkenazim (n = 500) carried the BRCA2*4075delGT mutation. Jewish high risk families of North African, Asian, and Balkan descent should be screened for the 981delAT, Tyr978X, A1708E BRCA1, and the R2336P BRCA2 mutations

  8. Promoting Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  9. Babel’s Dawn and the Primeval Language. Between Translation and Narrative, or the Syriac Version of an Old Jewish Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The story of the Tower of Babel in Gn 11:1–9 gave rise to a rich literary tradition, in which the topos of the primeval language emerged. Whereas the interpretative tradition originating among the Jewish commentators upheld that the original language was Hebrew, in the heart of the Eastern Christian communities some authors supported this theory, but others stated it to be Aramaic. The aim of the present article is to show how a celebrated chronicler like Michael the Syrian (12th c. CE composed his version of the account narrated in Gn 11:1–9 by echoing different textual sources, but at the same time by combining both translation and narrative techniques in composing his text.

  10. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  11. BRCA1 loses the ring but lords over resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Simon N

    2016-08-01

    Germline breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) variants are associated with a high risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Many BRCA1-mediated cancers are initially responsive to platinum-based therapy; however, resistance commonly develops. The BRCA1185delAG mutation is common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population and has been thought to result in loss of function due to the introduction of a stop codon in the 5' region of the BRCA1 transcript. Two studies in this issue of the JCI reveal that the BRCA1185delAG mutation results in the production of BRCA1 that lacks the N-terminal really interesting new gene (RING) domain. RING-less BRCA1 was shown to directly mediate chemoresistance, while maintaining some homologous recombination function. These results provide important insight into BRCA1 function and indicate that other truncated proteins could arise through similar alterations in codon usage. PMID:27454288

  12. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  13. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  14. Introducción a la actividad física deportiva en el pueblo judío=Introduction to the physical-sport activities in the Jewish people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández Truan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Al analizar los acontecimientos históricos sucedidos durante la Edad Media en Al-Andalus, suele ser habitual olvidamos de la existencia de un núcleo de población que aunque no fue el más numeroso, sí que desempeñó un papel primordial en la consistencia de las tres culturas. Por eso, el presente artículo no se propone realizar un estudio exhaustivo, sino tan solo señalar aquellos aspectos que son susceptibles de orientar futuras investigaciones que intenten solventar el déficit existente de conocimientos sobre los judíos de aquella época, que nos permitan entender la realidad de la vida cotidiana durante la época medieval, mediante el conocimiento y la comprensión de las actividades físicas que sirvieron de diversión y entretenimiento a esta población tan identificada con nuestro país, hasta el punto de que en la diáspora tras su expulsión, siguieran reconociéndose como hijos de Sefarad.--------------------------------------------------------------------------When analysing historical events having taken place in the Middle Ages in AI-Andalus, most often we forget the existence of a group of people that though not the largest, played a paramount role in the coexistence of the three cultures. This is why this article does not intend to carry out an exhaustive study, but just to point out those aspects that might be useful for future researches aimed at compensating the lack of knowledge available about the Jewish people at that time. Such knowledge would allow us to comprehend the reality of everyday life during the medieval period, contributing to the understanding of the physical activities that provided fun and entertainment to that population that was so identified with our country that after their expulsion, in their diaspora, they still considered themselves the sons of Sefarad.

  15. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  16. Total population survey of the frequency and severity of asthma in 17 year old boys in an urban area in Israel.

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, I; Springer, C; Godfrey, S

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the prevalence of asthma in children and young people is increasing. METHODS: An examination of a total population (35,170) of 17 year old Jewish boys of one seaside urban area in Israel was undertaken during two years, 1986 and 1990, by trained respiratory physicians in a regional recruiting office of the Israel Defence Forces. All boys who had ever been diagnosed as having asthma or symptoms that could have been due to asthma underwent a further examinatio...

  17. A new point mutation in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha subunit gene responsible for infantile Tay-Sachs disease in a non-Jewish Caucasian patient (a Kpn mutant).

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, A.; Punnett, H H; K. Suzuki

    1990-01-01

    The abnormality in the gene coding for the beta-hexosaminidase alpha subunit was analyzed in a non-Jewish patient with clinically typical infantile Tay-Sachs disease. The family was Catholic, and the father and the mother were of Irish and German descent, respectively. A hitherto undescribed single nucleotide transversion was found within exon 11 (G1260----C; Trp420----Cys). The coding sequence was otherwise entirely normal. Expression in the COS I cell system confirmed that the mutant gene d...

  18. 民国时期上海的犹太娼妓问题研究%A Study of Jewish Prostitutes in Shanghai during the Period of the Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭楠

    2013-01-01

    民国时期在二战反犹主义的浪潮下,大批犹太难民涌入远东诺亚方舟---上海。受纳粹迫害的犹太难民逃亡所带财产极少甚至没有。犹太人面临多重困难,如异国的新环境、中国严峻的经济形势和日本限制等,犹太人处境极为艰难,为此一些犹太女子迫不得已走上了为娼之路。%During the period of the republic of China , under the wave of anti-Semitism in the Second World War, a large number of Jewish refugees swarmed into the Far East Noah ’s Ark-Shanghai.Persecuted by the Na-zis, the Jewish refugees fled with little or no property .Under China’s grim economic situation at that time, and un-der the strict restriction of the number of Jews in Shanghai , the Jews situation was very difficult and some Jewish women were forced to be prostitutes .

  19. Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  20. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  1. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  2. Populations games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-19. ISSN 2367-5233. [Featuring International Conferences Biomath 2015. Blagoevgrad, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : populations dynamics

  3. Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier

    2012-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 IAC Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School was {\\it Secular Evolution of Galaxies} I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of 10. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group...

  4. Population success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  5. Jüdische Frauenvereine als Teil der europäischen Frauenbewegung Jewish Women’s Organizations as Part of the European Women’s Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Hannig

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Sammelband gibt einen fundierten Einblick in die unterschiedliche Entwicklung der jüdischen Frauenbewegung vom 19. bis ins 20. Jahrhundert. Im Zentrum der sechs Beiträge stehen verschiedene Frauenvereine sowie deren Zusammensetzung und Tätigkeitsfelder in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Deutlich wird, dass vor allem Wohltätigkeit und Fürsorge wichtige Aufgabenbereiche diverser Vereine darstellten; aber auch wirtschaftliche, rechtliche und politische Emanzipation spielten eine wichtige Rolle. Abgerundet wird dieser lesenswerte Tagungsband durch einen knapp 80 Seiten starken Quellenteil.The collection at hand provides a sound look into the different developments of the Jewish women’s movement from the nineteenth and into the twentieth century. Various women’s organizations as well as their composition and areas of activity in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland are central to the six contributions. The essays clearly show that charity and aid comprise the most important activities for many of the organizations, although economic, legal, and political emancipation also play an important role. An approximately 80-page appendix of sources rounds out this collection, which is truly well worth reading.

  6. Geschlechtergeschichte als Zugang zur deutsch-jüdischen Geschichte Gender History as Point of Entry to German-Jewish History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiane Gerhardt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Mit der sukzessiven Erosion des rabbinischen Normensystems und im Prozess der Verbürgerlichung, so die grundlegende These dieser Arbeit, wurden jüdische Frauen seit dem frühen 19. Jahrhundert nicht nur stärker als zuvor in die religiöse Kultur und Praxis integriert. Gleichermaßen gewannen auch Konzepte von Weiblichkeit entscheidend an Bedeutung für die Neuorientierung eines Judaismus bürgerlicher Prägung. Auf breiter Quellenbasis werden in Gender, Judaism and Bourgeois Culture in Germany, 1800–1870 die soziale und religiöse Praxis dieses historischen Wandels, die Programme und Auseinandersetzungen, aber auch die Grenzen dieser Neudefinitionen analysiert.The basic thesis of this work is that during the course of the successive erosion of the Rabbinical system of norms and the process of gentrification, Jewish women have become ever more strongly integrated into religious culture and practice since the early 19th century. Concurrently, the concept of femininity took on a decisive meaning for the new orientation of bourgeois-leaning Judaism. The book Gender, Judaism and Bourgeois Culture in Germany, 1800–1870, analyses the social and religious practice of this historical change, the programs and conflicts as well as the limits of these new definitions based on a broad selection of sources.

  7. Israel: A jewish state or a state for all its citizens? Eine diskursanalytische Untersuchung der arabisch-palästinensischen Minderheit und ihrer Beziehung zum israelischen Staat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hartung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Studie befasst sich mit dem politischen Diskurs über die aktuellen sozialen und politischen Probleme im Zusammenleben zwischen palästinensisch-arabischen und jüdischen Israelis. Ziel ist es herauszufinden, wie die Politik des Staates Israel gegenüber der arabischen Minderheit im eigenen Staat in den Medien dargestellt und bewertet wird. Zu diesem Zweck wird mittels einer Diskursanalyse die Berichterstattung der englischsprachigen israelischen Tageszeitungen Jerusalem Post und Haaretz über das 2011 verabschiedete Admissions Committee Law untersucht. Das Gesetz gibt Gemeinden mit weniger als 400 Haushalten in den Regionen Galiläa und Negev das Recht, Auswahlkommissionen zu bilden und potentielle Einwohner auf ihre Eignung für das Leben in der Gemeinde zu prüfen. Im medienvermittelten Diskurs spielt die ethnische und kulturelle Zugehörigkeit jüdischer und arabischer Israelis eine wichtige Rolle, wobei eine Grenzziehung auf Basis des kulturellen Bewusstseins erfolgt. Die Analyse zeigt somit, dass sich der zentrale Konflikt, der das Zusammenleben der jüdisch-israelischen Mehrheit und der arabischen Minderheit bestimmt, um die Frage nach dem Charakter des Staates Israel dreht. Soll Israel a jewish state oder a state for all its citizens sein? Diese Grundüberlegung bestimmt das Handeln des Staates auf der einen Seite und die Forderungen der arabischen Minderheit nach Gleichberechtigung auf der anderen Seite.

  8. The Impact of Socio-environmental Projects of Jewish and Bedouin Youth in Israel on Students' Local Knowledge and Views of Each Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaher, Iris; Tal, Tali

    2014-02-01

    This study is part of a first study of collaborative socio-environmental projects that engage Jewish and Arab students in Israel in learning about their local environment and about each other through outdoor learning and environmental action. We used ideas of social learning and environmental citizenship to frame our research. We investigated students' knowledge regarding their local environment and their knowledge of each other's community. We also studied the participants' views regarding their project-partners'environmental knowledge, awareness and behaviour in comparison to their own. Initially, differences were found regarding various aspects of the students' socio-environmental knowledge and in students' views of their counterparts' environmentalism. At the end of the projects, students showed better understanding of local socio-environmental issues and demonstrated changes in their original views towards the environmental awareness and behaviour of their counterparts. These findings suggest that projects which involve students from segregated communities not only promote environmental awareness but contribute to a reduction in mutual prejudices. We suggest that the differences we found are not related to ethnicity, but rather to students' socioeconomic status and experience in environmental education programmes.

  9. Parental practices and political violence: the protective role of parental warmth and authority-control in Jewish and Arab Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Iris; Slone, Michelle

    2012-10-01

    Parental warmth and parental authority-control patterns have been documented as practices with highest significance for children's well-being and development in a variety of life areas. Various forms of these practices have been shown to have a direct positive effect on children and also to protect children from adverse effects of numerous stressors. However, surprisingly, few studies have examined the role of these practices as possible protective factors for children exposed to intractable conflict and political violence. Participants in this study were Jewish (n = 88) and Arab (n = 105) Israeli families, with children aged 7-12.5 (M = 10.73, SD = 0.99). Children completed questionnaires assessing political violence exposure, behavioral, psychological, and social difficulties, and perceived paternal and maternal warmth. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing parental warmth, parental authority-control, and the child's difficulties. Results showed parental warmth to be a significant moderator of political violence, related to low levels of behavioral and social difficulties of children. Parental authority-control patterns were not protectors from adverse effects of political violence exposure. Maternal authoritarian authority-control showed an effect resembling a risk factor. Differential roles of parental warmth and authority-control, fathers' versus mothers' roles, and ethnic differences are discussed, and practical clinical implications are proposed. PMID:23039353

  10. Health, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to self-rated health of long-term Jewish residents, immigrants, and Arab women in midlife in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances. PMID:24791665

  11. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  12. De l’usure au pouvoir de l’argent : les métamorphoses d’un mythe antijuif à travers la caricature en Angleterre From Usury to High Finance: The Metamorphosis of an AntiJewish Myth viewed through English Caricatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Germain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available “Jewish Money Power”, the “Wandering Jew” and the “Blood Libel” (ritual murder myths are the three pillars of the anti-Semitic iconography which developed during the Middle Ages. Throughout the centuries, their evolution has continuously reflected the beliefs and tastes of the various societies which have used them to stereotype Jewish otherness. Far from being exhaustive, the intent of this article, based on a limited number of caricatures, is to stress the changes which took place over the centuries in numerous and varied portrayals of the “Jewish Money Power”: from the Jew in his capacity as money lender to the Jew as stockbroker, to more contemporary images of the Jewish banker and international financier, monopolising high finance, insinuating himself in all fields and plotting to dominate and destroy the Christian world. Having explained the various transformations in context, this analysis of selected Jewish graphic portrayals will also highlight the constant use of physical features and characteristics that have contributed to creating a misleading image of the Jews and encouraged anti-Semitism.

  13. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  14. Population geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A

    1994-03-01

    Population geographers are involved in contemporary policy issues, the production of quality work, and successful communication of research findings. This article reviewed some contributions population geographers have made to the understanding of the geographic impact of aging and the consequences of migration. Geographers have come late to the study of aging and have focused primarily on four main policy issues: 1) fertility decline, 2) housing demography, 3) aged patterns of housing and migration, and 4) government policy. Fertility decline research has highlighted information diffusion theories for fertility decline by researchers such as Zelinsky, Skeldon, and Noin. Changes in attitudes and the removal on constraints has been examined by Woods. Residential mobility studies have been the focus of researchers such as Gober, Moore, and Clark, and Myers. Regional labor markets and the movement of the "baby boom" through the life course have been examined by Miron, Plane and Rogerson, and Clout, who studied the empty nesters and the movement out of suburbia. Private residential housing has increased for the elderly in England and Wales (Hamnett and Mullings), and seasonal migration of Minnesotans results in lost sales revenues and high health and social costs for those too ill to travel (Craig). Geographers have not accomplished a significant thrust into the literature on demographic aging. Contributions to the transnational and international literature have resulted in internal migration studies by Clout on "counterurbanization" in northwestern industrial Europe, while Fielding, Baltensperger, Marchand and Scott, and Jones have examined the continuing rural-urban migration. The loss of urban population has been associated with inner city problems, the impact of labor supply and market demand, and the revenue and health care consequences in the work of Champion, Gibson, and Champion and Illeris, and Craig. Impacts are felt differently by geographic location, and

  15. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Chotibut, Thiparat

    2016-01-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuations-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  16. Perceptions of holocaust memory: a comparative study of public reactions to art about the holocaust at the Jewish Museum in New York and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (1990s-2000s)

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the changes in the Israeli and Jewish-American public perception of Holocaust memory in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and offers an elaborate comparative analysis of public reactions to art about the Holocaust. Created by the inheritors of Holocaust memory, second and third-generation Jews in Israel and America, the artworks titled Your Colouring Book (1997) and Live and Die as Eva Braun (1998), and the group exhibition Mirroring Evil. Nazi Imagery/Recent Art (2002)...

  17. Molecular analysis of beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) deficiency among persons of French Canadian background living in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triggs-Raine, B.; Richard, M.; Wasel, N. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnepeg (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) results from mutations in the HEXA gene that cause Hex A deficiency. Enzyme screening for disease prevention has been applied in the Ashkenazi Jewish and French Canadian populations which have an elevated disease incidence. However, benign mutations that cause Hex A deficiency, but not TSD, complicate enzyme screening programs. While benign mutations account for only about 2% of Jewish carriers, they account for about 36% of non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. We have found a carrier frequency of 1/72 (n=1300) among persons of French Canadian background living in New England using an enzyme-based assay. The HEXA gene of these carriers and others was analyzed to determine the molecular basis of Hex A deficiency in this group. DNA samples were tested for common previously identified mutations; samples in which no change was found were screened for uncommon or novel mutations using SSCP analysis. Exons showing mobility shifts were sequenced and most mutations were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. Known disease-causing mutations were found in 8 samples (4 had a 7.6 kb deletion found in 80% of French Canadian TSD alleles) and known benign mutations were found in 4 samples. Seven novel mutations (G748A; +18 IVS-10 G-to-A; T1338C; +94 IVS-14 T-to-G; C1164G; +30 IVS-6 T-to-G) were identified; the G748A (Gly250Ser) change was found in 3 samples. The effects of the novel mutations on Hex A is unknown; some are likely polymorphisms. The molecular basis of this carrier population is clearly different from that of French Canadian TSD patients. Screening centers should be aware of the presence of benign mutations in the French Canadian population. Given the frequency of the Gly250Ser mutation, and the fact that it has been detected in a TSD patient, it too may be benign.

  18. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Nestmann, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    In a model on population and endogenous technological change, Kremer combines a short-run Malthusian scenario where income determines the population that can be sustained, with the Boserupian insight that greater population spurs technological change and can therefore lift a country out of its Malthusian trap. We show that a more realistic version of the model, which combines population and population density, allows deeper insights into these processes. The incorporation of population densit...

  19. L’introuvable déségrégation ethnique des villages communautaires juifs de Galilée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Renno

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Segregation of the Galilean Community Villages.In August 1978, while the Israeli settlement policies tended to focus mostly on the occupied territories, the settlement department of the Jewish Agency succeeded in obtaining a governmental green light to implement in Galilee a Mitzpim Program also known as Yihud haGalil. In that frame, 52 mitzpim, small rurban communities, were settled on the Galilean hilltops. Most of them transformed into community villages (yichouv kehilati, residential settlements where lives, on average, a few hundred families. While the political leadership was prompt in describing those communities in very nationalistic terms, they mostly attracted an urban, secular and Ashkenazi middle-class, uncomfortable with this rhetoric, but sensitive to the quality of life which could offer those settlements. Driven by a will of social separatism, those new settlers organized resident screening procedures to judge the social compatibility of applying families.Mitzpim were mostly settled in central Galilee, i.e. in a region which had then mostly been populated by Palestinians citizens of Israel. This spatial proximity did not prevent a continued separation: both Arab and Jewish villages remained strictly segregated. At the end of the 1990s, the screening procedures set by the Jewish villages were contested in front of the Supreme Court by an Israeli Arab whose request to join the community village of Katzir had been rejected. Following the 2 000 ruling (Qaadan vs Katzir, new procedures – with a greater involvement of the regional councils were set, but, until now, to no effect as far as the integration of Arab families is concerned. Their applications are still inevitably turned down by integration committees.To understand the mechanism of this segregation of the Galilean community villages, this article first deals with the members of the Israeli Arab minority able to set in motion a desegregation process, i.e. the

  20. Distribution of three alpha-chain beta-hexosaminidase A mutations among Tay-Sachs carriers.

    OpenAIRE

    Grebner, E E; Tomczak, J

    1991-01-01

    DNA from 176 carriers of the Tay-Sachs gene was tested for the presence of the three mutations most commonly found among Ashkenazi Jews: the so-called insertion, splice junction, and adult mutations. Among 148 Ashkenazi Jews tested, 108 had the insertion mutation, 26 had the splice junction mutation, five had the adult mutation, and nine had none of the three. Among 28 non-Jewish carriers tested, most of whom were obligate carriers, four had the insertion mutation, one had the adult mutation,...

  1. EL LUGAR DE ROMA-BIZANCIO EN LA APOCALÍTICA JUDÍA DURANTE LA ANTIGÜEDAD TARDÍA THE PLACE OF ROME-BYZANTIUM IN LATE ANTIQUE JEWISH APOCALYPTIC TRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ubierna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata del lugar de Roma-Bizancio en los textos apocalípticos judíos de la Antigüedad Tardía tales como el Sefer Zorobabel, el Sefer Eliyahu o las Nistarot del Rabbi Simeón ben Yohai, así como también la exégesis caraíta del libro de Daniel. Estos textos reflejan la interpretación escatológica judía de los acontecimientos contemporáneos desde el siglo III en adelante, tales como la crisis del Imperio romano, la ocupación persa de Palestina y la invasión musulmana.This article deals with the place of Rome-Byzantium in Late AAntique Jewish Apocalyptic texts such as the Sefer Zerubabbel, the Sefer Eliyahu and the Nistarot of Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai and, also, the karaite exegesis of the Book of Daniel. These texts reflect eschatological jewish interpretation of contemporary events from the 3rd century onwards, like the crisis of the Roman Empire, the Persian occupation of the Land of Israel and the Muslim invasion.

  2. Canavan disease: mutations among Jewish and non-jewish patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, R; Gao, G. P.; Aloya, M.; K. Balamurugan; Petrosky, A.; Michals, K.; Matalon, R.

    1994-01-01

    Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy caused by the deficiency of aspartoacylase (ASPA). Sixty-four probands were analyzed for mutations in the ASPA gene. Three point mutations--693C-->A, 854A-->C, and 914C-->A--were identified in the coding sequence. The 693C-->A and 914C-->A base changes, resulting in nonsense tyr231-->ter and missense ala305-->glu mutations, respectively, lead to complete loss of ASPA activity in in vitro expression studies. The 854A-->C transversion con...

  3. Polish-Jewish and Jewish-Polish Biographies: Repeated Reconnaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Czyżak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains reflections on changes in biographical writing, especially biography of persons of heterogenous ethnic identity. The biographies are not only reconstructions of an individual’s life, but also a clear testimony and reflection of changes in collective consciousness. It turns out that biographies also discover, in a peculiar way, the author’s identity, who, in the process of selection and creation of a biographical text, reveals a part of their own history. This aspect is clearly seen in texts by second and third generation Holocaust survivors, and is demonstrated by interpretations of Magdalena Tulli’s Włoskie szpilki [Italian High Heels] and Piotr Paziński’s Pensjonat [Boarding house].

  4. Predicting diabetic nephropathy using a multifactorial genetic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Blech

    Full Text Available AIMS: The tendency to develop diabetic nephropathy is, in part, genetically determined, however this genetic risk is largely undefined. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested the hypothesis that combined analysis of multiple genetic variants can improve prediction. METHODS: Based on previous reports, we selected 27 SNPs in 15 genes from metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and genotyped them in 1274 Ashkenazi or Sephardic Jewish patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes of >10 years duration. A logistic regression model was built using a backward selection algorithm and SNPs nominally associated with nephropathy in our population. The model was validated by using random "training" (75% and "test" (25% subgroups of the original population and by applying the model to an independent dataset of 848 Ashkenazi patients. RESULTS: The logistic model based on 5 SNPs in 5 genes (HSPG2, NOS3, ADIPOR2, AGER, and CCL5 and 5 conventional variables (age, sex, ethnicity, diabetes type and duration, and allowing for all possible two-way interactions, predicted nephropathy in our initial population (C-statistic = 0.672 better than a model based on conventional variables only (C = 0.569. In the independent replication dataset, although the C-statistic of the genetic model decreased (0.576, it remained highly associated with diabetic nephropathy (χ(2 = 17.79, p<0.0001. In the replication dataset, the model based on conventional variables only was not associated with nephropathy (χ(2 = 3.2673, p = 0.07. CONCLUSION: In this proof-of-concept study, we developed and validated a genetic model in the Ashkenazi/Sephardic population predicting nephropathy more effectively than a similarly constructed non-genetic model. Further testing is required to determine if this modeling approach, using an optimally selected panel of genetic markers, can provide clinically useful prediction and if generic models can be

  5. Difficult Bond. Derrida and Jewishness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Watchful insomnia can be a nerve-wracking business especially if there is a question to be, if not resolved, then at least confronted; or a decision called for, not despite the famous undecidablity hypothesis, but precisely because of it. Thus it is that finally, casting off the shadows of the...

  6. Education Vital Signs: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Population changes and demographics shape the future of public schools. Includes statistics on ethnic makeup of student population, the projected baby boomlet, children of working mothers, households without children, and the aging population. (MD)

  7. Populous: A tool for populating ontology templates

    CERN Document Server

    Jupp, Simon; Iannone, Luigi; Klein, Julie; Owen, Stuart; Schanstra, Joost; Stevens, Robert; Wolstencroft, Katy

    2010-01-01

    We present Populous, a tool for gathering content with which to populate an ontology. Domain experts need to add content, that is often repetitive in its form, but without having to tackle the underlying ontological representation. Populous presents users with a table based form in which columns are constrained to take values from particular ontologies; the user can select a concept from an ontology via its meaningful label to give a value for a given entity attribute. Populated tables are mapped to patterns that can then be used to automatically generate the ontology's content. Populous's contribution is in the knowledge gathering stage of ontology development. It separates knowledge gathering from the conceptualisation and also separates the user from the standard ontology authoring environments. As a result, Populous can allow knowledge to be gathered in a straight-forward manner that can then be used to do mass production of ontology content.

  8. Estimating Population Dynamics without Population Data

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Chambers; Vangelis Tzouvelekas

    2012-01-01

    We develop a biologically correct cost system for production systems facing invasive pests that allows the estimation of population dynamics without a priori knowledge of their true values. We apply that model to a data set for olive producers in Crete and derive from it predictions about the underlying populations dynamics. Those dynamics are compared to information on population dynamics obtained from pest sampling with extremely favorable results.

  9. Length distributions of identity by descent reveal fine-scale demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamara, Pier Francesco; Lencz, Todd; Darvasi, Ariel; Pe'er, Itsik

    2012-11-01

    Data-driven studies of identity by descent (IBD) were recently enabled by high-resolution genomic data from large cohorts and scalable algorithms for IBD detection. Yet, haplotype sharing currently represents an underutilized source of information for population-genetics research. We present analytical results on the relationship between haplotype sharing across purportedly unrelated individuals and a population's demographic history. We express the distribution of IBD sharing across pairs of individuals for segments of arbitrary length as a function of the population's demography, and we derive an inference procedure to reconstruct such demographic history. The accuracy of the proposed reconstruction methodology was extensively tested on simulated data. We applied this methodology to two densely typed data sets: 500 Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals and 56 Kenyan Maasai (MKK) individuals (HapMap 3 data set). Reconstructing the demographic history of the AJ cohort, we recovered two subsequent population expansions, separated by a severe founder event, consistent with previous analysis of lower-throughput genetic data and historical accounts of AJ history. In the MKK cohort, high levels of cryptic relatedness were detected. The spectrum of IBD sharing is consistent with a demographic model in which several small-sized demes intermix through high migration rates and result in enrichment of shared long-range haplotypes. This scenario of historically structured demographies might explain the unexpected abundance of runs of homozygosity within several populations. PMID:23103233

  10. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  11. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  12. Trace element concentration in hair samples as an indicator of exposure of population in the Negev, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, H; Karpas, Z; Cohen, H; Tal, A; Zeiri, Y

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of the toxic elements Ag, As, Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se, and U and the elements Al, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn in human hair samples of population living in the north of the Negev Desert in Israel was determined. The study population consisted of three subgroups: Jewish urban population, Bedouin urban population, and Bedouins living in unrecognized villages (the "dispersion"). The main focus is on the differences between these subgroups in an attempt to explore factors responsible for the variation in trace metal contents in hair samples. The results show that the level of several elements, particularly Ag, Mn, and Pb, in the female Bedouin group significantly differed from the other groups in the study. Exploring the reasons for these differences, we concluded that the lifestyle of those women is the main cause. The female Bedouin subgroup is exposed to heavy metals from kitchen utensils, jewelry, and makeup. Therefore, differences in the heavy metal concentration in the hair samples of this group were attributed to the traditional unique lifestyle and social behavior of the females in the Bedouin society. PMID:23975582

  13. Mutational analyses of Tay-Sachs disease: studies on Tay-Sachs carriers of French Canadian background living in New England.

    OpenAIRE

    Triggs-Raine, B; Richard, M.; Wasel, N; Prence, E M; Natowicz, M R

    1995-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) results from mutations in HEXA that cause Hex A deficiency. Heterozygote-screening programs have been applied in groups with an increased TSD incidence, such as Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians in Quebec. These programs are complicated by benign mutations that cause apparent Hex A deficiency but not TSD. Benign mutations account for only approximately 2% of Jewish and approximately 36% of non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. A carrier frequency of 1/53 (n = 1,434) wa...

  14. Will Chinese ovarian cancer patients benefit from knowing the BRCA2 mutation status?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guo-Yan; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, the mutation status of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is commonly determined for genetic counseling among members of families with a history of breast or ovarian cancer, especially for women of the Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity. Recent studies in the Cancer Genome Atlas project have demonstrated that BRCA2 mutation carriers are more responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy among high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. Thus, in Western countries, the mutation status of BRCA1 ...

  15. Antenatal diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease in a twin pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Donnai, P; Donnai, D.; Harris, R.; STEPHENS, R.; Young, E.; Campbell, S.

    1981-01-01

    An Ashkenazi Jewish woman had a child with Niemann-Pick disease in her first marriage. She subsequently remarried a man who was also heterozygous for the condition and conceived twins. Prenatal diagnostic tests were performed and one twin was shown to be homozygous and the other heterozygous for Niemann-Pick disease. The problems of prenatal diagnosis and counselling in twin pregnancies are discussed.

  16. ACOG committee opinion. Number 318, October 2005. Screening for Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a severe progressive neurologic disease that causes death in early childhood. Carrier screening, should be offered before pregnancy to individuals and couples at high-risk, including those of Ashkenazi Jewish, French-Canadian, or Cajun descent and those with a family history consistent with TSD. If both partners are determined to be carriers of TSD, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis should be offered. PMID:16199656

  17. Tay-Sachs disease heterozygote detection: use of a centrifugal analyser for automation of hexosaminidase assays with two different artificial substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Landels, E C; Ellis, I H; Bobrow, M; Fensom, A H

    1991-01-01

    An assay for measuring hexosaminidase A in serum and leucocytes is described in which a centrifugal analyser is used for automation of the enzyme assays after manual heat inactivation. The assay was used in a screening programme to identify heterozygotes for Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi Jewish subjects in the UK. The first results from this programme indicate a carrier frequency of 1 in 27. Automation of an assay for direct measurement of hexosaminidase A in serum using 4-methyl-umbellifery...

  18. Le Musée de la culture juive de Bratislava et les implications postcommunistes de son développement institutionnel The Israeli Philosophy and the War The Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava and the Post-communist Implications of its Institutional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Deme

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The central idea and the purported role which organize the work of a given Jewish museum clearly refer to the issues occupying its surrounding society with the greatest intensity or, alternatively, to the theme that could have the best chance of being digested by that society. Such issues may include the thematization of anti-Semitism or of the Holocaust, or may have a cultural mediating role. To what extent can we find a reflection of the Central-European Jewry’s multi-layered process of self-definition in the work of the Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava after 1989? Furthermore, to what extent does this process of self-definition follow the historical image conceived in the consciousness of the surrounding societies? What are the social conditions, the historical precursors and the future perspectives of these self-reflections? These are the questions to which I purport to find an answer in my article.

  19. Potential contribution of the Alzheimer's disease risk locus BIN1 to episodic memory performance in cognitively normal Type 2 diabetes elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Lior; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Lubitz, Irit; Schmeidler, James; Cooper, Itzik; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M; Heymann, Anthony; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, several promising susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) were discovered, by implementing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach. Recent GWAS meta-analysis has demonstrated the association of 19 loci (in addition to the APOE locus) with AD in the European ancestry population at genome-wide significance level. Since Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a substantial risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, the 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent the 19 AD loci were studied for association with performance in episodic memory, a primary cognitive domain affected by AD, in a sample of 848 cognitively normal elderly Israeli Jewish T2D patients. We found a suggestive association of SNP rs6733839, located near the bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) gene, with this phenotype. Controlling for demographic (age, sex, education, disease duration and ancestry) covariates, carriers of two copies of the AD risk allele T (TT genotype) performed significantly worse (p=0.00576; p=0.00127 among Ashkenazi origin sub-sample) in episodic memory compared to carriers of the C allele (CT+CC genotypes). When including additional potential covariates (clinical and APOE genotype), results remained significant (p=0.00769; p=0.00148 among Ashkenazi). Interestingly, as validated in multiple large studies, BIN1 is one of the most established AD risk loci, with a high odds ratio. Although preliminary and require further replications, our findings support a contribution of BIN1 to individual differences in episodic memory performance among T2D patients. PMID:26947052

  20. Bιβλιοκρισία:Well Begun is Only Half Done: Tracing Aristotle's Political Ideas in Medieval Arabic, Syriac, Byzantine, and Jewish Sources, ed. by V. SYROS [Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, v. 388. Medieval Confluences series, v. 1], Τempe 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Στυλιανός ΛAΜΠΑΚΗΣ

    2015-01-01

    Βιβλιοκρισία του:Well Begun is Only Half Done: Tracing Aristotle's Political Ideas in Medieval Arabic, Syriac, Byzantine, and Jewish Sources, edited by V. Syros  [Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, volume 388. Medieval Confluences series, volume 1], Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Tempe 2011, σσ. xiii + 226. ISBN 978 0 86698 436 2

  1. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  2. Estimating Ancestral Population Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeley, J.; Hey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The expected numbers of different categories of polymorphic sites are derived for two related models of population history: the isolation model, in which an ancestral population splits into two descendents, and the size-change model, in which a single population undergoes an instantaneous change in size. For the isolation model, the observed numbers of shared, fixed, and exclusive polymorphic sites are used to estimate the relative sizes of the three populations, ancestral plus two descendent...

  3. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  4. Teaching Population Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, George W.; Schwartzberg, Julie

    Written under the sponsorship of the Population Council, with the financial support of the Population Instructional Materials Project, this work is intended to provide the thoughtful teacher of the social sciences with some suggestions and techniques for introducing population study to students in terms of concrete case studies which explore the…

  5. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  6. Identidade judaica: formação, manutenção e possível modificação à luz da Psicologia Social Jewish identity: Formation, maintenance and possible modification under Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Epelboim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa examinou a configuração de ser judeu, a partir da Psicologia Social. Tal proposta reuniu considerações teóricas e observações empíricas. Quanto àquelas, foram elaborados comentários sobre identidades psicossociais, judaísmo, entre outras questões. Quanto aos aspectos empíricos, foi desenvolvido estudo de campo, com aplicação de questionário com perguntas abertas, cujas respostas foram examinadas com base na análise de conteúdo. Participaram da pesquisa 80 israelitas, sendo 40 ashkenazim e 40 sefaradim, cujas idades variaram entre 15 e 81 anos. Estes grupos foram compostos, respectivamente, por 20 homens e mulheres, dos quais 10 apresentavam nível médio e 10 superior de escolaridade. Resultados indicaram presença comum de categorias entre ashkenazim e sefaradim. Concluiu-se que ser judeu compreendia, sobretudo, aspectos religiosos e culturais. Quanto aos processos de formação, manutenção e modificação, houve predominância de fatores culturais e educacionais; culturais, religiosos, emocionais e sociais; e socioculturais.The research examined the configuration of being Jewish, under Social Psychology. This research made theoretical considerations and empirical observation. As regards the theoretical considerations, commentaries were made concerning psychosocial identity and Judaism. The empirical observations were based on a field study, with the application of a questionnaire, whose answers were examined through analyses of the content. The participants were 80 Israelis, being 40 ashkenazim and 40 sefaradim, with ages ranged from 15 to 81 years old. These groups were composed, respectively, by 20 men and women, each one with 10 participants with medium level of education and ten with high level. Results showed the common presence of categories. Being Jewish included, above all, religious and cultural aspects. As regards the processes of formation, maintenance and modification the predominance of cultural and

  7. Analysis and application of European genetic substructure using 300 K SNP information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available European population genetic substructure was examined in a diverse set of >1,000 individuals of European descent, each genotyped with >300 K SNPs. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analyses (PCA showed the largest division/principal component (PC differentiated northern from southern European ancestry. A second PC further separated Italian, Spanish, and Greek individuals from those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry as well as distinguishing among northern European populations. In separate analyses of northern European participants other substructure relationships were discerned showing a west to east gradient. Application of this substructure information was critical in examining a real dataset in whole genome association (WGA analyses for rheumatoid arthritis in European Americans to reduce false positive signals. In addition, two sets of European substructure ancestry informative markers (ESAIMs were identified that provide substantial substructure information. The results provide further insight into European population genetic substructure and show that this information can be used for improving error rates in association testing of candidate genes and in replication studies of WGA scans.

  8. Genome-wide association identifies a common variant in the reelin gene that increases the risk of schizophrenia only in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Shifman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in schizophrenia are well known, but their genetic basis has not been identified. We performed a genome-wide association scan for schizophrenia in an Ashkenazi Jewish population using DNA pooling. We found a female-specific association with rs7341475, a SNP in the fourth intron of the reelin (RELN gene (p = 2.9 x 10(-5 in women, with a significant gene-sex effect (p = 1.8 x 10(-4. We studied rs7341475 in four additional populations, totaling 2,274 cases and 4,401 controls. A significant effect was observed only in women, replicating the initial result (p = 2.1 x 10(-3 in women; p = 4.2 x 10(-3 for gene-sex interaction. Based on all populations the estimated relative risk of women carrying the common genotype is 1.58 (p = 8.8 x 10(-7; p = 1.6 x 10(-5 for gene-sex interaction. The female-specific association between RELN and schizophrenia is one of the few examples of a replicated sex-specific genetic association in any disease.

  9. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    Although relatively little has been known about the Chinese population in recent centuries, figures are available for more remote times. In the year 2 the Chinese population was recorded at 60 million. In 1928, when the last pre-Revolution census was conducted, China had a population of 475 million. The population was not believed to have grown very much due to internal disorders, war, and foreigh invasion, but the 1953 census counted 582 million to which were added 18 million to include Taiwan and overseas Chinese. The figure of 600 million appears to mark the beginning of concern over demographic problems. The crude birth rate was estimated at 37/1000 and the death rate at 17/1000. The 1953 census was conducted with Soviet aid and was given some publicity. The period 1953-58 was marked by a mortality decline and a steady fertility rate, but the population is believed to have declined from 647 million in 1958 to 643 million in 1962, the end of the Great Leap Forward. A census suppressed until recently gave a total of 694 million for 1964. Population growth was considerable from 1961-66. In the 1st part of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-70, no effort was made to control population growth; in 1971, the crude birth rate was estimated at 30-35/1000, the mortality rate was 8/1000, and the growth rate was 2.6%. 1971-79 marked the 1st phase of birth limitation, which became more pressing with time. The population was counted at 1 billion 8 million in 1982, with a birth rate of 21/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and a growth rate of 1.5%. Because of China's comprehensive system of population registration, the results of the 1982 census were not completely unexpected. Wide differences in growth rates were noted between provinces, and the minorities grew at a faster rate than the Han majority. Immediately after the Revolution, population was relatively neglected in China in favor of greater attention to economic growth. The 1st warnings about the consequences of overly

  10. The quest for the perfect baby: why do Israeli women seek prenatal genetic testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remennick, Larissa

    2006-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, the Israeli medical scene has witnessed a real boom in elective prenatal testing for inherited diseases that has spread beyond risk groups to the general Jewish population, especially of Ashkenazi (European) origin. This study tried to identify key social influences involved in the growing range and prevalence of prenatal genetic tests as they emerged from women's own perspective. Twenty-seven women having blood tests for genetic mutations were interviewed at two types of genetic clinics, and re-interviewed after getting test results. The names of 23 women who chose not to have elective tests were obtained from testers, and these non-testers were interviewed for comparison. Women's accounts suggest that elective genetic testing is more acceptable, if not normative, among educated middle class Ashkenazi women, and is more often questioned and refused by lower class Mizrahi women, as well as religious women of any ethnic origin. The key forces that drive women's choice of prenatal genetic diagnosis include the fear of having a sick and/or socially unfit child in an unsupportive environment; strong endorsement of testing by gynaecologists; popular and professional discourse on the common Ashkenazi mutations causing genetic anxiety in this ethnic group (i.e. apprehension of multiple known and unknown dangers hidden in its genetic makeup); and the emerging social pressure for comprehensive prenatal screening as an indispensable part of good motherhood. Many women described the experience of testing as frustrating because of the long wait for results and difficulty of their interpretation and subsequent decision-making. Women who rejected elective tests explained their decision by moral/religious objections to abortion and/or eugenic aspects of prenatal screening, as well as by prohibitive costs and poor understanding of the tests' meaning and implications. Yet, few informants voiced objections to the excessive medicalisation of pregnancy as such

  11. Population information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquariella, S K

    1984-12-01

    This article describes print and computerized services that are dedicated to bibliographic coverage of 1 or more areas of population studies. Major printed bibliographic information resources for population material include: ADOPT, DOCPAL Resumenes sobre Poblacion en America Latina, PIDSA Abstracts, Population Index and Review of Population Reviews. ADOPT is an annotated computer-aided current-awareness bibliographic journal which has been published monthly since January 1975 by the Regional Population Information Center of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). DOCPAL Resumenes is a computer-produced biannual collection of abstracts containing indexes and between 600 and 700 summaries of both published and unpublished population documents. PIDSA is intended to make available documentary information about population matters in sub-Saharan Africa. Population Index, 1 of the oldest and most definitive bibliographies in the demography field, is international in scope and is arranged as a classified and annotated bibliography of monographs, journal articles and 2ndary source material relevant to all aspects of demography. Review of Population Reviews, published 4 times a year, are annotated bibliographies containing summaries of articles that have been published in 83 periodicals in 37 countries. Cited articles are assigned subject-heading descriptors from the Population Multilingual Thesaurus. Major computerized information resources are: DOCPAL, DOCPOP, EBIS/POPFILE, MANPINS, POPLINE and POPULATION BIBLIOGRAPHY. DOCPAL was established to assist Latin Ameran countries in the collection, storage, processing and retrieval of population documents about Latin America. DOCPAL contains over 19,000 bibliographic citations. DOCPOP was established as the 1st Latin American national computerized population documentation system for Brazilian material. POPLINE is a computerized retrieval service cooperatively produced in the US which covers the

  12. Understanding Population Health Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kindig, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Population health is a relatively new term, with no agreement about whether it refers to a concept of health or a field of study of health determinants. There is debate, sometimes heated, about whether population health and public health are identical or different. Discussions of population health involve many terms, such as outcomes, disparities, determinants, and risk factors, which may be used imprecisely, particularly across different disciplines, such as medicine, epidemiology, economics...

  13. Clustering of population pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    Kejžar, Nataša; Korenjak-Černe, Simona; Batagelj, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Population pyramid is a very popular presentation of the age-sex distribution of the human population of a particular region. The shape of the pyramid shows many demographic, social, and political characteristics of the time and the region. In the paper results of hierarchical clustering of the world countries based on population pyramids are presented. Special attention is given to the shapes of the pyramids. The changes of the pyramids' shapes, and also changes of the countries inside main ...

  14. Clustering of population pyramids:

    OpenAIRE

    Batagelj, Vladimir; Kejžar, Nataša; Korenjak-Černe, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Population pyramid is a very popular presentation of the age-sex distribution of the human population of a particular region. The shape of the pyramid shows many demographic, social, and political characteristics of the time and the region. In the paper results of hierarchical clustering of the world countries based on population pyramids are presented. Special attention is given to the shapes of the pyramids. The changes of the pyramids' shapes, and also changes of the countries inside main ...

  15. Sujet, être, être-là : Heidegger, ou l’être humain entre pensée juive et philosophie grecque Subject, Being, Being-there: Heidegger or the Human Being between Jewish Thinking and Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schovanec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the sixties and seventies, theoretical discussions in European social sciences focused on the nature of the human being. Proponents of the rational subject, characterizing. Enlightenment-prone Western classical philosophy, went against the advocates of the much older and less-known anti-subjective tradition. Our study aims at giving an archaeological insight into this second paradigm, going back first to Heidegger, the master thinker of contemporary European social sciences, then to the religious – mainly Jewish – roots of his thought. It views human being not as an achieved and autonomous entity, but as an emanation of the Being. Men have to follow the path it sets and its voice, free themselves from material assets which are mere impediments, and eventually enter into a superior dimension of thinking. Beyond our limited case-study, the whole question of the persistence of another main - albeit forgotten - way of thinking in the very heart of modernity is being raised anew.

  16. Measurably evolving populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew;

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... time has been most apparent in the disciplines of RNA viral evolution and ancient DNA, where they enable us to estimate divergence times without paleontological calibrations, and to analyze temporal changes in population size, population structure and substitution rates. Thus, MEPs could increase our...

  17. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, S

    1989-03-01

    This speech on the life and work of Rafael Salas, who had been the first executive director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and who contributed immensely to global awareness of population as a vital issue, inaugurated the Rafael M. Salas Lecture Series at the UN. Salas was concerned with individual rights and socioeconomic development while maintaining a balance between population and the environment. He built a large multinational assistance program for population activities and increased funding from $2.5 million in 1969 to $175 million to support 2500 projects in 130 developing countries. He organized both the 1974 World Population Conference and the 1984 International Conference on Population. In developing countries malnutrition and poverty are intertwined, lowering productivity and making people prone to diseases. Infant and child mortality rises with the malnutrition of mothers, therefore campaigns modelled after the postwar Japanese efforts are needed to improve nutrition, to train dietitians, and to introduce school lunch programs. Population stabilization could also be achieved in developing countries by raising income levels, although in Latin American countries birth rates have stayed the same despite increasing income. Direct measures are effective in reducing the birth rate: primary school education, increased income, improved nutrition, decline in infant mortality, higher status of women, and decisive governmental population policy. The Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth predicted that sometime in the 21st century a sudden decline in both population and industrial capacity will be reached at the present growth trends. PMID:12282132

  18. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  19. Population dynamics of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Baskin

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Five types of reindeer populations are distinguished in terms of population dynamics, population density, social structure and migration distance. Differences in the biological rhythms of the populations result in calving occuring 20 days before snow melting in all populations as well as maximal utilization by the deer of young green vegetation in summer. The growth of antlers may serve as a regulatior of biological rhytms. Populations differ in the level of social motivation. Formation of groups of not less than 30-35 animals ensures cooperative protection from insects and management of the group by man. The fidelity to the calving sites, summer ranges and constant migration routes is based on the common orientation reactions of the animals and social attraction. The direction and migration routes are detemined by obligate learning. The dynamics of populations depends on the fertility of 2 and 3 year old females which is determined by feeding conditions in summer and the activity of males during the rut. Migration plays an important role in the population dynamics.

  20. Negative Drift in Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms...

  1. Befolkningsudviklingen (Population Development)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The article takes the 1972 report, The Limits to Growth as its starting point, briefly explaining the Systam Dynamics model used for the report's analyses. Focus is on the important role of population. The simple model of I = PxAxT, where I is the environmental Impact, P population, A is the...

  2. POPULATION TURNING POINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Latest census shows structural imbalance of population has replaced explosive growth to become China’s top challenge China’s population grew by less than 1 percent annually in the last decade,but it still remains the world’s largest at 1.37 billion people,according to results

  3. Evolutionary Population Synthesis for Single Stellar Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奉辉; 韩占文; 李立芳; Jarrod R.Hurley

    2002-01-01

    Using the evolutionary population synthesis technique, we present the latest integrated colours for instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs) of different metallicities and we investigate their colour evolution. Unlike previous research, we adopt the stellar evolutionary models that employ, amongst other things, recent opacities and a revised equation of state (EOS), and include evolutionary processes such as convective overshooting, thermal pulses and dredge-up. The models are used in the convenient form of analytical fitting functions. In addition, we use the BaSeL model for the library of stellar spectra. This model provides an extensive low-resolution theoretical flux distribution and UB VRIJHKLM colours, which have been calibrated empirically or semi-empirically, for a wide range of stellar parameters.

  4. Quantifying Health Across Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershnar, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I argue that as a theoretical matter, a population's health-level is best quantified via averagism. Averagism asserts that the health of a population is the average of members' health-levels. This model is better because it does not fall prey to a number of objections, including the repugnant conclusion, and because it is not arbitrary. I also argue that as a practical matter, population health-levels are best quantified via totalism. Totalism asserts that the health of a population is the sum of members' health-levels. Totalism is better here because it fits better with cost-benefit analysis and such an analysis is the best practical way to value healthcare outcomes. The two results are compatible because the theoretical and practical need not always align, whether in general or in the context of population health. PMID:26766584

  5. Shifts that divide population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Qubbaj, Murad; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Anderies, John M.; Janssen, Marco

    2014-05-01

    How does a population of organisms in an ecosystem or of people in a society respond to rapid shifts in the environment? Answers to this question are critical to our ability to anticipate and cope with a changing ecohydrological system. We have developed a generic model of adaptation mechanisms, based on replicator dynamics, in which we derive a simple and insightful threshold condition that separates two important types of responses: 'cohesive transition' in which the whole population changes gradually together, and 'population-dividing transition' in which the population splits into two groups with one eventually dominating the other. The threshold depends on the magnitude of the shift and the shape of the fitness landscape. Division in populations can fundamentally alter the functioning of and induce subsequent feedbacks within the system; knowing the condition that gives rise to such division is thus fundamentally important.

  6. Global population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors

  7. Population dose calculation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An original method is suggested for calculating the population doses from gas and aerosol radioactive releases. The method is based on the assumption of uniform population and arable land distribution. The validity of this assumption has been proved for a rather large condition range. Though, some modified formulae are given to take into account the non-uniformity of population distribution, connected with large cities, on the one hand, and with woods, shores, regional borders, on the other hand. Employment of the suggested method results in an apriciable calculation accuracy rise for the long-living slowly precipitating radionuclides as compared with the existing methods

  8. Predation and caribou populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  9. Constructing populations in biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement...... construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in...... relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations....

  10. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  11. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Torres

    Full Text Available Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  12. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  13. Market Squid Population Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...

  14. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  15. The politics of population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, M

    1986-03-01

    This article suggests some of the principal factors behind the decisions by an increasing number of countries deciding that the achievement of their national objectives required a policy for population, and the way that they are likely to work out. By 1983, 35 developing countries had an official policy to reduce their population growth rate, and in 34 others, the government supported family planning activities--usually for reasons of health or as a human right. The number is remarkable given the many compelling reasons that governments have for not attempting anything so difficult as to modify demographic trends. The future results of population programs, in social and economic terms, are very difficult to quantify, thus defying cost-benefit analysis of the desirability of investing resources in this area, rather than in something else. There are also powerful political reasons why a government might well hesitate before embarking on a policy to reduce the nation's fertility. At the very least, it implies government interference in the most private and personal of human relations, an invasion of human rights, and a disturbance of the traditional patterns of society and behavior. For many countries that are pursuing a policy to limit population growth, the decision has been taken only after the grievous consequences of not having such a policy have already become manifest. The critical question is how soon a government will make the connection among political disobedience, economic and social distress, and the population explosion, and adopt a population policy. Although the number of developing countries that have officially proclaimed a strongly pro-natalist population policy is relatively small, many have Marxist governments. Overall, governments have several strategies at their disposal: 1) improving the accessability and the quality of the service; 2) promoting population education and family planning motivation (with the assistance of the media, folk art, and

  16. Extinction of oscillating populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation. PMID:27078294

  17. Extinction of oscillating populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation.

  18. Padrão de mortalidade da comunidade judaica de Belo Horizonte no século XX Mortality pattern of jewish community of Belo Horizonte in the XXth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Balabram

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Fatores genéticos e ambientais são conhecidos por sua importância na gênese de grande parte das doenças. É possível estudá-los pela observação da prevalência de agravos nas populações, bem como das causas de mortalidade, buscando-se uma correlação com os hábitos sociais e origens étnicas e familiares dos indivíduos. Nestes estudos, destacam-se as comunidades nas quais podem-se verificar vínculos sociais e genéticos entre seus membros. A comunidade judaica de Belo Horizonte se encaixa nesses critérios. Ela se consolidou na década de 20 do século passado e, atualmente, a Federação Israelita de Minas Gerais (FISEMG tem cadastro de aproximadamente 600 famílias. Este estudo pretende definir o padrão de mortalidade nessa comunidade, e como ele se modificou a partir de sua formação. MÉTODOS: Foram recuperados dados a partir dos arquivos do Instituto Histórico Israelita Mineiro, da FISEMG e dos Cemitérios Israelita e do Bonfim, oriundos de registros históricos e guias de sepultamento, no período de 1926 a 2003. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 601 registros de óbitos, sendo 61,6% de homens e 38,4% de mulheres. As doenças infecto-parasitárias, dentre elas a tuberculose, ocorreram com maior freqüência nas décadas de 30 e 40 e decresceram nas décadas seguintes. As doenças do aparelho circulatório foram as causas de óbito mais prevalentes a partir da década de 40. CONCLUSÃO: Houve mudança nos padrões de mortalidade da população judaica de Belo Horizonte.OBJECTIVE: Genetic and environmental factors are known for their importance in the genesis of the majority of diseases. It is possible to study them through the observation of prevalence of diseases, and also the mortality causes, relating it to social habits and ethnical and familial origins of the individuals. In those studies, communities in which there are social and genetic links stand out. The jewish community of Belo Horizonte fits these criteria

  19. Population and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I; Ahmed, W

    1982-01-01

    The nature, proportions, causes, effects and cures of the Egyptian population crisis are analyzed. If the world population growth rate of 2% continues by the year 2000 a population of 6.5 billion can be expected. By 2115 the world population will have doubled. The greatest increase in population is made by developing countries, e.g. Egypt's population will double in 25 years, Turkey's in 26 years, and Algeria's in 21 years. National health goals become increasingly difficult to achieve under these conditions. For overpopulated countries the options of migration, resource transfer, and fertility control have both positive and negative effects. For Egypt, migration of medical manpower is a major factor responsible for low health standards. Technology transferred from developed countries to assist overpopulated developing countries to increase production of all resources is a slow procedure. Fertility control will slow population growth, reduce maternal morbidity, create smaller families which may result in better psychological family health and therefore better level of job performance. It will also permit women to participate in the work force more easily and earn independent incomes. The effects of health improvement have also been positive and negative in Egypt. The Egyptian population is still growing at a rate .3% higher than the world rate. This situation has resulted from a decline in the death rate rather than in an increase in fertility. The death rate dropped from 32.9 in 1937 to 26.8 in 1947 to 15.8 in 1967. Fertility is close to 5.5 which is no higher than the world average. The drop in death rattes is due to better sanitation, extension of medical services, immunization campaigns, expansiion of health education and greater availability of foo. Reduction of morbidity coupled with health improvement is hoped to foster increased acceptance of fertility control, increased population attention to and acceptance of fertility counseling and increased funding

  20. Jewish Immigration and the Establishment of the National Hebrew Community in the ‘Mixed City’ of Haifa L’immigration juive et l’établissement de la communauté nationale hébraïque dans la ville mixte de Haïfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Kidron

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The national Hebrew community of Haifa developed as a result of the Zionist immigration to Israel. To date, the historic research has dealt mainly with the integration of immigrants at the Zionist central institutions. Urban research focused on Tel Aviv and on the Hebrew colonies. Papers have also been written about Jerusalem, the center of the Jewish Yishuv. This paper examines the influence of immigration on the developing Hebrew communities in ‘mixed cities,’ and the nature of the relation...

  1. The Population Multilingual Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    The idea of a multilingual thesaurus to facilitate indexing and retrieval of population information came about when the UN Population Commission expressed interest, in 1973, in computerizing demographic information along the lines developed by UNESCO in the social sciences; it was recommended that the Population Division of the UN Secretariat collaborate with the Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, with financial support from UNFPA. Work was begun in 1975 by a group of experts with a diversity of interests encompassing demography, population studies, and family planning. The Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) made its computer equipment available to the project. The resulting Population Multilingual Thesaurus (PMT) was published in August 1979 in English, Spanish, and French. The PMT is an important tool for documentation units and essential for the effective operation of the Population Information Network. Efforts were made to include all terminology pertinent to analysis of demographic and socioeconomic information, and relevant to problems and characteristics of differing geographical areas. Attention was given to compatability with other relevant vocabularies, in particular the Macrothesaurus for Information Processing in the Field of Economic and Social Development published by OECD. Recommendations and guidelines from a POPIN Working Group on the Management of the PMT which met in March 1982 are presented under the following headings: harmonization (PMT and Macrothesaurus; PMT and specifically population oriented thesauri); geographic names; possible expansion; reporting additional terms; deletion of unnecessary terms; priorities in thesaurus related activities (maintenance of PMT given priority over development of micro thesauri). The role of INED in the maintenance of the PMT through electronic data processing is described, including the modules used for online management. PMID:12312008

  2. Distance Learning for Special Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger A.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…

  3. Population and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2000-11-01

    Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

  4. Constructing populations in biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement with publics to ensure legitimacy, different biobanks conceptualize their engagement strategies very differently. We suggest that biobanks undertake a broad range of different strategies with regard to engagement. We argue that these different approaches to engagement strategies are contributing to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations. PMID:26194269

  5. Quenched effective population size

    CERN Document Server

    Sagitov, Serik; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study the genealogy of a geographically - or otherwise - structured version of the Wright-Fisher population model with fast migration. The new feature is that migration probabilities may change in a random fashion. Applying Takahashi's results on Markov chains with random transition matrices, we establish convergence to the Kingman coalescent, as the population size goes to infinity. This brings a novel formula for the coalescent effective population size (EPS). We call it a quenched EPS to emphasize the key feature of our model - random environment. The quenched EPS is compared with an annealed (mean-field) EPS which describes the case of constant migration probabilities obtained by averaging the random migration probabilities over possible environments.

  6. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  7. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  8. A rigorous approach for selection of optimal variant sets for carrier screening with demonstration of clinical utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault-Micale, Cynthia; Davie, Jocelyn; Breton, Benjamin; Hallam, Stephanie; Greger, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Carrier screening for certain diseases is recommended by major medical and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) societies. Most carrier screening panels test only for common, ethnic-specific variants. However, with formerly isolated ethnic groups becoming increasingly intermixed, this approach is becoming inadequate. Our objective was to develop a rigorous process to curate all variants, for relevant genes, into a database and then apply stringent clinical validity classification criteria to each in order to retain only those with clear evidence for pathogenicity. The resulting variant set, in conjunction with next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS), then affords the capability for an ethnically diverse, comprehensive, highly specific carrier-screening assay. The clinical utility of our approach was demonstrated by screening a pan-ethnic population of 22,864 individuals for Bloom syndrome carrier status using a BLM variant panel comprised of 50 pathogenic variants. In addition to carriers of the common AJ founder variant, we identified 57 carriers of other pathogenic BLM variants. All variants reported had previously been curated and their clinical validity documented, or were of a type that met our stringent, preassigned validity criteria. Thus, it was possible to confidently report an increased number of Bloom’s syndrome carriers compared to traditional, ethnicity-based screening, while not reducing the specificity of the screening due to reporting variants of unknown clinical significance. PMID:26247052

  9. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  10. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  11. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  12. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Z

    1995-01-01

    During the Paleolithic period, 10,000-100,000 people lived on the earth; their number exceeded 1 million at the beginning of the Neolithic period, reached 10 million during the Bronze Age, 100 million at the beginning of the Iron Age, 1 billion at the beginning of the 19th century, and 5.7 billion in 1995. The estimated global population will be 10 billion by the middle of the 21st century and is expected to stabilize at around 10-12 billion subsequently. Increased agricultural production helped bring about greater numbers of humanity and the advancement of society with a developing social hierarchy, although life expectancy was low at 22-28 years. In Europe, the Renaissance gradually evolved into the Industrial Revolution, and a demographic revolution accompanied this process. In some countries, population size increased more than five times. Eventually, mortality and fertility levels decreased and life expectancy increased. In Western civilization, increased individualism, secularization, compulsory school attendance, decreased agricultural population, emancipation of women, increased costs of raising children, and social and economic progress ensued. All this was preceded by 18th century conditions, when, in England, capital accumulation led to wealth on the one side and destitution on the other, giving rise to Malthus's famous theory. However, during the 19th century these social inequalities gradually evened out. After World War II, the question arose of whether the populations of other civilizations (Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African) would also undergo a demographic transition and how soon. At any rate, developed country population size, as a percentage of global population, will drop from 22% to 13%, and that of Africa will increase from 12% to 26%, during the 21st century. PMID:12292830

  13. Having quality population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  14. Population and Development Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  15. Charting Population Shifts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is updating its demographic information through its once-in-adecade population census.The latest database will be used as an important reference for the country to draft its development plan for the next five years and deal with social problems,such as an aging society and imbalanced gender ratio,according to experts.

  16. [Population census, 1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharto, S

    1980-12-01

    The author describes the types of data collected in the 1980 population census of Indonesia, considers the differences between the 1971 and 1980 censuses, and discusses which data and tables are scheduled to be published. A copy of the census questionnaire and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used are also included. PMID:12338729

  17. Population, food and knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2008-01-01

    population. London, printed for J. Johnson, 1798) so-called preventive check hypothesis-that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food-the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. Employing a two...

  18. China Population and Developmenl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) paid great attention to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. One of the top priorities of the ICPD Programme of Action is to provide adolescents with necessary sexual and reproductive health information and services, ensure their right to reproductive health education and services, and help them develop risk-free behaviours and healthy lifestyles.

  19. [The Marxist outlook on population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, R

    1984-09-29

    Marxist population theory and world population are discussed. From his study of capitalist population theory Marx concluded, "In capitalist reproduction, poverty produces population," thus rejecting Malthusian population determinism theory and developing economic determinism. According to UN statistics, world population has stabilized since the middle of this century after having doubled every hundred years for the last 300; population in the developed countries showed a positive decrease and average net population growth of the developing countries also decreased. The premise of this paper is that population grows according to social economy development. During the last several hundred years, world wealth increased much faster than population; in the last 200 years alone, the population has increased fivefold, but wealth fortyfold. In addition, world population analysis reveals an inverse relationship between wealth and population in the developed and developing countries: the poorer the country, the greater the population. From this perspective, the study of population must begin with surplus labor. Accumulation of surplus production is the foundation of continuous social development and the basis for population growth. The major difference in methods between capitalist countries and China is that the capitalist-planned fertility affects the individual family while Chinese-planned fertility has the whole nation in mind. Human fertility is determined by the economic system. Private ownership determines the private nature of fertility and public ownership determines the public nature of fertility. Thus population development is determined by the accumulation of social wealth. PMID:12159280

  20. UNA DIÁSPORA EN BUSCA DE SU REPERTORIO. ACTORES, TRAMAS SOCIALES Y ESPACIO URBANO DEL LIBRO JUDÍO EN BUENOS AIRES ENTRE LAS DÉCADAS DE 1910 Y 1960 / The diaspora in press. Actors, frames and spaces of Jewish books in Buenos Aires, 1910-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Dujovne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza desde un punto de vista social y material la producción y circulación de libros en la vida judía de Buenos Aires, como un aspecto clave de su  historia cultural. El texto identifica y explora el papel desplegado por librerías, bibliotecas, centros culturales, ferias de libros, editoriales e imprentas en la configuración del mundo del libro judío de Buenos Aires entre 1910 y 1960. A través de la localización de estos actores en un plano de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, el artículo estudia y propone una hipótesis para pensar la relación entre vida social y cultural y espacio urbano. Abstract This article analyzes from a social and material perspective the production and circulation of books in the Jewish life in Buenos Aires, as a key aspect of its cultural history. The text identifies and explores the role undertaken by bookstores, libraries, cultural centers, book fairs, publishing and printing presses in the shaping of the Jewish book world of Buenos Aires between 1910 and 1960. Through the localization of these actors in a map of the city of Buenos Aires, the article studies and proposes a hypothesis to think the relationship between social and cultural life and urban space.

  1. On optimal population paths

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John S

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this monograph is to integrate and critically evaluate the existing literature in the area of optimal joint savings population programs. The existing diverse presentations are all seen to be discussions within a unified framework. The central problem is to compare the desirability of alternative inter-temporal sequences of total savings and population sizes. Of critical importance is whether one regards persons as the fundamental moral entities or whether one takes Sidgwick's viewpoint that something good being the result of one's action is the baSic reason for dOing anything. The latter viewpoint is consistent with defining a complete social preference ordering over these alternative sequences. Since part of one's interest is to evaluate the consequences of various ethical beliefs a com­ parative study of several such orderings is presented; in particular the Mill-Wolfe average utilitarian, and Sidgwick-Meade classical utilitarian) formulations. A possible problem with the social pref...

  2. Population attribute compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  3. Population and Health Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    The program evaluation literature for population and health policies is in flux, with many disciplines documenting biological and behavioral linkages from fetal development to late life mortality, chronic disease, and disability, though their implications for policy remain uncertain. Both macro- and microeconomics seek to understand and incorporate connections between economic development and the demographic transition. The focus here is on research methods, findings, and questions that econo...

  4. Population, environment and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994. PMID

  5. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293335

  6. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E; Kleinerman, R A; Boice, J D; LiVolsi, V A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F

    1987-07-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of thyroid cancer (159 cases and 285 controls) was conducted in Connecticut. Prior radiotherapy to the head or neck was reported by 12% of the cases and 4% of the controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.9]. Risk was inversely related to age at irradiation and was highest among children exposed under age 10. Few persons born after 1945 received prior radiotherapy, consistent with the declining use of radiation to treat benign conditions in the 1950's. Among females the radiogenic risk appeared to be potentiated by the number of subsequent live-births. Other significant risk factors included a history of benign thyroid nodules (OR = 33) or goiter (OR = 5.6). Miscarriage and multiparity increased risk but only among women who developed thyroid cancer before age 35 years. Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature. A significantly low risk was observed among persons of English descent, whereas Italian ancestry appeared to increase risk. No significant associations were found with a number of suspected risk factors: diagnostic x-rays, radioactive isotope scans, occupational radiation exposure, tonsillectomy, Jewish ethnicity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, lactation suppressants, menopausal estrogens, most other common medications, and water source. New associations were suggested for obesity among females (OR = 1.5), surgically treated benign breast disease (OR = 1.6), use of spironolactone (OR = 4.3) or vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.8), and a family history of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.2). About 9% of the incident thyroid cancers could be attributed to prior head and neck irradiation, 4% to goiter, and 17% to thyroid nodular disease, leaving the etiology of most

  7. An optimum world population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, D

    2000-01-01

    The optimum population of the world is the one that is most likely to make the option of a good quality of life available to everyone everywhere, both now and in the future. Establishing a consensus about the size of such a population would be an important step towards achieving it. Estimates of an optimum involve three main steps. First, estimate the maximum (carrying capacity) assuming a specified lifestyle. The main criteria are the maintenance of biodiversity, the availability of freshwater, and the availability of land--for agriculture, forestry and artificial systems but above all for the conversion of energy. (In applying the criteria, there are always two questions to ask: 'What is the maximum amount of consumption that the biosphere can stand?' and 'What is an adequate share of such consumption per person?') Second, convert the maximum (two to three billion) into an optimum by applying a far wider range of criteria, including personal liberty, mobility, recreation and political representation. Third, consider just two criteria (economies of scale and technological innovation) in order to ensure that the optimum (one to two billion) has not fallen below the minimum (half to one billion). The estimates are so low because of the need for a huge increase in median per capita consumption if everyone is to have the option of an adequate material standard of living. Opinion-formers are likely not to take much notice of such estimates, but it is probable that minds will be concentrated by an energy shock some time during the next decade. Achieving an optimum world population will not solve the world's major problems, but it would make them solvable. PMID:10824524

  8. India's population in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P

    1995-10-01

    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access

  9. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  10. Diabetes in Population Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  11. OZ, POPULISM, AND INTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit S. Dighe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the lead of influential articles by Henry Littlefield (1964 and Hugh Rockoff (1990, teachers of economic history often relate the Populist movement of the 1890s to L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. This paper reexamines the inevitable question of whether Baum intended his story as a parable on Populism. From other, more overtly political writing sof Baum’s, and from biographical information about Baum himself, the evidence suggests that Oz was not a Populist parable. We can still profitably read it as one, but we need to separate that interpretation from Baum’s intention.

  12. Neoplasms in irradiated populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of three prospective studies which have been ongoing for 25 years. The study populations include: (1) persons treated with x rays in infancy for alleged enlargement of the thymus gland; (2) persons treated in childhood with x rays and/or radium for lymphoid hyperplasia of the nasopharynx; and (3) women treated with x rays for acute postpartum mastitis. The studies have resulted in the quantification of risk for radiogenic thyroid and breast cancer for periods up to 40 years post irradiation

  13. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  14. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: dwhalen1999@gmail.com [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  15. The Resonant Transneptunian Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Gladman, B; Petit, J-M; Kavelaars, J; Jones, R L; Parker, J Wm; Van Laerhoven, C; Nicholson, P; Rousselot, P; Bieryla, A; Ashby, M L N

    2012-01-01

    The transneptunian objects (TNOs) trapped in mean-motion resonances with Neptune were likely emplaced there during planet migration late in the giant-planet formation process. We perform detailed modelling of the resonant objects detected in the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) in order to provide population estimates and, for some resonances, constrain the complex internal orbital element distribution. Detection biases play a critical role because phase relationships with Neptune make object discovery more likely at certain longitudes. This paper discusses the 3:2, 5:2, 2:1, 3:1, 5:1, 4:3, 5:3, 7:3, 5:4, and 7:4 mean-motion resonances, all of which had CFEPS detections, along with our upper limit on 1:1 Neptune Trojans (which is consistent with their small population estimated elsewhere). For the plutinos (TNOs in the 3:2 resonance) we refine the orbital element distribution given in Kavelaars et al. (2009) and show that steep H-magnitude distributions (N(H) proportional to 10aH, with a=0.8-0.9) a...

  16. Population's political clout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schima, M E; Viel, B; Chen, P C; Gille, H; Epstein, S G

    1980-03-01

    China's birth planning program has its own separate administrative hierarchy. The political commitment to population planning which originates with the top leadership extends to peer pressure exerted on couples at the brigade and neighborhood level. While family planning services are primarily delivered in health structures, responsibility for the population program falls to the Leading Group on Birth Planning. Not only health officials but also officials responsible for economic planning, political propaganda, scientific research, trade unions, women's affairs, and all those whose participation is considered necessary to the program's success attend meeting. The Leading Group on Birth Planning is chaired by a Vice-Premier. At each administrative level, provincial to work brigade, the same pattern is repeated: centralized responsibility combined with broad representation and high-level potitical leadership. With a tight, working structure, China has been able to enact its birth control program with remarkable speed and effectiveness. Each production brigade has its own planned birth leading group headed by the captain of the brigade or the captain of the women's team. The leading group supervises the barefoot doctors, midwives, and team level health aides who deliver contraceptives to households or accompany people to the community health center to obtain surgical services. PMID:12261795

  17. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains contains county-level population counts for...

  18. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains county-level population counts for years 1970...

  19. Detection of disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms in pemphigus vulgaris linked to the DQwl and DQw3 alleles of the HLA-D region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemphigus vulgaris in Israeli Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews and in Austrian non-Jewish patients is strongly associated with the DR4 and DRw6 alleles of the HLA-D region class II genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was undertaken with DQβ, DQα, and DRβ cDNA probes. Hybridization with the DQβ probe identifies Pvu II, BamHI, and EcoRV fragments that absolutely discriminate pemphigus vulgaris patients from healthy DR-, DQ-, and ethnic-matched controls. In contrast the DQα and DRβ probes failed to identify disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism fragments. These studies indicate that DQw1 and DQw3 polymorphisms carried by pemphigus vulgaris patients may be directly involved in predisposition to the disease or may be tightly linked to the susceptibility gene itself. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an HLA restriction fragment length polymorphism that is highly associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease

  20. Learning, evolution and population dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    JÜRGEN JOST; WEI LI

    2010-01-01

    We study a complementarity game as a systematic tool for the investigation of the interplay between individual optimization and population effects and for the comparison of different strategy and learning schemes. The game randomly pairs players from opposite populations. The game is symmetric at the individual level, but has many equilibria that are more or less favorable to the members of the two populations. Which of these equilibria then is attained is decided by the dynamics at the popul...